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Bosnia and Herzegovina, Landmine Monitor Report 2007

Bosnia and Herzegovina

State Party since

1 March 1999

Treaty implementing legislation

Adopted: 29 December 2004

Last Article 7 report submitted on

April 2007

Article 4 (stockpile destruction)

Deadline: 1 March 2003

Completed: November 1999

Article 3 (mines retained)

Initially: 2,145

At end-2006: 1,708



Estimated area of contamination

1,820 km2

Article 5 (clearance of mined areas)

Deadline: 1 March 2009

Likelihood of meeting deadline


Demining progress in 2006

Mined area clearance: 3.3 km2 (2005: 4 km2)

Area cancellation/reduction: 236 km2 (2005: 219 km2)

MRE capacity

Adequate for children/public; inadequate for most at-risk

Mine/ERW casualties in 2006

Total: 35 (2005: 19)

Mines: 34 (2005: 19) ERW: 1 (2005: 0)

Casualty analysis

Killed: 18 (18 civilians) (2005: 10)

Injured: 17 (15 civilians, 2 deminers) (2005: 9)

Estimated mine/ERW survivors


Availability of services in 2006

Physical rehabilitation: unchanged-inadequate

Economic (re)integration: unchanged-inadequate

Laws and public policy: unchanged-inadequate

Other services: unchanged-adequate

Progress towards survivor assistance aims

Slow (VA24)

Mine action funding in 2006

International: $18,764,851€14,936,600

(2005: $15,262,225)

(BiH received 62% of UN Portfolio appeal)

National: $12,479,965/€9,933,109

Key developments since May 2006

BiH destroyed more than 14,700 MRUD Claymore-type mines discovered during weapon storage site inspections. BHMAC started revision of its 2005-2009 strategy. BiH noted it would not meet its Article 5 deadline and started preparing an extension request. Delays in EC tender procedures contributed to a drop in the amount of land cleared in 2006; progress lagged further behind the national plan in the first half of 2007. New national mine action legislation was drafted by the Demining Commission. There was less MRE due to decreased funding for MRE in schools. Handicap International handed over a school-based MRE project to education authorities.

Mine Ban Policy

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on 8 September 1998 and became a State Party on 1 March 1999.[1] On 29 December 2004 parliament approved an amendment to the criminal code, Article 193A, applying penal sanctions for violations of the treaty.[2]

In April 2007 BiH submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report for calendar year 2006. It utilized voluntary Form J to give additional information on mine clearance and victim assistance. BiH submitted seven previous Article 7 reports.[3]

BiH attended the Seventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2006 and the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2006 and April 2007 in Geneva. At these meetings it made statements on mine clearance, victim assistance, and stockpile destruction.

BiH has not participated in State Parties’ discussions of interpretations of Articles 1, 2 and 3 of the treaty. Thus, BiH has not expressed its views on mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices, or the permissible number of mines retained for training. However, BiH told Landmine Monitor in 2003 that BiH “will not participate in joint military operations with any forces planning, exercising or using antipersonnel mines.” It also said that BiH will not allow the storage or transit of antipersonnel mines belonging to other countries in or through its territory.[4]

BiH is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II on landmines. It attended the Eighth Annual Conference of States Parties to the protocol in November 2006 and submitted its annual report as required by Article 13 on 6 November 2006. BiH is not party to Protocol V on explosive remnants of war.

Production, Transfer, Use, and Illegal Stores

BiH has stated that production of antipersonnel mines ceased by 1995.[5] It has reported on the conversion of production facilities.[6] BiH is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines. After BiH joined the treaty, Landmine Monitor noted several cases of use of mines in criminal activities, but no such incidents have been reported since 2003.

Illegal stores of mines continued to be discovered and collected in 2006.[7] The Dayton Agreement allows international military forces to search for and collect illegally held weapons, including mines. Once seized or collected, mines and other weapons are held under international control until destroyed.[8] The European Force (EUFOR) took over from the Stabilization Force (SFOR) on 2 December 2004.

EUFOR continued to collect weapons from the population through Operation Harvest in 2006, and a total of 1,217 antipersonnel and antitank mines were found or handed over.[9] In February 2007 the European Union decided to reduce and reconfigure the EUFOR military presence in BiH. Since then EUFOR has not conducted any Operation Harvest activities, but it retains the right to do so.[10]

Mines found by the police and EUFOR are destroyed by either the Civil Protection agency or Norwegian People’s Aid under the supervision of EUFOR.[11] A EUFOR spokesperson told Landmine Monitor, “Civil Protection is the organization which co-ordinates the destruction of all seized weapons and ammunition. In order to carry out this task they are assisted by other organizations such as military EOD teams (including EUFOR EOD teams), non-government organizations, etc.”[12]

Stockpiling, Destruction and Retained Mines

BiH declared completion of its antipersonnel mine stockpile destruction program in November 1999, with a total of 460,727 mines destroyed. Destruction was carried out at various locations by the two Entity Armies with SFOR assistance. The stockpile consisted of 19 types of mines.[13] The number of destroyed stockpiled mines was amended to 460,925 in BiH’s May 2004 Article 7 report, to 461,634 in its May 2005 report, to 462,351 in its April 2006 report, and to 463,198 in its April 2007 report.[14] No explanation has been given for the changes. Presumably these are newly discovered stocks, mines turned in by the population, or illegal mines seized from criminal elements.[15]

At the Seventh Meeting of States Parties in September 2006, BiH reported that it had discovered more than 15,000 MRUD (Claymore-type) directional fragmentation mines during inspections of weapon storage sites.[16] These mines first appeared on BiH’s April 2006 Article 7 report under mines retained for training, though without an explanation of where they came from.[17] In September 2006 BiH stated that the mines are “designed to be used with an electrical initiation system,” and therefore are not considered antipersonnel mines under the Mine Ban Treaty.[18] However, it also noted that “since they are not adapted to ensure command-detonation, MRUD mines can be technically considered as anti-personnel mines.” BiH thus made a decision to destroy the mines. It said that “although it is in the spirit of BiH Foreign Policy, the mines should be destroyed for humanitarian reasons as well. Only by making such a decision and through elimination of all the mines that could be used as anti-personnel mines, BiH would show its full commitment to the aims of the Ottawa Convention.”[19]

At the April 2007 Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction meeting, BiH gave an update on the MRUD mines. It indicated that of the 15,269 mines that were discovered, 14,701 mines would be destroyed by mid-May 2007, 396 were transferred to EUFOR for training, 20 were donated to Germany, two were destroyed immediately and BiH intended to retain about 150 mines for training. The 14,701 mines were transported to a workshop in Doboj and by mid-April about 5,000 had been destroyed. According to BiH, “Representatives of UNDP, NATO, and the OSCE have controlled the whole process of destruction.”[20]

BiH’s Article 7 report for 2006 no longer listed the MRUD mines. At the end of 2006 BiH retained 1,708 mines for training purposes, including 1,550 antipersonnel mines and 158 MRUDs.[21] At the end of 2005 BiH reported 17,470 retained mines, including 1,299 active antipersonnel mines, 876 fuzeless mines and 15,295 MRUD mines.[22]

In its Article 7 report for 2006, in addition to not explaining the removal of the MRUD mines, BiH does not explain why the numbers of other mines have increased and decreased, or why some mines are no longer listed as fuzeless. A comparison of the 2007 and 2006 reports indicates that mines, other than MRUDs, held by demining operators have decreased by about 258, mines held by the BiH Army decreased by about 298, some 65 antivehicle mines are no longer listed, and some 849 mines are no longer listed as fuzeless.

 Of the 1,550 antipersonnel mines (other than MRUDs) reported as retained at the end of 2006, 700 are held by demining agencies, 557 by the BiH Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC), 281 by the BiH Mine Action Center (BHMAC), one by the BiH Armed Forces, and 11 by the Republika Srpska Civil Protection agency.[23]

BiH has stated that its retained mines are used for training of mine detection dogs.[24] While providing more facts about its retained mines, BiH has still not provided much detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of the mines, as agreed by States Parties at the First Review Conference in 2004. BiH did not use the new expanded Form D on retained mines agreed by States Parties at the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in 2005 in its Article 7 reports in 2006 or 2007.

