Last Updated: 26 July 2010

Mine Ban Policy

Mine ban policy overview

Mine Ban Treaty status

Not a State Party

Pro-mine ban UNGA voting record

Abstained on Resolution 64/56 in December 2009, as in previous years

Participation in Mine Ban Treaty meetings

Did not participate in the Second Review Conference in November–December 2009, or the June 2010 intersessional Standing Committee meetings


The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. Pakistan has repeatedly stated that “Pakistan remains committed to pursue the objectives of a universal and non-discriminatory ban on anti-personnel mines in a manner which takes into account the legitimate defence requirements of States. Given our security compulsions and the need to guard our long borders, not protected by any natural obstacle, the use of landmines forms an important part of our self-defence strategy. As such, it is not possible for Pakistan to agree to the demands for the complete prohibition of anti-personnel landmines till such time that viable alternatives are available.”[1]

In November 2009, Pakistan reiterated its view that Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) had the capacity—if fully implemented—to minimize human suffering caused by mines, and that the protocol maintained “a delicate balance” between humanitarian concerns and security imperatives.[2]

Pakistan did not attend the Second Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Cartagena, Colombia in November–December 2009, although it did participate as an observer at the Ninth Meeting of States Parties in November 2008.  It has not attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings since 2002.

On 2 December 2009, Pakistan abstained from voting on UN General Assembly Resolution 64/56 calling for universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. It abstained on all previous annual UNGA resolutions in support of the treaty. 

Pakistan is party to the CCW and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and Protocol V on explosive remnants of war. Pakistan submitted an Article 10 transparency report in April 2010 as required under Protocol V, but has not submitted an Article 13 report as required under Amended Protocol II since 2008.


The Pakistan army and security forces have been engaged in armed conflict with Pakistani Taliban, Al-Qaeda, and Baloch insurgents in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), parts of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), and in Balochistan province. While there is a widespread perception among local populations that Pakistani forces are laying mines to defend some military bases and outposts in these conflict areas, no one could provide Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor researchers with specific details and the Monitor has not been able to substantiate the allegations.[3] Moreover, the Monitor is unaware of any allegations carried in the media during 2009 and 2010 of use of antipersonnel mines by the army or security forces.

The last confirmed use of antipersonnel mines by Pakistan took place between December 2001 and mid-2002, during an escalation of tensions with India when it laid very large numbers of mines along their shared border.[4] Pakistan also maintains permanent minefields along certain portions of the Line of Control in Kashmir.

Production, transfer, and stockpiling

Pakistan is one of a small number of countries still producing antipersonnel mines.[5] Since January 1997, Pakistan Ordnance Factories has produced detectable versions of hand-emplaced blast mines in order to be compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II.[6] In 2007, Pakistan reported that it “has also planned incorporation of self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanism in its future production” in order to meet Amended Protocol II requirements.[7] The protocol requires that all remotely-delivered mines have self-destruct and self-deactivation mechanisms. Pakistan reported in 2002 that it was developing a remotely-delivered antipersonnel mine system, but has provided no further details.[8]

Pakistan’s Statutory Regulatory Order No. 123 (1) of 25 February 1999 makes the export of antipersonnel mines illegal.[9]The law penalizes importation of mines, but no data is available regarding whether people have been arrested or charged under this law. Pakistan states that it has not exported mines “since early 1992.”[10] In the past, the country was a major exporter of landmines. Pakistani-made mines have been found in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and elsewhere.

There is no official information available on the size of Pakistan’s antipersonnel mine stockpile. Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor has estimated that Pakistan stockpiles at least six million antipersonnel mines, the fifth largest stockpile in the world.[11] Pakistan has neither confirmed nor denied this estimate. In previous years, Pakistan reported that it destroyed “a large number of outdated mines every year,” but has not provided information about the quantity or types of mines destroyed.[12]  In 2007, Pakistan stated that it had “met the deadlines to improve the specifications on detectability of mines” to be compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II.[13]

Non-state armed groups

Non-state armed groups have sporadically used antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in attacks on Pakistani security forces and civil administration, and in sectarian, inter-tribal, and inter-family conflicts.[14] In November 2009, Pakistan stated that during “ongoing law enforcement operations” in Pakistan, “terrorists had on several occasions used mines and IEDs against army personnel and civilians.” It further claimed that those “devices had foreign imprints, confirming the link between terrorists and actors beyond the borders of Pakistan.”[15]

