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Table of Contents
Country Reports
INDIA , Landmine Monitor Report 2005

India

Key developments since May 2004: India attended the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Nairobi in November-December 2004 as an observer, the country’s first participation in a treaty-related meeting. Numerous non-state armed groups continued to use mines and improvised explosive devices in many parts of India, from which significant civilian and military casualties are reported. The Indian Army claimed that it had completed almost all demining operations on the border with Pakistan, apart from the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir. The chairman of a parliamentary committee revealed that Army personnel suffered substantial losses in the laying and clearance of mines on the border with Pakistan. Media reports suggest there about 260-270 civilian and military casualties from mines and improvised explosive devices annually.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of India has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. It has often expressed support for “the ultimate objective of a non-discriminatory, universal and global ban on anti-personnel mines.”[1] However, India believes the weapon still plays a legitimate defensive role. India has called for the development of “appropriate militarily effective, non-lethal and cost effective alternative technologies” to antipersonnel mines.[2] India has abstained from voting on every annual pro-mine ban resolution by the UN General Assembly since 1997, including UNGA Resolution 59/84 on 3 December 2004.

While the government’s long-held position remained unchanged, some signals of a willingness to engage in the issue emerged in 2004 and the first half of 2005. Significantly, India attended the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Nairobi in November-December 2004 as an observer; this marked the country’s first participation in a Mine Ban Treaty-related meeting since the agreement was negotiated in September 1997. India’s representative in Kenya, High Commissioner Surendra Kumar, led the country’s delegation to the First Review Conference. While he did not make a formal statement to the Conference, Surendra Kumar did meet with the ICBL to explain the government’s position in detail. India also participated for the first time in the treaty's intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva from 13-17 June 2005.

Proposals were made through a well-placed channel to high levels in the government with a view to eliciting India's enhanced involvement with humanitarian aspects of the treaty, including demining, victim assistance and mine risk education, and also on giving consideration to the inclusion of a joint moratorium on the use of antipersonnel mines as part of the confidence-building measures with Pakistan.  There were indications that these proposals were receiving due consideration and that India's policy on the subject was evolving.

The ICBL representative in India, the NGO Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament and Environmental Protection (IIPDEP), organized a series of seminars for policy-makers and political leaders in September 2004 in Jaipur, Srinagar and New Delhi to promote the First Review Conference and the landmine ban. In November 2004, IIPDEP held another series of events in these cities to release the global findings and India country report in Landmine Monitor Report 2004.[3]

India is a member of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), as well as its Amended Protocol II on landmines. It has continued to participate actively in that forum, attending CCW-related meetings in 2004 and the first half of 2005, and providing its annual Amended Protocol II Article 13 report on 14 October 2004. In 2004, Indian Ambassador Jayant Prasad served as Coordinator of the CCW Working Group on Explosive Remnants of War. On 18 May 2005, India ratified CCW Protocol V on Explosive Remnants of War.

Production, Transfer and Stockpiling

India is one of a small number of countries still producing antipersonnel mines. All production is vested with government agencies.[4] India in the past produced two types of antipersonnel mines―M16A1 bounding fragmentation mines and low metal content (non-detectable) M14 blast mines―both copies of US mines. India has declared that, in accordance with its obligations under Amended Protocol II, no low metal content mines have been produced since January 1997.[5]

In August 2005, India told Landmine Monitor that it “produces only detectable versions of landmines (NM-14) at present as provided for in Amended Protocol II.  No Remotely Delivered Anti Personnel mines are being produced.”[6] India stated in October 2000 that it had designed a remotely-delivered antipersonnel mine system, with self-destructing and self-deactivating mines, for trial evaluation and prototype production.[7]

India maintains that it has never exported or imported antipersonnel mines.[8] It has had a formal export moratorium of unlimited duration in place since 3 May 1996. In October 2003, India stated that it favors an outright ban on transfer of mines even to States Parties of Amended Protocol II, in order to reduce “the difficulties associated with the task of regulating the production and use of landmines.”[9]

While India has declined to reveal the number of antipersonnel mines in its national stockpile, the great majority believed to be Indian-manufactured M14 mines. India is modifying its large existing stockpile of the low metal content M14 antipersonnel mines to make them detectable, in order to comply with Amended Protocol II.[10]

Landmine Monitor has estimated the stockpile total at between four and five million antipersonnel mines, the sixth largest stockpile in the world; India has neither confirmed nor denied this estimate. The figure may no longer be accurate following the large number of landmines planted along the Pakistan border in 2001 and 2002, or in light of new production of mines.

