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Country Reports
Philippines , Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: The rebel New People’s Army continued to use improvised landmines. The Armed Forces attributed two landmine incidents to the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, but the MILF denied involvement. The media attributed three landmine incidents to the Abu Sayyaf Group in June and July 2003. In September 2003, the Revolutionary Workers Party of Mindanao/Revolutionary People’s Army signed the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment banning antipersonnel mines. A new landmine ban bill was filed in the House in August 2004.

Key developments since 1999: The Philippines ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 15 February 2000 and it entered into force on 1 August 2000. Three landmine ban bills were tabled in the House from 2000-2003, but none were acted on. Three rebel groups have used antipersonnel mines or improvised explosive devices: New People’s Army, Moro Islamic Liberation Front, and Abu Sayyaf Group. Use by the MILF violated its written commitments to a mine ban in March 2000 and April 2002. Three rebel groups (MILF, the Revolutionary Workers Party of the Philippines/Revolutionary Proletarian Army-Alex Boncayao Brigade, and the Revolutionary Workers Party of Mindanao/Revolutionary People’s Army) have signed the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment banning antipersonnel mines.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of the Philippines signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 15 February 2000 and the treaty entered into force on 1 August 2000. The Philippines has no domestic implementing legislation. Landmine ban bills tabled in 2000 (House Bill 222), 2001 (House Bill 346), and 2003 (House Bill 6043) were not enacted as they were considered a low priority.[1]

On 31 August 2004, in the 13th Congress, Akbayan Party Representatives Mario Joyo Aguja, Ana Theresia Hontiveros-Baraquel and Loretta Ann Rosales filed House Bill 2675 known as “An Act Providing for a Total Ban on Anti-personnel Landmines, for other Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Landmines, Booby-Traps and other Devices, for Creation of a Philippine Coordinating Committee on Landmines, and for Related Purposes.” On 9 September 2004, House Bill 2675 passed through the First Reading and was referred to the Committee on Public Order and Security for further deliberations and hearings.[2]

The Philippines was one of the core group of governments that took the lead in developing and promoting the Mine Ban Treaty, and actively participated in the Ottawa Process. It has voted in support of every pro-ban UN General Assembly resolution, including UNGA Resolution 58/53 on 8 December 2003. The Philippines has attended all of the annual meetings of States Parties since 1999, including the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in Bangkok in September 2003. It has also been a regular participant in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings.

The Philippines submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report on 28 February 2004, covering the period from 8 September 2003 to 15 February 2004. Its previous report covered the period until 30 April 2003; there is no explanation for the omission of the months of May-August 2003.[3]

The Philippines was part of the Bangkok Regional Action Group (BRAG) formed in September 2002 to promote the mine ban in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in the lead up to the Bangkok Meeting of States Parties in September 2003. The Philippines has participated in regional landmine seminar in Cambodia (March 2003), Thailand (May 2002), and Malaysia, (August 2001).

The Philippines has not engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2, and 3. Thus, the Philippines has not made known its views on issues related to joint military operations with non-States Parties, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training. But in January 2002, the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Southern Command spokesperson stated that the United States would not bring landmines for the joint military training exercises and operations that began the next month, and the Director for Training of the Philippine Army confirmed that no antipersonnel mines would be used in the exercises.[4]

The Philippines is a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and ratified Amended Protocol II on 12 June 1997. It attended the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II on 26 November 2003 and submitted its annual Article 13 report.

