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Country Reports
JORDAN, Landmine Monitor Report 2005


Key developments since May 2004: Jordan published its National Mine Action Plan for 2005–2009. The plan aims to make Jordan free of all antipersonnel mines by 2009. In 2004 and to 1 May 2005, army engineer demining teams cleared 1,266,000 square meters, destroying 806 antipersonnel mines and 35 antivehicle mines in 14 minefields. A modified landmine impact survey was due to start in late 2005. The Jordanian Red Crescent Society carried out more than 100 mine risk education events, reaching nearly 12,000 people. Jordan received some US$2.2 million from international donors for mine action in 2004. The number of reported mine/UXO casualties increased substantially in 2004. The NCDR victim assistance subcommittee was created in 2004 to collect data on mine casualties in Jordan.

Mine Ban Policy

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 11 August 1998, ratified it on 13 November 1998, and the treaty entered into force on 1 May 1999. Jordan’s Law of Explosive Materials of 1953 serves as the legal mechanism to enforce the treaty.

Jordan submitted its eighth Article 7 report on 2 May 2005, covering the period 30 April 2004 to 30 April 2005.[1 ]

Prince Mired Raad Zeid Al-Hussein, Chair of the Board of National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation, led the country’s delegation to the First Review Conference held in Nairobi in November-December 2004. At the Review Conference, Jordan became co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies.

In June 2005, Jordan attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva, where it made a statement on its mine clearance program. Jordan has rarely engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2 and 3, and the issues of joint military operations with non-States Parties, foreign stockpiling and transit of antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training.

On 3 November 2004, Jordan attended the inaugural meeting in New York of the Forum of Mine-Affected Countries (FOMAC), a group of high level representatives from mine-affected countries.  FOMAC was formed to encourage cooperation between mine-affected countries.[2]

Jordan is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II. It attended the Sixth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in November 2004 and submitted an Article 13 annual report.

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling and Destruction

Jordan never produced or exported antipersonnel mines and last used them in 1978. On 23 April 2003, Jordan completed the destruction of its stockpile of 92,342 antipersonnel mines.

Jordan decided to retain 1,000 antipersonnel mines for training and research purposes. It has not consumed any mines since August 1999. Jordan has not yet reported in any detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines―a step agreed to by States Parties in the Nairobi Action Plan that emerged from the First Review Conference. At a Standing Committee meeting in June 2004, Jordan’s representative stated that live antipersonnel mines were not necessary for training purposes.[3 ]

Landmine and UXO Problem

The mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) problem in Jordan derives from the 1948 partition of Palestine, the 1967–1969 Arab-Israeli conflict, and the confrontation with Syria in 1975. Before mine clearance began in 1993, there were approximately 60 million square meters of suspected hazardous areas, subdivided by the Jordanian Royal Corps of Engineers into 497 minefields. The minefields are limited to three major areas, the Northern Highlands, Jordan Valley and Wadi Araba in the south. Basic maps were kept for all minefields. There is also UXO in a small number of areas centered in the Ajloun and Irbid governorates.[4 ] According to military estimates, some 305,000 antipersonnel and antivehicle mines were laid on Jordanian territory (73,000 Israeli and 232,000 Jordanian mines).[5 ]

Jordan’s mine action plan of June 2005 claimed that 35 million square meters of land across 314 minefields remained contaminated with 203,094 mines, of which 156,371 were antipersonnel mines.[6 ] However, the Article 7 report of 2 May 2005 gave a total of 175,013 antipersonnel mines remaining in these areas, not including an unknown number in mine-suspected areas in the south.[7]

Mines in Jordan directly affect over 500,000 people, representing eight percent of the population, the majority of whom are said to be women and children. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) reported that the mine contamination blocks access to valuable agricultural land, delays irrigation and hydroelectric projects, restricts housing construction, and isolates historic and cultural heritage sites.[8 ] Access to natural resources is important in Jordan, as it suffers acute water scarcity and population growth is substantial.[9 ] The UNDP human poverty index, which measures development indicators, identified several pockets of poverty located in some of the most heavily mine-affected communities.[10 ]