Use

The government’s last major use of antipersonnel mines took place between December 2001 and July 2002, when the Indian Army deployed some two million antipersonnel and antivehicle mines along its 1,800-mile northern and western border with Pakistan under Operation Parakram.[11] The Ministry of Defence has reported that 60 Army personnel died and another 142 were injured during this mine-laying operation.[12] Many civilians have fallen victim to the mines, raising concerns that the mines were sometimes laid in inadequately marked and fenced locations close to civilian areas.

India has repeatedly stated that it “has never taken recourse to using mines for maintenance of Law and Order or in Internal Security situations, or even for combating the menace of terrorism....”[13]

Use by Non-State Armed Groups

India has a long-standing problem with a variety of non-state armed groups that continue to use antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines and, most commonly, improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in three main parts of the country. In the northwest border state of Jammu and Kashmir, militants have been captured with Pakistani antipersonnel mines and blamed for using IEDs and antivehicle mines. In the center of the country, Communist insurgents have been blamed for IED explosions. In northeast India, Burmese rebels have planted mines inside India, while various independence movements have deployed IEDs. The targets in the majority of these attacks appear to be the national army and police, but civilian casualties have become common.

Northwest India: Militants in Jammu and Kashmir

In Jammu and Kashmir, at least five militant groups have used antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines or IEDs: Lashkar-e-Toiba, Hizb-ul Mujahideen, Hakat-ul-Jihadi Islami, Jaish-e-Mohammad and Harkat-ul-Ansar.[14] There were numerous reports of new antipersonnel mine casualties in this region in this reporting period, but it was usually not possible to determine which group laid the mines.[15] A review of media reports in 2004 and 2005 by Landmine Monitor found reports every month of military and civilian casualties from landmine and IED explosions in Jammu and Kashmir; see Casualties section below. In almost every case, Islamic militants were blamed for the incidents.

On 20 April 2004, a Kashmiri human rights activist and two nongovernmental election monitors were killed and four injured when their vehicle detonated a landmine in Chandingam village in northern Kupwara district, 85 kilometers from Srinagar. Lashkar-e-Toiba militants subsequently claimed responsibility.[16] On 5 December 2004, 11 people, including nine soldiers, were killed when their vehicle detonated a landmine in Pulwama, south of Srinagar; Hizb-ul-Mujahideen militants reportedly claimed responsibility.[17]

The Army periodically recovers weapons, including antipersonnel mines, from along the border. The Indian Army reported that from January to August 2005 it seized 69 antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in Jammu and Kashmir. Since 1990 it has seized over 6,200 mines.[18] In one case, on 10 November 2004, the Army recovered 19 Pakistani-made mines and other weapons near the Line of Control.[19]

In September and November 2004, a group of landmine survivors in Jammu and Kashmir petitioned the Chairperson of the All Parties Huriat (Freedom) Committee, a grouping of pro-independence/pro-autonomy political parties, to demand a halt in mine use by the militants.[20]

Central India & the Maoists/Naxalites

The Communist Party of India Marxist-Leninist (People's War) and the Maoist Communist Centre of India (MCCI), two of the largest armed communist insurgencies present in several central Indian states, have carried out numerous attacks that frequently include what media describe as “landmines,” but which appear to be command-detonated improvised explosive devices. In October 2004, these groups, often referred to as “Naxalites,”[21] merged to form the Communist Party of India (CPI) Maoist, the country’s largest left-wing guerrilla group, with influence across 15 states. A review by Landmine Monitor of media reports in 2004 and 2005 found many instances of mine and IED use in at least seven of these states.[22]