The Philippines reports that courses on International Humanitarian Law and its relevant instruments, including CCW Amended Protocol II and the Mine Ban Treaty, are part of the training curriculum of the AFP.[5]

The Philippine Campaign to Ban Landmines (PCBL) has been actively involved in monitoring the government’s implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty and in engaging non-state actors in a landmine ban. PCBL co-chairs the ICBL Non-State Actors Working Group, which in cooperation with Geneva Call held a workshop on engaging non-state actors in a landmine ban and a public briefing during the Fifth Meeting of States Parties.[6]

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling, Use

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) has declared that it has never used antipersonnel mines in its fight against the country’s communist and Moro insurgent groups. The Philippines may have been a minor producer of antipersonnel mines in the past.[7] It has never exported mines. It imported Claymore-type mines from the US in the past. The Philippines declared that it disposed of its entire inventory of 2,460 Claymore mines in July 1998 and that since then there has been no acquisition, procurement or manufacturing of landmines by the AFP.[8]

However, a fact-finding commission report claims that in July 2003 a mutinous group of young military officers from elite forces, named the Magdalo group, used Claymore mines. The Magdalo group, with more than 300 heavily armed soldiers, took hold of the Hotel/Residence building in Makati City, Metro Manila to protest against the current administration and the anomalies of the military system. The commission reported that the group planted Claymore mines around the building and in its vicinity.[9] The alleged mines are being used as evidence in the criminal case against the Magdalo group.[10]

In 2002, the PCBL had received other reports indicating that some troops from an elite unit of the AFP still possessed Claymore mines.[11] In 2003, an officer told PCBL that some soldiers keep Claymore mines in their personal possession, and in some instances, have used Claymore mines in operations.[12] The Mine Ban Treaty does not ban Claymore mines outright; while prohibiting use of Claymore mines with a tripwire, it does not prohibit use in a command-detonated mode.

The AFP reported the recovery of landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in different parts of the country, indicating continuing although limited use and production of mines by some armed non-state actors in the country. From May 2003 to May 2004, a total of 29 improvised mines were recovered in nine incidents.[13] Nineteen were improvised Claymore mines, most of which were seized in a raid by the armed forces of a suspected arms dealer in Nueva Ecija, Central Luzon.[14] Two more improvised Claymore mines were recovered after an encounter with the New People’s Army in Compostela Valley.[15] Eight other improvised mines were found in different parts in Maguindanao.[16] All of the improvised Claymore mines were designed to be command detonated. Other improvised mines included a pressure type made from 81mm mortar ammunition and a double priming antivehicle mine consisting of about 17 kilos of explosives.[17]

Rebel Use

New People’s Army (NPA) The New People’s Army, which is the armed wing of the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) and the National Democratic Front (NDF), has continued to use improvised landmines. From May 2003 to May 2004, there were reports of six landmine-related incidents attributed to the NPA, which resulted in at least 35 casualties. Most are antivehicle mine incidents and several may have involved remote control or command detonation devices. The NPA has stated on several occasions that it uses improvised antivehicle and antipersonnel mines only in command-detonated mode. In the previous reporting period, May 2002 to May 2003, there were also six landmine incidents allegedly involving NPA.[18] There were a total of eight incidents from 1999 to March 2002.

In Southern Luzon on 19 August 2003, a jeep with soldiers from the 19th Special Forces Battalion hit a landmine along the road of Barangay Malitbog, Bongabong, Oriental Mindoro. Four people died.[19] The landmine reportedly was planted by NPA in a pothole in the road. Also in August 2003 in Baganga, Davao Oriental, a truck of the Army 30th Special Forces Company was struck by a mine, killing two soldiers.[20]

In Sitio Dasuran, Golden Valley, Mabini, Compostela Valley, on 1 February 2004, a soldier from the 72nd Infantry Battalion who was engaged in a combat operation tripped an improvised landmine and was wounded. NPA left behind at the battle site two homemade mines of three kilos each.[21] Later in February 2004, in the Visayas, in Barangay Bangad, Milagros, Masbate, nine policemen were killed and three others were seriously wounded when their vehicle hit a landmine. NPA spokesperson Gregorio “Ka Roger” Rosal said that the NPA’s Romullo Jallores Command could have laid the mine and detonated it by remote control.[22]

In April 2004, it was reported that at least 10 NPA rebels were killed and six wounded when a landmine they were planting exploded on a highway in Agusan del Sur province in the southern Philippines.[23] In March 2004, the AFP reported that the Southern Mindanao Region Command of the NPA prematurely detonated an improvised landmine laid against troops that were approaching their position in Barangay Dagohoy, Davao del Norte; no casualties resulted.[24]

