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Country Reports
SWEDEN, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Sweden on 1 May 1999. From May 1999 through January 2000, Sweden destroyed 1.15 million antipersonnel mines, and nearly 2 million since 1998. Sweden contributed about US$11.5 million to mine action programs in 1999.

Mine Ban Policy

Sweden signed the Mine Ban Treaty (MBT) on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 25 November 1998. Thus, it entered into force for Sweden on 1 May 1999. The government felt national implementation of the MBT could be achieved through additions to existing legislation; these revisions also came into force on 1 May 1999. The penal code was amended to provide for up to four years in prison for violation of the comprehensive ban and up to ten years “if the crime is gross...contribut[ing] essentially to the mines being used in a way that constituted a danger to the life and health of many persons.”[1]

Sweden’s Article 7 report describes other measures taken, including a statute to deal with the MBT Article 8 compliance/inspections procedures and an amendment regarding immunity and privileges in certain cases.[2] Additionally, on 27 January 2000 the government decided to enact legislation to make the Swedish Armed Forces the responsible agency to assist any inspections; it also obliges the Armed Forces to educate their personnel in the provisions of the MBT, to collect and analyze information relevant to the MBT, and to report this annually to the government.[3]

Sweden participated as a State Party at the First Meeting of States Parties (FMSP) in May 1999. The Swedish delegate stated:

Being the first State to have formally proposed, in 1994, a total ban, Sweden is particularly gratified at the entry-into-force of the Convention banning anti-personnel mines. Now we have to turn our attention and our efforts, in close co-operation with our EU partners, to making the vision embodied by the Convention a reality.... We therefore join other States...in calling on all States, which have not yet done so, to promptly accede to the Convention. In particular we address this call to producers, exporters and States particularly affected by these mines.... No state should be discouraged from acceding to the Treaty due to the costs involved in stockpile destruction. The Swedish government, for its part, is prepared to contribute to such assistance, bilaterally and together with its EU partners and other interested countries.[4]

Sweden has taken part in all meetings of the MBT Standing Committees of Experts (SCE). At the meeting on Mine Victim Assistance in September 1999, Sweden was charged with reviewing donor cooperation and reporting to the SCE in March 2000 on proposals to improve the structure for cooperation.

Sweden submitted its initial Article 7 report to the United Nations on 29 October 1999, within the required time frame. It has not yet submitted a subsequent annual report. The initial report covers the period 1 May 1999–30 September 1999. While responsive to most areas for reporting, excepting mines retained for training, the report does not provide the type of supplemental information included by many other States Parties.

Sweden is a party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). It was decided that no national implementation legislation was required for implementation of the Amended Protocol II, as existing legislation already has wider scope than the Protocol. Sweden’s Amended Protocol II Article 13 annual report was submitted in time for the annual meeting in December 1999, chaired by the Swedish Ambassador to the Permanent Mission in Geneva, Johan Molander.[5]

Sweden voted for UN General Assembly Resolution 54/54B in support of the Mine Ban Treaty in December 1999, as it had on similar resolutions in the past. Sweden was also the chief sponsor of UNGA Resolution 54/48 in support of Amended Protocol II, as it had been in previous years.

Sweden has not opposed work to try to negotiate a ban on transfers of antipersonnel landmines in the Conference on Disarmament while the criteria and definitions used are at least as strict as those in the Mine Ban Treaty.[6]

Production, Transfer and Use

The government states that it has not produced or exported AP mines (not including Claymore-types) since 1974. In the past, explosives were the most important contribution of the Swedish industry to global mine production. The Swedish companies FFV, Bofors and LIAB produced and developed twenty-one different types of AP mines since World War II. The major part of production was transferred to the Swedish Armed Forces (For detail on types of mines and transfers, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 657-659).

According to the MBT reporting requirements, states shall report on the technical characteristics of “each type of anti-personnel mine produced...and those currently owned or possessed,”[7] but Sweden’s Article 7 report makes no mention of a number of AP mines that have been manufactured in Sweden.