It appears that Baloch and Taliban groups continued to use antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, and IEDs in 2009 and 2010.[16] In June 2009, two residents of Sui district were killed when their motorcycle struck a landmine.[17] In February 2010, one member of the security forces was killed and two were injured after one of them stepped on a mine while on patrol outside Quetta.[18] In September 2009, two women and two children were killed and two others were injured while traveling in a bullock cart which hit a landmine in Dera Bugti district.[19]

In May 2009, a Pakistani army representative said that the army had encountered victim-activated IEDs and factory-made antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in the Swat Valley in the NWFP, which it attributed to the Pakistani Taliban and “foreign elements.”[20] In August 2009, a resident of Kabal in Swat died after reportedly stepping on a mine.[21] In September 2009, two boys were killed after they reportedly stepped on mines in Tank in the NWFP.[22]

Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor has previously provided anecdotal evidence of mine use by militants in both North and South Waziristan. While armed conflict has escalated in those areas since the Pakistani government launched an offensive on Pakistani Taliban, Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor cannot document a specific instance of new use. However, antipersonnel mines have been seized from militants, and deaths and injuries to mines have occurred. For example, in November 2009, in South Waziristan, the army and police recovered antipersonnel mines among other weaponry,[23] and in January 2010, two people were injured by a mine in Bajaur agency.[24]


[1]Pakistan, Explanation of Vote on the draft UN General Assembly resolution, A/C.1/62/L.39, 17 October 2007.  For similar statements, see Landmine Monitor Report 2008, p. 973; Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 948–949; and Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 1,039.

[2] Oral Remarks by Pakistan to the Eleventh Annual Conference of States Parties to CCW Amended Protocol II, CCW/AP.II/CONF.11/SR/1, Geneva, 11 November 2009.

[3] Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor conducted interviews with community elders, staff of NGOs and humanitarian agencies, and journalists in FATA, North-West Frontier Province, and Balochistan province in March 2010 and March 2009. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 1,057.

[4] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 1,087–1,088; and Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 661. There were also reports of use of mines by Pakistani troops in Kashmir during the Kargil crisis in mid-1999. See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 1,088. In December 2006, Pakistan stated its intention “to fence and mine some selective sections” of its border with Afghanistan to prevent cross-border militant activity, but did not do so after widespread international criticism. See Landmine Monitor Report 2007, pp. 949–951.

[5]Pakistan Ordnance Factories, located in Wah cantonment, is a state-owned company established in 1951 that in the past produced six types of antipersonnel landmines, two low-metal blast mines (P2Mk1 and P4Mk2), two bounding fragmentation mines (P3Mk2 and P7Mk1), and two directional fragmentation Claymore-type mines (P5Mk1 and P5Mk2).

[6]CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form C, 2 November 2005; and Sixth Annual Conference of States Parties to CCW Amended Protocol II, “Summary Record of the 1st Meeting, Geneva, 17 November 2004,” Geneva, CCW/AP II/CONF.6/SR.1, 13 May 2005, p. 14.

[7] Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form C.

[9]Article 13 Report, Form D, 10 November 2006 states, “Pakistan has declared a complete ban on export of landmines, even to States Parties, with effect from March 1997.”  

[10]Interview with Muhammad Kamran Akhtar, Director, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, 23 April 2009. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 725.

[11] See Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 1,058, footnote 17.

[12] Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form B. It is unclear if Pakistan has continued to destroy mines, as it has not provided new information since 2007.

[13]Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form C. The nine-year deadline for Pakistan to destroy or modify all stockpiled low-metal-content (non-detectable) antipersonnel mines was 3 December 2007. Pakistan provided no details about how or when it met the requirement.

[14] Pakistan stated in its Article 13 reports submitted from 2005 to 2008 that non-state armed groups “have several times used mines and improvised explosive devices against army personnel and civil administration. The Corps of Military Engineers continues to assist both military and civil authorities in defusing and clearing such devices.”  It has not submitted a report in 2009 or 2010.

[15] Oral Remarks by Pakistan to the Eleventh Annual Conference of States Parties to CCW Amended Protocol II, CCW/AP.II/CONF.11/SR/1, Geneva, 11 November 2009.

[16] For background, see Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 1,059.