In 2002, NPA rebels in Cateel killed at least 18 government soldiers using improvised landmines.[25]

Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) In March 2000 in Geneva, the MILF became one of the first rebel groups to sign the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment for a landmine ban.[26] Following a Geneva Call fact-finding mission, MILF signed a revised and expanded “Deed of Commitment under Geneva Call for Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines and for Cooperation in Mine Action” on 7 April 2002. At a Non-State Actors roundtable in September 2002, a MILF representative declared that it has no more stocks of antipersonnel mines, and said, “We have already stopped using, acquiring and producing such inhuman weapons since we signed the first Deed of Commitment.”[27]

However, MILF reportedly continued to use landmines and improvised explosive devices, planting them around their camps or using them against AFP soldiers during pursuit operations. Ten incidents were attributed to MILF in 2000 and early 2001. No incidents were reported during the cease-fire starting in August 2001, but before the escalation of the fighting in 2003 there were two other landmine incidents involving MILF.

The AFP attributed two landmine incidents in Central Mindanao to the MILF during the period from April 2003 to March 2004.[28] On 22 April 2003, while conducting clearing operations, a soldier from the Marine Battalion stepped on a landmine at Barangay Bagoinged, Pagalungan, Maguindanao. Four personnel were wounded and were brought to a military hospital in Awang, Cotabato. On 15 May 2003 an armored vehicle in a convoy of the Marine Brigade hit a landmine on a road in Barangay Bulul, Pikit, Cotabato. A wounded Sergeant of the 73rd Marine Company was brought to a military hospital in Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao for treatment. An investigation by the 6th Infantry Division of the Explosives and Ordnance Division disclosed that the landmine was a 25 kilograms pressure type-firing device, with picric acid as the main charge.[29]

The MILF has denied involvement in both incidents. It also denied a news report that the MILF has recently trained NPA rebels to manufacture explosives, landmines, and M79 grenade launchers.[30] MILF Chairman Al Haj Murad described this report as “utterly false and ridiculous” and reiterated that the MILF will continue to abide by its commitment to ban antipersonnel landmines.[31]

A media report attributed a third incident to MILF. In April 2003, three people were killed and four injured in a landmine explosion while hiking in Misamis Occidental; two of those killed were militiamen, but the others were civilians.[32]

Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) The Abu Sayyaf (Bearer of the Sword) is a radical Islamic armed group. The last reported landmine-related incident linked to the Abu Sayyaf Group occurred in July 2003. The ASG was accused of laying landmines and/or victim-activated IEDs on the southern island of Lugus. Reportedly, two civilians were injured in separate incidents, on 29 June and 3 July 2003.[33] In another incident in July, a soldier was killed by a landmine supposedly laid by Abu Sayyaf during a pursuit operation on the island of Jolo.[34] More widespread use of landmines by ASG was reported in 2000, as one media article, citing intelligence sources, said Abu Sayyaf planted 3,000 homemade mines around their camps in Talipao.[35]

Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Manggagawa ng Mindanao (Revolutionary Workers Party of Mindanao)/Revolutionary People’s Army (RPM-M/RPA) On 11 September 2003, the RPM-M/RPA, a breakaway faction of a communist group, signed the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment. The RPM-M/RPA agreed to undertake stockpile destruction, mine clearance, victim assistance, mine awareness and various forms of mine action and committed to cooperate in the monitoring and verification of its engagements. There have been no reports of mine use by the RPM-M/RPA.[36]

Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Manggagawa ng Mindanao (Revolutionary Workers Party of the Philippines)/Revolutionary Proletarian Army-Alex Boncayao Brigade (RPM-P/RPA-ABB) The RPA-ABB is a breakaway group from the New People’s Army. It forged a cease-fire and peace agreement with the Philippine government in November 2000. On 21 July 2002, it signed the revised and expanded Geneva Call Deed of Commitment in Metro Manila.[37] There are no reports of use of landmines by this group.

