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Table of Contents
Country Reports
THE PHILIPPINES, Landmine Monitor Report 1999

THE PHILIPPINES

Mine Ban Policy

The Philippines signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, but has yet to ratify it. The Philippines was an early supporter of a global ban on antipersonnel landmines, and was an original member of the “core group” of governments that took the lead in developing and promoting the Mine Ban Treaty, serving as the regional focal point for Asia. The Philippines government was an active partner in the Ottawa Process, attending all the treaty preparatory meetings. It was a full participant in the Strategy Conference on 3-5 October 1996 in Ottawa, Canada, endorsed the pro-ban treaty Brussels Declaration in June 1997, and was a full participant in the Oslo negotiations in September 1997.

The Philippines voted in favor of all the United Nations General Assembly resolutions on antipersonnel mines, namely, the UNGA Resolution 51/45S urging states to vigorously pursue an international agreement banning antipersonnel landmines on 10 December 1996; UNGA Resolution 52/38A supporting the December Treaty signing; and Resolution A/C.1/53/L.33 during the 53rd U.N. General Assembly on 4 November 1998, welcoming the addition of new states to the MBT, urging its full realization and inviting state parties to the First Meeting of State Parties in Mozambique.

On 3 December 1997 when it signed the Mine Ban Treaty in Ottawa, Canada, Department of Foreign Affairs Secretary Domingo Siazon Jr. said, “It is because we can no longer abide such grievous loss that we have heeded the call of human conscience, and have come here to end any further use, production, transfer and stockpiling of this rogue and shameful weapon.” He lauded the “many private citizens and non-government who also labored, with unflagging determination, for the global ban on landmines.”[1]

The government’s pro-ban stance was officially declared in December 1995 when, in a state visit to Cambodia, former President Fidel V. Ramos issued a statement expressing the government's support to the international community in opposing landmines and supporting mine-clearing activities and destruction of stockpiles.[2] President Ramos’s statement was preceded by several memoranda issued in October 1995 by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Chief of Staff and the Department of National Defense (DND) providing data on APM stockpile and landmine incidents and upholding the six-point Policy Positions proposed by the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines (PCBL). The six-point proposals called on the government to immediately ratify the 1980 CCW and its annexed Protocols; to support the ICBL position for an international total ban and contribute to humanitarian mine action; to confirm or deny reports that the Philippines is a landmine producer; to factor landmine issues into negotiations with the various rebel groups; to contribute concretely to humanitarian mine action in the form of professional and technical support; and to provide special assistance to neighboring Cambodia in mine clearance, victim rehabilitation and peace and reconstruction work.[3] In the first week of December 1995, President Ramos met with peace groups, including the PCBL, where these policy proposals were further discussed.

In July 1997, the Philippines along with the International Committee of the Red Cross and the Philippine Red Cross Society, co-sponsored the Asian Regional Seminar for Military and Political Experts in Manila to examine the military value of landmines. In that meeting, it was concluded that the humanitarian cost of using these weapons far outweigh any military utility.[4]

Despite having been one of the first countries to call for a total ban, ratification of the Treaty was delayed because of the change in administration. An instrument of ratification was signed by President Ramos on 30 January 1998 but the Senate failed to act on it before the sessions ended to give way to the May 1998 national election. The 1987 Philippine Constitution requires that any international treaty be passed by the Philippine Senate by a vote of two-thirds majority before it becomes valid.[5]

Shortly after the 11th Congress convened in early July 1998, Senator Teresa Aquino-Oreta, at the request of the local campaign, introduced a resolution urging the Philippines to concur in the ratification of the Treaty.[6] In November 1998, newly elected Philippine President Joseph Ejercito Estrada resubmitted the Convention for the Philippine Senate’s consideration and concurrence. The letter enclosed a draft Senate concurring resolution. The Senate failed to table the resolution in 1998 in the face of other national concerns. Finally, on 25 February 1999, the Senate Committee chaired by Senator Blas Ople convened the public hearing necessary before the Committee adopts its position on the matter. Representatives of the Departments of Foreign Affairs and National Defense, as well as of the local campaign all endorsed the treaty’s ratification which can thus be expected to take place soon.