[17] “Two killed, 2 wounded in Sui landmine blasts,” Daily Times (Sui), 28 June 2009,

[18] “Security man killed in mine blast,” The Nation (Quetta), 21 February 2010,

[19] “4 women, kids killed in landmine blast,” Daily Mail, 14 September 2009,

[20] ICBL, “Nobel Laureate Campaign Denounces Taliban Use of Landmines in Pakistan’s Swat Valley,” Press release, 20 May 2009, Geneva,

[21] “Taliban appoints successor to militant chief Mehsud,” Agence France-Presse, 22 August 2009,

[22] “Two minors die in Tank mine blast,” The News, 4 September 2009,  The report stated that earlier, similar mine blasts in Manzai, Waruki, and Umar Killay killed two minors and injured others.

[23] “Security forces recover huge cache of arms from terrorists,” Associated Press of Pakistan (Islamabad), 2 November 2009,; “Forces secure Ladha Fort,” The Nation, 6 November 2009,; and “Street skirmishes rage in Uzbek militants’ stronghold,” Dawn, 2 November 2009,

[24] “Land mine blast injures 2 in Bajaur,” The News, 6 January 2010,

Last Updated: 22 October 2010

Cluster Munition Ban Policy


The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has not acceded to the Convention on Cluster Munitions.

In February 2009, Pakistan said that it is “supporting international efforts to address the humanitarian concerns arising from the irresponsible use of cluster munitions,” but that “in view of Pakistan’s security environment and legitimate defence needs, we do not support a ban on use, production, and transfer of cluster munitions due to their military utility.”[1] In November 2009, Pakistan again asserted that cluster munitions are legitimate weapons with military utility, but said that Pakistan was opposed to their use against civilians.[2]

Pakistan did not participate in any of the Oslo Process diplomatic conferences in 2007 and 2008 that produced the convention, and did not attend any of the regional or international diplomatic meetings related to the convention in 2009 or the first half of 2010.[3]

Pakistan is not party to the Mine Ban Treaty.

Convention on Conventional Weapons

Pakistan is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), and it consented to be bound by Protocol V on explosive remnants of war on 3 February 2009.

Pakistan has asserted that the CCW framework “is the only mechanism that brings the users and producers of cluster munitions and promoters of development and application of IHL [international humanitarian law] on one common platform.”[4] It has also said that it “is important to avoid encouraging extra-UN mechanisms” and that the Convention on Cluster Munitions “should supplement and not supplant the CCW process.”[5]

Pakistan has been an active participant in the CCW deliberations on cluster munitions in recent years. In April 2009, it expressed satisfaction with progress made, and optimism that states are at a point where they can “conclude something.”[6] In April 2010, it called on states to “focus on the irresponsible use and transfer of cluster munitions.” It opposed proposals to limit cluster munitions “through a technological approach,” stating that such an approach “will affect 100 percent” of Pakistan’s stockpiles. It said that a transition period before key provisions take effect is essential.[7]

Use, production, transfer, and stockpiling

Pakistan states that it has “never used cluster munitions in any conflict to date.”[8]

Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF) produces and offers for export M483A1 155mm artillery projectiles containing 88 M42/M46 dual purpose improved conventional munition (DPICM) grenades.[9] The South Korean company Poongsan entered into a licensed production agreement with POF in November 2004 to co-produce K-310 155mm extended-range DPICM projectiles in Pakistan at Wah Cantonment. While the ammunition is being produced for Pakistan’s army, the two firms have said they will also co-market the projectiles to export customers.[10] The Pakistani army took delivery of the first production lots in April 2008.[11]

Jane’s Information Group reports that the Pakistan Air Weapons Center produces the Programmable Submunitions Dispenser (PSD-1), which is similar to the United States Rockeye cluster bomb, and dispenses 225 anti-armor submunitions.[12] Jane’s states that the Pakistan National Development Complex produces and markets the Hijara Top-Attack Submunitions Dispenser (TSD-1) cluster bomb.[13] It lists Pakistan’s Air Force as possessing BL-755 cluster bombs.[14] The US transferred to Pakistan 200 Rockeye cluster bombs at some point between 1970 and 1995.[15]


[1] Letter from Dr. Irfan Yusuf Shami, Director General for Disarmament, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 16 February 2009.

[2]  Statement of Pakistan, CCW Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 12 November 2009. Notes by Landmine Action.

[3] For more details on Pakistan’s policy and practice regarding cluster munitions through early 2009, see Human Rights Watch and Landmine Action, Banning Cluster Munitions: Government Policy and Practice (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, May 2009), pp. 225–226.

[4] Statement by Amb. Masood Khan, CCW Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Cluster Munitions, Geneva, 7 July 2008.

[5] Pakistan, Explanation of Vote on UN General Assembly First Committee draft resolution A/C.1/63/L.56, “Convention on Cluster Munitions” (UNGA 63/71), 63rd Session, 30 October 2008.