There were two other landmine incidents that have not been attributed to a particular group. In January 2004, the mayor of Magsaysay and a policeman were injured after their vehicle hit a homemade landmine.[38] In May 2004, a marine battalion commander and three soldiers were injured when their vehicle struck a landmine in Panamao, Jolo.[39]

Landmine Problem and Mine Action

In November 2003, the government reiterated that no specific areas in the country can be considered mine-affected. It maintains that improvised mines, booby-traps, and other explosive devices used by insurgent groups are immediately cleared by AFP explosive ordnance disposal units and bomb demolition teams of the Philippines National Police.[40]

Every year the AFP conducts training courses on explosive ordnance disposal and holds bomb threat prevention seminars for military and civilians, as part of the mine awareness education program. The AFP has deployed seven detachments of explosive disposal experts to educate and protect civilians and soldiers from the threat of improvised explosive devices and mines.[41]

In 2001, the Philippine PCBL proposed to the government and MILF a joint clearance operation as a measure for rehabilitation and confidence-building.[42] The MILF committed to the proposed joint demining initiative in September 2002.[43] On 12 May 2004 the government replied positively to PCBL’s proposal and said that it will consider its integration into the peace process. The government panel conducting the peace talks with the MILF suggested that the PCBL: (1) collaborate with the Joint Government-MILF Coordinating Committee on the Cessation of Hostilities; (2) establish an effective reporting system on landmines and unexploded ordnance, involving residents, local government units, and local authorities; and, (3) increase the awareness of the community through an education campaign and information dissemination to be conducted by the Government-MILF Local Monitoring Teams.[44]

The Philippines has not made any financial contributions to international mine action programs.

Landmine Casualties and Survivor Assistance

In 2003, 21 new landmine casualties were reported; ten people killed and eleven others injured, including one civilian killed and six injured.[45]

Mine casualties continue to be reported in 2004 with 19 killed and another 16 injured to May.[46] UXO casualties are also reported in 2004. In March, in Pikit, North Cotabato, a UXO exploded killing a farmer and seriously injuring his brother while they were plowing a field. The local parish assisted with the hospital costs. [47]

The total number of mine/UXO casualties in the Philippines is not known. In 2002, there were at least 21 new mine/UXO casualties, including at least 18 government soldiers killed by improvised landmines in Cateel.[48] In 2001, 22 new mine/UXO casualties were reported; two killed and 20 injured, including five civilians.[49] In 2000, the AFP reported 64 new landmine casualties; eleven killed and 53 injured, including 19 civilians.[50] Between 1991 and 1995, at least 19 people were killed and another 50 injured in landmine incidents, including 48 civilians.[51]

The government reports, “The medical services of the AFP provide medical treatment and rehabilitation for soldiers who are injured and/or disabled by landmines and other explosive devices. Civilian victims can avail of medical treatment from public and private hospitals and the rehabilitation programs provided by the Department of Health and the Department of Social Welfare and Development.”[52]

AFP personnel and civilians casualties are brought to the nearest military or government hospital for immediate treatment. In general, the Department of Health and the Department of Social Welfare and Development provide rehabilitation programs for mine survivors. AFP landmine casualties in Central Mindanao are transported by helicopter to the Camp Navarro General Hospital for emergency treatment, and later referred to the V. Luna AFP Medical Center in Quezon City for prostheses and rehabilitation.[53]

Although medical care is available, many civilians cannot afford it. Since 2000, the International Committee of the Red Cross has provided both medical supplies and financial support to health facilities and civilians in Mindanao. Surgical treatment and subsidies for medical care has been provided for more than 898 civilians injured in the conflict: 293 in 2003; 347 in 2002; 58 in 2001; and more than 200 in 2000. In addition, 32 amputees were fitted with prostheses, and 74 crutches and four wheelchairs were distributed in 2003; 14 prostheses were fitted and 96 crutches distributed in 2002.[54]