The Philippine Senate ratified the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons and its original Protocol II on landmines 4 June 1996. On 12 June 1997, it ratified the amended Protocol II.

Peace/Cease-fire Agreements with Rebel Groups

The government’s landmine policy and rebel groups' concurrence to a moratorium on landmine use are embodied in peace and cease-fire agreements with the rebel forces, as follow:

1) The Joint Guidelines and Ground Rules for the Implementation of the 1993 Interim Cease-fire Agreement between the Government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) included “landmining” under prohibited hostile acts. In September 1996, a comprehensive Peace Agreement was forged, effectively ending the armed conflict between the two parties.

2) In Art. 1.3.b of the Operational Guidelines of the Agreement on the General Cessation of Hostilities between the Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) forged in 14 November 1997, landmining was listed among the prohibited hostile acts.

3) In the Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights & International Humanitarian Law between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) and the National Democratic Front (NDF) signed in March 1998, the right not to be subjected to landmines was recognized, and both parties committed to uphold the observance of international humanitarian law. (Part III,Art. 2.15; Part IV, Art. 4.4; Part II, Art. 4 of the Comprehensive Agreement on Respect for Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law). However, in late February 1999, negotiations between the government and the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP)-NDF-New People’s Army (NPA) were suspended by President Estrada following the arrest by an NPA command in Mindanao and the Bicol region of military officials.

Government Production

The Philippines was listed in both U.S. Army and U.S. State Department documents in 1993 as a landmine producer.[7] However, the U.S. Department of Defense’s landmine database, released in July 1995, did not include the Philippines in the list of landmine producers.

Previous allegations of production of landmines are reinforced by information from a military official that in the late 1980s or early 1990s, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) contracted a local manufacturer to produce landmines similar to claymore mines as part of the AFP's Self-Reliance Program. According to the official, the contract was not renewed.[8]

The Philippines is not known to produce or conduct research and development on any munitions which might function like an antipersonnel mine and pose danger to civilians (such as antitank mines with anti-handling devices, certain submunitions/cluster bombs). Neither is the AFP engaged in research and development on or production of alternatives to antipersonnel landmines, except for the use of flares and the clustering of grenades as substitutes for preventing unauthorized entry in military camps.

Rebel Production

The AFP claims that communist and Muslim rebels produce or manufacture “homemade” or “improvised” mines, as evidenced by landmine incidents and capture of enemy armories. These “improvised” landmines are allegedly made using commercially available substances and materials. A 1996 AFP report describes the procedure as follows:

"A good example is the 'ammonium nitrate and fuel-oil' (ANFO) mixture, which uses locally available fertilizers and diesel fuel as explosive compound. Commercially available dynamite which is used for quarrying and (mineral) mining is also utilized, as is TNT of composition B taken from 105mm Howitzer or mortar shells recovered from AFP units during firefights. Gunpowder from bullets is also used. For shrapnel, just about anything is used (rusty nails, broken glass, metal strips, steel balls and sometimes, specially formed galvanized iron). Blasting caps are commercially available. However, if unavailable the rebels have found indigenous materials to make blasting caps, like matches and umbrella parts. Sardine cans, paint cans, biscuit containers or specially formed galvanized iron are used to hold the explosives and shrapnel. These mines are either command detonated (electrically, using dry cells contained in enclosed lighter fluid containers) or they are fitted with detonating cords. Recently however, there have been reports that the NPA now use improvised pressure release mechanisms.”[9]

The report claimed that in 1994, the Philippine Army raided a New People's Army (NPA) landmine factory in Conner, Kalinga Apayao (Northern Luzon) and recovered some 1,000 blasting caps, ammonium nitrate and C4. The report likewise alleged that the two Muslim rebel groups--Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) and Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF)--have not used landmines in their recent operations but are reportedly manufacturing and field testing improvised landmines for future use. The report also claims that Muslim secessionist groups sent men for training and experience in mine production, handling and deployment in foreign countries like Afghanistan.