Mine Action Program

Jordan’s mine action authority is the National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation (NCDR), which was mandated by royal decrees in March 2000 and April 2002. NCDR became fully operational in May 2004 with the arrival of a UN technical advisor, following agreement with UNDP on capacity-building. Prince Mired Raad Zeid Al-Hussein has chaired the NCDR since 2004. In 2005, a royal decree approved the NCDR Board of Directors, composed of representatives of the Armed Forces, government, NGOs, medical and educational institutions, the private sector, landmine survivors and the media.[11 ]

Mine clearance in Jordan is the responsibility of the Jordanian Royal Corps of Engineers. As of June 2005, there were 260 deminers in 20 teams.[12]

NCDR is responsible for producing and managing national mine action plans and ensuring that these are anchored in the country’s development goals. It ensures that all aspects of mine action are integrated, including clearance, mine risk education and victim assistance, and takes a leading role in coordinating resource mobilization. Mine action in Jordan is not regulated by law, but NCDR has stressed the need to develop national mine action legislation.[13 ]

On 15 June 2005, Jordan published its first five-year mine action plan, the National Mine Action Plan (NMAP) for 2005–2009. The NMAP’s primary objective is to “systematically address and reduce the risk of injury or death caused by landmines and to contribute to the Government of Jordan’s overall poverty alleviation efforts....” It aims to “coherently and comprehensively eliminate the impact of landmines from the lives of all Jordanians and safeguard their future livelihoods.” The NMAP has six goals covering mine clearance, information creation and management, survivor and victim assistance, mine risk education, advocacy and universalization, and the National Commission’s capacity-development.[14 ]

The NMAP’s overall purpose is to set technical and institutional responses to landmines within the context of the national poverty reduction goal. Jordan views mine clearance as one of the primary drivers for promoting development and contributing to its Social Economic Transformation Programme and the Millennium Development Goals. Both initiatives represent measurable and time-bound commitments to improve the living standards of Jordan’s poorest population.[15]

One of the NMAP objectives is to clear Israeli mines in the Aqaba-Wadi Araba region on the southern Israeli border before the end of 2008. In this region, further development of hydroelectric power and tourism is planned; the Red Sea-Dead Sea pipeline project is expected to have major development potential. Clearance of mine-affected areas of this region is expected to remove 73,000 mines and return 12 million square meters of land to productive use.[16]

NCDR aims at “developing further national capacity to clear the remaining minefields of Jordan more safely and expeditiously.” There is concern that Army mine clearance resources are insufficient to meet the NMAP’s goals and Jordan’s treaty deadline of 1 May 2009 for clearance of mine-affected land. NCDR states that the relatively low rate of clearance (about two square kilometers per year) and lack of non-military demining capacity could be addressed by creating a civilian demining entity of 350 deminers capable of clearing 5.5 square kilometers of land annually. This would increase clearance rates to approximately eight square kilometers per year, ensuring clearance of the remaining 35 square kilometers of mine-affected land by May 2009. There exists no accreditation system for mine clearance operations, but the NCDR planned to develop a system for accreditation to allow new organizations to operate in Jordan.[17]

The government and the Jordanian Armed Forces have both indicated their willingness to provide the start-up capital and support for such an initiative. UNDP would act in a technical advisory capacity. Given the large number of ex-deminers available to work in Jordan, recruitment and refresher training are not seen as major obstacles.[18]

NCDR intends to enhance mine action planning by improving analysis and management of mine action information. The national plan is formulated to ensure that: mine action is mainstreamed into development, a logical clearance list is developed, annual integrated workplans are produced, and tasking is based on national priorities. To support these aims, UNDP launched a capacity development project in mid-2004.[19 ] Since June 2004, both NCDR and the Jordanian Royal Corps of Engineers use the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA), sharing data between the two databases.[20]

National mine action standards are based on the 1997 UN standards, but NCDR plans to develop them to accord with International Mine Action Standards (IMAS). To ensure that clearance operations are carried out in a safe and efficient manner, NCDR plans to “develop, train, and deploy a national capacity with the philosophy and skills to apply the principles of a Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to mine action in Jordan.”[21 ]

Survey and Assessment

Mine action in Jordan has been based on a study of mine/UXO contamination conducted before 1998 by the Armed Forces, involving local authorities, community leaders and bodies responsible for natural resources. Priority for survey, fencing, marking and clearance activities has been given to densely populated areas, national development project sites, tourist, religious or historical sites, infrastructure, small economic development areas, the northern border and restored Jordanian territories.[22]

