+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
Chile, Landmine Monitor Report 2003


Key developments since May 2002: As of May 2003, Chile had destroyed 201,446 stockpiled antipersonnel mines and was on track for completion by August 2003. Chile revised downward the number of antipersonnel mines it will retain for training and development to 6,245 mines. Chile submitted its initial Article 7 Report on 5 September 2002 and an updated report on 30 April 2003. The Article 7 Report contains previously unreported information on a mined area in Region V, the densely populated central region of the country. Chile’s National Demining Commission was officially constituted on 19 August 2002 and completed its National Demining Plan on 10 January 2003. Demining is expected to commence in 2004.

Mine Ban Policy

Chile signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 10 September 2001, and the treaty entered into force on 1 March 2002.

Chile has not yet enacted national implementation legislation, but a promulgation of the Mine Ban Treaty was signed on 4 January 2002 and published in the Official Gazette on 9 March 2002. This decree makes the Mine Ban Treaty binding domestically, but does not include penal sanctions or other measures specifically aimed at implementing the provisions of the treaty.[1] As of June 2003, Ministry of Defense lawyers were studying national implementation legislation.[2]

Chile submitted its initial Article 7 Report on 5 September 2002, covering the period from 9 March 2002 to 5 September 2002. Chile submitted its annual updated Article 7 Report on 30 April 2003, for the period from 6 September 2002 to 30 April 2003.[3]

According to its initial Article 7 Report, Chile has not produced or exported antipersonnel mines since 1985.[4] In the past Chile produced at least six different types of antipersonnel mines.[5]

Chile hosted the Fourth Ministerial Meeting of the Human Security Network on 2-3 July 2002. In an address to the meeting, Chile’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Soledad Alvear described stockpile destruction as one of the group’s “biggest challenges.”[6] The Director of Special Policy at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Luis Winter, spoke about the creation of the National Demining Commission (CNAD), stockpile destruction, and the country’s demining plans.

Chile attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002, where a Ministry of Defense representative stated that the country would reduce the number of mines it had reported it planned to retain for training.[7] On 22 November 2002, Chile voted in support of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74, promoting universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Chile participated in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003.

From 18-23 November 2002, Chile hosted the Fifth Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas. The “Santiago Declaration” issued by the Conference expresses “support for the efforts of the UN, OAS, and the various national demining programs to eliminate...antipersonnel landmines.” The declaration expressed “satisfaction” with the progress achieved by members of the Mine Ban Treaty, but recommended that states “ratify and comply” with the Convention on Conventional Weapons.[8] The language represents an apparent compromise with the United States, one of the two non-signatories to the Mine Ban Treaty from the region.

The ICBL’s Landmine Monitor research coordinator for the Americas and the coordinator of the Chilean Campaign to Ban Landmines (coordinated by the NGO Instituto de Ecología Política, IEP) accepted an invitation to participate in the Conference as observers and provided an information sheet that was included in the background materials of participants. This is believed to be the first time civil society representatives have participated as official observers in an annual regional meeting of defense ministers.

During the same week as the Fifth Conference of Defense Ministers, representatives from the Chilean, Brazilian and Colombian campaigns, the ICBL, Landmine Monitor, and youth activists from the region met in Santiago for a series of activities and events. On 20 November 2002, IEP and the Institute for Strategic and International Security Studies (IDEESI) held a seminar on humanitarian demining and development in the region at the Universidad de la República; it was attended by mayors of mine-affected municipalities in Chile, academics, and members of the public and media.[9] At the seminar, Landmine Monitor Chile researchers launched their first independent national report on landmines.[10] During the week the ICBL held a workshop on landmines for youth activists from Brazil, Chile, Colombia, El Salvador, Perú and Uruguay.[11]

Chile is not a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) or its Amended Protocol II, but it participated in the Fourth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 2002 as an observer.

Stockpiling and Destruction

Prior to undertaking any destruction of its antipersonnel mines, it appears that Chile had a stockpile numbering 305,464. Chilean diplomats had previously reported to Landmine Monitor that stockpiles were estimated at 22,000 and 25,000 antipersonnel mines.[12]

In November 2000, Chile destroyed 2,000 antipersonnel mines and in September 2001 it destroyed 14,000.[13] On 27 August 2002, the Army’s entire stockpile for Region I, totaling 76,388 antipersonnel mines was destroyed.[14] The stockpile destruction event was attended by President Ricardo Lagos and Minister of Defense Michelle Bachelet, at the Pampa Chaca military training grounds. During the lead-up to the event, the Ministry of Defense for the first time released official numbers of stockpiled mines and mines emplaced in the ground.[15]

No further destruction took place from September 2002 through April 2003. Chile reported a stockpile of 213,076 antipersonnel mines as of 30 April 2003.[16]

Stockpiles of Antipersonnel Mines in Chile (as of 30 April 2003)[17]