Asked about the Swedish position on the legality of joint military operations involving non-signatories of the MBT where AP mines are used, and/or transited across Swedish territory, officials at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that at present there is no official Swedish interpretation of the terms ”transit," "transfer," or "assist" with respect to the MBT. On these matters Sweden is awaiting the outcome of the work of the Standing Committee of Experts on the General Status and Operations of the Convention.[8]

Stockpiling and Destruction

Although comprehensive numbers have not been reported, it appears that when Sweden began stockpile destruction in 1998, it had about 3.2 million AP mines.[9] As of 25 January 2000, about 1.98 million AP mines had been destroyed, and 1,206,495 AP mines remained in stock. In accordance with a parliamentary decision of 1996, all Swedish stockpiles should be destroyed by the end of 2001, with the exception of the as yet undeclared number to be retained as permitted by Article 3 of the MBT.

According to Sweden’s Article 7 report, most of the mines destroyed have been Types 10, 41, and 49B, with small numbers of 9 and 43T. Likewise, those still held in stock awaiting destruction were primarily Types 10, 41 and 11, as well as 49B and various types of 43T, with small numbers of Types 48 and 9.

Last year it had been reported that Sweden would provide data on the number of mines to be retained for training in its Article 7 report.[10] However the report states:

“The number of mines not yet destroyed far exceeds any assessments of how many mines will be needed to be retained for art. 3 purposes at the end of the mandated destruction period. For the time being, therefore, live anti-personnel mines from existing stocks slated to be destroyed are being used in mechanical mine clearance trials currently in progress for the purposes of developing techniques and equipment for mine detection, clearance and destruction. The ongoing trials, in addition to contributing to diminishing existing stocks, will allow for a practical assessment of the numbers and types needed to be retained when existing stocks will have been depleted at the end of the destruction period. It is also assumed that a few foreign-made mines will need to be obtained for art. 3 purposes.”[11]

This statement would not seem fully compliant with the requirements under the MBT to report annually on the “types, quantities and, if possible, lot numbers of all anti-personnel mines retained or transferred for the development of and training in mine detection, mine clearance or mine destruction ... in accordance with Article 3.”[12]

While Article 7 reporting does not require information on directional fragmentation mines, the ICBL has pressed state parties to provide such information, particularly data on steps taken to modify the mines so that they can only be command-detonated. Sweden has not given any information on the Truppmina 12 directional fragmentation mine that it is retaining, other than a statement by the Defence Materiel Administration (DMA) that the modification of these mines will be completed by November 2000.[13] The explanation given is that Sweden now categorizes this as “a different device” and will modify it so that it “has to be discharged by a soldier.”[14] Furthermore, the DMA has stated: “Since Truppmina 12 and 12B are not covered by the conditions of the Ottawa Convention no answer to this question is required.”[15] Nor is any information provided on the FFV 013 or FFV 013R command-detonated mines, that can also be fitted with tripwires. These are considered to be antivehicle mines by the Swedish government, but independent databases classify both of them as AP mines.[16]

As was reaffirmed by a number of States Parties during the January and May 2000 meetings of the SCE on General Status of the Convention, antivehicle mines with antihandling devices that may be activated by the unintentional act of a person are considered AP mines and thus are banned under the MBT. [17] Sweden considers antivehicle mines an essential element in Swedish defense, but there is no official view on antihandling devices that can be activated by an unintentional act; a standpoint will be worked out during summer/fall 2000.[18] For the present, Sweden insists that it is not evident from the preparatory work for, nor the actual text of the MBT, that antivehicle mines with antihandling devices should be banned.[19]

Mine Action Funding

Sweden has made substantial financial and in-kind contributions to mine action over many years, some of which are summarized in this section. There appears to be no clearly formulated policy governing Swedish support for mine action. However, the government has charged Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) with the evaluation of previous projects and the proposal of strategies for Swedish aid to mine action. Initial proposals should be presented by 1 July 2000, although full evaluation of earlier projects (from which final proposals will follow) will take longer.[20]