In May 2003, Handicap International (HI) started a program in Mindanao to train health and social workers in evacuee camps to identify persons with disabilities and refer them to existing services. In November 2003, work began on setting up a new orthopedic workshop. Future plans include a psychological support program and data collection on victims of the conflict through a network of NGOs.[55] In January 2004, HI received a grant of $43,567 from the Japanese Embassy to support the establishment of the orthopedic workshop at the Notre Dame Hospital in Cotabato City in central Mindanao.[56]

[1] House Bill 6043 prohibiting the use, manufacture, sale, and deployment of antipersonnel mines was filed in the 12th Congress on 26 May 2003. But after the First Reading, it remained pending at the Committee on Public Order and Security.
[2] Telephone interview with Cristina Roperez, Political Affairs Assistant of Representative Mario Joyo Aguja, Quezon City, 9 September 2004.
[3] Previously, the Philippines submitted an incomplete report on 12 September 2000 (with no time period listed), then full reports on 13 August 2001 (for 12 September 2000 to 29 April 2001); on 5 April 2002 (for 29 April 2001 to 4 April 2002); and on 30 April 2003 (for 30 April 2002 to 30 April 2003).
[4] Interview with Maj. Noel Detoyato, Southern Command Headquarters, Zamboanga City, 25 January 2002; Academe Meets Government Series 2002, “The Return of G.I. Joe, US Troops in Mindanao,” organized by the University of the Philippines Third World Studies Center, Philippine Center for Policy Studies, Quezon City, 7 February 2002.
[5] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form A, 27 November 2003.
[6] The workshop was entitled “Looking Back, Looking Forward: A Workshop on Engaging Non-State Actors in a Landmine Ban,” Bangkok, Thailand, 13 September 2003.
[7] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 421.
[8] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 397.
[9] The Report of the Fact Finding Commission, 17 October 2003, p.17. The Commission was formed pursuant to Administrative Order No. 78 of the President of the Republic of the Philippines, dated 30 July 2003.
[10] PCBL was advised to seek approval from the court hearing the criminal case against the Magdalo group to examine and photograph the alleged Claymore mines. Written response from Maj. Gen. Hermogenes C. Esperon, Jr., Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, J3, Armed Forces of the Philippines, 10 June 2004.
[11] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 413.
[12] Interview with a military officer, Manila, August 2003.
[13] Landmine Monitor researcher’s tally based on news reports and the Armed Forces of the Philippines reports given to the PCBL, namely: Response from Maj. Gen. Hermogenes Esperon, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, providing data requested by PCBL, 1 October 2003; AFP Report, “Landmining Incidents, Calendar Year 2003,” contained in a written response to Atty. Soliman Santos, Jr., 19 March 2004.
[14] “Ecija raid yields signs of suicide bombing plot,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 7 March 2004, p. A17.
[15] C. V. Esguerra, “3 rebels killed, 1 nabbed in clash,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 26 April 2004, p. A3.
[16] “Landmining Incidents, Calendar Year 2003,” 19 March 2004.
[17] PCBL visit to the 60th Infantry Battalion in Compostela Valley, 1 April 2004.
[18] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 397-398.
[19] Ronnie Lorejo, “NPA landmine explodes kills 4 Mindoro soldiers,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 20 August 2003, p. 15.
[20] Anthony Allada and Ferdinand Zuasola, “Army slams NPA for attack on 5 engineers,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 21 August 2003.
[21] Written response from Maj. General Hermogenes Esperon, 19 March 2004.
[22] Joyce Mejillano, Michael Jaucian and Marlon Ramos, PDI Southern Luzon Bureau, “Cops run over NPA land mine; 9 killed,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 17 February 2004, p. A5.
[23] “10 rebels killed while planting landmines in Philippines,” Xinhua (Manila), 1 May 2004. The report cited Lt. Col. Daniel Lucero, Military Information Chief.