Landmine and ERW Problem

BiH is heavily contaminated with landmines and explosive remnants of war (ERW), primarily as a result of the 1992-1995 conflict related to the break-up of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[25] Mines were used extensively along confrontation lines, which moved frequently, leaving contamination that is extensive and generally low density.

Most minefields are in the zone of separation between the two entities, which is 1,100 kilometers long and up to four kilometers wide. In southern and central BiH, mines were often used randomly, with little record-keeping. Some of the affected territory is mountainous or heavily forested, but the fertile agricultural belt in Brčko District is one of the most heavily contaminated areas.

BHMAC reported at the end of 2006 that more than 1,889 square kilometers (3.7 percent of BiH territory) was suspected to be contaminated.[26] However, the BiH Mine Action Plan 2007, using what officials said were more up to date figures, identified 18,600 mined areas covering 1,820 square kilometers.[27]

BiH’s Mid-Term Development Strategy 2004-2007 describes the country as among the seven most mine-impacted countries in the world and the most severely impacted in Europe. It states that 85 percent of communities affected by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) are rural and that poverty and mine-contamination are directly correlated.[28]

Mine Action Program

The Demining Commission under the BiH Ministry of Civil Affairs and Communication supervises the state-wide BiH Mine Action Center and represents BiH in its relations with the international community on mine-related issues. The Commission’s three members, representing the three ethnic groups in BiH, propose the appointment of BHMAC senior staff for approval by the Council of Ministers, report to the Council on mine action, approve the accreditation of demining organizations and facilitate cooperation between the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and Republika Srpska (RS).[29] The Commission mobilizes funds for mine action in cooperation with the Board of Donors, which includes the embassies of donor governments, the European Commission (EC), UN and the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF).[30]

BHMAC is responsible for regulating mine action and implementing BiH’s demining plan, including accreditation of all mine action organizations. It is supported by part-time UN Development Programme (UNDP) and UNICEF advisors. BHMAC operates from its headquarters through two mine action offices, formerly autonomous entity mine action centers, and eight regional offices. The two entity offices deal with regional offices on planning, survey and quality control/assurance. Quality assurance inspectors are based in the regional offices. [31]

BHMAC uses its own database, built up over many years; data collected during the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) in 2003 was entered into the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database and the two databases were merged in 2005-2006.[32]

The Demining Law of 2002 created the present framework managing mine action in BiH, ending the autonomy previously enjoyed by entity mine action centers.[33] In 2005 the Demining Commission drafted, with UNDP support, a new law to update the management structure and allocation of responsibilities between the government, entity and state levels. It proposed that the state procurement agency should control expenditure of mine action funds, and create a mechanism for funding mine action at entity and state levels in order to increase domestic resources and provide a sustainable financial basis for mine action. After delays caused by October 2006 elections and formation of a new government, the Demining Commission expected to complete work on the draft law by September 2007. The Ministry of Civil Affairs would present the draft to parliament to be enacted.[34]

BHMAC claims that mine action in BiH “is conducted in accordance with all appropriate international conventions and standards.” There are 15 national standards based on international standards.[35] BHMAC accredits two independent monitoring organizations to carry out external quality assurance who are employed by and report directly to the ITF. All demining organizations also have their own internal quality assurance controllers.[36] The final quality control is undertaken by BHMAC inspectors.[37]

Strategic Mine Action Planning

The mine action strategy for 2005-2009, approved by the Council of Ministers in 2004, aimed to connect mine action to development programs. The government’s Mid-Term Development Strategy 2004-2007 also identified mine action as a priority sector and aimed to increase its access to financial resources. However, only a few development sectors included mine action as a priority.[38] The 2005-2009 strategy planned to clear 21 square kilometers of “priority 1” area in highly impacted communities, to release 53 square kilometers through technical survey, to conduct general survey on 510 square kilometers and to carry out systematic survey on 716 square kilometers of land.[39]

BHMAC started to revise the 2005-2009 strategy in May 2006 and expected to complete this by the end of 2007. The revised strategy will provide the basis for BiH’s request for an extension to its Article 5 treaty deadline; it will revisit the initial findings of the 2003 LIS to identify what has been achieved and how many people and communities remain mine-affected.[40]

BHMAC’s annual plans have consistently raised targets for clearance and survey but funding has not always been sufficient to achieve the targets.[41] In 2007 BHMAC planned to clear 5.5 square kilometers of suspected area (compared with 4.9 square kilometers in the 2006 plan), to release by technical survey 16.5 square kilometers (11.7 square kilometers in 2006) and to conduct general survey on 133.5 square kilometers (124.6 square kilometers in 2006). The amount of systematic survey planned for 2007 was 184.23 square kilometers.[42]

In 2006 BHMAC prepared 25 community-integrated mine action plans (CIMAPs) for clearing highly impacted communities. Demining organizations completed nine CIMAPs.[43] At the April 2007 Standing Committee meetings BiH reported CIMAPs had achieved good results and that it would prepare 25 CIMAPs for high and medium impacted communities in 2007.[44]

UNDP’s Integrated Mine Action Program (IMAP), revised in early 2006, includes three components: capacity development to give the government full ownership of mine action by the program’s end in December 2008, including the transfer of financial responsibility to the BiH government; clearance of up to 1.5 square kilometers of mined land selected for its value to development and to returnees, and assistance to army demining teams. In mid-2006 the BiH government was said to have increased its funding of mine action in line with IMAP.[45]

Evaluations of Mine Action

A 2006 review of IMAP by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) found that the 2002 Demining Law, the LIS and the formulation of a coherent mid-term strategy “provided a much firmer foundation for Bosnia’s national mine action programme and created opportunities for performance improvement.”[46] It noted that BHMAC has produced demining strategies and annual plans, made the transition to near-complete local management (from the 40-plus international advisors in 1998), and increased local funding and refined the process by which priority tasks are established. The chief flaw in BiH’s strategy was that it was overambitious and unrealistic in terms of available financial resources, which undermined confidence in the strategy among donors and local governments. The review concluded that continued donor support was necessary, and should include support of the institutional framework as well as demining operations, but this was to be contingent on the establishment of a senior position responsible for strategic management within the Ministry of Civil Affairs and Communication.[47]


The main demining organizations in 2006 were the BiH Armed Forces and Civil Protection agencies, the NGOs Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) and STOP Mines, INTERSOS, Canadian International Demining Corps (CIDC), BH Demining, Pro Vita and UG ZOM and the commercial companies Roehll, Amphibia, N&N Ivsa and UXB Balkans. Only 28 of the 33 accredited organizations conducted clearance operations in 2006 and 20 carried out technical survey.[48] One NGO, Handicap International (HI), was accredited for demining in May 2006.[49]

BHMAC registered 2,830 demining personnel but only 1,835 were licensed to work, including 1,189 deminers and paramedics and 128 managers and administrative staff. Demining organizations had 51 accredited mine detection dog teams and 36 machines. They also deployed 65 surveyors in 33 teams capable of surveying 35 square kilometers a year.[50]

During the reporting period, dogs from the Mine Detection Dog Center (MDDC) were engaged for eight months in Albania with the NGO DanChurchAid. Dogs and handlers were also hired out to demining organizations in BiH, Serbia and Kosovo. The Marshall Legacy Institute (USA) funded the training of 10 new dog teams at the MDDC, six teams for the local NGOs STOP Mines and BH Demining and four for the Azerbaijan National Agency for Mine Action (ANAMA). The Slovenian government and ANAMA funded the training of another four dog teams for Azerbaijan. The commercial company N&N Ivsa funded the training of two mine detection dogs for its own use.[51]

Identification of Affected Areas

Identification of mined areas in BiH has been ongoing since 1998, by means of general assessment, systematic survey, LIS, technical survey and other means including collection of wartime records; it remained incomplete by mid-2006. In view of the widespread and random nature of mine contamination in BiH, identification activities have been deemed particularly important.[52]

BHMAC’s estimate of the total area potentially contaminated by mines and UXO has fallen from 2,300 square kilometers at the end of 2003 to 2,146.7 square kilometers (4.14 percent of BiH territory) at the end of 2005 and 1,820 square kilometers (approximately 3.6 percent of BiH territory) at the end of 2006.[53] BHMAC has records for 18,600 minefields in its database which represents only about 60 percent of all minefields, due to the unreliability of wartime records.[54]