Mine Action Funding through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs

In mid-1999 the Swedish government decided to contribute SEK 3 million (US$ 353,000) to UNMAS in support of its coordinating role in the United Nations system.[21] In December 1999 the Foreign Ministry decided to contribute SEK 5 million (US$ 588,000) towards the Swedish Rescue Services Agency mine action work, of which SEK 1.2 million (US$ 141,000) is earmarked for cooperation with the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining on the evaluation of the use of mine-seeking dogs.[22] In February 2000 Sweden decided to contribute to the Slovenian International Trust Fund (ITF) for Demining in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). From the donation, US$ 150,000 is earmarked for national capacity building and US$ 150,00 for demining projects in BiH primarily to facilitate the return of the displaced.[23]

When it agreed to contribute to the ITF Sweden noted, “A contribution by any single country is followed by a matching contribution by the USA. Well knowing that it is the prerogative of any donor to decide upon the use of its donation, Sweden anyhow would like to advise upon the use of the matching donation. Swedish technology in the field of mine detection and clearance is advanced and some companies have achieved promising results. It is the sincere hope of Sweden that the matching contribution is directed into supporting Swedish technology for operational use in areas where mine action is supported by the ITF.”[24]

Canada has requested Sweden support the destruction of Ukraine's AP mine stockpile; no decision has yet been taken.[25]

Mine Action Funding through SIDA

In September 1999, the Swedish International Develeopment Agency reported that mine action aid equivalent to SEK 94.5 million (US$ 11.1 million) for 1999 had been provided (a reduction from SEK 129.5 million in 1998). The following programs were supported in 1999:[26]

Support in SEK
Implementing agency
18.7 million (US$ 2.2 milllion)
14.3 million (US$ 1.7 million)
1 million (US$ 118,000)
14 million (US$ 1.6 million)
Iraqi Kurdistan
20 million (US$ 2.4 million)
8.8 million (US$ 1 million)
18.7 million (US$ 2.2 million)
94.5 million (US$ 11.1 million)

Afghanistan: SIDA donated SEK 18 million (US$ 2.1 million) to UNOCHA for the mine program in Afghanistan, and SEK 700,000 (US$ 82,000) of this sum is to cover the cost of a Swedish expert in Afghanistan. Since 1990, SIDA has granted a total of SEK 124.1 million (US$ 14.6 million) towards UNOCHA's mine program in Afghanistan, of which SEK 2.1 million (US$ 247,000) was for a Swedish expert stationed in Afghanistan.[27]

Angola: The greater part of the SIDA contribution in 1999, SEK 12.3 million (US$ 1.4 million), went to Norwegian People's Aid (NPA) for its mine clearance in Malanje and Kwanza Norte provinces. In all, SIDA's contribution to NPA's work in Malanje since 1996 amounts to SEK 43 million (US$ 5 million).[28] The Swedish Ambassador in Luanda stated that: "Sweden's aid strategy for Angola 1999-2001 will give priority to humanitarian aid aimed towards long term development.... [The Swedish] embassy sees mine clearance to be a part of long term development work, so internal refugees and, naturally, the local population can be allocated cultivatable land.”[29] Also: "Angola has signed but not ratified the Ottawa Convention against the laying of AP mines. Thus the laying of new mines by the government army is not a breach of the Convention per se but contrary to the spirit of the convention.”[30]

Bosnia: SIDA decided in 1997 to support mine clearance in Bosnia, but due to reorganization of the UN system it was hard to find a contracting partner. The project period was 8 August 1998 to 31 February 1999, after which no further contributions were made in 1999. The support was directed in line with UN Development Program (UNDP) suggestions to support capacity for national mine clearance coordination through funds for administration and equipment such as computers, but the major part of the support was directed toward mine clearance activities.[31]