[6] Statement of Pakistan, CCW GGE on Cluster Munitions, Geneva, 17 April 2009. Notes by Landmine Action.

[7] Ibid, 12 April 2010. Notes by AOAV. In 2008, Pakistan said that “the cost of destroying current stocks of cluster munitions and moving to newer technologies would be huge.” Statement by Amb. Masood Khan, Permanent Mission of Pakistan to the Conference of Disarmament, CCW GGE on Cluster Munitions, Geneva, 14 January 2008.

[8] Statement by Amb. Masood Khan, CCW Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 7 November 2007. Pakistan again said that it has never used cluster munitions in November 2009. Statement of Pakistan, CCW Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 12 November 2009. Notes by Landmine Action.

[9] POF, “Products, Ordnance, Artillery Ammunition, 155mm HOW HE M483A1-ICM,”

[10] “Pakistan Ordnance Factory, S. Korean Firms Sign Ammunition Pact,” Asia Pulse (Karachi), 24 November 2006.

[11] “Pak Army Gets First Lot of DPICM Ammunition,” PakTribune, 13 April 2008,

[12] Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 389.

[13] Ibid.

[14] Ibid, p. 843. BL-755s are manufactured by the United Kingdom.

[15] US Defense Security Coooperation Agency, Department of Defense, “Cluster Bomb Exports under FMS, FY1970-FY1995,” 15 November 1995, obtained by Human Rights Watch in a Freedom of Information Act request, 28 November 1995.

Last Updated: 30 July 2010

Mine Action

Contamination and Impact

Pakistan is affected by landmines and other ordnance from the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan (1979–1989) and three wars with India. However, districts bordering Afghanistan are affected mainly by varied contamination, including not only mines, but also UXO and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) from more recent conflicts.


During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan, mines were scattered by Soviet forces from helicopters in areas along the border with Afghanistan, some of which landed in Pakistan. In addition, the mujahideen used mines to protect their bases in the tribal areas.[1] There is also mine contamination from Pakistan’s wars with India and from more recent tribal and sectarian conflict, which has involved increasing use of IEDs.[2]

Pakistan has repeatedly affirmed that it “faces no problem of un-cleared mines; hence no casualties were caused accidentally.”[3] It has also stated “mines have never caused humanitarian concerns in Pakistan.”[4] However, Pakistan’s Article 13 annual report submitted in 2007 under Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) stated that “in the area adjoining Pakistan-Afghanistan border, sometimes mines are encountered, but these are mines left by the former Soviet troops.”[5]It also noted that “Existing perimeter marking signs have been painted and marked according to [Amended Protocol] AP-II standards,” acknowledging that some mined areas remained.[6] More recent evidence that Pakistan is affected by both mines and explosive remnants of war (ERW) includes mine/ERW casualties recorded during 2009 and 2010 (see Casualties and Victim Assistance section of this Country Profile).[7]

No estimate exists of the extent of residual contamination, but increasing conflict between the government and non-state armed groups in 2009 and 2010 has reportedly resulted in new mine use. Human Rights Watch cited residents of Mingora in the Swat Valley as saying the Taliban had placed mines in the town as the army embarked on its offensive to drive them out of the area in May 2009.[8] Reports from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) bordering Afghanistan point to continued use of landmines in 2010 as an offensive weapon in tribal and sectarian conflicts.[9]

During field research in 2010 in North and South Waziristan, Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor was told by both local elders and journalists, as well as by officials and NGO representatives, that the Pakistani Taliban and other non-state armed groups have continued to use former mujahideen bases, and that the area around these camps was contaminated with mines emplaced by non-state armed groups, as well as by mines dating back to the Afghan-Soviet war. Inhabitants of these tribal areas said mine incidents were still occurring, but did not provide specific casualty data.[10] In Kurram agency on the border with Afghanistan, community-based organizations report six to seven mine and UXO incidents per month.[11]

Pakistan has previously declared that mines it laid on the Indo-Pakistan border during the 2001–2002 stand-off with India “have been completely cleared.”[12] It has also claimed that “minefields laid along the Line of Control (LoC) are properly fenced and clearly marked to impose requisite caution on civilians living in the surrounding areas.”[13] However, inhabitants of Pakistani-administered Kashmir report consistently that some areas along the LoC are still contaminated and have not been properly fenced by the militaries of either India or Pakistan.[14] Inhabitants of Garhi Sher Khan in Poonch district, for example, informed Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor that villages on both sides of the LoC were contaminated by mines and ERW, and that rainfall caused mines to drift onto the Pakistani side of the border from higher areas on the Indian side.[15]

Cluster munition remnants and other explosive remnants of war

According to Pakistan’s latest transparency report submitted under Article 10 of CCW Protocol V on explosive remnants of war there are no ERW in Pakistan.[16] NGOs operating in northwestern districts, however, report an ERW threat to communities from UXO, which includes mortars, artillery shells, hand-grenades, IEDs, and rocket-propelled grenades.[17] It is not known whether contamination includes cluster munition remnants.