In the state of Andhra Pradesh, on 8 February 2005, the Andhra Pradesh Police Officers’ Association accused Maoist rebels of “seeking talks” while they “explode landmines,” and appealed to the rebels to stop arms trafficking and use of landmines.[23] The media reported on 15 February 2005 that “naxals belonging to different revolutionary parties” planted many landmines in villages on the Warangal-Khammam border, and the police have been clearing the area.[24] On 21 April 2005, media reported that there were clashes between the Indian Army and “naxalites of the CPI (Maoists)” near Kachanapalli village in the Gundala forest. After the rebels had “escaped in the forest” the police found 10 landmines and other weapons.[25]

Media reports have identified CPI Maoist (or Naxalites) as responsible for landmine incidents in: Anantapur, Adilabad, Khammam and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh; Munger district of Bihar; Dantewada and Guntur districts of Chattisgarh; Palamu district of Jharkhand; Gondia district of Maharashtra; Malkangiri district of Orissa; Chandauli district of Uttar Pradesh. On 13 March 2005, media reported that 10 people, allegedly belonging to Maoist rebel group, were arrested by the police when they were trying to plant a landmine at a bus station at the Chattisgarh border.[26]

Northeast India and Burma Border

In Mizoram state, bordering Burma, media reported in June 2005 that the Indian Army had forced “Myanmarese guerrillas” from their remote base camp back across the border into Burma, and had subsequently found an estimated 2,500 landmines “planted all over the camp.”[27] The rebels were believed to be from the Chin National Army of Burma.

In Manipur state, on the border with Burma, there were reports in November 2004 of Indian Army casualties from landmines during a month-long offensive against rebels from the People’s Liberation Army, the United National Liberation Front and other smaller armed groups.[28]

In Assam state, the National Democratic Front of Bodoland (NDFB) and the United Liberation Front of Assam have used landmines. On 3 October 2004, media reported that three people were killed and over 30 injured in an explosion at a crowded market in Bijni, Chirang district, in an attack police alleged was carried out by the NDFB.[29]

The Ministry of Home Affairs noted 114 incidents of use of explosive devices in the northeast states during 2004, but the type of devices was not revealed. The Ministry stated that there had been a steady increase in Manipur state, where the main target remained the security forces.[30]

On 17 October 2003, the National Socialist Council of Nagaland state, the oldest and most influential armed opposition group in northeast India, signed the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment committing it to the antipersonnel mine ban.

Landmine/UXO Problem

The mine/UXO problem in India arose largely from the emplacement of mines by government forces on and near the border with Pakistan; there is also ongoing use of mines and IEDs by non-state armed groups, to varying degrees in different parts of the country.

As a result of India's mine-laying operations in Operation Parakram, starting in December 2001, there were significant minefields along the 1,800-mile border with Pakistan in the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir. Antipersonnel and antivehicle landmines were emplaced on cultivated and pastureland, around infrastructure, and around some villages. In many locations, farmers could no longer tend their crops or graze animals, and some villagers were forced to seek employment elsewhere.[31] In October 2004 India reported that “large-scale demining operations... conducted by the Army... are presently nearing completion.”[32] Completion of clearance was reported in local media.[33] As villagers resumed use of their fields, there were reports of mines being discovered and of casualties occurring (Landmine Monitor noted many media reports of casualties in the border area).[34] There were also reports of unexploded ordnance and abandoned explosives, as well as mines, being found in fields and within villages in June-November 2004, believed to be left from Operation Parakram or from previous border conflicts.[35]

A 29-kilometer length of the Poonch-Rawalkot road in the India-Pakistan border area is believed to contain hundreds of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines laid by both parties to the conflict. The road has not been in common use since it was closed to traffic in 1947 after partition of the region. As part of the ongoing peace process, there are plans to reopen the road for cross-border traffic.[36]

Mine/UXO Clearance

India has no civilian mine action program. All demining and UXO clearance activities are carried out by the Indian Army. The national point of contact for mine/UXO clearance, however, is the Disarmament and International Security Affairs Division of the Ministry of External Affairs.[37] There is no information on the management of mine-related information and data.