Mine/UXO Suspected Area in BiH as of 1 January 2007[55]

Level of community impact

Category 1


Category 2


Category 3


Total suspected area (km2)





















A reassessment of minefield records by BHMAC completed in June 2006 showed that the various factions in the war possessed only one million landmines compared with previous claims of three to six million mines. During the past nine years, 461,000 stockpiled mines have been destroyed and 39,200 mines were cleared from minefields. Thus, according to BHMAC analysis, there remain some 500,000 mines in the ground.[56]

BHMAC had lacked sufficient surveyors to keep pace with the expansion of demining activity for most of 2005, but staff increases allowed a big increase in the amount of survey in 2006: general survey of 2,251 locations totaling 117.2 square kilometers (94.11 percent of plan), was up from 1,647 locations/64.4 square kilometers in 2005. BHMAC surveyed 1,242 new locations, re-surveyed 564 locations and identified 445 locations as being without obvious risk.[57]

Although there are doubts as to accuracy, BHMAC claims that mine action released 239 square kilometers of land in 2006.[58] Most of this was released by survey: 235.8 square kilometers, up from 218.64 square kilometers in 2005.[59]

Marking and Fencing

Under standing operating procedures for technical survey issued by BHMAC in 2003, an area where mines are detected is marked by semi-permanent or permanent fences.[60] Marking and fencing activity, however, has consistently fallen short of targets due to lack of local authority funding and lack of interest by international donors. The inclusion of fencing and marking in CIMAPs is thought likely to result in more funding for this activity.[61]

In 2006 BHMAC initiated 45 permanent marking projects to put up signs on 4.9 square kilometers of suspected area. BHMAC surveyors also put up 10,225 urgent/temporary marking signs and NGOs as part of mine risk education activities put up 3,313 urgent/temporary signs. In 2007 BHMAC planned to undertake 105 permanent marking/fencing projects putting 2,823 signs in place and to achieve the annual target of 35 square kilometers.[62]

Mine/ERW Clearance

A total of 3.3 square kilometers of land was manually cleared in 2006, only two-thirds of the amount planned and substantially less than in 2005 and 2004. Surprisingly, BHMAC reported no battle area clearance for 2006 nor the destruction of any abandoned explosive ordnance. BHMAC data differs in many instances from that provided by operators. BHMAC attributed the shortfall to major delays in EC tender procedures and failure to implement projects submitted to the ITF. BHMAC submitted 140 clearance and technical survey projects totaling 4.3 square kilometers to the ITF, including 81 clearance tasks (1.6 square kilometers) and 59 technical survey tasks (2,632,065 square meters). Another 79 tasks submitted in 2006 were to be implemented in 2007.[63]

Demining in BiH in 2006[64]


Mined area clearance


APMs destroyed

AVMs destroyed



Area reduced or cancelled








STOP Mines






BH Demining






























UG Demira


















UG Mine Action Group












Brčko District Civil Protection






FBiH Civil







RS Civil Protection






BiH Armed Forces



















The Demining Brigade of the Armed Forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina (AFBiH) constitutes the biggest demining agency in BiH, operating with 560 personnel and 34 demining teams, including two in reserve, and supported by both mechanical assets and mine detection dogs. In 2007 the Demining Brigade planned to expand to 611 full-time and 36 active reserve members.[65]

AFBiH reported that it conducted clearance and technical survey on 2.2 square kilometers in 2006, almost double 2005.[66] The improvement followed an agreement with EUFOR in December 2005 to demine a minimum of 2.1 square kilometers in 2006.[67] EUFOR reported 625,582 square meters of clearance and 1,572,444 square meters of technical survey on suspected land (106.6 percent) with manual, mechanical and dog assets.[68]

Demining by the military has been under the supervision of SFOR and then EUFOR since 1996.[69] In 2006 EUFOR reported AFBiH shortcomings, including insufficient care, control, organization and management at task sites resulting in disorganized demining, lack of deadlines for clearance, failure to use resources to their full potential, and insufficient logistical organization and support.[70] However, the European Union decided to reduce its military force in BiH and EUFOR handed over complete control of demining to AFBiH in September 2006. In March 2007 it closed its Mines Information Coordination Cell which had been in charge of overseeing demining by the military since 1996. EUFOR’s mechanical demining assets were due to be handed over to the AFBiH in September 2007.[71]

In August 2006 EUFOR engineers assisted the BINAS factory in Bugojno in disposing of munitions including 40 antitank mines, 137,072 unstable detonators and other weapons.[72] In July 2006, acting on a tip, EUFOR forces found and removed a large cache of weapons hidden in a wooded area near Misevina, including three large boxes of mortars, antipersonnel mines and antitank mines.[73]

Commercial demining companies cleared 873,432 square meters in 2006, little more than half the amount they cleared in 2005. They technically surveyed 1.3 square kilometers, a small increase from 2005.[74]

Norwegian People’s Aid, with a total of 143 staff, including 54 deminers, reported that it cleared 105,635 square meters in 2006 and technically surveyed 178,169 square meters. It worked mainly on land for housing, power infrastructure, agriculture, roads and water systems. It also cleared eight houses totaling 1,490 square meters. NPA conducted a general survey of 33.6 square kilometers for BHMAC, of which 19 square kilometers was considered as mine suspected area and 14.6 square kilometers was cancelled. NPA explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams operated in Sarajevo canton and Brčko District, disposing of 1,311 antipersonnel mines, 62 antitank mines, 40 cluster submunitions, 665 detonators and, 3,004 fuzes.[75]

STOP Mines, a local NGO with 53 demining personnel in four teams, six dog teams and one mechanical team, cleared or area-reduced 347,060 square meters in 2006 and technically surveyed 257,234 square meters of mostly agricultural land. They carried out five tasks in one CIMAP jointly with the commercial company UXB.[76]

UG ZOM, with 14 staff, reported it cleared 93,108 square meters of land for infrastructure and agriculture in 2006 and technically surveyed 22,401 square meters.[77] UEM undertook five projects linked to tourism, urban and rural areas, infrastructure and a housing project for returnees, using mine detection dogs provided by UXB.[78] UEM’s tasks included clearing 53,673 square meters on the former Sarajevo Winter Olympics site of Mount Trebevic.[79]

The Italian NGO INTERSOS, with 19 deminers, cleared 54,192 square meters and technically surveyed 186,119 square meters covering mainly dense woods, high slopes and agricultural land.[80]

Handicap International began demining operations in BiH in 2006, clearing 77,556 square meters of housing and agricultural land, releasing 30 houses and farmland. HI had 34 personnel engaged in its demining operation including 24 deminers in three teams. It awarded mechanical ground clearance contracts to other accredited organizations. HI put up 50 temporary mine marking signs and 2.5 kilometers of permanent fencing.[81]

Demining in the first half of 2007 continued to fall far short of targets because of the lack of financial support and delays in tendering procedures. A total of 61.4 square kilometers was released by clearance and survey, one-third of the annual target (184.2 square kilometers). Mine clearance accounted for just 2.35 square kilometers, 10 percent of the annual target, and the remaining 59 square kilometers was canceled by systematic survey. Operators area-reduced 648,014 square meters, less than 12 percent of the annual target.[82]

Summary of Efforts to Comply with Article 5

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, BiH is required to destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but no later than 1 March 2009. However, BiH acknowledged at the April 2007 Standing Committee meetings that it “will not be in a position to completely fulfill obligations stated under Article 5” and had started preparing an extension request.[83] BiH’s current mine action strategy for 2005-2009 aims only to reduce the mine/UXO risk and its associated socioeconomic impact “to an acceptable level.”[84]

Mine Risk Education

BHMAC estimated that 31,021 people received mine risk education (MRE) in 2006, a slight reduction from 2005 (33,065 people).[85] MRE is a mandatory subject in RS, Brčko district and in five of the 10 FBiH cantons.[86] In 2006 BHMAC did not record the number of schoolchildren receiving MRE, which falls under the responsibility of the entity ministries of education.[87] UNICEF funding for MRE in schools was less than 10 percent of 2005 funding levels.[88]