Model (Manufacturer)
M-14 (US)
M-16 A-1 (US)
M-35 (Belgium)
M.A.P.P. 78-F2/FAMAE (Chile)
M.A.P.T. 78-F2/FAMAE (Chile)
MOD. I / CARDOEN (Chile)
M-16 (US)
M-2 A4 (US)
M-178/CARDOEN (Chile)

In May 2003, the entire stockpile in Patagonia (Regions XI and XII) of 109,058 antipersonnel mines was destroyed in two separate events. On 8 May 2003, the Army destroyed 36,458 antipersonnel mines (M-14, 78-F2, MOD. I and IEC-II mines) at the Las Bandurrias military training grounds in Coyhaique, Region XI.[18] The Army and Navy jointly destroyed 72,600 antipersonnel mines at the Entre Vientos military training grounds in Punta Arenas, Region XII, over a ten-day period, ending with a ceremony on 9 May 2003 attended by diplomats, representatives of the OAS, and the Landmine Monitor researcher.[19]

Thus, as of 10 May 2003, Chile had destroyed 201,446 stockpiled antipersonnel mines. Five more stockpile destruction events are planned for August 2003 to destroy the final 97,733 antipersonnel mines, two years ahead of the treaty-mandated deadline of 1 March 2006.[20]

Chile has revised downward the number of antipersonnel mines it will retain for training and development from an initial total of 28,647 mines to a current total of 6,245 mines.[21] The Chilean Army and Navy will retain these mines, but Chile has not detailed how it intends to use them.

Mines Retained for Training by Chile (as of April 2003)[22]

Model, (Manufacturer)
M-16 A-1
M.A.P.P. 78-F2/FAMAE
M.A.P.T. 78-F2/FAMAE
M-2 A4

Landmine Problem

In its April 2003 Article 7 report, Chile reported a total of 123,443 antipersonnel mines laid in 37 sectors in Regions I and II (in the north of the country), V (center), and XII (south).[23] In its September 2002 Article 7 report, Chile had reported a total of 122,661 antipersonnel mines emplaced in 38 different sites around the country. Thus, the April 2003 Article 7 report had an additional 782 emplaced antipersonnel mines and one less mine-affected sector than data submitted in the initial Article 7 report.[24]

According to the 2002 report, in Region I (Tarapacá), 90,963 mines were reported emplaced in three sectors; in Region II (Antofagasta), 23,867 mines were reported in 23 sectors; in Region V (Valparaiso), 123 mines were reported in one sector; and in Region XII (Magallanes), 8,490 mines were reported in ten sectors, including seven sectors on five islands.[25]

The April 2003 Article 7 Report does not specify how many individual minefields there are in each mine-affected sector, nor how much land area they occupy. The Army had previously reported 293 minefields, located in Regions I and II in the north of the country, and in Region XII in the south of the country, potentially affecting 17 municipalities, including three major urban centers in the north: Arica, Calama and Antofagasta.[26] The mines in Regions I, II, and V were laid between 1973 and 1980; the mines in Region XII were laid in 1981 and 1983.[27]

While no systematic or comprehensive assessment or survey has taken place to determine the extent of Chile’s mine problem or the impact on civilians living in mine-affected areas, Landmine Monitor has conducted field research which to a limited extent gives an indication of the impact.[28]

Regions I and II

Landmine Monitor has visited a number of mine-affected areas in northern Chile.[29] These mined areas continue to have an effect on the local economy. On several occasions llamas, guanacos and other livestock grazing along the border have stepped on landmines and been killed. This is especially the case in Tacora, located in the municipality of General Lagos very close to the three-way border between Chile, Perú and Bolivia. Fencing around minefields in this area was found to be insufficient, allowing animals easy access.[30]

Just north of Arica, on the Chile-Perú border next to the Pacific Ocean, lie 21-kilometers of minefields that are well marked, but not all are fenced. In August 2002, a Chilean/Ecuadorian family of five crossed a minefield in this area (and, miraculously, survived), demonstrating the need to improve safety conditions in mined areas that are easily accessible.[31]

Approximately 56 kilometers south of Iquique, along the Pan-American Highway, there is a stretch of several kilometers flanked by skull and crossbones signs that read “Peligro de muerte” (danger of death). This area is not fenced off, and appears to be a military practice zone.[32]

Landmine Monitor revisited Chile’s popular tourist destination San Pedro de Atacama in northern Chile and reconfirmed that along the international highway to Argentina, ten kilometers outside of town, there are two riverbed ravines that have landmines, although it is unclear whether the mines were laid there or they shifted down from higher altitudes. The area is marked as a zone of explosives, but not specifically landmines.[33] Local tourism authorities are reported to be upset that nothing had yet been done about the explosives close to areas visited by many tourists, and named places of concern including Valle de la Luna, Licancabur volcano, Toconao, Ollagüe and the Jama pass to Bolivia.[34] Landmine Monitor saw two military practice areas, each with markings, but neither fenced off, on the road between Calama and San Pedro de Atacama.[35]