Independent reports and inquiries made with rebels and former rebels affirm the production and use of improvised landmines by rebel groups using commercially available materials. In 1995, the PCBL noted, “Some Moro liberation fighters ? have had battle training in Afghanistan, which happens to be the most landmine-affected country. It is not inconceivable that landmines were among the recent arms landings in Muslim Mindanao.”[10]

In recent interviews, the MILF acknowledged that they do assemble mines when there arises “a necessity and for immediate use only,” and that their homemade mines are command-detonated by pulling a string attached to a detonator.[11] They make use of ready-made bombs (6mm bombs) from abroad, but local materials are used for detonators. The danger in making these mines is seen as less compared to making mines using pressure as the triggering mechanism.[12] Foreigners have also been allegedly involved in giving training in the use and manufacture of landmines.[13] The MNLF also reportedly used the services of foreign-trained engineers in such production.[14] A study on the MNLF claims that ammonium nitrate for landmine production was purchased by the Muslim rebel group in Sabah.[15]

In 1997, a suspected supply officer of the MILF was arrested in a raid by agents of the First Mobile Force Command and the Philippine Navy. The raiders recovered inside the vessel ML/BB Baker five sacks of ammonium nitrate, a chemical used in making landmines, and 200 pieces of blasting caps.[16]

Transfer

There are no reports or evidence to indicate that the Philippines previously or currently exports APMs.

In 1977, the U.S. exported 7,992 M18A1 Claymore mines to the Philippines.[17] Most of these mines were apparently used in AFP counter-insurgency operations against the various rebel groups.[18]

On 15 August 1995, the AFP reported it had in its inventory 2,460 M18A1 Claymore mines.[19] In December 1995 President Fidel V. Ramos ordered the AFP to stop acquisition of landmines and to dispose of the Claymore mines in its inventory.[20]

At present, there are no reports of transfers from another country to the Philippines, and the ban remains in place.[21] An AFP Position Paper on Protocol II of the Prohibition or Restriction on Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices stated that the AFP will exclude any equipment and other similar devices in the list of equipment to be acquired under the AFP Modernization Program.[22] This position is corroborated by former AFP Chief of Staff Gen. Acedera, who stated that APMs are not on the list of strategic or tactical weapons systems for acquisition under the AFP’s 15-year Modernization Program.[23]

In an interview, the MILF said it acquired around 1,000 antipersonnel mines from an unnamed source abroad in 1974.[24] He declined to give any description of these purchased landmines, stating that these are “known only as antipersonnel mines and no longer available in our armory.”[25]

An AFP report claimed that in the 1970s and early 1980s, the MNLF used U.S.-made M14 antipersonnel landmines.[26] It is not known how they were acquired.

Stockpiling

In the government’s first official pronouncement on landmines dated 18 December 1995, President Fidel V. Ramos not only expressed support to an international ban, he also ordered the destruction of all stockpiles in the Philippine armory.[27] This was followed by several orders/memoranda from the AFP chain of command implementing the instruction.

In December 1995, President Ramos called upon the AFP Chief of Staff, who likewise directed the Logistics Command and the three Major Services (Army, Air Force and Navy) to “disarm and safely dispose of some 2,460 Claymore mines still in the inventory of the AFP without delay.”[28]

All Claymore mines were reportedly surrendered to AFP Military Supply Points (MSPs) located throughout the country, where the disposal and destruction of the mines took place. As of 7 February 1997, the AFP Logistics Command reported the disposal of all 2,460 Claymore mines in its inventory.[29] A breakdown of the APMs disposed in the different MSPs and AFP units was provided in the 18 July 1997 report of the AFP Logistics Command to the AFP Chief of Staff.[30] The reported disposal was confirmed recently by Deputy for Operations (J3) Brig. Gen. Rodolfo Garcia in an interview,[31] and by the Defense Secretary during the February 1999 Senate Foreign Affairs Committee public hearing.[32]

However, in a news report, Armed Forces spokesperson Major General Victor Garcia admitted that certain units of the armed forces, such as the Army’s Scout Ranger and Special Forces Regiment are still keeping and using landmines (apparently Claymores).[33] Many soldiers also allegedly kept some of these Claymore mines in their personal possession, either as souvenirs or as a weapon in case of emergency.[34] During inspection of MSPs, some mines were allegedly found put up on display for decorative purposes.[35] Under the Mine Ban Treaty, use of Claymore mines in command-detonated mode is permitted, but use with tripwires is prohibited.