Mine Action Program

Pakistan has no formal civilian mine action program. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs disclosed plans in 2007 to establish a Training Center for Demining and Awareness to act as a mine action center for operations in Pakistan and overseas, and to provide mine/ERW risk education (RE) in affected areas of Pakistan. However, a Ministry of Foreign Affairs official told Landmine Monitor in April 2009 that the ministry had made no progress with this initiative.[18]

An Inter Services Public Relations representative told Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor that Pakistani military engineering units are responsible for mine clearance in contaminated conflict zones.[19] The Frontier Constabulary (FC) also says it conducts mine clearance in contaminated areas of Balochistan, FATA, and other conflict zones in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). The army provided clearance training and mine detectors to the FC.[20]

Mine clearance in 2009

The army was reported to have conducted demining operations in the area of Chamalang in Balochistan in 2009, clearing antivehicle and other unspecified mines.[21] Army engineers and Pakistan’s FC are said also to have also undertaken demining operations in FATA and the Swat Valley in 2009.[22] No further details on these clearance operations were available as of June 2010.

Other Risk Reduction Measures

Pakistan has no strategic framework for RE. In its Article 13 report submitted in 2007, Pakistan stated that its army engineers were educating people in the “border belt regarding the hazards posed by mines.”[23] However, Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor field research and interviews with aid workers, activists, and journalists did not identify any measures by local authorities in border areas to protect civilians from mines.[24]

Since July 2009, UNICEF has supported a Pakistani NGO, the Sustainable Peace and Development Organisation (SPADO), and other NGOs in developing and implementing RE activities in Malakand division and other conflict-affected areas in the northwest. After an initial training jointly conducted by UNICEF and Handicap International (HI), NGOs received technical assistance through a coordination mechanism that meets monthly.  The project has included the development of RE materials.[25]

HI started an emergency RE program for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the NWFP in August 2009, funded by the European Commission Humanitarian Office initially for six months, but this funding was later extended. The program, comprising a manager and eight agents, delivered RE to 1.5 million IDPs in refugee camps and temporary schools, mainly in Mardi and Swabi districts but also in Swat and Buner. The program distributed RE materials and prepared radio spots and messages broadcast on local radio and cable television.[26]

The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) started community-based RE in March 2009 in partnership with SPADO and as of June 2010 was operating 15 four-person teams, including three all-women teams, in four districts of Buner, Dir, Shangla, and Swat.[27] In five months (through June 2010), FSD reported that the program had conducted 3,869 RE sessions, reaching some 419,271 people. As a result of its RE, 228 items of UXO had been reported to the military for destruction.[28]

Mines Advisory Group (MAG) started an RE project in Pakistan in March 2010, also in partnership with SPADO. MAG provided RE training for SPADO staff as a first step towards training community personnel in the FATA and the NWFP. The initial project was due to run for five months up to August 2010, but MAG planned to apply for an extension.[29]


[1] Letter from Joint Staff Headquarters, Strategic Plans Division, Arms Control and Disarmament Affairs Directorate, Chaklala cantonment, 14 February 2002; and Naveed Ahmad Shinwari and Salma Malik, “Situation Analysis of [small arms and light weapons] SALW in Pakistan and its Impact on Security,” Research paper, Community Appraisal and Motivation Programme, Peshawar, February 2005, p. 13.

[2] Alex Barker, “Improvised Explosive Devices in Southern Afghanistan and Western Pakistan, 2002–2009,” New America Foundation, April 2010, pp. 1–3,

[3] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form B; and Article 13 Reports, Form B, 10 November 2006, 2 November 2005, and 8 October 2004.

[4] Article 13 Report, Form F, 8 October 2004.

[5] Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form B.

[6] Ibid.