The NMAP includes a modified landmine impact survey, due to start in the last quarter of 2005. This will “...ascertain the socio-economic impact on the local communities and develop a logical mine clearance prioritization process based on poverty reduction criteria.” Given the nature of the mine threat in Jordan, it is thought that a full-scale landmine impact survey will not be required. It is expected “to feed the NCDR’s IMSMA database with basic information needed to develop and manage the five-year plan.” The impact survey is expected to take 12 months to complete, at a cost of US$250,000.[23]

Jordan and Israel continue to negotiate on producing complete maps and minefield information. Minefield records from the Israeli Defense Forces are needed so that mine clearance can begin on the remaining 133 Israeli minefields on Jordanian territory. Preparatory to clearance, a technical survey of three blocks of four square kilometers each will be implemented in the Aqaba-Wadi Araba area when Israeli records have been obtained.[24 ]

In its Article 7 report of 2 May 2005, Jordan claims that all minefields are known, marked, registered and have the same type of fence. It reports that engineer units periodically maintain minefield marking and fencing, and that all minefields are protected by the Armed Forces against any unauthorized actions.[25 ] The NMAP notes that most of the remaining minefields are marked and fenced, and that records and sketches are retained.[26 ]

Mine/UXO Clearance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Jordan must destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 May 2009.

In 2004, the Engineer Corps cleared 653 antipersonnel mines and 33 antivehicle mines from nine minefields, totaling 900,000 square meters.[27 ] In 2005, from 1 January to 1 May, 153 antipersonnel mines and two antivehicle mines were cleared from five minefields, totaling 366,000 square meters. Of the 20 Engineer Corps teams, 16 operated in the Jordan Valley and four in the Aqaba-Wadi Araba region. They used both manual and mechanical demining methods. As of June 2005, they had six mechanical flails, of which three were in the Jordan Valley and one in the Aqaba-Wadi Araba area, with two flails undergoing repairs.[28]

In 2004, two deminers suffered minor injuries in two separate mine incidents.[29]

Mine Risk Education

Mine risk education (MRE) is coordinated through NCDR, which acknowledges that MRE “... to date has been carried out in an ad hoc manner.”[30 ] Organizations involved in the delivery of MRE during 2004 included the Royal Corps of Engineers, Civil Defense, UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), Ministry of Education and Jordanian Red Crescent, assisted by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).

In 2004, an agreement was reached between NCDR and Ministry of Education to include MRE activities in schools in mine-affected areas. In July 2005, negotiations were started with Canada on funding a pilot program in five schools, followed by a wider initiative. Activities will include presentations, lectures and demonstrations.[31]

In 2004, the Jordanian Red Crescent started a multi-governorate MRE program. In its first year, it undertook over 100 educational events, reaching close to 12,000 people. It intends to continue the program until 2007, in collaboration with the Ministry of Education, ICRC and Royal Corps of Engineers.[32 ] There are MRE committees in eight governorates, consisting of five male teachers, five female teachers and 50 students each. Methods of delivery include lectures, demonstrations, brochures and workshops.

MRE has been underway in Jordan since 1991, provided by the Armed Forces. Selected districts in nine of Jordan’s 12 governorates have been exposed to MRE.[33 ] It is estimated that 30,000 people per year were given some basic form of MRE from 1996 to 2001. The Armed Forces discontinued its program in 2002, subsequently delivering MRE on a request basis only, using lecture-based presentations and inert mines, posters, slides and videotapes.[34]

One objective of the NMAP is to “launch a nationally coordinated and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking Program,” since a sustained, coordinated and IMAS-compliant, nationally-targeted MRE program is considered necessary. The Minister of Education supports this aim, and indicated that the ministry may be the main vehicle for MRE. IMAS for MRE have not been used in Jordan, but the need for IMAS-compliant MRE is recognized in the NMAP.[35]

A national needs assessment is planned, which will allow MRE messages to be tailored to the gender, geography, education and socioeconomic status of target audiences. Partners in the assessment will include the government, Jordanian Red Crescent, ICRC, UNICEF, UNDP and Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining. It is scheduled to be conducted over a period of six months at a cost of $70,000.[36 ] A three-month training of trainers will then be followed by a 36-month program of MRE implementation. Mass media, graphic arts, print, television and radio will be used. The school curriculum, university lectures and textbooks will also be used. In some areas, delivery will be through drama, sports festivals and T-shirts. Although the focus will be primarily on the 150,000 or so people living close to a suspected hazardous area, some mass media campaigns will reach a much wider audience of several million people.