Ten organizations delivered MRE in BiH in 2006, according to BHMAC, including local and international NGOs Anti Mine Initiative, Genesis, Posavina Bez Mina, Spirit of Soccer, Handicap International, Red Cross Society BiH (RCSBiH), Civil Protection agencies and EUFOR. INTERSOS and Norwegian People’s Aid provided community liaison as part of their demining operations.[89]

MRE is an integrated component of mine action planning in BiH. BHMAC is responsible for its coordination through the MRE Policy Board, the MRE Implementation Committee and technical working groups.[90] However, under the 2002 Demining Law BHMAC has no legal responsibility for coordinating MRE; in mid-2007 the law was under revision to include all mine action pillars.[91]  In 2006 BHMAC developed standard operating procedures for MRE including integrated community mine action, based on international standards and assisted by UNICEF. Handicap International supported BHMAC in accrediting MRE organizations; BHMAC received 17 applications of which 15 fulfilled the requirements but none had received official accreditation by June 2007.[92] According to BHMAC’s MRE strategy 2005-2006, accreditation of MRE organizations and all elements of an MRE quality assurance system should have been established by the end of 2005.[93]

STOP Mines provided the only basic MRE instructor training in 2006, for 28 participants.[94]  UNICEF supported MRE management training for commercial and NGO demining organizations including the Red Cross Society BiH, and an advanced MRE management training course for BHMAC.[95]

The main at-risk groups are adults who enter marked areas to engage in livelihood activities including firewood cutting, herding and hunting. No MRE specifically targeting these groups was reported in 2006. BHMAC reported that in the future “all mine risk education organizations along with national authorities and local forestry management, need to adjust their programmes and activities to provide necessary education to group of these people.”[96] However the 2005-2008 MRE strategy already recognized these groups as “under the highest possible mine threat.”[97] The number of child casualties has decreased significantly over time and no child casualties were reported in 2006.[98]

Since 2004 Community Integrated Mine Action Plans have contained MRE developed through community participation in mine-affected areas; in 2006, 82 integrated plans including MRE were developed and four plans were made for municipalities.[99]

In December 2006 Handicap International completed its three-year project to develop sustainable MRE capacity in BiH schools and handed over the MRE schools program to the 13 ministries of education in BiH. The ministries were expected to introduce the MRE course into school curricula to reach 200,000 young adults annually from the school year beginning September 2007. The course had been planned to begin in school year 2006-2007. But, following a pilot study draft materials were revised prior to validation by the ministries in October 2006. Pedagogic Institutes were trained to provide teacher training in MRE for the program.[100]

Landmine and ERW Casualties

In 2006 BHMAC reported 35 new mine/ERW casualties (18 people killed and 17 injured) in 19 incidents; all casualties were adults, including two deminers. One woman was killed by a cluster submunition; the other casualties were caused by landmines. Most casualties occurred in marked mine hazard areas where the mine marking signs were often ignored by people engaging in economic activities.[101] This is an increase from 19 landmine/UXO casualties reported by BHMAC in 2005 (10 killed and nine injured) but yet less than the 43 casualties reported in 2004. 2006 marked the first reversal in declining annual casualty rates since 2000.[102]

Casualties continued to be reported in 2007 with 14 casualties (five killed and nine injured) as of 29 June. All were adults, including two women and two deminers (one killed and one injured in a mine clearance accident in Vogošća in June).[103]

In Lebanon in 2006, one Bosnian deminer was injured in a clearance accident.[104]

Data Collection

BHMAC has been responsible for maintenance of the former Red Cross casualty database since 2005 and for creating a unified database; however, the Red Cross Society BiH continued to operate its database due to a lack of capacity at BHMAC, and in 2006 there continued to be four separate mine/ERW casualty or survivor databases.[105] Making the unified database operational was a BHMAC priority for 2007.[106] Seven sources of casualty data, including the Landmine Impact survey (LIS), have been submitted to BHMAC, totaling 12,226 records requiring verification in late 2007 by the Red Cross in cooperation with the NGO HOPE 87 and coordinated by BHMAC; all survivors were to be visited.[107] Funding to establish the national database was secured from the Swiss Cooperation Office in BiH.[108] The unified database will be integrated into the health information system by 2009 for the coordination and planning of survivor assistance activities.[109] However, the health information system also requires improvement, as it does not collect information on service coverage for people with disabilities or information for policy decisions.[110]

By September 2006 the BHMAC database contained information on 4,992 mine/ERW casualties since 1992, including 1,577 casualties since 1996 (463 killed, 1,114 injured); however, this database is also pending verification.[111] The total number of mine/ERW survivors is not known. There reportedly are more than 2,280 mine/ERW survivors who suffered amputations.[112]

Survivor Assistance

There are four different schemes to support people with disabilities in BiH; regulations can vary between cantons.[113] According to the European Commission, war veterans and their families continued to receive privileged treatment.[114] In FBiH military mine survivors have the right to compensation, free healthcare and replacement prostheses through the Ministry of War Veterans. On average, veterans receive benefits that are about five times that of civilian victims of war.[115] In 2006 RS civilian war survivors’ benefits were increased by 30 percent bringing them to about 75 percent of military benefits. [116]

BiH has a healthcare network, including general hospitals and clinical centers providing physical medicine and rehabilitation, which is able to respond to mine/ERW survivor assistance needs.[117] However, inequality of access to healthcare and gaps between the quality of urban and rural services are growing.[118] Health services are free of charge for people with life threatening conditions or with medical insurance, but approximately 50 percent of people with disabilities do not have health insurance.[119] Emergency care and transport are available to all health centers; in 2006 intervention time for emergency care was reduced and the number of ambulances increased, with funding from Japan.[120] Personnel are reportedly sufficiently trained but could benefit from additional international education.

Community-based rehabilitation centers provide free services to war veterans including mine survivors; all clinics have basic orthopedic and mobility devices. Orthopedic workshops reportedly provide sufficient coverage.[121] But the standards of services vary, are not all equally accessible, and most beneficiaries are not treated by a complete rehabilitation team. People with disabilities are legally entitled to prosthetic and orthopedic services, of which the government covers 85 percent of the cost, but this legislation was not always implemented.[122] Most prosthetic technicians lack training to international standards.[123]

Psychological support is available through state-run mental health facilities working in conjunction with community-based rehabilitation centers; it is also provided in psychiatric clinics and through peer support groups. Child mine survivors have access to mainstream education.[124] There is a lack of specialized educational opportunities. The vast majority of people with disabilities are unemployed. Employers are legally obliged to keep people with disabilities in the job they performed before being disabled or provide an alternative. BiH has sports clubs for people with disabilities including mine survivors.[125]

Both FBiH and RS have legislation prohibiting discrimination against people with disabilities, but implementation is weak.[126] As of 31 July 2007 BiH had not signed the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. BiH representatives of Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) attended meetings negotiating the convention in 2006. [127]

Progress in Meeting VA24 Survivor Assistance Objectives

At the First Review Conference in Nairobi, BiH was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors and “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation, and reintegration of survivors.[128]  BiH presented its 2005-2009 objectives for the Sixth Meeting of States Parties in 2005.

In September 2006 at the Seventh Meeting of States Parties BiH reported progress on only two of the objectives, increased equipment and training for emergency medical care and the further progress towards a unified victim assistance database.[129] At the April 2007 Standing Committee meetings more progress was reported, but only three of the 14 objectives were time-bound and no clear responsibilities were assigned.[130]

BiH received support from the victim assistance specialist of the Mine Ban Treaty Implementation Support Unit (ISU) in 2006 and early 2007.[131] The First National Mine Victim Assistance Workshop, Defining Priorities for Mine Victims Assistance, in Sarajevo in February 2007 was supported by Austria as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, the ISU victim assistance specialist and the ITF.[132] Challenges identified included inappropriate allocation of financial resources, lack of government initiative, slow and substandard reporting and poor communication between NGOs and government.[133] Participants, including entity ministries of health, BHMAC, NGOs and mine survivors, were tasked to develop a plan to achieve BiH’s objectives in 2007-2009. However, after the meeting it was reported that more effort was needed to “develop an actual action plan,” and as of late April 2007 BiH’s objectives had not been amended to reflect the outcomes of the workshop.[134]

In voluntary Form J of its 2007 Article 7 report BiH included casualty information but did not provide an update of survivor assistance objectives and planning.