[7] See, Fauzee Khan Mohmand, “Anti-tank mine kills 18 in Mohmand,”, 24 October 2009,

[8] Human Rights Watch, “Pakistan: Taliban, Army Must Minimize Harm to Civilians, Humanitarian Situation in the Conflict Area Deteriorating,” Press release, 18 May 2009, New York,

[9] “Pakistan: Landmines and UXOs continue to endanger life in isolated tribal belt,” IRIN, 8 June 2010,

[10] Monitor field research, North and South Waziristan, Mohmand, Bajaur, Orakzai, and Khyber Agencies of FATA, 15–31 March 2010. The Monitor also conducted field research in North and South Waziristan on 15–20 March 2009, 16–22 March 2008 and 2–5 April 2007.

[11] “Pakistan: Landmines and UXOs continue to endanger life in isolated tribal belt,” IRIN, 8 June 2010,

[12] Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form B.

[13] Article 13 Report, Form A, 10 November 2006.

[14] Monitor field research in Muzaffarabad, Kashmir, 24–26 March 2010, 22–24 April 2009, 16–19 April 2008, 20–23 March 2007, and 21–23 February 2006.

[15] Monitor field research in Muzaffarabad; and interviews with local inhabitants of Garhi Sher Khan, Poonch district, Pakistani-administered Kashmir, including the communities of Boon Colony, Chai, Chakrali, Daliry, Dossi, Jamotra, Japak, Khapar Gala, Kota, and Nala, 21–23 March 2007.

[16] Article 10 Report, 21 April 2010, Form A.

[17] Telephone interview with Dan Bridges, Program Manager, FSD, 10 June 2010.

[18] Interviews with Muhammad Kamran Akhtar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Islamabad, 23 April 2009 and 10 April 2007.

[19] Interview with Brig. Azmat Ali, Spokesman, Inter Services Public Relations, Peshawar, 22 March 2010.

[20] Interview with Sifat Ghayur, Inspector General, FC, Peshawar, 19 March 2010.

[21] “Two landmines defused,” Daily Mail (Pakistan), 28 February 2009,

[22] Interviews with Sifat Ghayur, FC, 19 March 2010; with Ghulam Qadir Khan, FATA Secretariat, Peshawar, 21 April 2009; and with Mohammed Tashfeen, former Political Agent of Kurram, Parachinar, 4 February 2006.

[23] Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form B.

[24] Monitor field research, Pakistani Kashmir, 24–26 March 2010; North and South Waziristan and other areas of FATA, 15–31 March 2010; and Balochistan, March 2010.

[25] Email from Sharif Baaser, Programme Specialist, Mine Action and Small Arms, Child Protection, UNICEF, 18 June 2010.

[26] Email from Aneeza Pasha, Risk Education Technical Advisor, HI France, 23 June 2010.

[27] Telephone interview with Dan Bridges, FSD, 10 June 2010.

[28] Email from Sadia Sadiq, Database Officer, FSD, 10 June 2010.

[29] Interview with Stephen Pritchard, Project Manager, MAG, Pakistan, 31 March 2010; and email, 2 April 2010.

Last Updated: 02 February 2011

Casualties and Victim Assistance


Casualties in 2009

Casualties in 2009

421 (2008: 341)

Casualties by outcome

189 killed; 232 injured (2008: 145 killed; 196 injured)

Casualties by device type

109 antipersonnel mines; 102 antivehicle mines; 190 victim-activated IEDs; 20 other ERW


In 2009, Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor identified 421 casualties from antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, victim-activated improvised explosive devices (IEDs), and other explosive remnants of war (ERW) in Pakistan.[1] Adult men (327, or 78%) continued to make up the largest casualty group; nearly a third of adult male casualties (103) were security forces. Fifty-seven child casualties were identified (39 killed and 18 injured); 36 were boys and 21 were girls. The vast majority of casualties (310) occurred in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), followed by 107 in Balochistan.[2] Victim-activated IEDs caused nearly half of all casualties, killing 82 people, including 15 children, and injuring 108 people.

There was a 23% increase in casualties from 2008 to 2009. While a lack of complete casualty information makes it difficult to confirm trends, this increase could be attributed to the upsurge in fighting, particularly in the tribal areas and in the NWFP throughout 2009.[3] While IEDs (including some that were victim-activated) and mines were mainly used to target military convoys and law enforcement agencies, their use in roads and areas with civilians contributed to the high rate (321 of 421, or 76%) of civilian casualties.[4]

The total number of casualties in Pakistan is not known and there is no official data collection mechanism. In 2010, for the first time, the government reported that there were no ERW casualties in Pakistan,[5] though between 1999 and 2009, Landmine Monitor identified at least 2,390 casualties  (917 persons killed, 1,378 injured, and 95 unknown) from victim-activated explosives, including ERW, through media monitoring, field visits, and information provided by service providers.[6]