Jordan reported on its MRE commitments in the Article 7 report of 2 May 2005.[37]

Funding and Assistance

In 2004, funding for mine action in Jordan totaled approximately US$2.5 million, including government funding of $280,000.[38 ] International donors provided some $2.2 million, including:

  • Canada: US$113,949 through UNDP for victim assistance, advocacy and MRE;[39]
  • Norway: NOK5,632,967 ($835,764) for mechanical demining;[40]
  • UK: $200,000 through UNDP;[41]
  • UNDP: $150,000;[42]
  • US: $950,000 through the State Department for equipment for the Royal Corps of Engineers.[43]

For 2005, total funding sought for mine action was $872,150.[44 ] The government budgeted to provide $280,000.[45 ]

The NMAP budget for 2005–2009 was estimated as $47.79 million (allocated as 92.4 percent for mine clearance, 0.5 percent for information collection and management, 2.8 percent for victim assistance, 1.2 percent for MRE, 0.4 percent for advocacy and universalization, and 2.7 percent for capacity-building). The government’s contribution is expected to reach $14.58 million, leaving a shortfall of $33.21 million to be met by international donors.[46]

From 1993 to June 2005, financial support for mine action has totaled $62.25 million. Of this, Jordan contributed $50 million and the international donor community some $12.25 million. Most of the government’s funding has been allocated for clearance, with MRE, victim assistance, stockpile destruction and capacity development receiving less than 10 percent of this amount.[47]

Landmine Casualties

In 2004, there were at least 27 new landmine/UXO casualties in Jordan reported by NCDR and Landmine Survivors Network (LSN); 10 people were killed and 17 injured.[48 ] This represents a significant increase from the six new mine casualties (two killed and four injured) reported in 2003.[49 ]

The NCDR victim assistance subcommittee recorded six people killed and another six injured. In January and April, two deminers were injured by M14 antipersonnel mines during mine clearance operations in the Jordan Valley. In April, three boys aged between 12 and 13 years were killed in a UXO incident in Ajloun province. In July, a 30-year-old woman and her six-year-old son were injured by UXO brought into their house. In August, two men were injured and one was killed by an antivehicle mine near the northern border with Syria, while smuggling. In September, two boys aged 10 and 11 years were killed by UXO in Karak province, while playing in an abandoned house.[50]

Other mine/UXO incidents reported by LSN in 2004 include an incident in January where four brothers were injured in the Mafraq area. Also in January, one man was injured while working in the Jordan Valley. On 8 March, a mine explosion killed a woman and badly injured her two children. In a separate incident on 8 March, two people were seriously injured while trying to clear mines. Also in March, a man was injured in a mine explosion in Aqaba. In May, three children were killed in a UXO incident, and in July a man was injured in a landmine incident in the Irbid area.[51 ]

The NCDR victim assistance subcommittee was created in 2004 to collect data on mine casualties in Jordan. The subcommittee consists of representatives of the NCDR, Army, Civil Defense Directorate, Police Head Directorate, LSN, Hashemite Charity Society for Soldiers of Special Needs and, since 2005, the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Social Development; however, its work is limited by a lack of funding and the need for more surveys.[52 ]

Casualties continue to be reported by NCDR in 2005. The subcommittee recorded two accidents during mine clearance operations, in which two deminers were injured by M35 and M14 mines in February and March 2005 in the Jordan Valley and the Aqaba area.[53]

According to the government, the total number of mine casualties recorded in Jordan from 1967 to June 2004 was 529 (111 killed and 418 injured): 202 were civilians, and 327 were military personnel and peacekeepers. The majority of civilian casualties were carrying out their daily activities of herding or cultivation. The government estimates the actual number is higher than reported―probably closer to 700, but it could be as high as 800 casualties.[54 ] A US Department of State publication in 2004 cited the Jordanian Armed Forces Medical Services as reporting 636 mine casualties (92 killed and 544 injured), including 370 civilians, since 1967.[55 ]