Most of the mines purchased by the MILF in 1974 allegedly "self-destroyed" since they were not used and protected from damage, while others were detonated.[36] A MILF top official claimed that detonation of its stock of purchased landmines was done in 1978 while homemade mines were no longer available at that time.[37]

Government Use

The government officially claims that the deployment of landmines is not and has never been part of the Philippines’ defense policy,[38] and that the Claymore mines in its inventory were used by AFP troops for training purposes, and not in counter-insurgency operations.[39] Other reports, including from the government, say otherwise. Many of the AFP officials interviewed have pointed out that use of Claymore mines in a command detonated mode is not a violation of the treaty, while acknowledging these mines can be operated by tripwire. General Arnulfo G. Acedera, former AFP Chief of Staff, has said that use of mines has not been extensive by either side because, “Whatever will be the case, for both warring sides (the government and the insurgents), the common denominator in winning the war is winning the same people’s hearts and minds.... To objectively and deliberately immerse these non-combatants and innocent civilians into the avoidable circumstances of the conflict would end in alienating their sympathy, thus opening the road to our defeat. This is the reason why the issue of the landmine problem in the Philippines is far from alarming compared to that in Cambodia, Afghanistan, Laos and Mozambique.”[40]

One AFP report stated that before the directive of the Chief of Staff to ban the use of landmines, the AFP did use Claymore mines for defense purposes such as to protect a detachment or patrol base. Use was discriminate, temporary and never for offensive operations. The report said that minefields are not part of the AFP’s counter-insurgency doctrine. Nor does the AFP possess the mechanical means for mine-laying or the capability for remote delivery of mines through artillery, rocket or aircraft.[41]

The MILF claims that there have been civilian victims of landmines placed by the AFP, but also notes that the number of such cases has been minimal.[42] MILF Vice-Chair for Military Affairs Al Haj Murad also claims that in a few cases, the MILF was able to seize (anti-tank) landmines from the AFP: “There were only about ten pieces of anti-tank mines we captured from the AFP and we used them during the height of the fighting in 1978.”[43]

Rebel Use

The AFP reports that both communist and Muslim rebels have made extensive use of "homemade" or "improvised" mines. Use of landmines by communist rebels allegedly began in 1985 when the various fronts sent students for demolition training to Samar island. The NPA landmine factory in Conner, Kalinga Apayao (Northern Luzon) in 1994 was allegedly protected by hundreds of mines that extended as far as 700 meters from the camp. In 1995, there were 21 landmine-related incidents involving improvised landmines used by the NPA. The NPA used landmines not only to harass or ambush military and police personnel, but also to secure and defend their strongholds and production bases.[44]

In another document, the AFP reported 239 landmining incidents from 1986-1995, 228 of which were allegedly perpetuated by the CPP/NPA and 11 by the MNLF/MILF.[45]

In late 1997, the Association of Barangay Captains (ABC) in the Caraga Region (Southeastern Mindanao) condemned the continued use of landmines allegedly planted by the New Peoples Army in Agusan and Surigao provinces. The ABC cited the recovery of landmines in places frequented by village folk: the 67th Infantry Battalion retrieved ten antitank mines and six antipersonnel mine planted on the road in Barangay Hubo, Tago, Surigao del Sur; two Claymore mines were discovered planted on a trail in Sitio Tahos, Barangay San Pedro, Marihatag, Surigao del Sur; five antipersonnel landmines were found in Sitio Lahi, Barangay Mahawan, Tandag town; and in Agusan del Sur, the 36th Infantry Battalion recovered five antipersonnel landmines in Sitio La Fortuna, Barangay Aurora, Prosperidad, Agusan del Sur.[46]