Cambodia: Of the total SEK 10 million (US$ 1.2 million) for mine projects in Cambodia, SEK 2 million (US$ 235,000) went to the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) through the UN Trust Fund, SEK 1 million (US$ 118,000) to CMAC for technical development channeled through the UNDP and SEK 7 million (US$ 824,000) towards the mine dog project run in cooperation with CMAC and the Swedish Armed Forces since 1995.[32] However, these figures were reported by SIDA in September 1999 and, for the mine dog project, the figure reported is probably an estimate. The Swedish mine dog project in Cambodia had cost SEK 19.5 million (US$ 2.3 million).[33] On 20 January 2000 the government decided on SEK 22.6 million (US$ 2.7 million) in continued support to the dog project, covering the period 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2002.[34]

Iraqi Kurdistan: SIDA has supported the Mine Advisory Group (MAG) mine clearance operations in northern Iraq since 1 October 1996 for a total of SEK 54.6 million (US$ 6.4 million).[35] In August 1998 SIDA decided on support to MAG for 1998-99 amounting to SEK 29 million (US$ 3.4 million); of this sum, SEK 16 million (US$ 1.9 million) is for 1999.[36] In September 1999, it allocated a further SEK 16 million (US$ 1.9 million) for the years 1999-2000. Of this sum, SEK 4 million (US$ 471,000) is for 1999 and SEK 12 million (US$ 1.4 million) for 2000.[37] This means that the contribution approved for 1999 totals SEK 20 million (US$ 2.3 million); in SIDA's own compilation support for mine action is given as SEK 13 million (US$ 1.5 million); the reason for this discrepancy is not known.

Kosovo: On 22 June 1999, Swedish Rescue Services Agency (SRSA) decided to carry out a factfinding mission to Kosovo for a possible mine clearance operation, that SIDA financed with SEK 200,000 (US$ 23,500).[38] As a result, the Rescue Services Agency applied for government support of operations there. It was assumed that the operation would be financed by SIDA at a cost of SEK 8.5 million (US$ 1 million).[39] The government decided on 15 July 1999 that SRSA should have a coordinating role within the Kosovo UNMACC. The SRSA force consisted of eleven people with their equipment, including dog experts, quality and control functions, data technicians, a chief, a nurse, liaison and radio personnel.[40]

Mozambique: In 1999 Handicap International (HI) received SEK 4 million (US$ 471,000) in continued support for its mine awareness programs and also SEK 5.7 million (US$ 671,000) toward the new Inhambane Mine Clearance Project (IMCP) for small-scale mine clearance.[41]

In addition, SIDA provides SEK 4 million (US$ 471,000) to a multisensor research and development project.

Mine Action by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency

The Swedish government approved SRSA’s re-allocation of SEK5 million (US$ 588,000) for building its capacity for mine action and indicated that the Foreign Ministry can provide a further SEK 5 million. SRSA supports tests of Swedish mechanical mine clearance equipment, SCANJACK, Countermine Technologies and Bofors´ Mine-Guzzler. The tests are being carried out in Croatia at an estimated cost of SEK 1.2 million (US$ 141,000). SRSA has purchased prototypes of a biosensor from Biosensor Application for tests and development, at an estimated cost of SEK 1.2 million (US$ 141,000). In cooperation with the Defence Research Establishment, SRSA is carrying out research on chemical analysis based on mass spectrometry, at a cost of SEK 1 million (US$ 118,000).[42]

Mine Action by the Swedish Armed Forces[43]

During 1999 the Swedish Armed Forces contributed thirty personnel to SFOR to mine clearance in Bosnia, fifty to KFOR in Kosovo, six to CMAC in Cambodia and two to WEUDAM in Croatia.[44] The Swedish Armed Forces includes the Swedish Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) and the Demining and Military Engineering Centre (SWEDEC). At SWEDEC personnel are trained for mine clearance, both for Swedish foreign service forces and for civil operations for UN bodies, NGOs and Mine Action Centres (MACs). Mine clearance training has been increased during 1999; some thirty courses have been run at SWEDEC. The recruitment potential for international service has thus been increased.