Survivor Assistance

Landmine survivors are entitled to medical care and rehabilitation under the standard healthcare system in Jordan. Approximately 90 percent of the population live within a mile of a health facility and can use a range of providers from the public, NGO and private sectors. All known survivors reportedly receive prosthetics; however, there is limited local outreach for physiotherapy and rehabilitation services for mine survivors. There are small physiotherapy centers at several regional hospitals. Other hospitals report irregular access to physiotherapists. While Jordan has relatively well trained personnel and well equipped medical facilities, there are challenges in providing the specialized care needed by mine survivors in the area of prosthetics, orthopedics and physical rehabilitation.[56]

The Royal Medical Services (RMS) includes 12 medical centers.[57 ] More complex cases are transferred to the national institutions in Amman for prosthetics and rehabilitation. The main institutions are the public Al-Bashir Hospital and the King Hussein Medical Center, under the RMS. Al-Bashir’s rehabilitation unit and prosthetic center is the primary provider of such services to civilians in the country.[58 ]

The King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC) assists military mine casualties. In August 2004, construction commenced on the new National Rehabilitation Center for Amputees at the KHMC. The estimated cost is $2 million. Construction was completed in June 2005, with the installation of rehabilitation equipment and facilities expected to be completed by December 2005. Facilities will include a physical rehabilitation center, an outpatient ward and vocational training workshops. The center will work closely with the Ministry of Health to provide services for about 2,400 people per year, including both military and civilian mine survivors. Norway supported the construction of the center, with Canada and France supporting the purchase of orthopedic and prosthetic supplies, training and services. Other donors include Germany, Japan, the UN, UK and US.[59]

The Al-Hussein Society (AHS), affiliated with Jordan University, provides comprehensive and diversified services for people with a physical disability, including training for orthotic/prosthetic technicians, medical and physical rehabilitation, and psychosocial support. In 2004, 6,846 physiotherapy sessions and 1,378 occupational sessions were conducted, the prosthetic workshop registered 48 new amputees, a number of wheelchairs were distributed and repaired, and 107 families and children received psychological counseling on disability issues. Most services are free or cost a nominal fee. Christian Blind Mission supports this center and provides technical advice on the production of devices and staff training.

AHS has a school for children with physical disabilities and vocational training for all persons with disabilities. It also operates a mobile clinic in its community-based rehabilitation/outreach program; the program provided referral or medical services for 453 people. The main challenges facing the center are the lack of coordination in the disability sector and capacity-building for staff.[60 ]

Landmine Survivors Network is active in five areas, Irbid, Ramtha, Zarqa, Mafreq and Amman. LSN’s community-based outreach workers, who are amputees, work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. About half the beneficiaries of the program are mine survivors. In 2004, 450 survivors were visited and 251 received services including access to health insurance, mobility devices or a monthly salary from the National Aid Fund. In addition, 506 survivors and their families received mobility and medical devices and school equipment. LSN also supported 48 small businesses and more than 60 survivors participated in social activities in 2004 and the first quarter of 2005. LSN organized several awareness raising workshops for survivors and other persons with disabilities to facilitate capacity-building, develop advocacy and lobbying skills, and increase their knowledge about vocational training opportunities.[61 ]

LSN also maintains a Rehabilitation Services Directory with information on 81 service providers in Jordan. In March 2005, LSN signed an agreement with the Ministry of Social Development and the vocational training center, to facilitate socioeconomic reintegration by ensuring that landmine survivors receive the same employment and training opportunities as their non-disabled peers.[62]

The Jordanian Red Crescent runs a hospital in Amman and operates an ambulance service from the West Bank in cooperation with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Both serve mainly Palestinians injured during the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Red Crescent also runs a vocational training center, mainly for women, which offers training for up to 500 graduates annually, who receive a diploma certified by the Ministry of Education.[63]

The Hashemite Charitable Society for Soldiers with Special Needs provides physical rehabilitation, economic and psychosocial assistance to soldiers who were injured, as well as to their families.[64 ] In January 2004, His Majesty King Abdullah laid the foundation stone of the Queen Rania Center for Military Personnel with Special Needs in the Jandaweel area. The center, which functions under the Hashemite Society, is expected to serve more than 1,275 people.[65]

Two Jordanian mine survivors participated in the Raising the Voices training in Geneva in June 2004, and at the Survivors Summit at the First Review Conference in November-December 2004.