Occasional newspaper reports corroborate landmine use by communist forces. In 1996, army soldiers reportedly raided a communist rebel safehouse in Sitio Hugno, Barangay Nagbinlod, Santa Catalina town, Negros Oriental, and three improvised Claymore mines were recovered.[47] A March 1997 report on the recovery of an NPA arms cache by army troops in Amulung, Cagayan Valley listed an antipersonnel mine among items seized.[48] In the same year, Army soldiers recovered in a sitio in San Mariano, Isabela 1,000 adaptors, 200 meters of detonating cord, six Claymore mines, eight pipes, 250 blasting caps and 15 pressure release firing devices.[49]

In an interview, an NPA cadre claims use of landmines both for offensive and defensive purposes. He cited one incident in which an NPA platoon successfully eluded the attack of an undersized AFP battalion by hastily planting mines in possible enemy advance routes and detonating those mines when the targets were within range.[50] In his 29 March 1997 Message to the NPA urging intensification of guerilla warfare, CPP Chair Armando Liwanag identified mine laying, along with sniping and grenade throwing, as among the forms of "small unit harassment operations" which the NPA can wage against government forces.[51]

In 1976, the MILF allegedly banned the use of landmines in their operation on the basis of a research conclusion that landmine use -- because it involves death through harsh methods -- contradicts the teachings of Islam.[52] Despite the claimed ban on landmine use by the MILF, actual use of landmines by Muslim rebel groups is acknowledged in rebel publications. In an account of the Battle of Wato on 16 March 1996 between the government troops and the MILF, where the AFP allegedly sent two helicopter gunships and two bomber planes which dropped 26 bombs, the MILF said it "fought back with mortar (81mm and 60m), anti-tank weapons and mined the fields."[53]

In the Battle of Mal-Mar on April 11, 1996: "Hostilities resumed at about 5:00 a.m. in Sitio Sambayangan, Tupig, Carmen. AFP threw in action three OV-10 planes and two Huey gunships. Also used 105 howitzers, 81mm and 60mm mortars. The Mujahideen retaliated with 81mm, 60mm, 50mm and RPG anti-tank weapons and also mined the area."[54]

On the whole, according to an AFP report, use of landmines by Muslim secessionists has been minimal, directed only at government soldiers and not civilians.[55] The MILF, for its part, claimed that the mines used in the aforementioned battles as well as in other battlefields were homemade self-controlled detonating mines for tanks and armored vehicles.[56] It claims mines not used in an aborted ambush are retrieved and no mines are left behind.[57]

Other than rebel groups, there was also one reported case of landmine use by a political warlord or private army. In May 1995, the marines reportedly took over the camp of political clan leader Khan Tulawie in Bilaan, Talipao, Sulu where they found minefields stretching about 500 meters along the main road.[58]

Recent Use

To date, the Monitoring Committee of the 1997 cease-fire agreement between the Philippine government and the MILF has not reported any violation of the provision against landmining.

Recent reports of seizures of landmines and materials used for manufacturing landmines from communist rebels reveal a continuing intent to use, if not actual use of these weapons. A December 1998 report claims that in a brief clash with the communist rebels, government troops from the 58th Infantry Battalion recovered five landmines from two rebels who surrendered.[59]

In mid-1998, Quezon Province police seized a cache of explosives that included 235 sticks of dynamite and other bomb components. The explosives were hidden at the foot of Mount Banahaw, which the NPA communist guerrillas reportedly intend to use for bombing runs on government and civilian targets, and for the manufacturing of landmines. Quezon Police Director Superintendent Jaime Caringal said the seizure derailed the rebels’ plan to avenge the death of their comrades during a chance encounter with a composite police-military team in Barangay Jonagdong I in Sariaya town on 19 June 1998.[60]

Landmine Problem

Since use of landmines has on the whole been temporary and minimal, the Philippines cannot be considered mine affected in any significant way. Nonetheless, there have been reported deaths due to landmines up to 1997, though most of these may have been caused by command-detonated APMs.