Progress on BiH’s Nairobi Action Plan Victim Assistance Objectives[135]




Assigned to

Plans to achieve



in 2006-2007



Standardize VA information system



Unify/verify data

VA database

developed; NGO roles defined

Integrate casualty data collection into nationwide injury surveillance




 No progress reported

Improve information reliability, monitoring, and complexity




 No progress reported

Emergency/ continuing medical care

Reduce response times




Increased training/ ambulances; reduced intervention time

Improve coordination between providers





Develop victim assistance manuals

No progress


Physical rehabilitation

Provide every mine survivor with quality prosthetics and

rehabilitation as needed




Standardize services; develop guidelines; establish P&O licensing body; integrate P&O education into schooling

 No progress reported

Psychological support and social reintegration

Access to psychological support for every mine survivor



Use CBR capacity to provide services and information

No progress


Integrate PWD in community mental health




 No progress reported

Access to regular education for children with disabilities




No progress reported

Psychological support and social reintegration (cont)

Improved training/regulations for economic reintegration of PWD



Improve resource allocation of Employment Fund for PWDs in RS; implement employment laws in both Entities; PWD inclusion in economic reintegration process

No progress reported

Facilitate vocational training, economic reintegration for mine survivors



Raise awareness among employers



Laws and Public




Full reintegration of survivors




 N/A - not measurable

Raise awareness about needs




No progress reported

Enact laws for rights and benefits of PWD



Create unified rights

Support for disability policy development provided by Finland

Survivor Assistance Strategic Framework

Survivor assistance is a sub-strategy of BHMAC’s Mine Action Strategy 2005-2009.[136] BHMAC reported that it had no legal responsibility to undertake survivor assistance coordination under the 2002 demining law, although it was planned to change this in revised legislation.[137] BHMAC has, however, coordinated survivor assistance through the Landmine Victim Assistance (LMVA) coordination group, which is composed of government departments and agencies as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)/Red Cross societies, UNICEF and NGOs.[138] At the beginning of 2006 a Landmine Victim Assistance Board was established as the “operative body of [the] Coordination Group.”[139] As of July 2007 victim assistance in BiH was to be coordinated through one body that will meet quarterly.[140] 

The BHMAC victim assistance plan for 2006 aimed to improve coordination of activities, introduce standards for prosthetics by the end of the year and increase employment training for survivors.[141] BiH also reported a need to strengthen interministerial communication on survivor assistance and include the entity ministries of education.[142]

The FBiH Ministry of Labor and Social Policy and the RS Ministry of Health and Social Welfare are primarily responsible for disability policy in BiH.[143] They, as well as the canton ministries of health, coordinate their activities through a department of the Federal Ministry of Civil Affairs.[144]

In total 1,294 survivors were assisted in 2006 by the following organizations. LSN assisted 680 survivors with multiple services (28 received medical assistance including devices, 247 economic reintegration assistance, 66 material support, 150 sports and cultural activities, and 723 peer and psychosocial support visits were carried out). Hope 87 assisted at least 368 people with medical, psychosocial and material support. Mercy Corps Scotland with the Red Cross Society BiH provided 90 mine survivors and their families with economic reintegration assistance in the form of small business expansions. The Amputee Association (Udruzenje Amputiraca, UDAS) provided computer training and material or financial assistance to at least 55 members. STOP Mines distributed interest-free loans to 36 survivors and four received electric wheelchairs. Eco-Sports provided sporting activities, primarily diving, to 27 survivors. At least 12 young mine survivors from BiH participated in camps offering psychosocial rehabilitation in Croatia. Services at the Institute of Rehabilitation in Slovenia were provided to 22 BiH mine survivors.[145]

Response International provides primary medical care and psychosocial support to conflict victims; it refers mine survivors to appropriate service providers.[146] ICRC continued technical and financial support for the Red Cross Society BiH emergency response units, including first-aid.[147]

International support for prosthetics training continued in 2006 with 18 trainees graduating (with ISPO II accreditation) from Prosthetic Distance Learning Education Program for the Balkan region organized by the US-based Center for International Rehabilitation; the program then ended.[148] Three specialists from Tuzla received prosthetics and orthotics technology training at the Institute of Rehabilitation in Slovenia in 2006.[149]

HOPE 87 launched a project in March 2007 to train doctors and other health professionals in pain therapy in cooperation with the entity ministries of health.[150]

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) has community-based outreach workers and support groups in several mine-affected provinces. In 2006 LSN organized a pilot roundtable in Bijeljina (RS) for prosthetics and orthotics centers, health professionals, ministries, mine survivors and other service users, as a follow-up to the LSN 2005 survey of clients’ satisfaction with prosthetic devices.[151]

Handicap International continued to conduct the SHARE-SEE Program (Self Help and Advocacy for Rights and Equal Opportunities in South East Europe), to raise awareness, strengthen disability organizations and promote equal opportunities and full participation of people with disabilities in the community.[152]

According to BiH’s objectives regarding the Nairobi Action Plan, disability legislation is to be enacted within the framework of the poverty reduction strategy and the European Union stabilization and integration process.[153] The European Union reported that no progress had been made in 2006.[154] However, Finnish support was received for a multi-year project to develop a comprehensive disability policy.[155]

Organizations implementing survivor assistance and disability programs were reported in last year’s Landmine Monitor.[156]

Funding and Assistance

In 2006 international donations totaling $18,764,851 (€14,936,600) for mine action in BiH were reported by 14 countries and the European Commission (EC), an increase of 23 percent from 2005 ($15,262,225 provided by 15 countries).[157] Donors contributing funds in 2006 were:

  • Austria: €451,506 ($567,227) consisting of €1,506 to HOPE 87 for victim assistance, and €450,000 via ITF for mine clearance;[158]
  • Belgium: €100,000 ($125,630) via ITF for mine clearance in Sarajevo;[159]
  • Canada: C$1,781,553 ($1,570,973) consisting of C$50,000 to CIDC for mine clearance, C$65,385 to CIDC for mine detection dogs, C$120,000 to UNICEF for MRE, C$346,168 to CIDC for mine clearance, technical survey and MRE, and C$1,200,000 to UNDP for mine clearance;[160]
  • EC: €3 million ($3,768,900), consisting of €1,360,000 to STOP Mines, BH Demining and Demira for victim assistance, €340,000 to Mercy Corps for victim assistance, and €1,300,000 for mine clearance;[161]
  • Germany: €2,272,000 ($2,854,314) consisting of €200,000 to HI for mine clearance, €300,000 via ITF for technical survey in Domaljevac Samac, and €1,772,000 via ITF for mine clearance;[162]
  • Italy: €434,500 ($545,862) for mine clearance and capacity-building;[163]
  • Luxembourg: €177,714 ($223,262) to local partners for MRE;[164]
  • Netherlands: €500,000 ($628,150) to UNDP for BHMAC capacity-building;[165]
  • Norway: NOK17,159,203 ($2,676,836) to NPA for mine action;[166]
  • Poland: €50,000 ($62,815) to BHMAC for mine action;[167]
  • Slovenia: SIT61,162,997 ($318,048) via ITF for mine action;[168]
  • Spain: €180,000 ($226,134) for training;[169]
  • Sweden: SEK5 million ($678,500) to BHMAC for unspecified mine action;[170]
  • Switzerland: CHF900,000 ($718,200) consisting of CHF400,000 to LSN and CHF500,000 via ITF to NPA for mine action;[171]
  • US: $3,800,000 matching funds via ITF for mine action.[172]

France reported in-kind technical assistance to BiH but did not specify its value.[173] France also reported contributing €38,137 ($47,912) for victim assistance in Southeast Europe in 2006, including Albania, BiH, Kosovo and Macedonia; amounts for each country were not specified.[174] Poland reported in-kind contributions of demining personnel but did not specify its value.[175]

BHMAC reported that international donors, including countries and international organizations and agencies, contributed BAM24,866,030 ($15,461,697) for mine action in BiH in 2006.[176]