In Afghanistan, there is a Jordanian-run hospital (RMS) near Mazar-e-Sharif with the capacity to treat mine casualties.[66 ] Jordan also supports medical teams in Iraq, Sierra Leone, Palestine, East Timor and Eritrea.[67 ]

The main objective of the national mine action plan (NMAP) relating to mine survivor assistance is to “develop and deliver a coherent and coordinated national SVA [Survivor and Victim Assistance] policy and programme which integrates physical rehabilitation and social reintegration for all landmine victims and survivors.” The plan aims to “strengthen local capacity to provide hospital-based rehabilitation services to all survivors and victims of landmines in Jordan” through the training of three trauma surgeons, 10 physiotherapists and 10 technicians, and through the production of training manuals.

The NMAP will support the socioeconomic reintegration of survivors through vocational training, education and job placement, in cooperation with the ministries of labor, health, social development and education, and with universities and civil society organizations. The survivor assistance component of the plan’s budget is $1.325 million, but the government has reportedly not allocated any funds to the program, which is scheduled to start in the last quarter of 2005.[68]

The key government partner in the NMAP is the Ministry of Social Development, which is responsible for the overall coordination and implementation of activities relating to persons with disabilities. The National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons, Hashemite Charitable Society for Soldiers with Special Needs, Landmine Survivors Network, World Health Organization and Royal Medical Services are all expected to play leading roles in the implementation of the NMAP.[69]

Disability Policy and Practice

The 1993 Welfare of Disabled Persons law outlines the rights of persons with disabilities to healthcare, education, vocational training, rehabilitation, employment, sports and participation in decision-making processes.[70 ]

On 16-17 March 2005, a conference was convened in Amman entitled The Arab Parliamentary Symposium on Legislating Issues in the Arab World. Members of parliament and ministries dealing with the issue of disability in 12 Middle Eastern countries, together with disability experts and EU and NGO representatives, discussed implementation of the proposed Comprehensive and Integral International Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights and Dignity of Persons with Disabilities. Those present pledged to enact and review legislation on disability and support coordination and cooperation between governments and disability organizations to activate the Arab Decade for Persons with Disabilities, and to “formulate and activate the work of specialized committees on disabilities in National Parliaments in order to implement the resolution of the Arab Parliamentary Union” issued in Beirut in September 2004.[71]

[1 ]Previous reports were submitted on: 5 May 2004; 1 May 2003; 17 March 2003; 7 November 2002; 1 May 2002; 30 June 2000; 9 August 1999.

[2] United Nations, “Countries stand united in the battle against landmines,” 4 November 2004, www.un.int/

[3 ]Intervention by Jordan, Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 25 June 2004. Jordan also said States Parties should set a limit of 1,000 retained mines.

[4 ]UNDP, “The Completion Initiative Concept Paper and National Plans,” 15 June 2005.

[5 ]“Jordan Situation Analysis: Problems, Progress, Plans, & Progress,” presentation by Mohammed Briekat, Director, National Committee for Demining and Rehabilitation (NCDR), Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 13–14 June 2005; Article 7 Report, Form C, 2 May 2005.

[6 ]NCDR, “Jordan’s National Mine Action Plan: Safeguarding Life & Promoting Development 2005-2009” (National Mine Action Plan 2005–2009), June 2005, p. 4; email from Nasin Majali, Secretary of the Board, NCDR, 31 July 2005. The mine action plan also lists 203,095 mines remaining, but subtotals for mines remaining in Israeli minefields total 73,125 (not 70,888 as listed), producing 205,331 in all minefields remaining to be cleared.

[7] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2 May 2005. The report includes an appendix listing the number and types of mines laid, cleared and remaining in every minefield.

[8 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 1.

[9 ]Presentation by Mohammed Briekat, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 13-14 June 2005.

[10 ]UNDP, “Jordan Human Development Report 2004,” Amman.

[11 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 22.

[12] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 7.

[13 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 22.

[14 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, pp. 1-2.

[15] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 3.

[16] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 10.

[17] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, pp. 9, 11.

[18] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 11.

[19 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 22.

[20] Email from Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Jordanian Royal Corps of Engineers, 25 April 2005; email from Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 15 April 2005.

[21 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, pp. 8-9.