Mine Action Funding

In a statement, former President Ramos said that the Philippines contributed through the U.N. Development Program to mine clearing activities in Cambodia.[61] Inquiries made at the Department of Foreign Affairs yielded no information as to the nature and value of the contribution.

Mine Clearance and Mine Awareness

No sustained mine clearance operations have been necessary. Except for the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines and its member organizations, no other agency in the Philippines has engaged in a mine education program. In 1996 and 1997, the PCBL organized several symposia in Metro Manila that aimed to popularize the landmine issue and commit the government and rebel groups to a mine ban.

Landmine Casualties

In landmine incidents involving the New People’s Army, the AFP reported that from 1991-1995, 17 civilians were killed and 31 injured. Most of these incidents took place in Northeastern Luzon, particularly in Cagayan and Isabela. In 1995, there were 21 landmine incidents nationwide. Two died and 29 soldiers and policemen were wounded. Four civilians were killed and another four were wounded. In incidents involving Muslim secessionists, 11 landmine incidents with two injuries took place from 1986-1995.[62] The last case of a soldier falling victim to a mine was in 1997, according to an army doctor, but the victim's whereabouts are unknown.[63]

No subsequent report has been issued by any government agency on landmine victims. It is not clear if the injuries/deaths may be directly attributable to APMs covered under the treaty as these mines may have been command-detonated, or may have been antivehicle/antitank mines.[64]

There are no specialized services available to landmine victims. Civilian and military victims ordinarily would go to regular private, public or AFP hospitals for emergency assistance.

Soldier victims are covered by several medical and insurance plans, for example, by the Government Service Insurance System and various AFP benefit programs. The benefits depend on the severity of injuries, resulting incapacity, and the type of work one can still perform. For those who were amputated, prosthetics are provided by the AFPMC, which is the oldest producer of prosthetics in the country.[65]

Wounded rebels are normally treated in rebel camps or hideouts for fear of being arrested if brought to regular hospitals. Wounded rebels who are captured by the AFP are provided with medical assistance in regular hospitals or AFP camps.[66]

<MARSHALL ISLANDS | VANUATU>

[1] “A Victory for All Humankind,” Statement of H.E. Domingo Siazon, Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affairs, Republic of the Philippines at the signing ceremony of the Mine Ban Treaty, Ottawa, 3 December 1997.

[2] Statement of H.E. Fidel V. Ramos during the official visit to the Kingdom of Cambodia, Chamcar, Phnom Penh, 18 December 1995.

[3] Soliman Santos and Miriam Coronel Ferrer, Policy Brief on the Landmines Issue and the Philippines, October 1995, pp. 21-22.

[4] Final Declaration of Participants to the “Anti-Personnel Landmines: What Future for Asia? Regional Seminar for Asian Military and Strategic Studies Experts," Manila, 20-23 July 1997.

[5] Section 21, Article VII, 1987 Philippine Constitution.

[6] “Resolution Urging the Senate of the Philippines to Concur in the Ratification of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction,” Resolution No. 47, Eleventh Congress, received by the Office of the Secretary, Senate of the Philippines, 20 July 1998.

[7] Letter from Kenneth Shifflett, Public Affairs Officer, U.S. Army Foreign Science and Technology Center to Human Rights Watch, 1 November 1993, p. 1; U.S. Department of State, Outgoing Telegram, Unclassified, Subject: landmine export moratorium demarche, 7 December 1993.

[8] Interview with Capt. Dominador Rescate, Head of the Office of Chief Ordnance and Chemical Service, AFP, 11 November 1998, Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City.

[9] Report prepared by the Strategic Studies Division, Office of Strategic and Special Studies, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 7 February 1996, for the Meeting of Experts on the Military Utility of Anti-Personnel Mines 12-13 February 1996, Geneva.

[10] Santos and Coronel Ferrer, p. 13.

[11] “Answers to Questions from the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines,” signed by Al Haj Murad, faxed to the PCBL on 10 February 1999.

[12] Interview with Al Haj Ibrahim Murad, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs, 2 December 1998, Camp Abubakar, Maguindanao.