The 2006 end-year review of the UN’s Portfolio of Mine Action Projects reported that BiH received 62 percent of funds ($4,544,787) requested through the appeal process in 2006. It commented that clearance of six square kilometers of priority mine-affected land was not carried out due to funding shortfalls.[177]

ITF allocated $14,741,465 or 51.1 percent of its funds in 2006 to mine action in BiH, an increase from 2005 ($13,594,458). Some 63 percent of ITF funding for BiH was spent on mine clearance, 27 percent on structure support, seven percent on victim assistance, one percent on MRE, under one percent on training and two percent on “other.”[178]

The 2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects included 14 project appeals for BiH totaling $6,845,897, of which $690,000 had been funded by November 2006.[179]

National Contribution to Mine Action

BHMAC reported BAM44,936,736 ($27,941,662) in total funding for mine action in 2006, with about 45 percent (BAM20,070,706/$12,479,965) contributed by national and local authorities.[180]

BHMAC informed Landmine Monitor that BiH made in-kind contributions totaling BAM4,366,685 ($2,715,205) covering part of the costs of mine action center premises, staff salaries, equipment and running costs, and MRE. BHMAC’s annual costs of BAM5,704,792 were funded by the government (BAM4,366,685/$2,715,205), UNDP (BAM1,321,837/$821,918), and UNICEF (BAM16,270/$10,117).[181]

[1] BiH is composed of two entities and an autonomous district: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), Republika Srpska (RS) and Brčko District.

[2]Official Gazette of BiH, No. 61/04. The law forbids the development, production, storage, transportation, offer for sale or purchase of antipersonnel mines. The penalty for such offenses is between one and 10 years’ imprisonment. If death or injury occurs to people or animals, or if there is damage to the environment, the person or people involved shall be punished by imprisonment of no less than five years or by a long-term prison sentence.

[3] Previous reports were submitted on 30 May 2006, 6 May 2005, 17 May 2004, 1 April 2003, 20 May 2002, 1 September 2001 and 1 February 2000.

[4] Fax from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 29 April 2003.

[5] Interview with members of the Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 30 January 2003. BiH inherited the mine production facilities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in Goražde, Vogošcá, Bugojno and Konjic.

[6] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 193; Article 7 Report, Form E, April 2007.

[7] In August 2006, for example, EU troops raided a house and found “landmines” and other weapons, resulting in the arrest of three men. “EU troops find illegal weapons in northwest Bosnia; 3 men charged,” Associated Press, 3 August 2006. The media and EUFOR reported in July 2006 that a large quantity of antipersonnel mines had been found in a wood near Misevena. EUFOR later informed Landmine Monitor that only detonators and explosives were found. Email from Lt. Commander Neil Mathieson, EUFOR, Sarajevo, 23 April 2007.

[8] Interview with Lt. Col. Hans Ahlqvist, Chief, Countermines Section, Capt. Gareth Bowering, Countermines Section, and Zeljko Kalinac, Field Officer, EUFOR, Sarajevo, 24 March 2006. EUFOR Joint Military Affairs is in charge of a range of issues including maintaining a record of items stored in military sites, and weapons and ammunition disposal. “Joint Military Affairs (JMA) in EUFOR,” EUFOR Forum, Special Edition, December 2005, www.euforbih.org, accessed 27 January 2006.

[9] Email from Lt. Commander Neil Mathieson, EUFOR, 23 April 2007. Operation Harvest began as an SFOR initiative in 1998 to collect unregistered weapons, mines, explosives and other ordnance from private holdings, in cooperation with local police, under amnesty conditions. From 1998 to late 2006, about 38,500 landmines were collected. “Peacekeepers collect 400 hand grenades in Bosnian towns,” Agence France-Presse (Sarajevo), 29 November 2006.

[10] Email from Lt. Commander Neil Mathieson, EUFOR, 23 April 2007. A demining official told Landmine Monitor that mines found or confiscated by the police and EUFOR are counted in the Civil Protection numbers of destroyed mines. Interview with Ahdin Orahovac, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 26 March 2007.

[11] Interview with Ahdin Orahovac, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 26 March 2007.

[12] Email from Lt. Commander Neil Mathieson, EUFOR, 23 April 2007. EOD = explosive ordnance disposal.

[13] Article 7 Report, Forms D and G, 1 February 2000.

[14] Article 7 Reports, Form G, April 2007, 30 May 2006, 6 May 2005 and 17 May 2004.

[15] In 2003 SFOR found very large additional quantities of antipersonnel mines among old munitions, after the entity armies requested assistance with downsizing military storage sites and dealing with old munitions in storage. An SFOR publication reported that several hundred thousand antipersonnel mines were awaiting destruction at these sites. By March 2004 2,574 antipersonnel mines, 31,920 antivehicle mines and 302,832 detonators had been destroyed. Landmine Monitor has been unable to obtain updated information on further destruction or new discoveries at storage sites of antipersonnel mines. The BiH government has not formally reported the existence of these newly discovered stocks of antipersonnel mines, has not provided details on numbers and types of mines, and has not made known the timetable for destruction of the mines. See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 202.

[16] This had previously been reported to the Landmine Monitor by a UN Development Programme (UNDP) official in June 2006, who said the mines were found during weapons storage site downsizing efforts. Email from Seid Turkovic, UNDP Sarajevo, 23 June 2006.

[17] Article 7 Report, Forms D and J, 30 May 2006.

[18] Statement by Amira Arifovic-Harms, Counselor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 20 September 2006. Use of Claymore-type mines in command-detonated mode is permitted under the Mine Ban Treaty, but use in victim-activated mode (with a tripwire) is prohibited.

[19] Statement by Amira Arifovic-Harms, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 20 September 2006.

[20] Statement by Amira Arifovic-Harms, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 23 April 2007.

[21] Article 7 Report, Form D, April 2007. The 1,550 mines include 118 PMA-1, 610 PMA-2, 484 PMA-3, 203 PMR-2A, three PMR-3, 126 PROM-1 and six PMR-Capljinka.

[22] Article 7 Report, Form B and Annex, “Review on Number of Retained Mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” 30 May 2006. In both sections of the report BiH cites a total of 17,471, but the individual numbers add to 17,470. There are some inconsistencies in and between Form D and Form J. After additional review, Landmine Monitor has revised somewhat the totals it reported in last year’s report. The active mine total apparently includes some antivehicle mines.

[23] Article 7 Report, Form D, April 2007. MDDC has the same number of mines as in the 2006 report, where they however were listed as fuzeless. The 2006 report listed BHMAC as having 286 fuzeless mines; the only change is a decrease of three PMA-1 (from 53 to 50) and two PMA-3 (from 108 to 106) in the 2007 report. According to the 2006 report Republika Srpska had 10 fuzeless mines (2 PMA-2 and 8 PMR-3), while according to the 2007 report it has 11 active mines (10 PMA-2 and 1 PMR-2A).

[24] Article 7 Report, Annex “Review on Number of Retained Mines in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” 30 May 2006.

[25] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 176-177.

[26] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action for 2006,” 21 March 2007, p. 4.

[27] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for 2007,” 18 February 2007, p. 4; interview with Tarik Serak, Head of Planning, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 11 April 2007.

[28] “BiH Mid-Term Development Strategy 2004-2007 (PRSP),” Sarajevo, March 2006, p. 131, www.eppu.ba, accessed 29 March 2006; BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Plan for 2006,” 21 March 2006, p. 3. See also, Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 196.

[29] “Demining Law in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Official Gazette, Year VI, Pursuant to Article IV.4.a of the BiH Constitution, 12 February 2002; interview with Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 23 March 2006; interview with Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 23 March 2006.

[30] “Demining Law in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Official Gazette, Year VI, Pursuant to Article IV.4.a of the BiH Constitution, 12 February 2002.

[31] Interviews with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 21 and 23 March 2006; interview with Seid Turkovic, UNDP, Sarajevo, 14 March 2006, and email, 7 April 2006.

[32] Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 15 June 2006; email from Seid Turkovic, UNDP, 16 June 2006.

[33] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 197.

[34] Telephone interview with Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 3 August 2007; telephone interview with Amela Gacanovic-Tutnjevic, Project Manager, IMAP, UNDP, Sarajevo, 3 August 2007.