All foreign service personnel have been trained in mine awareness and SWEDEC also ran courses for foreign researchers (twenty-two students from ten countries) in conjunction with NPA. A Nordic project to work out common certification rules regarding training in explosives and mine clearance has been carried out. The project proposal will be signed by the respective countries and evaluated at a combined Nordic EOD course in 2000.

Studies by the Swedish Demining Unit (SDU) are underway into methods for coordinating the basic elements in explosives clearance: man, machine and dog.

Trials with metal-detecting mine detectors are underway and should be completed during 2001. SWEDEC and NPA cooperate as final users in a European industrial project on multisensors, with Celsius AB as the project coordinator; this project is partly funded by the European Union. The Armed Forces through SWEDEC have supported inventors and industry by testing different types of equipment. The software for an explosives clearance database (EOD IS) is ready and planned to come into operation early 2000.

The possibility of forming a pool of mine-seeking dog teams, corresponding to a personnel pool of about seventy-five people, is being investigated. Training courses have been run for volunteers belonging to the Swedish Working Dog Club. Twelve newly trained dogs for explosive-seeking work are ready. Six dogs have been brought back from Bosnia. The development of training of four new types of explosive-seeking dogs, known as surface-seeking dogs, is underway and they are expected to be ready by the summer of 2000.

During 1999 SWEDEC started mine awarness activities to returning Bosnian and Somali refugees. Three refugees camps were visited on behalf of the Swedish Immigration Board.

Mine Victim Assistance

Swedish contributions to mine victim assistance are channeled through SIDA, which reports that SEK 3 million (US$ 353,000) has been devoted to rehabilitation programs during the last two years. From 1990-1999, SIDA has also supported rehabilitation of mine victims through its general support of the ICRC, which totaled SEK 212 million (US$ 24.9 million);[45] it estimates that a maximum of 10% of this amount was devoted to rehabilitation of mine victims.[46] Svenska Freds (the Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society) has expressed concern that the Swedish government has no overall policy or program for mine victim assistance.