The town of Chacabuco, approximately 100 kilometers east of Antofagasta, is a National Historic Monument, but is practically abandoned. Inside the town, there are approximately ten warning signs, but no fencing except for barbed wire on the ground. Chacabuco was used during the dictatorship as a concentration camp for political prisoners and there are rumors that it was mined to prevent their escape.[36]

The National Forestry Service, Conaf, a government agency that manages Chile’s national parks and reserves, has confirmed to Landmine Monitor that there are mined areas in six state-protected wilderness areas in Regions I, II and XII, though no employees or visitors are known to have been hurt by mines.[37] Conaf is in the process of establishing the Alto Loa national nature reserve in Ollagüe, Region II, which includes minefield on the Bolivian border, just east of the town of Ascotán.[38]

Region V

In some new information, both Article 7 reports list 123 M-35 mines laid in Tejas Verdes, San Antonio Sector in Region V, a densely populated central region of the country. The September 2002 report states that the mined areas are marked with warning signs and fenced off.[39] Speaking on a radio talk show on the landmine situation in the country, IDEESI Director Raúl Söhr said it was a shame that the military government had laid mines around an installation where it kept political prisoners following the 1973 coup.[40] He called on the government to clear these mines as soon as possible.

Landmine Monitor inspected a minefield located on a hill above part of the Tejas Verdes military regiment at Llo Lleo and across the street from private residences. On 30 May 2003, residents were invited to a meeting with the military during which they were informed that this is the area will be the first to be demined in Chile, beginning 1 September 2003.[41]

Region XII

On 7 February 2003, Landmine Monitor accepted an invitation by the Chilean Navy to visit minefields on two Patagonian islands in the Beagle Channel in Region XII, just north of Cape Horn —Isla Nueva and Isla Picton—which are only accessible by boat.[42] The islands lie four kilometers from the Argentine border and were mined in 1983 following border tensions with Argentina.[43] Landmine Monitor was able to verify that the state of fencing and marking in the islands is very good.[44] The Navy conducts annual maintenance on the fencing and markings of these minefields,[45] which contain M-16 and M-178 AP mines.[46] The Navy says there is no tourism on either island, because they are both almost completely inaccessible unless one travels there with the assistance of the Chilean Navy.

Previous research by Landmine Monitor in the area of Region XII closer to Punta Arenas confirmed the presence of a number of minefields, but few locals consider the minefields to be a problem. Human casualties have never been reported, although the mines have killed some cows. No one considers landmines to be a hindrance to economic activity, since minefields are generally placed on private land that is used for grazing, and the areas of land are so enormous (92,000 hectares, for example), that if two hectares are taken up with minefields, it makes almost no difference. All the minefields viewed during field research were double-fenced, although they were not very well marked. Generally they were much better maintained than minefields in the north.[47]

Unexploded Ordnance

Several items of unexploded ordnance (UXO) were found this reporting period, including, alarmingly, some in and around Santiago. On 20 January 2003, two 105-mm projectiles were discovered outside Calama, Region II, in an area that had formerly been used for military practice. They were detonated by the military, which said they had been there for at least forty years.[48] A boy discovered a 60-mm antitank rocket launcher in Puente Alto, just south of Santiago, on 20 January 2003. He rolled the explosive up in a T-shirt and brought it home, and his father in turn brought it to the police.[49] On 2 February 2003, an 81-mm US-manufactured mortar was found in a ravine outside Antofagasta[50] and two days later two rusty mortar projectiles, one active, were found in a backyard in the residential neighborhood of Ñuñoa in Santiago.[51] On 26 March 2003, a 40-mm mortar inscribed 1968 was found on the grounds of Mejillones port, just north of Antofagasta in Region II.[52]

Coordination and Planning

Chile’s National Demining Commission (Comisión Nacional del Desminado, CNAD) was established by an official decree on 2 May 2002, officially registered with the Comptroller General’s Office on 18 June 2002, and officially constituted on 19 August 2002.[53] The Defense Ministry chairs the commission, which is comprised of representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Finance, Health, Interior, and Education.[54] CNAD is supposed to include civil society organizations in its planning process, but Colonel Guerra told Landmine Monitor that no NGOs have officially requested to be incorporated into the demining process; some have made suggestions, but nothing more.[55]

The purpose of CNAD is to coordinate mine clearance and stockpile destruction efforts, to establish strategies and priorities for the National Demining Plan, and to receive and distribute national budget allocations and any funding from external sources.[56] The government has also announced that the provision of humanitarian assistance provided to survivors, their families and communities will also be an integral part of CNAD’s work.[57]