[13] “Answers to Questions from the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines,” signed by Al Haj Murad, faxed to the PCBL on 10 February 1999.

[14] Interview with a former MNLF fighter, Camp Capinpin, Tanay, Rizal, 12 December 1998.

[15] Arnold Molina Azurin, Beyond the Cult of Dissidence in Southern Philippines and Wartorn Zones in the Global Village (Quezon City: UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies and University of the Philippines Press, 1996), p. 51.

[16] Hernan P. de la Cruz, "MILF man held for explosives," Philippine Daily Inquirer, 16 August 1997.

[17] U.S. Department of the Army response to Human Rights Watch Freedom of Information Act request, letter from Don Lappin, Chief, General Law/Congressional Affairs Division, Office of Counsel, Department of the Army, to Human Rights Watch, dated 25 August 1993.

[18] Interview with Maj. Gregorio Macapagal, J3, Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City, 23 February 1999.

[19] Memorandum for the Secretary of National Defense from General Arturo Enrile, AFP Chief of Staff dated 8 October 1995.

[20] Statement of H.E. Fidel V. Ramos during the official visit to the Kingdom of Cambodia, Chamcar, Phnom Penh, 18 December 1995.

[21] Based on statements committing the AFP to a mine ban policy by President Estrada’s Defense Secretary Orlando Mercado during the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee public hearing on Resolution No. 47, Philippine Senate, Manila, 25 February 1999.

[22] "AFP Position Paper on Protocol II of the Prohibition or Restriction on Use of Mines, Booby Traps and Other Devices," undated.

[23] “Non-Use of Anti-Personnel Mines in Internal Armed Conflict” by General Arnulfo G. Acedera, Jr., then AFP Chief of Staff when he read this paper at the International Meeting of Experts on the Military Uses of Landmines in Manila, 1996.

[24] Interview with Al Haj Ibrahim Murad, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs, 2 December 1998, Camp Abubakar, Maguindanao.

[25] Answers to Questions from the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines,” signed by Al Haj Murad, faxed to the PCBL on 10 February 1999.

[26] Report prepared by the Strategic Studies Division, Office of Strategic and Special Studies, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 7 February 1996 for the Meeting of Experts on the Military Utility of Anti-Personnel Mines 12-13 February 1996, Geneva.

[27]Statement of H.E. Fidel V. Ramos during the official visit to the Kingdom of Cambodia, Chamcar, Phnom Penh, 18 December 1995

[28] Ibid.

[29] Letter signed by Lt. Col. Jusue A. Valdez to the AFP Chief of Staff Re Disposal of Antipersonnel Mines, 18 July 1997.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Interview with Deputy for Operations (J3) Brig. Gen. Rodolfo Garcia, Camp Aguinaldo, Quezon City, 20 November 1998.

[32]Based on statements made by President Estrada’s Defense Secretary Orlando Mercado during the Senate Foreign Affairs Committee public hearing on Resolution No. 47, Philippine Senate, Manila, 25 February 1999.

[33] Gemma T. Cuadro, "Military is still stockpiling landmines despite UN ban," The Manila Times, 18 July 1997.

[34] Interview with an officer of the Army’s Scout Ranger, Quezon City, 7 November 1998.

[35] Eyewitness account of an AFP middle-level official during an interview in Quezon City, 11 November 1998.

[36] Interview with Al Haj Ibrahim Murad, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs, Camp Abubakar Siddique, Maguindanao, 2 December 1998.

[37] “Answers to Questions from the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines,” signed by Al Haj Murad, faxed to the PCBL on 10 February 1999.

[38] Statement of H.E. Fidel V. Ramos, President of the Republic of the Philippines during the official visit to the Kingdom of Cambodia, Chamcar, Phnom Penh, 18 December 1995.

[39] Memorandum for the Secretary of National Defense from General Arturo Enrile, AFP Chief of Staff dated 8 October 1995.