[1] Penal Code, 1998: 1703, Ch. 22, Sec. 6 b. (official translation).
[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, submitted 29 October 1999, covering 1 May 1999-30 September 1999. Statue 1998:1705 deals with inspections and 1976:661 with revisions to immunity and privileges in certain cases.
[3] Förordning om inspektioner enligt konventionen om förbud mot användning, lagring, produktion och överföring av antipersonella minor (truppminor) samt om deras förstöring (ordinance on inspection according to the Ottawa Convention), UD2000/43/RS, 27 January 2000.
[4] Statement (revised version) by Deputy State Secretary Anders Bjurner, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, at the First Meeting of States Parties to the MBT, Maputo, Mozambique, 3-7 May 1999.
[5] CCW Amended Protocol II Report, 14 October 1999; Interview with Per Almqvist, Director, Department for Global Cooperation, Håkan Bengtsson, Department for Global Cooperation, and Susanne Karlsson, Department for Global Security, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, 25 January 2000.
[6] Email from the Swedish Foreign Ministry, 19 January 1999.
[7] Mine Ban Treaty, Article 7.1h.
[8] Interview with Per Almqvist, Håkan Bengtsson and Susanne Karlsson, Stockholm, 25 January 2000.
[9] Based on Sweden’s Article 7 report and Defense Materiel Administration, letter to SPAS (ref; Plan 13 301:7558/00), 24 February 2000. Information calculated as follows: Sweden reportedly destroyed 315,000 AP mines in 1998. Between May 1999 and January 2000 (nine months) 1,152,774 AP mines were destroyed. No figures are available for the period January 1999 to April 1999 (four months) but if the same rate of destruction is assumed as for the rest of 1999 (128,000 AP mines per month), then 512,000 AP mines were destroyed in that period. This totals 1,980,000 mines destroyed. In January 2000 there were 1,206,495 in stock, giving an initial total stock of 3,186,000 AP mines.
[10] Telephone interview with Olof Carelius, the Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 7 January 1999.
[11] Article 7 Report, 29 October 1999.
[12] Mine Ban Treaty, Article 7.1d.
[13] Telephone interview with Camilla Gustafsson, VapenP Division, Defense Materiel Administration, 28 January 1999.
[14] Telephone interview with Susanne Karlsson, Desk Officer, Department for Global Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Stockholm, 12 May 2000; also Amended Protocol II Article13 Report, 14 October 1999.
[15] Defense Materiel Administration (FMV), letter to SPAS (ref; Plan 13 301:7558/00), 24 February 2000.
[16] Ordata II, Version 1.0, CD ROM, Unit for Special Operations and Low Intensity Operations (Washington, DC, Department of Defense, 1999). See also LM Report 1999, pp. 661-662.
[17] See, Human Rights Watch, Antivehicle Mines with Antihandling Devices, Fact Sheet prepared for the First Meeting of the Standing Committee of Experts on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 10-11 January 2000.
[18] Telephone interview with Lt. Col. Olof Carelius, Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 16 February 2000.
[19] Email from Lt. Col. Olof Caerelius, Swedish Armed Forces HQ to Svenska Freds, 13 April 2000.
[20] Interview with Per Almqvist, Håkan Bengtsson and Susanne Karlsson, Stockholm, 25 January 2000; also Telephone interview with Per Almqvist, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 11 May 2000.
[21] Regeringsbeslut (Government decision), UD1999/913/GC, 15 July 1999.
[22] Regeringsbeslut (Government decision), UD1999/1529/GC, 16 December 1999.
[23] Memorandum of Understanding between Republic of Slovenia (ITF) and Kingdom of Sweden (SIDA), 10 February 2000.
[24] Ibid.
[25] Interview with Per Almqvist, Håkan Bengtsson and Susanne Karlsson, Stockholm, 25 January 2000.
[26] SIDA, Fact sheet: Sida support to mine-action 1990-1999, September 1999.
[27] Ibid.
[28] Ibid.
[29] Memorandum, Swedish Ambassador, Luanda, 4 June 1999.
[30] Ibid.
[31] Email from Lars Johansson, SIDA, 14 April 2000.
[32] SIDA, Fact sheet: Sida support to mine-action 1990-1999, September 1999.
[33] Interview with Nils Rydberg, Project Officer, SIDA, Stockholm, 14 January 1999.
[34] SIDA, Project Document (Final draft), Mine Detection Dog Project, 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2002.
[35] In February 1999 SIDA turned down an application from NPA for support of a mine program in northern Iraq, noting that "under present conditions it is not expedient to extend aid to further channels in northern Iraq, partly in view of the insecure situation in the area and region, difficulties in gaining access and the matter of legitimacy in relation to the Baghdad regime, and partly since SIDA is at present supporting mine clearance programs via the Mines Advisory Group (MAG).”
[36] SIDA, Project Decision, Dnr 1998-03577, 28 August 1998.
[37] SIDA, Project Decision, Dnr 1999-01825, 6 September 1999. In its decision document SIDA writes that they "have had discussions with MAG on increasing the number of contributors to the program. SIDA and DFID [the UK government’s Department for International Development] are at present the principal donors. MAG has difficulty in finding more donors, mainly because northern Iraq is ’stateless’ and has not signed the Ottawa Convention.”
[38] Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Decision, Dnr 512-1234-1999, 22 June 1999.
[39] Swedish Rescue Services Agency, Decision, Dnr 512-1144-1999, 9 July 1999.
[40] Swedish Government Press Release: ”Svensk militär personal till Kosovo,” 15 July 1999.
[41] SIDA, Project Decision, Dnr 1999-00665, 5 May 1999.
[42] SRSA, email to Svenska Freds, 13 April 2000.
[43] Swedish Armed Forces Annual Report 1999, International activities, Annex 3.
[44] Telephone interview with the Swedish Armed Forces International Command (SWEDINT), Information Department, 27 April 2000.
[45] SIDA, Fact sheet: Sida support to mine-action 1990-1999, September 1999.
[46] ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 663.