CNAD completed its National Demining Plan on 10 January 2003.[58] A CNAD official told Landmine Monitor that it plans to start mine removal from the inside out, by clearing minefields furthest from the border and closest to inhabited areas first and then moving out toward the borders.[59] As a result of concerns about how Chile will protect its border once the mines have been removed, the government has made it clear that it will carefully study alternative means of protection before initiating the mine removal process.[60]

Mine Action Funding

At the May 2003 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, the OAS presented a projection of financial resources and requirements for the period 2003-2007. Under item “Regional (Chile, Argentina, other countries and activities)” funding levels total US$2.1 million for 2003-2007: $200,000 for 2003; $400,000 for 2004; $500,000 for 2005; $500,000 for 2006; and $500,000 for 2007.[61]

These numbers contrast with the estimated $324 million ($120 million for demining, $123 million for defense items that can substitute for mines and $81 million for “symbolic demining”) that the Minister of Defense presented to the Senate Defense Commission in late October 2001.[62] A Ministry of Defense official told Landmine Monitor that the Senate Commission used the figures as estimates to get a rough idea of costs, but said there are not yet any official figures available for the cost of demining in Chile.[63]

CNAD received a budget allocation of CLP$90 million ($130,000) for the year 2002, which essentially covered administrative and start-up costs.[64] CNAD’s 2003 budget a totaled $257,000.[65]

A delegation from the OAS visited Argentina and Chile in April 2003 to coordinate OAS support for their respective stockpile destruction plans. According to the OAS, Canada pledged approximately $140,000 to support stockpile destruction in these two countries during 2003.[66]

Mine Clearance

While no humanitarian mine clearance has been initiated, planning is progressing, with the aim of starting demining activities in 2004. In a symbolic act, Chile destroyed in situ 382 M-14 antipersonnel mines in the Baquedano sector in Region I in November 2002, and declared the area to be free of mines.[67] Chile reported that this clearance was carried out for training purposes. Previously, in April 2001, Chilean Army engineers had demined a small area of land near the border with Perú.[68]

In May 2003, Chile outlined plans to initiate full-scale mine clearance in 2004 with the aim of finishing by the 2011 ten-year clearance deadline, and indicated that this would require outside resources.[69]

During the Landmine Monitor research trip to the Patagonian islands of Nueva and Picton, the Marine official in charge of Navy minefield maintenance said that because of the terrain’s characteristics on the islands, the mines would not be removed, but rather destroyed in situ with an electric wire. According to the official this was possible because the Navy had all the original registries that indicate the exact number of mines per field.[70] The terrain is mossy and tundra-like, sitting on top of a marsh, features that would make mine removal difficult.

Media reports in September 2002 commented on the difficulties of mine clearance in Chile due to the extreme geography, terrain, and climate. In the northern Region I, for example, no mine removal can be done in January, February and March due to the torrential rains of the Bolivian winter; while in the extreme south, mine removal can only be done in these same months. The reports also described the psychological and physical stress faced by deminers. Deminers and their families receive psychological support, and CNAD provides life insurance for the deminers.

Media reports indicated that as of September 2002, Chile only owned demining equipment and suits for ten deminers. In 2003 necessary equipment was going to be purchased to be ready for mine clearance in 2004.[71] According to CNAD, 240 deminers have been training for three years to carry out mine clearance in Chile.[72]

The Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) donated its Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) survey software to the Chilean Ministry of Defense in early 2003 and provided technical support for installation and operation.[73] Chile has purchased the necessary equipment to run the software and when training was completed in early April 2003, the Defense Ministry said it would begin inputting survey data in a systematic fashion and complete any information that might be missing from its first two Article 7 Reports.[74] IMSMA-ready computers have been installed in regional centers and teams are inputting data.[75]

Mine Risk Education

No official mine risk education (MRE) programs are available in Chile, but the government has reported ten measures used to warn the population about landmine dangers, from fencing to media messages.[76] According to February 2003 media reports, the Army’s First Division re-launched a full-color bilingual (English-Spanish) brochure called “Seguridad y Prevención” (Safety and Prevention) that was originally printed in 2001. It includes ten recommendations for how visitors can avoid accidents with landmines, and pictures of the different kinds of explosives a visitor might come across. The brochure is designed for tourists visiting Region II and is available at all the local government tourism offices and at the Army regiments. The brochure describes minefields as well marked and fenced, but acknowledges that mines can shift due to heavy rains, and recommends that visitors stay on roads at all times. It also provides emergency phone numbers for military regiments and hospitals in the area.[77]

The 2002/2003 summer safety campaign also included a recommendation that nobody should touch or pick up unidentified objects, especially if they are close to minefields or military practice grounds. The campaign reiterated that minefields are fenced off and that nobody should go in them or tamper with their safety markings.[78] UXO survivor José Miguel Larenas criticized the campaign, saying it was not widespread enough and did not provide enough detailed information about the exact location of minefields. Local tourism authorities said the brochure should be passed out to hostels and tour operators.[79]

CNAD representatives have stated that if civilians have any information about mines or problems with minefield fencing or markings, they should communicate this to the nearest Army regiment or in writing to the Defense Ministry.[80] However, there is no hotline or e-mail address dedicated to receiving this information and the options of calling or writing are not easy for low-income families who live in rural and/or isolated areas.