[24] “Special Report re Landmine Explosion,” a report prepared for the Commanding Officer of the Task Force Davao by the 73rd Infantry (Neutralizer) Battalion, of the 4th Infantry Division, Philippine Army, 25 March 2004.
[25] Response from Maj. Gen. Hermogenes Esperon, 1 October 2003.
[26] In 1976 the MILF reportedly banned the use of landmines on the basis that it contradicts the teachings of Islam. In 1997 it formally agreed to stop the use of antipersonnel mines. See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 429.
[27] Statement by Al-Haj Murad Ebrahim, MILF Vice-chair for Military Affairs and Bangsamoro Islamic Armed Forces Chief of Staff, at the Roundtable Discussion on Engaging Non-State Actors in a Landmine Ban, Geneva, 17 September 2003.
[28] “Landmining Incidents, Calendar Year 2003,” 19 March 2004.
[29] Ibid.
[30] Jaime Laude, “MILF men train Reds in making explosives,” The Philippine Star, 29 January 2004.
[31] Written response from Lanang Ali, MILF Legal Counsel, 23 March 2004.
[32] “MILF vows prove of rebs’ ties with Bin Laden,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 10 April 2003, p. A14.
[33] “Police tighten security in southern Philippines after two injured by land mines,” Xinhua (Zamboanga City), 7 July 2003.
[34] “Military-Abu Sayyaf clash kills six in southern Philippines,” Xinhua (Manila), 3 July 2003.
[35] Yael Shahar, “Libya and the Jolo Hostages, Seeking a new image, or polishing the old one?” 20 August 2000. See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 475, for more details on ASG use in 2000.
[36] “Deed of Commitment under Geneva Call for Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines and for Cooperation in Mine Action.” signed by Harry Tubongbanwa, Chairperson of RPM-M, and Soliman Santos, Jr., Regional Director for Asia of Geneva Call, 11 September 2003 in Mindanao and Manila. The Deed was deposited at the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva on 17 October 2003.
[37] The RPA-ABB and its party, the Rebolusyonaryong Partido ng Manggagawa-Pilipinas (RPM-P) signed the first version of the Deed in March 2000 in Geneva.
[38] Joel M. Sy Egco, “NPA plants land mines,” Manila Standard, 12 January 2004.
[39] “Violence ushers in elections,” Manila Standard, 11 May 2004.
[40] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B and G, 27 November 2003. The Philippines Article 7 Report, Form C, 15 February 2004, also indicates no mined areas.
[41] Article 7 Report, Form I, 15 February 2004.
[42] “Working Paper for GRP-MILF Joint Mine Clearance as a measure for rehabilitation and confidence building: A proposal of the PCBL,” 18 September 2001.
[43] “Implementing Guidelines for the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) Pursuant to its ‘Deed of Commitment under Geneva Call for the Adherence to a Total Ban on Anti-Personnel Mines and for Cooperation in Mine Action,’” signed by Lanang S. Ali, MILF legal counsel, and Soliman Santos, Jr., regional director for Asia of Geneva Call, in Geneva, 20 September 2002.
[44] Written response from Secretary Silvestre C. Afable, Jr., Chairman, Government Negotiating Panel for Talks with the MILF, 12 May 2004.
[45] For details see Rebel Use section in this report.
[46] Ibid.
[47] Interview with Butch Gilman and Fr. Bert Layson, Immaculate Conception Parish, Pikit, North Cotabato, April 2004.
[48] AFP report, “Landmine Incidents, Calendar Year 2002;” Response from Maj. Gen. Hermogenes Esperon, 1 October 2003.
[49] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 414.
[50] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 476.
[51] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 431.
[52] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 26 November 2003.
[53] Interview with Maj. Noel Detoyato, Southern Command, 25 January 2002.
[54] ICRC, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, June 2004, p. 152; “Annual Report 2002,” June 2003, p. 167; “Annual Report 2001,” June 2002, p. 187; “Annual Report 2000,” July 2001, p. 127.
[55] Handicap International, “Program Summary: Philippines 2004,” October 2003. HI has worked in the Philippines since 1988 to help establish 15 orthopedic workshops around the country.
[56] Japan Information and Cultural Center, “Japan ODA helps build an orthopedic and prosthetic workshop in Cotabato City,” Press Release, Embassy of Japan in the Philippines, 14 January 2004.