[35] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 5.

[36] Interviews with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 21 and 23 March 2006; email from Sabina Beber Bostjancic, Head of Department for International Relations, ITF, 14 August 2007.

[37] Interview with Tarik Serak, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 21 March 2007.

[38] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 204; interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 15 June 2006.

[39] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 13-14; Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 178-179. Priority 1 land is in everyday use by civilians, used for the repatriation or for reconstruction of infrastructure or other economic projects, or it is land which directly endangers the population.

[40] Interview with Ahdin Orahovac, BHMAC, 26 March 2007.

[41] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 208.

[42] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Humanitarian Demining Operational Plan for 2006,” 21 March 2006, pp. 4-7; BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for 2007,” 18 February 2007, p. 8.

[43] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, p.10

[44] Statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 25 April 2007. The GICHD review indicated that reports were extremely positive from operators and that community representatives had endorsed CIMAPs, even though some hazards would only be marked. For more details see GICHD, “Mid-term Review of the UNDP Integrated Mine Action Program (IMAP)–Draft Report,” Geneva, June 2006.

[45] Interview with Seid Turkovic, UNDP Sarajevo, 14 March 2006, and emails of 7 April 2006 and 16 June 2006.

[46] GICHD, “Mid-term Review of the UNDP Integrated Mine Action Program (IMAP),” Geneva, June 2006, p. 13.

[47] Ibid, pp. ii-iii, 12, 25, 31-71.

[48] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, pp. 5-7, 14-15.

[49] Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 30 May 2006.

[50] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, pp. 14-15.

[51] Email from Marija Alilovic, Public Relations Officer, MDDC, 6 March 2007; MDDC, “Report on Activities in 2006,” www.mddc.ba, accessed 4 March 2007.

[52] Darvin Lisica and David Rowe, “Strategic Analysis of Mine Action in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” undated, pp. 7-13.

[53] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for 2007,” 18 February 2007, p. 4. The figure given in BHMAC’s Mine Action Report for 2006 is 1,889 square kilometers. Landmine Monitor asked why the figure was different and was told that the figure in the 2006 mine action report was from September 2006.

[54] Ibid, p. 3.

[55] Ibid, p. 4.

[56] Interviews with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 21, 23 March and 30 May 2006.

[57] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006”, 21 March 2007, pp. 4-7.

[58] Ibid, p. 6.

[59] BHMAC reports on reduction of 228.9 square kilometers through analysis and estimation of suspected area within systematic and general survey but included technical survey with clearance output. Landmine Monitor added technical survey results (6.98 square kilometers) to other survey results: 228.9 + 6.98 = 235.8; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 212.

[60] GICHD, “A Study of the Role of Survey in Mine Action,” Geneva, March 2006, p. 62; GICHD, “Mid-term Review of the UNDP Integrated Mine Action Program (IMAP),” Geneva, June 2006, p. 16.

[61] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 213.

[62] Interview with Tarik Serak, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 21 March and 11 April 2007

[63] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, pp. 7-10.

[64] Ibid, pp. 9-10.

[65] AFBiH, “Annual Report 2006,” provided by Maj. Alex Mayes and Zeljko Kalinac, EUFOR, Sarajevo, 19 March 2007.

[66] Ibid.

[67] EUFOR, “Memorandum of Understanding,” EUFOR Forum, Issue no. 12, January 2006, www.euforbih.org.

[68] Interview with Maj. Alex Mayes and Zeljko Kalinac, EUFOR, Sarajevo, 19 March 2007.

[69] The international Stabilization Force (SFOR) was replaced by the European Force (EUFOR) in December 2004.

[70] EUFOR/NATO, “Annual Report for AFBiH Demining Unit 2005,” 24 March 2006.

[71] Interview with Maj. Alex Mayes and Zeljko Kalinac, EUFOR, Sarajevo, 19 March 2007.

[72] EUFOR, “MNTF(NW) assists in demolition of munitions in Bugojno,” EUFOR Forum, Issue no. 19,


[73] “EUFOR discovered one tonne of ammunition in Misevina near Rogatica,” EUFOR Forum, Issue no. 17/18, www.euforbih.org.

[74] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, pp. 8-9.

[75] Email from Damir Atkovic, NPA, Sarajevo, 2 March 2007.

[76] Interview with Radosav Zivkovic, President, STOP Mines, Pale, 26 March 2007.

[77] Telephone interview with Fajid Hasanagic, Program Manager, UG ZOM, Bihać, 30 March 2006.

[78] Email from Chris Hughes, Donor Relations Manager, UEM, Sarajevo, 16 February 2006.

[79] BHMAC, “53,673 m² cleared on Olympic mountain Trebevic,” www.bhmac.org, accessed 6 December 2006.

[80] Email from Alfieri Fontana, Program Manager, INTERSOS, 2 February 2007.

[81] Email from Emmanuel Sauvage, Programme Director, HI, 13 February 2007.

[82] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action, January-July 2007,” pp. 5, 8, 16.

[83] “Update on the process relate to requesting extension on Article 5 obligations,” Statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 26 April 2007.

[84] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 12.

[85] Email from Biljana Ždralić, Senior Officer for MRE, BHMAC, 17 April 2007.

[86] Ellie Loveman, “Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Journal of Mine Action, Issue 9.1, August 2005, http://maic.jmu.edu, accessed 25 July 2007.

[87]Email from Biljana Ždralić, BHMAC, 20 July 2007.

[88] UNMAS, “Revised End of year Update (2005),” 2006 and “2006 Portfolio Summary Chart,” 2007.

[89] BHMAC, “Mine Risk Education,” www.bhmac.org, reports 33,065 MRE recipients of direct MRE not including MRE in schools in 2005 whereas BHMAC’s March 2006 Operational Plan reported 100,000 recipients of all MRE, including indirect and school-based, as quoted in Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 217.

[90] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 217.

[91] Email from Biljana Ždralić, BHMAC, 20 July 2007.

[92] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, pp. 11-12; email from Biljana Ždralić, BHMAC, 20 July 2007.

[93] BHMAC, “Mine Risk Education Strategy,” undated but 2004, pp. 10-11, www.bhmac.org, accessed 20 July 2007.

[94] Email from Biljana Ždralić, BHMAC, 20 July 2007; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 217.

[95] Interview with and email from Natalie Prevost, Project Officer, and Mario Tokić, Assistant Project Officer, UNICEF, Sarajevo, 20 March 2007.

[96] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, p. 23.

[97] BHMAC, “Mine Risk Education Strategy,” undated but 2004, p. 5.

[98] BHMAC, “Mine Victim Assistance,” www.bhmac.org, accessed 20 July 2007.

[99] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” 21 March 2007, p. 11; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 218.

[100] Email from Emmanuel Sauvage, HI, 13 February 2007; HI, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Risk Education 2004-2006, Final Project Report,” Sarajevo, January 2007, pp. 11-29; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 219.

[101] Information provided by Tarik Serak, BHMAC, 21 March 2007; “Mostar: Explosion of ‘jingle-bell’ which hit Hadžira Vejzović was activated by her dog,” Kliker Info, 7 December 2006, www.kliker.info, accessed 23 July 2007.

[102] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 222; UXO casualties were not differentiated in 2005 data. Email from Zoran Grujić, Information Officer, BHMAC, 10 August 2007.

[103] Email from Dejan Babalj, Project Coordinator, BHMAC, 29 June 2007.

[104] “Cluster bomb explosion wounds two land mine clearing experts in southern Lebanon,” Associated Press, Beirut, 24 November 2006.

[105] Statement by BiH, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 223.

[106] BHMAC, “Annual Report 2006,” Sarajevo, undated, p. 14.

[107] Email from Zoran Grujić, BHMAC, 20 July 2007.

[108] Telephone interview with Lejla Susic, Mine Action Sub-Regional Advisor in the Balkans, ICRC, Sarajevo, 19 July 2007.

[109] Interview with Lejla Susic, ICRC, Sarajevo, 20 March 2007.

[110] World Heath Organization (WHO), “Bosnia and Herzegovina, Country Cooperation Strategy: at a glance,” April 2007; Disability Monitor Initiative, Disability Monitor Initiative Journal for South East Europe, No. 3, December 2006, p. 6.