NGO Activities

In November 2002, ICBL member Instituto de Ecología Política organized a meeting with mayors of Chilean mine-affected municipalities from the north and south of the country, with the goal of creating a network of mine-affected municipalities that could become an effective lobbying platform and mechanism for establishing mine clearance priorities from an organized civil society standpoint.[81]

In 2002, Canada provided Can$7,112 to a Chilean group (Grupo de Sobrevivientes de Minas AP y Municiones sin estallar de las Americas) in cooperation with the Federico Santa María University, for a website on “Landmine and UXO survivors of the Americas” and other general mine awareness and advocacy related activities.[82]

Landmine Casualties

In 2002, one incident was reported, which resulted in one person being injured. On 6 September 2002, a 24-year-old military officer was injured when the vehicle he was traveling in hit an antivehicle mine during preparations for demining near the Bolivian border. The place where the incident occurred supposedly was not mined.[83]

In 2001, three civilians were injured and one military officer was killed in landmine incidents.[84] Between 1976 and 2000, 26 civilians were reportedly injured and seven killed by landmines. In the same period, 50 Chilean military personnel were reported injured and five killed.[85]

In the first five months of 2003, two incidents were reported, which resulted in two injuries. On 15 January 2003, a 23-year-old indigenous Aymara man suffered injuries to both hands while handling an explosive that the press reported was an antipersonnel mine.[86] On 21 March 2003, a 26-year-old Peruvian citizen lost his left leg after stepping on a landmine when entering Chile illegally from Perú through the Quebrada de Escritos pass. His Bolivian companion walked seven kilometers to a police post to get help. The military sent a special unit of army engineers and deminers to rescue the injured man, who was found in the middle of a minefield in an area extremely difficult to access. Eight hours went by before he finally arrived at the Juan Noé hospital in Arica. Both the survivor and his friend were placed under military custody.[87]

Landmine Monitor visited several rural towns in northern Chile in 2001, 2002 and 2003 to determine if any undocumented survivors live in these areas.[88] To date, only one mine survivor has been identified, a young boy who lives in Villablanca, three hours walking distance from the “Apacheta de Oje” minefield. Chile’s minefields are so isolated and rural that it is very possible that incidents have happened over the years without being reported.

Survivor Assistance and Disability Policy and Practice

Chilean military personnel injured by mines and UXO receive care in military hospitals. There are no specific services available through the public health system, private health institutions or NGOs for civilian landmine survivors in Chile.[89] The Fondo Nacional de Discapacitados (National Fund for the Disabled) provides social assistance for persons with disabilities.

At the stockpile destruction event in Region I in August 2002, President Lagos recognized the approximately 70 landmine casualties in Chile, and acknowledged that the State has a responsibility for these incidents.[90] The government announced that assistance to survivors, their families and communities will be an integral part of CNAD’s work.[91]

On 27 February 2002, Chile ratified the OAS Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities.[92] One key aim of this treaty is to provide legislative, social, educative, and labor means for their reintegration into society.

The 1994 Law 19,284, Social Integration of Persons with Disabilities (Integración Social de las Personas con Discapacidad), has undergone a series of modifications that have highlighted issues relating to people with disabilities and benefits available to them. Despite this, persons with disabilities, regardless of the cause of their disability, are still discriminated against in Chile and State support is minimal. Persons with disability must be registered in the National Disabled Registry in order to receive benefits and services. Landmine Monitor is not aware of any State-run programs that provide services specifically designed for landmine UXO survivors.