India reported that, as of 30 August 2004, “99 percent” of the mines laid during Operation Parakram on and near the India-Pakistan border had been recovered, and that concerted efforts were being made to recover the remainder. In addition to “enhanced employment of indigenous de-mining and safety equipment,” mechanical demining equipment (the Hydrema machine from Denmark) and mine-boots from Canada were used to expedite the process and to avoid demining casualties. “All actions are being undertaken as stipulated in Amended protocol II.”[38]

Other reports indicate that the clearance process was both “painstakingly slow and dangerous,” exacerbated by the lack of trained personnel and mine detection equipment. Some mines had moved, and some had become unstable and prone to explode.[39] Media reported a senior officer at Western Command Headquarters stating that the Indian-made M-14 antipersonnel mines are prone to “drifting” beyond where they were laid due to weather and the work of rodents. Some M-16 mines planted in the Kassowal enclave, remnants of over 300,000 mines planted along 400 kilometers of the border in Punjab and Rajasthan, remain unrecovered despite many rounds of manual and mechanical demining. The Indian Army proposed to the Punjab state authorities to permanently cordon off the area for civilian safety.[40] India has neither confirmed nor denied whether it used low metal content M-14 mines from its stockpiles. Amended Protocol II prohibits use of this mine without the addition of extra metal content.

In May 2005, Indian military officials were criticized for failing to deliver heavy equipment in time, putting soldiers at risk in clearance operation.[41]

Clearance of mines dating from the 1947 partition on the road between the capitals of Indian- and Pakistan-administered areas of Kashmir was agreed on 16 February 2005, as a confidence-building measure related to the ongoing peace dialog between India and Pakistan. Once demined, the plan was to open the road for civilian traffic between Muzaffarabad in Pakistan and Srinagar in India.[42] Just prior to the launch of the new bus service, on 5 April 2005, seven people were injured by a landmine planted on the road surface by one of the armed groups opposed to the peace process.[43] The Indian Army started demining of a second route across the Line of Control, between Poonch and Rawalkot, which was scheduled to open by late 2005.[44]

With respect to mines and IEDs laid by non-state armed groups, India reports that “The Army Engineers continue to aid civil authorities in defusing and clearing such devices.”[45]

There have been numerous reports previously of casualties among military personnel engaged in demining operations. From January to June 2004, Landmine Monitor collected media reports of 57 military casualties from mines, UXO and IEDs.[46] According to Balasaheb Vikhe Patil, Chairman of the Lok Sabha (Parliament) Standing Committee on Defence, government forces have suffered 1,776 casualties due to mines, UXO and IEDs since Operation Parakram started in December 2001 (375 killed, 1,401 injured). The vast majority of these casualties were reported to have occurred during mine clearance, but 202 casualties occurred during deployment of the mines in 2001 (60 killed, 142 injured).[47]

There have been several media reports that Army personnel have involved civilians in mine clearance and defusing of IEDs. On 13 December 2004, thousands of villagers reportedly blocked the Srinagar-Baramulla highway to protest against the Rashtriya Rifles Unit for allegedly forcing a 30-year-old villager, Abdul Qadir Waza, to disarm an IED that subsequently exploded, injuring him severely. Police officers from Baramulla told the protestors the case was under investigation.[48] Also in December, media reported the death of a civilian from an IED reportedly planted by militants on the Srinager-Varmul highway near Palhalan; reportedly, the Army had forced the man to defuse the device.[49] The online media source GreaterKashmir.com said this was “not the first incident of its kind” in the valley, and indicated that “scores” of civilians have been killed while defusing IEDs on the instructions of soldiers. The task of defusing IEDs is reportedly the responsibility of the Army’s road opening party that checks for and defuses IEDs every morning before the highway is opened.

The US Department of State’s 2004 report on human rights cites “credible reports” indicating that “security forces abducted and sometimes used civilians as human shields while searching for landmines. Such abuses occurred mainly in the Kupwara and Doda districts” of Jammu and Kashmir.[50]

The Indian government and the NGO Horizon continued their involvement in mine clearance operations in other countries in 2004-2005. Another NGO, Sarvatra, began clearance operations in Sri Lanka in 2004.[51]

Mine Risk Education

The government and NGOs are involved in mine risk education (MRE). In 2003, the government described MRE undertaken during and after military operations, and at the sub-district/village level.[52]

The Indian Red Cross branches in Punjab and Rajasthan, with technical and financial support from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), continued its MRE activities in 2004 in areas on the border with Pakistan. Red Cross volunteers collect data, which informs the design of MRE in border areas identified as mine-affected. The program involves local media, trains teachers, social workers and village leaders, and has developed leaflets and posters.[53]

The Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament and Environmental Protection continued its MRE work in 2004-2005, arranging seven workshops in border areas.[54]

Landmine/UXO Casualties

There is no comprehensive data collection mechanism on landmine casualties in India and it is believed that many civilian casualties are not reported due to the remoteness of and lack of transportation and communication facilities in some of the mine-affected border areas.