Victim Assistance

There are at least 1,378 mine/ERW survivors in Pakistan; there are no specific victim assistance programs. No efforts were identified in 2009 to assess survivors’ needs.[7]  

Victim assistance coordination

Pakistan does not have any specific coordination mechanisms or national plans for mine/ERW victim assistance. The Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education and the National Council for the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons are responsible for disability issues and specifically the implementation of the 1981 law for the employment and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities and the 2002 National Policy for Persons with Disabilities.[8]

No information was available as to whether or not mine/ERW survivors were included in government coordination, implementation, or monitoring of disability plans.

Service accessibility and effectiveness

Victim assistance activities in 2009[9]

Name of organization

Type of organization

Type of activity

Changes in quality/coverage of service in 2009

Christian Hospital Rehabilitation Centre

Regional hospital

Medical care and physical rehabilitation in Balochistan; and ICRC provided training to improve quality of physical rehabilitation

No change

Hayat Shaheed Teaching Hospital

Regional hospital

Medical care and physical rehabilitation in Peshawar

No change

Muzaffarabad Physical Rehabilitation Centre

Regional hospital

Physical rehabilitation in Kashmir; ICRC provided training to improve quality of physical rehabilitation; and small grants and business training program with the ICRC

No change

Lady Reading Hospital

Regional hospital

Physical rehabilitation in Peshawar

No change

Helping Hand for Relief and Development

National NGO

Physical rehabilitation in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir

No change

Institute of Prosthetic and Orthotic Sciences

National University in Physical Rehabilitation

Physical rehabilitation in Peshawar; and ICRC provided training to improve quality of physical rehabilitation

No change

Community Appraisal and Motivation Programme (CAMP)

National NGO

Disability resource center, emergency health care and advocacy

Launched new emergency health care project in the FATA

Sustainable Peace and Development Organization (SPADO)

National NGO

Advocacy for victim assistance

New protection program launched to link survivors in the NWFP with services and maintain comprehensive casualty database

Handicap International (HI)

International NGO

Emergency relief, mobility devices and disability access in internally displaced persons camps in FATA and the NWFP

Launched new emergency relief program focused on disability for displaced persons


International organization

Support for medical care, physical rehabilitation and small grants and business training

New field hospital in Peshawar opened; increased support to some medical facilities; reduced support to some areas because of inaccessibility due to the security situation


The continued and intensifying conflict throughout 2009 in mine-affected regions of the country prevented survivors from accessing needed services because of insecure travel conditions.[10] It also caused some non-governmental service providers to cease operations, while others, including the ICRC and HI, expanded services in an attempt to meet the increasing demand.[11] The ICRC was unable to consistently supply health centers or provide planned staff trainings at some partner health and rehabilitation centers in Balochistan and parts of the NWFP and FATA because of security conditions.[12]

While the government reported that there are systems in place to provide free medical support, employment, and monetary compensation for both mine and ERW survivors and families of those killed,[13] field research in March 2010 confirmed a continuing lack of the necessary emergency and continuing medical care services in mine-affected areas of Balochistan, FATA, and Pakistani-administered Kashmir.[14] The provincial government of the NWFP reported having provided financial assistance to the survivors for health and physical rehabilitation services.[15]

Military hospitals provided better medical care to mine/ERW casualties than civilian hospitals but, with some exceptions in Pakistani-administered Kashmir, civilians were unable to access these services.[16]

As part of HI’s emergency relief program launched in June 2009, psychosocial support was provided to persons with disabilities and other vulnerable persons in internally displaced persons camps.[17] While the ICRC continued providing small grants and business training through the Muzaffarabad Physical Rehabilitation Centre,[18] most activities were focused on emergency relief and medical care.

The law provides for equality of the rights of persons with disabilities, though there was a lack of adequate enforcement mechanisms.[19] In August 2009, the government began issuing national identity cards for persons with disabilities to help them access benefits and introduced reduced rates for mass transportation.[20]

Pakistan signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 25 September 2008, but had not yet ratified it as of 20 July 2010.

[1] Landmine and Cluster Munition Monitor, CAMP, and SPADO media monitoring, 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009. Information provided by SPADO also included data collected by risk education field teams and by HI in Pakistan.  In addition, 108 casualties caused by command-detonated explosive devices and 91 casualties in which the activation type could not be determined were also identified but were not included in casualty figures.