[1] Promulga la Convención sobre la Prohibición del Empleo, Almacenamiento, Producción y Transferencia de Minas Antipersonal y sobre su Destrucción Normas Generales, Diario Oficial Documento 4, 2002, Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Subsecretario de Relaciones Exteriores, 9 March 2002.
[2] Interview with Coronel Rafael Guerra, Executive Secretary, National Demining Commission (CNAD), Santiago, 10 June 2003.
[3] The reports do not include Form H, on the technical characteristics of each type of mine produced, owned or possessed, or Form I, on measures to provide warning to the population.
[4] Article 7 Report, Form A, 5 September 2002. “declara que, reitera a la comunidad internacional su firme y decidido compromiso asumido desde 1985, de no producir, exportar, importar e instalar nuevas minas terrestres antipersonal.” (Chile reiterates to the international community its firm and decided commitment, made in 1985, not to produce, export, import or lay new landmines).
[5] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 290, for details and types.
[6] Ministry of Foreign Affairs press release, “Canciller Alvear Inauguró Reunión Ministerial de Seguridad Humana,” 2 July 2002; “Desde Chile abogan por término de minas antipersonales y niños soldados,” Agence France Presse (Santiago), 2 July 2002; IEP press release, “Las minas antipersonales siguen amenazando al mundo,” 3 July 2002; IEP press release, “Red de Seguridad Humana en Chile insiste en una doctrina de paz mundial,” 3 July 2002.
[7] Statement by Chilean delegation to Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 16 September 2002 (Landmine Monitor notes). In its initial Article 7 Report, Chile stated that it would retain 28,647 antipersonnel mines.
[8] Fifth Conference of Defense Ministers of the Americas, “Declaración de Santiago de Chile,” Santiago, 22 November 2002.
[9] Entitled “Seminario Internacional sobre Desminado Humanitario y la Construcción de Sociedades en las Américas” (International Seminar on humanitarian demining and the construction of societies in the Americas).
[10] Landmine Monitor Chile (Dana Holahan, Fabiola Fariña and Louise Egan), “Minas Antipersonal en Chile: Fantasmas del pasado, presente y futuro” (Antipersonnel mines in Chile: Ghosts of the past, present and future), November 2002.
[11] Entitled “Transformaciones: Trabajando con la juventud por un planeta libre de minas (Transformations: Working with youth for a mine-free world). The youth seminar aimed to increase knowledge of the issue, enhance leadership, organizing and campaigning skills and to create a network of youth campaigners in the Americas.
[12] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 393.
[13] Article 7 Report, Form F, 5 September 2002. For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 172.
[14] Article 7 Report, Form F, 5 September 2002. Destroyed were 71,635 M-14s, 4,603 M-35s, and 150 MAPP 78-F2s. Landmine Monitor Chile researchers attended the destruction. After the event, the Defense Ministry issued a press release denying that any antivehicle mines had been destroyed, as had been incorrectly reported by the local press. Ministry of Defense press release, “Ministerio de Defensa Nacional desmiente destrucción de minas antitanque,” 28 August 2002.
[15] Ministry of Defense press release, “Antecedentes relevantes destrucción de minas antipersonal,” 27 August 2002.
[16] Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 April 2003. Due to an error in addition, Chile’s September 2002 report cited a stockpile of 211,076 mines. Article 7 Report, Form B, 5 September 2002.
[17] Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 April 2003.
[18] Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2003; intervention by Col. Rafael Guerra, Executive Secretary CNAD, at the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 15 May 2003 (Landmine Monitor/MAC notes); Defense Ministry official destruction certificate, “Acta de Destrucción,” Las Bandurrias, Coyhaique, XI Región, 8 May 2003.
[19] The 72,600 antipersonnel mines destroyed were: 34,972 M-14; 4,004 FAMAE PR (not included in the list of stockpiled mines); 5,054 M-35; 15,937 Cardoen Mod. I; 9,689 Cardoen Mod. II; 817 Cardoen M-178; and 2,127 MAPP 78-F2 mines. Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2003; “Ejército destruye 2.860 minas antipersonales en zona austral,” ORBE (Punta Arenas), 25 April 2003; “Destruidas 30 mil minas antipersonales” La Prensa Austral (Punta Arenas), 25 April 2003; “Chile destruye minas antipersonales y mejora relación vecinal” Reuters (Punta Arenas), 10 May 2003; Ministry of Defense press release, “Ministra de Defensa Nacional Encabeza Destrucción de Todas las Minas Antipersonal en Stock en la XI Región”, 8 May 2003; Ministry of Defense press release, “Ministra de Defensa Nacional Encabeza Destrucción de la Totalidad de las Minas Antipersonal de la Zona Austral,” 9 May 2003.
[20] Intervention by Col. Rafael Guerra, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, 15 May 2003.