In 2004, according to media reports, there were at least 262 new casualties (153 people killed and 109 injured) caused by landmines, UXO and IEDs; 81 were civilians, including at least five children.[55] In comparison, during 2003, there were at least 270 casualties (101 people killed and 169 injured) caused by landmines, IEDs or UXO; 136 were civilians, including at least 12 children.[56]

Examples of mine casualties reported in the media in 2004 include an incident on 13 March in which a soldier was injured after stepping on a landmine near the Line of Control in Jangard area of Rajouri district. On 12 April, three people were killed and six others critically injured when their minibus hit a landmine during wedding celebrations in Bihar state. On 25 June, two army officers and a girl were injured in a mine explosion near the India-Pakistan border; one officer later died. On 9 November an Indian Army officer lost his leg after stepping on a landmine in Churachandpur district on the border with Burma.[57]

Media reports often related to incidents involving vehicles and tended to focus on military or militant casualties. Casualties reported in the media were not confined to the Jammu and Kashmir areas, with incidents also reported in Assam, Jharkhand, Manipur and Andhra Pradesh. In addition, from January to March 2004, there were at least 33 new civilian landmine casualties in the border districts of Rajasthan, Punjab and Jammu, including 10 killed and 23 injured; five were women and five were children.[58] Some mine incidents occurred in fields that reportedly had been cleared by the Army and returned to the owners.

According to the Chairman of the Lok Sabha (parliament) Standing Committee on Defence, Army demining forces suffered 1,776 casualties due to mines, UXO and IEDs since December 2001 (375 killed, 1,401 injured).[59]

Military and civilian casualties continue to be reported in 2005. Between January and June, at least 46 mine, UXO and IED casualties (20 people killed and 26 injured) were reported in the media; 28 were civilians, including seven children.[60] NGO workers in Manipur state report that 12 people were killed in antipersonnel mine incidents to August in Churachandpur, Tamenglong, Jiribam and Chandel districts.[61]

On 5 August 2004, an Indian national was injured during a mine clearance operation in Sri Lanka.[62]

The total number of mine/UXO/IED casualties in India is not known.  According to a survey by the Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament and Environmental Protection (IIPDEP), between December 2003 and March 2004, at least 1,295 civilian casualties (325 killed and 970 injured) were reported in the border states of Rajastan, Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir; 168 casualties were children.[63]

Government sources reported 10,709 mine/UXO/IED casualties (1,489 killed, 9,220 injured) between 1989 and 1999 in Jammu and Kashmir and Andhra Pradesh.[64]

Survivor Assistance[65]

India has a system of free medical care for all citizens. However, in rural areas the quality and availability of services can be problematic. First aid is generally not available in remote border villages, but state hospitals provide treatment to mine casualties, including amputation surgery if required. Mine survivors living in remote border villages reportedly have no access to physiotherapy or prosthetics services.

In February 2004, a program to provide medical facilities for people living in remote border areas was launched by the Army and state government; seven mobile medical teams started in February and another seven in August.[66]

The government has indicated its support for the rehabilitation of mine survivors, including provision of prostheses, financial grants and assistance with economic reintegration. The Disability Division of the Ministry of Welfare provides rehabilitation services to the rural population through 16 district centers; however, it is not known if any mine survivors have benefited from these services.[67]

In 2004, the ICRC began supporting the prosthetic/orthopedic department of the Jammu Government Medical College with new equipment and polypropylene technology to better address the needs of persons with disabilities in the border areas. ICRC also subsidized the formal training of two technicians in prosthetics and orthotics. The first amputee was fitted in October. From October to December 2004, the department produced nine prostheses, including six for mine survivors, and distributed four wheelchairs and six crutches.[68]