[2] An additional four casualties were identified in Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.

[3] ICRC, “Annual Report 2009,” May 2010, Geneva, p. 216.

[4] Email from Raza Shah Khan, Executive Director, SPADO, 13 April 2010.

[5] Convention on Cluster Munition (CCW) Protocol V Article 10 Report, Form C, April 2010.

[6] For details, see report on Pakistan in previous editions of Landmine Monitor. For example, see Landmine Monitor Report 2009, p. 1,061.

[7] Ibid.

[8] Leonard Cheshire Disability International, “Pakistan Country Profile,” undated,; Leonard Cheshire Disability South Asia, “Pakistan,” undated,; and Bharathi Ram, “Pakistan Ministry of Social Welfare and Special Education to Introduce Micro-Credit Scheme for Disabled,”, 17 August 2009,

[9] There are hundreds of entities (most of which are public or private health or rehabilitation centers) providing assistance to persons with disabilities in Pakistan.  The organizations listed here reported having provided some assistance to mine/ERW survivors or working in affected areas. ICRC, “Annual Report 2009,” May 2010, Geneva, pp. 216–219; HI, “Around the World: Pakistan,” 21 October 2009 and 4 June 2009,; interview with Dr. Mohammad Ishaq, Director, Artificial Limbs Workshop, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, 19 March 2010; and interview with Raza Shah Khan, SPADO, in Santiago, 11 June 2010. Responses to Monitor questionnaire by Fauzia Huma, Project Manager, Disability Resource Center, CAMP, 30 March 2010; Shamsher Ali Khan, Administrative Officer, Helping Hand for Relief and Development, 25 March 2010; and Dr. Hamidullah Khan Kakar, Assistant Professor, Helping Hand for Relief and Development, 25 March 2010.

[10] Observation during Monitor field mission in FATA, Kashmir and Balochistan, March 2010 and in North and South Waziristan and other areas of FATA, 15–20 March 2009.

[11] ICRC, “Bulletin ICRC Hospital Peshawar,” March 2009, p. 2; and HI, “Extremely Precarious Conditions,” 4 June 2009,

[12] ICRC, “Annual Report 2009,” May 2010, Geneva, p. 218.

[13] Government reporting refers to systems of support for “victims”. Article 10 Report, Form C, April 2010; and CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report (for the period 16 August 2006 to 15 August 2007), Form B. This is Pakistan’s latest Article 13 report to refer to victim assistance. A subsequent report for the period from August 2007 to September 2008 indicated that there had been no change in victim assistance.

[14] Monitor field research in FATA, Kashmir, and Balochistan, March 2010.

[15] It is not know who received such assistance and if this assistance was also provided in previous years. Interview with Liaqat Ali Khan, Chief, Capital Police, Peshawar, 20 March 2010.

[16] Interview with Brig. Azmat Ali, Pakistan Army, Peshawar, 22 March 2010; and Monitor field research in Kashmir, 24–26 March 2010.

[17]HI, “Around the World: Pakistan,” 21 October 2009 and 4 June 2009,

[18] ICRC, “Annual Report 2009,” May 2010, Geneva, p. 217.

[19] US Department of State, “2009 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Pakistan,” Washington, DC, 11 March 2010.

[20] Mehtab Haider, “Disabled people to pay half fares throughout Pakistan,” The News (Islamabad), 24 July 2009,; and Network of Organisations Working for People with Disabilities Pakistan, “Important: People with Disabilities to Receive Special Identity Cards from NADRA to Access Benefits!” 8 August 2009,


Last Updated: 27 July 2010

Support for Mine Action

In 2009, three donors contributed US$1,848,483 for risk education activities. The European Commission (EC) provided €1,266,275 ($1,764,554) to the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action; UNICEF provided PKR3,636,900 ($44,734) to the national NGO Sustainable Peace and Development Organization, and Sweden provided SEK300,000 ($39,195) to the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency.[1]

International contributions: 2009



(National currency)







Risk education




Risk education




Risk education







[1] Email from Farman Ali, Child Protection Officer, UNICEF, 1 May 2010; response to Monitor questionnaire by Vilde Rosén, Advisor, Humanitarian Disarmament Department for UN, Peace and Humanitarian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 April 2010; and email from Mari Cruz Cristóbal, Mine Action Desk, Security Policy Unit, Directorate-General for External Relations, EC, 16 June 2010. Average exchange rates for 2009: €1=US$1.3935; PKR1=US$0.01230; SEK1=US$0.13065. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 4 January 2010.