[21] Initially, it stated that 28,647 mines would be retained. See Article 7 Report, Form D, 5 September 2002. At the February 2003 Standing Committee meetings, Chile reported that it was reducing the number to a total of 18,656 mines and that this number was under revision. In its second Article 7 report, Chile reported a further reduction to 6,245. See Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2003.
[22] Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2003.
[23] Ibid.
[24] The difference is accounted by an additional 1,194 M-14 mines in Sector Noreste de Arica (Region I); 382 fewer M-14 mines in Sector Baquedano in the northern zone that was not listed again; and 30 fewer M-14 AP mines in Sector Cerro Inacaliri in Region II. The 382 M-14 AP mines in Sector Baquedano in the northern zone were reportedly cleared in November 2002. See Article 7 Report, Form G, 30 April 2003.
[25] Article 7 Report, Form C, 5 September 2002.
[26] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 172.
[27] Article 7 Report, Form C, 30 April 2003.
[28] For a detailed description of mined areas in Regions I, II and XII, see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 395-397; and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 172-173.
[29] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 173, for previous Landmine Monitor research in northern Chile, including the vicinities of minefields in Portezuelo Cerro Capitán, Paso Hauilla, Paso Apacheta de Tillujalla, Apacheta de Oje, all near Colchane.
[30] Landmine Monitor field visits to Visviri (on 27 November 2002), Tacora (28 November 2002), Iquique (13 December 2002), San Pedro de Atacama (2 January 2003) and Calama (2 February 2003).
[31] “Un milagro en la frontera,” La Estrella de Arica (Arica), 24 August 2002; “Una familia cruzó un campo minado al cruzar clandestinamente a Chile desde Perú,” Agence France Presse (Santiago), 24 August 2002.
[32] Landmine Monitor field visit to Iquique, 13 December 2002.
[33] Interview with Police Sergeant Cárdenas, San Pedro de Atacama, 2 January 2003.
[34] Interview with a member of the National Tourism Service (Sernatur) office, San Pedro de Atacama, 2 January 2003.
[35] Landmine Monitor field visit to San Pedro de Atacama, 2 January 2003.
[36] Landmine Monitor field visit to Chacabuco, Sierra Gorda, 18 June 2003; telephone interview with Mario Aleada, Baquedano Municipality, 22 June 2003.
[37] Fax from Carlos Weber, Executive Director, Conaf, 27 July 2001; letter to MUACC Director Elir Rojas from Carlos Weber, Executive Director, Conaf, No. 215, 1 August 2001.
[38] “Conaf creó nueva reserva nacional en Segunda Región,” Estrella del Loa (Calama), 18 March 2002; telephone interview with Eduardo Rodríguez, chief of natural patrimony, Conaf Region II, Antofagasta, 2 July 2003.
[39] Article 7 Report, Form C, 5 September 2002.
[40] Landmine Monitor (MAC) was also present during the radio show. Universidad de Chile Radio (Santiago), 22 November 2002.
[41] Landmine Monitor field visit to Tejas Verdes military regiment in Llo Lleo, 6 June 2003; interview with José Alejandro Undurraga Paul, Llo Lleo, 6 June 2003.
[42] Letter to Landmine Monitor (Chile) from Captain Cristian Millar Drago, acting Navy General Chief of Staff ref: 2200/4, 23 January 2003.
[43] Landmine Monitor interview with Denis Chevally, Punta Arenas, 9 March 2002. Chevally is a specialist in the history of the area between Punta Arenas and Cape Horn, including Tierra del Fuego. He has walked all over the islands in southern Patagonia and does not report to have seen or heard of minefields in southern Tierra del Fuego or in the Beagle Channel besides those officially reported by the Chilean Navy.
[44] Landmine Monitor field visit to Isla Nueva and Isla Picton, 7 February 2003.
[45] Interview with Sub-Official Pino, Isla Nueva and Isla Picton, 7 February 2003. Sub-Official Pino is a Naval Marine in charge of minefield maintenance on the islands in the Beagle Channel and Cape Horn. Information also provided to Landmine Monitor by the Navy in a letter from the Third Naval Zone Commander-in-Chief, Rear Admiral Arturo Ojeda Zernott, dated 7 March 2002.
[46] See Article 7 Report, Form C, 5 September 2002. M-178 antipersonnel mines were manufactured by Chilean producer Cardoen.
[47] Landmine Monitor field visit to minefields in Region XII in San Gregorio, Puerto Natales, Río Verde and Punta Delgada, 5-10 March 2002.
[48] “Hallan peligrosos explosivos,” El Mercurio de Calama, 21 January 2003.
[49] “Joven encuentra cohete antitanque en Puente Alto,” Diario El Mostrador (Santiago), 21 January 2003.
[50] “Detonan proyectil de guerra en quebrada,” El Mercurio de Antofagasta, 3 February 2003; “Buscaba ripio y encontró un mortero,” La Estrella del Norte (Antofagasta), 3 February 2003.
[51] “Hallan dos proyectiles en patio de Ñuñoa,” Las Últimas Noticias (Santiago), 5 February 2003.
[52] “Peligroso mortero descubren en Megapuerto,” El Mercurio de Antofagasta, 27 March 2003.