[22] Email from Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Royal Corps of Engineers, 31 May 2005.

[23] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 12.

[24 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 10.

[25 ]Article 7 Report, Form I, 2 May 2005.

[26 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 4.

[27 ]Interview with Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, Geneva, 17 June 2005.

[28] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 7.

[29] Interview with Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, Geneva, 17 June 2005.

[30 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 17.

[31] Email from Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 31 May 2005.

[32 ]Jordanian Red Crescent, “Mine/UXO Risk Education Plan for 2005,” May 2005, p. 8.

[33 ]These were the governorates of Irbid, Ajloun, Jarash, Aqaba, Madaba, Tafilah, Balqa, Mafraq and Karak. NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 5.

[34] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 5.

[35] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 17.

[36 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 17.

[37] Article 7 Report, Form I, 2 May 2005.

[38 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 23; email from Yasin Al Majali, NCDR, 31 May 2005. The discrepancy between $280,000 and $270,000 has not been explained.

[39] Email exchanges with Elvan Isikozlu, Mine Action Team, Foreign Affairs Canada, July 2005; UNDP, Mine Action Funding Update by Donors, www.undp.org, accessed 22 August 2005.

[40] Emails from May-Elin Stener, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, July 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NOK6.7399. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[41] Email from Andrew Willson, Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs Department, Department for International Development, 1 July 2005; UNDP, Mine Action Funding Update by Donors, www.undp.org, accessed 22 August 2005.

[42] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 17.

[43] USG Historical Chart, email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, US Department of State, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, 20 July 2005. An additional $400,000 was donated in 2004 through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Email from H. Murphey McCloy, Senior Demining Advisor, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Department of State, US, 27 September 2005.

[44 ]UN, “Portfolio of Mine Action Projects 2005.”

[45 ]Email from Yasin Al Majali, Board Secretary, NCDC, 31 May 2005.

[46] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 25.

[47] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 3. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 521-522.

[48 ]Landmine Monitor analysis of casualty data sent by NCDR and LSN; email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 20 July 2005; response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire by Adnan al-Aboudi, Director, LSN, 28 April 2005.

[49 ]For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 524.

[50] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 20 July 2005.

[51 ]Email from Adnan al-Aboudi, LSN, 28 April 2005; response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire by Adnan al-Aboudi, LSN, 28 April 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 524.

[52 ]Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 20 July 2005.

[53] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 20 July 2005.

[54 ]NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 4.

[55 ]US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, 5th Edition, Washington DC, August 2004, p. 54; see also ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2004,” Geneva, June 2005, p. 39.

[56] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 14. For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 854; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 321; www.engenderhealth.org/ia/cbc/jordan.html, accessed 20 July 2005.

[57 ]Royal Medical Services, “Analytical Study,” Amman (undated but for 2004), p. 5.

[58 ]For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 321.

[59] Mine Action Support Group, Newsletter, March 2005, p. 13; Dalya Dajani, “New centre to provide advanced care for landmine victims,” Jordan Times, 10 January 2005; NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005-2009, June 2005, p. 15.

[60 ]Al-Hussein Society, “Annual Report 2004,” Amman, 2005, pp. 1-23.

[61 ]Interview with Adnan al-Aboudi, LSN, 20 April 2005; email from Adnan Al Aboudi, LSN, 28 April 2005. For more details of LSN projects, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 525.

[62] “Job opportunities for landmine survivors,” IRIN, Amman, 29 March 2005.

[63] Response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire by Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, Amman, 17 July 2005.

[64 ]Response to the Landmine Monitor Victim Assistance Questionnaire by Yasin al-Majali, NCDR, 17 July 2005.

[65] “King tours Raimoun Village and orders development plans,” Jordan Times, 29 January 2004.

[66 ]“Afghan Forces Raid North District For Feuding Commanders,” Associated Press (Kabul), 27 October 2004.

[67 ]Royal Medical Services, “Analytical Study,” Amman (undated for 2004), p. 4.

[68] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005–2009, June 2005, pp. 13-15; see also presentation by Jordan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 14 June 2005.

[69] NCDR, National Mine Action Plan 2005–2009, June 2005, p. 13.

[70 ]See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 900.

[71] Amman Declaration on Disability Legislation, Amman, Jordan, 16-17 March 2005.