Several NGOs operate within Jammu and Kashmir, assisting the population with medical care, rehabilitation, education and training, including the NGO ICNA Relief-Helping Hand, which provides medical assistance through the Kashmir Surgical Hospital and primary health centers in refugee camps.[69]

In August 2005, the Indian Army opened an artificial limb repair center in Poonch district in Jammu and Kashmir. The project is part of the Army’s Operation Sadhbhavana, a goodwill gesture to aid amputees living in remote border areas.[70]

Other organizations and NGOs assisting persons with disabilities in India include Handicap International, Bhagwan Mahaveer Viklang Sahayata Samiti (Jaipur Foot) and Ortho Prosthetics Care and Rehabilitation.

Disability Policy and Practice

The Persons with Disabilities Act 1995 protects the rights of persons with disabilities, including mine survivors in India; however, the act is not applicable to the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The practical benefits of the legislation have been minimal, due in part to a clause that makes the implementation of programs dependent on the “economic capacity” of the government and a limited definition of “disability.”[71]


[1] Statement by Amb. Rakesh Sood, Head of Indian Delegation at the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, Geneva, 26 November 2003.

[2] Statement by Amb. Rakesh Sood, Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II, Geneva, 26 November 2003. Landmine Monitor is not aware of any research effort by India to develop such alternatives.

[3] See “Landmine victims grope in the dark,” Indo-Asian News Service, 25 November 2004.

[4] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form D, 27 October 2003.

[5] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form C, 27 October 2003.

[6] Letter No. AE-I/106/5/2005 from Meera Shankar, Additional Secretary (United Nations), Ministry of External Relations, New Delhi, to Landmine Monitor (HRW), 10 August 2005. This was the first time India reported on the status of production of these mines since October 2000.

[7] CCW Article 13 Report, 18 October 2000, p. 6. India has not reported on the status of production of these two new mines since 2000.

[8] It would appear that India did export mines in the past. Bangladesh, Mauritius and Tanzania―all States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty―have reported Indian-made mines in their stocks. India asserted to Landmine Monitor in August 2005 that it “has not exported any Anti Personnel Landmines to these countries.” Letter No. AE-I/106/5/2005 from Meera Shankar, Additional Secretary (United Nations), Ministry of External Relations, New Delhi, to Landmine Monitor (HRW), 10 August 2005.

[9] CCW Article 13 Report, Form D, 27 October 2003.

[10] In August 2005, India said that “the process of modification of existing stocks is well underway and would be completed as per the provisions of Amended Protocol II.” Letter No. AE-I/106/5/2005 from Meera Shankar, Additional Secretary (United Nations), Ministry of External Relations, New Delhi, to Landmine Monitor (HRW), 10 August 2005. See also, CCW Article 13 Report, Form D, 27 October 2003. India reported, “All necessary technical issues have been resolved and requisite financial support has also been obtained to effect the said modifications. A programme has been evolved and disseminated to ensure that implementation is completed well before the stipulated period, as per provisions laid down in the Amended Protocol II.”

[11] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 660-662, and Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 976-977.

[12] Ministry of Defence, Press Release, “De-Mining of Forward Areas,” 20 February 2003. See also, “Heavy toll of jawans during Op Parakaram due to faulty mines,” Hitvada, 27 April 2005. Landmine Monitor Report 2004 cited 242 injured while mine-laying, which included civilian casualties. Much higher casualties occurred during removal of the mines; see later section on mine clearance.

[13] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 14 October 2004; see also statement by Amb. Sood, Fifth Annual Conference CCW Amended Protocol II, Geneva, 26 November 2003.

[14] Suba Chandran, “The Use of Landmines by Non-State Actors in India and Nepal,” Research for Landmine Monitor Report, New Delhi, May 2002.

[15] Examples include: in May 2005, three Border Security Forces were injured after one of them stepped on a mine during a patrol near the Line of Control (LoC) in the Doda area of Poonch; also in May 2005, another soldier on patrol near the Rajouri district, close to the LoC, was injured after stepping on a mine; in March 2005, two civilians were injured when one of them stepped on a mine in the area of Salotri, in Poonch, near the LoC; in September 2004, a farmer was injured after stepping on a mine in Rajouri district. “Major, 3 jawans shot in Ambush,” Tribune, 20 May 2005; “Major, Cong leader among five killed,” Tribune, 7 May 2005; “3 Pak militants among 5 killed in J&K,” Tribune, 20 March 2005; “1 killed in attack on security forces,” Tribune, 11 September 2004.