[53] Ministry of Defense press release, “Antecedentes relevantes destrucción de minas antipersonal,” 27 August 2002.
[54] Interview with Colonel Rafael Guerra, Executive Secretary, CNAD, Santiago, 18 March 2003.
[55] Interview with Colonel Rafael Guerra, CNAD, 10 June 2003.
[56] Interview with Ramón Hormazábal, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Santiago, 22 November 2001; interview with Colonel Patricio Rojas, Ministry of Defense, Santiago, 23 January 2002.
[57] Ministry of Defense press release, 27 August 2002.
[58] Interview with Colonel Rafael Guerra, CNAD, 18 March 2003.
[59] Interview with Colonel Patricio Rojas, CNAD, Santiago, 26 June 2002.
[60] “Gobierno analiza refuerzo de seguridad fronteriza tras retiro de minas,” Radio Cooperativa (Santiago), 10 October 2002, available at www.cooperativa.cl.
[61] See OAS, “Mine Action Program: Making the Western Hemisphere landmine-safe,” Resource Mobilization: Projection of Financial Resources/Requirements 2003-2007, p. 6. Presentation at the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 12 May 2003.
[62] “Gobierno gastará cerca de US$320 millones en desactivar minas antipersonales” El Mercurio (Santiago), 29 October 2001; “Gobierno anuncia fuerte inversión para destruir minas antipersonales” La Tercera (Santiago), 29 October 2001.
[63] Telephone interview with Colonel Patricio Rojas, 10 July 2002.
[64] Over the past two years, the Chilean peso has fluctuated from CLP$650:US$1 to CLP$800:US$1. “Gobierno creará organismo técnico para desminar frontera,” El Mercurio, 3 October 2001; “Defensa crea organismo para eliminar minas antipersonales,” El Metropolitano (Santiago), 4 October 2001.
[65] Interview with Coronel Rafael Guerra, CNAD, 10 June 2003.
[66] OAS, “OAS update on regional mine action efforts,” May 2003, p. 4.
[67] Article 7 Report, Forms F and G, 30 April 2003.
[68] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 174.
[69] Intervention by Col. Rafael Guerra, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, 15 May 2003.
[70] Interview with Sub-Official Pino, Isla Nueva and Isla Picton, 7 February 2003. Information about the Navy’s registries was also officially provided by the Navy in a letter from Third Naval Zone Commander-in-Chief, Rear Admiral Arturo Ojeda Zernott, dated 7 March 2002.
[71] “Minas enterradas: 240 militares estarán 7 años en máximo riesgo,” La Segunda (Santiago), 2 September 2002; “Jóvenes y solteros desactivan las minas,” El Mercurio (Arica), 17 September 2002.
[72] Interview with Coronel Rafael Guerra, CNAD, 10 June 2003.
[73] Telephone interview with Simon Berger, IMSMA Regional Coordinator, GICHD, Santiago, 28 March 2003; GICHD, “Update on Activities between January and October 2002,” Geneva 31 October 2002.
[74] Telephone interview with Simon Berger, GICHD, 28 March 2003; interview with Colonel Rafael Guerra, CNAD, 18 March 2003.
[75] Telephone interview with Colonel Rafael Guerra, Executive Secretary, CNAD, 2 July 2003.
[76] Article 7 Report, Form I, 5 September 2002.
[77] “Editan tríptico sobre minas personales,” La Estrella del Norte (Antofagasta), 19 July 2001; “Simbólica destrucción de minas,” El Mercurio de Calama, 13 September 2001.
[78] “Campaña preventiva por minas antipersonales,” El Mercurio de Antofagasta, 10 February 2003.
[79] “Alertan a turistas por campos minados,” Las Últimas Noticias, 11 February 2003.
[80] Statement made by Colonel Rafael Guerra, Executive Secretary, CNAD, at the “!Minas Antipersonales...problemática latente en nuestras fronteras!” Seminar, Iquique, 28 April 2003.
[81] This first meeting was held on 20 November 2002. Interview with Manuel Baquedano, Director, IEP, 2 April 2002.
[82] UN Mine Action Investments database, www.mineaction.org; see also, www.gsmma.org
[83] “Militar herido: es un milagro,” La Estrella de Arica, 9 September 2002; “Soldado chileno herido por explosión de mina antitanque,” Agence France Presse (Santiago), 7 September 2002; “Herido tras explosar mina,” La Estrella de Arica, 7 September 2002.
[84] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 175.
[85] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 402.
[86] “Joven herido por mina antipersonal,” La Estrella de Iquique, 15 January 2003; “Mina antipersonal hirió a aymará de Chile,” AFP (Santiago), 15 January 2003.
[87] “Le explotó mina a ‘burrero’ peruano,” La Estrella de Arica, 22 March 2003; ”Peruano herido por mina,” La Estrella de Iquique, 22 March 2003; “Ejército logra rescate en zona minada,” El Mercurio (Santiago), 22 March 2003; “Peruano narco sufre amputación por mina,” Las Últimas Noticias, 22 March 2003.
[88] Landmine Monitor field visits to northern Regions I and II, 2001, 2002 and 2003.
[89] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 312.
[90] “Chile iniciará retiro de minas en frontera con el Perú,” El Peruano (Lima, Peru), 9 September 2002.
[91] Ministry of Defense press release, 27 August 2002.
[92] OAS press release, “Chile ratifica convención Interamericana para eliminar discriminación contra discapacitados,” 27 February 2002.