[40] “Non-Use of Anti-Personnel Mines in Internal Armed Conflict” by General Arnulfo G. Acedera, Jr., then AFP Chief of Staff when he read this paper at the “Anti-Personnel Landmines: What Future for Asia?," Asian Regional Seminar for Military and Political Experts in Manila, 20-23 July 1997.

[41] Report prepared by the Strategic Studies Division, Office of Strategic and Special Studies, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 7 February 1996 for the Meeting of Experts on the Military utility of Anti-Personnel Mines 12-13 February 1996, Geneva.

[42] Interview with Al Haj Ibrahim Murad, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs, Camp Abubakar, Maguindanao, 2 December 1998.

[43] “Answers to Questions from the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines,” signed by Al Haj Murad, faxed to the PCBL on 10 February 1999.

[44] Report prepared by the Strategic Studies Division, Office of Strategic and Special Studies, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 7 February 1996 for the Meeting of Experts on the Military utility of Anti-Personnel Mines 12-13 February 1996, Geneva.

[45] Memorandum to the Secretary of National Defense from AFP Chief of Staff Gen. Arturo Enrile, Subject: Landmine Production Issues, dated 3 October 1995.

[46]Mike U. Crismundo, "Use of land mines by rebels condemned," Manila Bulletin, 3 December 1997.

[47]Carla P. Gomez, "Explosives, weapons seized in a raid,'' Philippine Daily Inquirer, 22 October 1996.

[48] Gladie Cabanizas, "NPA arms cache found," Philippine Daily Inquirer, 13 March 1997.

[49]Gladie Cabanizas, "Explosives found," Philippine Daily Inquirer, 10 May 1997.

[50] Unofficial interview with a high-level NPA cadre in mid-1995 by Atty. Soliman Santos Jr., PCBL Co-coordinator, documented in an undated paper titled "Landmines."

[51] "Intensify Guerilla Warfare According to Capabilities," Message to the NPA of Armando Liwanag, Chair, Central Committee, Communist Party of the Philippines on the founding anniversary of the NPA, 29 March 1997.

[52] Interview with Al Haj Ibrahim Murad, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs, 2 December 1998, Camp Abubakar, Maguindanao.

[53] MHDI Research and Documentation Desk, "The War in Mindanao," Homeland, Vol.5 No.2 March-April 1998, Cotabato City, Mindanao.

[54]MHDI Research and Documentation Desk, "The War in Mindanao," Homeland. Vol.5 No.2 March-April 1998.

[55] Report prepared by the Strategic Studies Division, Office of Strategic and Special Studies, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 7 February 1996 for the Meeting of Experts on the Military utility of Anti-Personnel Mines 12-13 February 1996, Geneva.

[56] “Answers to Questions from the Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines,” signed by Al Haj Murad, faxed to the PCBL on 10 February 1999.

[57] Interview with Al Haj Ibrahim Murad, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs, Camp Abubakar, Maguindanao, 2 December 1998.

[58] “Tulawie faction flees – Marines find virtual war camp in Sulu town,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 15 May 1995, p.17.

[59] Alvin Tarroza, "3 rebs killed in firefight," The Philippine Star, 14 December1998.

[60] Jaime Laude, "Rebs’ explosives seized at the foot of Mount Banahaw," The Philippine Star, 5 August, 1998.

[61] Statement of H.E. Fidel V. Ramos, President of the Republic of the Philippines during the official visit to the Kingdom of Cambodia, Chamcar, Phnom Penh, 18 December 1995.

[62] Report prepared by the Strategic Studies Division, Office of Strategic and Special Studies, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 7 February 1996 for the Meeting of Experts on the Military utility of Anti-Personnel Mines 12-13 February 1996, Geneva.

[63] Interview with Lt. Col. Adrien R. Quidlat, M.D., FPCS, FPOA, Chief of Orthopedic Surgery Services and of Clinics, Armed Forces of the Philippines Medical Center (AFPMC), and Maj. Benedicto Jovellanos, Assistant Chief and Administration Officer, AFPMC, Quezon City, 10 March 1999.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Ibid.

[66] Based on knowledge acquired in previous field researches/interviews in rebel areas.