[16] “Kashmir loses the voice of the unheard,” Voice, Vol. IV, No. 2, October 2004, published by the Asian Federation Against Forced Involuntary Disappearances, Manila; email alert by J&K-based Coalition for Civil Society, 22 April 2004; Landmine Monitor interviews with local NGOs, May 2005.

[17] “Kashmir landmine kills 11, pro-Pakistan group claims responsibility,” Agence France-Presse, 5 December 2004.

[18] Indian Army website, “Army in Kashmir,” Table of captured weapons in Jammu and Kashmir, http://www.armyinkashmir.org, accessed 10 August 2005.

[19] “Blast Along LOC,” Times of India, 10 November 2004.

[20] Landmine Monitor interviews with local NGOs, May 2005. In response, the militants communicated that they would be open to dialogue with the community on the issue of their continued mine use.

[21] “Naxalite” is an informal name given to revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement.

[22] Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.

[23] “Police officers ask Maoists to mend ways,” Hindu, 8 February 2005. From 15 to 18 October 2004, the government of Andhra Pradesh held peace talks with the CPI-Maoist and a smaller non-state armed group named Jana Shakthi, but a police-led, counter-insurgency operation launched in January 2005 led the insurgents to pull out of further talks. Naxal pages and news stories, http://www.ipcs.org/, accessed 6 July 2005.

[24] “Police trying to unearth landmine: DIG,” Hindu, 15 February 2005.

[25] “Exchange of fire with naxals,” Hindu, 21 April 2005.

[26] “AP cops launch massive man hunt to nab Naxals,” www.indiadaily.com, 13 March 2005.

[27] “Myanmarese guerrillas evicted from Mizoram,” Hindustan Times, 25 June 2005.

[28] “Indian army flushes out forest rebels,” news.scotsman.com/international, 7 November 2004; “Key Manipur rebel base falls to Indian Army,” Indo-Asian News Service, 9 November 2004.

[29] ”Rebels strike in Indian northeast, kill 59,” Xinhua, 3 October 2004.

[30] Ministry of Home Affairs data provided to Landmine Monitor on a confidential basis, August 2005.

[31] Information provided to Landmine Monitor by villagers attending MRE workshops in Rohdawali, Kotha Pakki, Daultpura, between June 2004 and March 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 979.

[32] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 14 October 2004.

[33] “Army has completed the de-mining operation along the Indo-Pak border barring LoC in Jammu & Kashmir, official sources say,” Hitvada, 24 October 2004.

[34] “Mines found in Karnpur area,” Daily Jagran, 21 January 2005; information provided to Landmine Monitor by villagers attending mine risk education workshops in Rohdawali, Kotha Pakki, Daultpura, between June 2004 and March 2005.

[35] “Landmine found in the Agricultural Field,” Rajasthan Patrika, 25 June 2004; “Mines found in Village 25 MD,” Rajasthan Patrika,13 July 2004; “Mines found two and half KM away from the fencing on border,” Lok Sammat, Sri Ganganagar, 13 July 2004; “Landmines found in Agricultural Field,” Daily Bhaskar, 20 August 2004; “Landmines found in Karangpur Area,” Daily Bhaskar, 30 August 2004; “Killer Landmines Goes Missing,” Rajasthan Patrika, 10 November 2004; “Two children were killed, four injured in India landmine blast,” Agence France-Presse, 5 February 2005; “Landmine blast victims demand govt jobs,” Tribune News Service, 24 March 2005.

[36] Anil Bhatt Hajipeer, “Army faces onerous task of de-mining Poonch-Rawalkot road,” Outlook India.com, 4 May 2005, www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=295878, accessed 7 July 2005.

[37] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 14 October 2004.

[38] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form B, 14 October 2004.

[39] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 979-980.

[40] “Killer landmines missing,” Hitvada, 24 October 2004.

[41] “Indian army under fire for wasting lives clearing a million land mines,” Agence France-Presse, 6 May 2005.