[111] Information provided by Tarik Serak, BHMAC, 21 March 2007.

[112] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 224.

[113] See Landmine Monitor Report 2005, pp. 195-196; Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 218-220.

[114] EC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006 Progress Report,” Commission Staff Working Document, Brussels, 8 November 2006, p. 16; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 227.

[115] World Bank, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: Addressing Fiscal Challenges and Enhancing Growth Prospects: A Public Expenditure and Institutional Review,” September 2006, p. 113; see Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 227.

[116] Interview with Branka Sljivar, Public Relations Officer, RS Ministry of Labor and Veterans, Banja Luka, 23 March 2007.

[117] Statement by BiH, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006.

[118] WHO, “Bosnia and Herzegovina, Country Cooperation Strategy: at a glance,” April 2007.

[119] EC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006 Progress Report,” Brussels, 8 November 2006, p. 16.

[120] Statement by BiH, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006.

[121] BHMAC, “Bosnia And Herzegovina Landmine Victim Assistance Operational Plan for 2006: Proposal,” Sarajevo, p. 6.

[122] Interview with Fikret Karkin, Branch Office Manager, HOPE 87, Sarajevo, 20 March, and email, 20 March 2007.

[123] LSN, “Analysis on Client Satisfaction with the quality of Prosthetic Devices,” Tuzla, February 2005.

[124] BHMAC, “Bosnia And Herzegovina Landmine Victim Assistance Operational Plan For 2006: Proposal,” pp. 9-12.

[125] US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices-2006: Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Washington, DC, 6 March 2006.

[126] Ibid.

[127] LSN BiH, “Annual Report 2006,” Sarajevo, 2007, p. 7.

[128] UN, “Final Report, First Review Conference,” Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.

[129] Statement by BiH, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006. Progress was reported for increased equipment/training in emergency medical care and progress towards a unified database.

[130]Co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, “Status of the development of SMART victim assistance objectives and national plans,” Geneva, 23 April 2007, p. 19; “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 114-122. In September 2006 and April 2007 the BiH delegations contained a survivor assistance specialist.

[131] Email from Sheree Bailey, Victim Assistance Specialist, ISU, GICHD, 12 June 2006.

[132] ITF, “First National Mine Victims Assistance Workshop in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” 1 April 2007, www.itf-fund.si, accessed 20 July 2007.

[133] Statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[134] BHMAC, “First National Mine Victim Assistance Workshop in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” 1 April 2007; Co-Chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, “Status of the development of SMART victim assistance objectives and national plans,” Geneva, 23 April 2007, p. 19.

[135] “Final Report of the Sixth Meeting of States Parties/ Zagreb Progress Report,” Part II, Annex V, Zagreb, 28 November-2 December 2005, pp. 114-122; co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, “Status of the development of SMART victim assistance objectives and national plans,” Geneva, 23 April 2007, p. 19; statement by BiH, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006; statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[136] For more details of the strategy, see Landmine Monitor Report 2005, p. 191.

[137] Interview with Ahdin Orahovac, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 26 March 2007.

[138] Statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 24 April 2007.

[139] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 224.

[140]140 Email from Zoran Grujić, BHMAC, 20 July 2007.

[141] BHMAC, “Bosnia And Herzegovina Landmine Victim Assistance Operational Plan for 2006: Proposal,” pp. 9-12.

[142] Statement by BiH, Seventh Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 19 September 2006.

[143] “Support to the Disability Policy Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005-2009),” http://formin.finland.fi, accessed 15 July 2007.

[144]Interview with Goran Čerkez, Assistant Minister for International Cooperation, Development and IT, FBiH Ministry of Health, Sarajevo, 20 March 2007.

[145] Interview with Fikret Karkin, HOPE 87, Sarajevo, 20 March 2007; email from Mark Chadwick, Programme Officer, Mercy Corps, Edinburgh, 6 March 2007; Article 7 Report, Form J, April 2007; ITF “Annual Report 2006,” Ljubljana, pp. 34, 39; email from Metod Florjanc, Institute of Rehabilitation, Slovenia, 1 February 2007.

[146] Email from Emina Hasanovic, Program Manager, Response International, Tuzla, 11 April 2007.

[147] ICRC, “Annual Report 2006,” Geneva, May 2007, p. 244.

[148] Interview with Mersiha Idrizovic, Regional Administrator, Center for International Rehabilitation, Tuzla, 22 March 2007; “Internet based distance/blended learning from the Center for International Rehabilitation (CIR) in the Balkans accredited as a Category II Prosthetic Technologist course,” http://homepage.mac.com/eaglesmoon/ISPO_Education/ISPO%20Education%20News/CIR%20in%20the%20Balkans.html, accessed 20 July 2007.

[149] ITF, “Annual Report 2006,” Ljubljana, 2007, p. 36.

[150] Interview with Fikret Karkin, HOPE 87, Sarajevo, 20 March 2007.

[151] See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, p. 226 for survey results.

[152] HI, www.share-see.org/, accessed 20 July 2007.

[153]Co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration (Austria and Sudan), “Status of the development of SMART victim assistance objectives and national plans,” Geneva, 23 April 2007, p. 19.

[154] EC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina 2006 Progress Report,” commission staff working document, Brussels, 8 November 2006, p. 16.

[155] Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of BiH, “Support to the Disability Policy Development in Bosnia and Herzegovina (2005-2009): Annual Report 2006 01.07.2006-31.12.2006,” (undated), http://formin.finland.fi, accessed 15 July 2007. EPPU= Unit for Economic Policy Planning and Implementation of the BiH Medium Term Development Strategy.

[156]See Landmine Monitor Report 2006, pp. 225-227.

[157] Ibid, p. 220. Average exchange rate for 2006: €1 = US$1.2563, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[158] Austria Article 7 Report, Form J, undated.

[159] Belgium Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[160] Email from Carly Volkes, Program Officer, Mine Action and Small Arms Team, Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, 5 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: C$1 = US$0.8818. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[161] “EC Budget line 19 02 04, Community participation to actions relating to antipersonnel mines, Annual Work Plan 2006,” Version 15/13/2006; additional data provided by Antoine Gouzée de Harven, EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, 23 July 2007. The €1,300,000 mine clearance contract remained unfilled as of June 2007.

[162] Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[163] Mine Action Investments Database, www.mineaction.org, accessed 21 March 2007.

[164] Email from Michel Leesch, Secrétaire de Légation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 24 July 2007.

[165] Email from Vincent van Zeijst, Deputy Head, Arms Control and Arms Export Policy Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 11 July 2007.

[166] Email from Yngvild Berggrav, Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 8 August 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: NOK1 = US$0.1560. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[167] Poland Article 7 Report, Form J, 6 April 2007.

[168] Email from Irina Gorsic, Counsellor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 16 Mar 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: SIT1 = US$0.0052. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[169] Spain Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[170] Email from Sven Malmberg, Minister, Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 27 August 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: SEK1 = US$0.1357. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[171] Email from Rémy Friedmann, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 7 June 2007. Average exchange rate for 2006: CHF1 = US$0.7980. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2007.

[172] US Department of State, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: Security Assistance,” www.state.gov, accessed 24 June 2007.

[173] France Article 7 report, Form J, 30 April 2007.

[174] Email from Anne Villeneuve, Advocacy Officer, HI, Lyon, 12 July 2007.

[175] Poland Article 7 Report, Form J, 6 April 2007.

[176] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for 2006,” p. 17. Average exchange rate for 2006: BAM1 = US$0.6218, used throughout this report. Landmine Monitor estimate based on www.oanda.com.

[177] UN, “2006 Portfolio End-Year Review,” New York, January 2007, pp. 3, 8.

[178] ITF, “Annual Report 2006,” Ljubljana, pp. 23, 32. Percentages have been rounded.

[179] UN, “2007 Portfolio of Mine Action Projects,” New York, November 2006, List of Projects, pp. 406-423.

[180] BHMAC, “Mine Action Report for the Year 2006,” p. 17.

[181] Response to Landmine Monitor National Funding Questionnaire by Ahdin Orahovac, BHMAC, 17 May 2007.