[42] “India, Pakistan seal deal on Srinagar-Muzaffarabad bus link,” Hindu, 16 February 2005.

[43] “Seven injured in blast on Kashmir bus route,” Dawn, 5 April 2005. On 7 April 2005, the Kaarwan-e-Aman (Caravan of Peace) bus service was inaugurated from each end, simultaneously, by the prime ministers of both countries.

[44] Anil Bhatt Hajipeer, “Army faces onerous task of de-mining Poonch-Rawalkot road,” Outlook India.com, 4 May 2005, www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=295878, accessed 7 July 2005.

[45] Article 13 Report (reporting period November 2003 to September 2004), CCW Amended Protocol II, Form B, 14 October 2004.

[46] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 982.

[47] The information was revealed in April 2005 by Balasaheb Vikhe Patil, Chairman of the Lok Sabha (Parliament) Standing Committee on Defence, during a sitting of the Committee on the Ministry of Defence Report on Demands and Grants 2004-5; also reported in several newspapers, including “Heavy toll of Jawans...” Hitvada, 27 April 2005. The number of casualties during emplacement of the mines in 2001-2002 accords with what the Ministry of Defence reported previously. Ministry of Defence, Press Release, “De-Mining of Forward Areas,” 20 February 2003.

[48] “Indian Express: Villagers say wounded asked to check IED,” Indian Express, 13 December 2004.

[49] “Human shield,” GreaterKashmir.com, 17 December 2004.

[50] US Department of State, “India: Country Report on Human Rights Practices 2004,” 28 February 2005.

[51] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 980-981, and Sri Lanka report in this edition of Landmine Monitor.

[52] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Form A, 27 October 2003; see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 980.

[53] ICRC, “Annual Report 2004,” Geneva, June 2005, p. 180.

[54] Information provided to the Landmine Monitor by IIPDEP, Nagpur, May 2005.

[55] Landmine Monitor collated data from 44 media reports between 13 March and 31 December 2004. Details of individual reports are available. The reported total represents a minimum number as some media reports do not give an exact figure of the number killed or injured but report “several” casualties. In these cases no number was included in the analysis.

[56] For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 981-982.

[57] “Two persons injured in blasts in Rajouri,” Press Trust of India Limited, Jammu, 13 March 2004; “Land mine blast kills 3, wounds 6 at wedding in eastern India,” Associated Press, India, 13 April 2004; “Army officer killed, 4 injured in mine explosions in J&K,” Press Trust of India Limited, Jammu, 26 June 2004; “Key Manipur rebel base falls to Indian Army,” Indo-Asian News Service, 9 November 2004. 

[58] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Balkrishna Kurvey, IIPDEP, 2 September 2004.

[59] The information was revealed in April 2005 by Balasaheb Vikhe Patil, Chairman of the Lok Sabha (Parliament) Standing Committee on Defence, during a sitting of the Committee on the Ministry of Defence Report on Demands and Grants 2004-5; also reported in several newspapers, including “Heavy toll of Jawans...” Hitvada, 27 April 2005.

[60] Landmine Monitor collated data from 12 media reports between 3 January and 15 June 2004. Details of individual reports are available.

[61] Emails to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from Manipur NGO, 29 and 30 August 2005.

[62] “These boots were made for surviving landmines,” Straits Times, 7 October 2004.

[63] "Data Collection and Documentation of Civilian Landmine Victims: Survey 1 December 2003 to March 2004," IIPDEP

[64] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 494-495.

[65] For more information on survivor assistance, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 983-984.

[66] “Launching of Mobile Medical teams under Border Area Development Program,” www.armyinkashmir.org, accessed 1 September 2004.

[67] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 984; see also US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004: India,” Washington DC, 28 February 2005.

[68] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2004,” Geneva, July 2005, p. 28. The Kashmir branch of the Indian Red Cross and the state Ministry of Health had jointly opened the department in April 2003.

[69] For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 983-984. For a list of the NGOs, see www.indianngos.com/states/jammu.html, accessed 8 August 2005.

[70] “Indian Army opens artificial limb center in Kashmirs border district,” Defence India, 24 August 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 984.

[71] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 984; see also US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2004: India,” Washington DC, 28 February 2005.