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Country Reports


The Republic of Angola signed the Convention on Cluster Munitions in Oslo on 3 December 2008. The status of the ratification process is not known.

Angola participated in the initial Oslo Process meeting in February 2007, and endorsed the Oslo Declaration, committing states to conclude a new treaty prohibiting cluster munitions in 2008. It participated in the other three international treaty preparatory conferences in Lima, Vienna, and Wellington. Although Angola registered for the formal negotiations in Dublin in May 2008, it did not attend.

Angola also participated in the Oslo Process conference in Belgrade for affected states (October 2007), and regional conferences in Livingstone (March/April 2008) and Kampala (September 2008).

During the Lima conference, it stated, “Angola is highly affected by landmines and ERWs [explosive remnants of war]. There has been an enormous effort made by the government to clear its land. Therefore, language should be very clear [in] the convention, either for the affected countries, users, producers, and ex-producers, on their responsibility for clearance.”[1]

At the Wellington conference, Angola called on the international community to pay special attention to the need for effective cooperation and assistance for victim assistance programs and stockpile destruction.[2] Angola endorsed the Wellington Declaration, indicating its intention to be a full participant in the Dublin negotiations.

During the Livingstone conference, Angola stated that victims of cluster munitions should be a priority and victim assistance should be gender sensitive. Angola also intervened to emphasize the importance of clearing cluster munition remnants from affected areas.[3]

Angola is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Use, Production, Stockpiling, and Transfer

Cluster munitions have been used in Angola, although it is unclear when they were used during the various conflicts in Angola or by whom. Angola is still heavily affected by landmines and ERW, including cluster munitions, though cluster munition contamination does not appear extensive.[4] NGO clearance operators reported clearing 383 submunitions in three provinces in Angola as of February 2008.[5]

Angola is not believed to have produced cluster munitions. Jane’s Information Group notes that KMG-U dispensers that deploy submunitions are in service for Angolan aircraft.[6] Deminers operating in Angola have documented the presence of casings of RBK 250-275 cluster bombs among abandoned ammunition, although there are no reports of the presence of associated submunitions.[7] It is likely the KMG-Us and RBKs were produced by the Soviet Union.

[1] Statement of Angola, Lima Conference on Cluster Munitions, 25 May 2007. Notes by CMC/WILPF.

[2] Statement of Angola, Wellington Conference on Cluster Munitions, 21 February 2008. Notes by CMC/WILPF.

[3] Livingstone Conference on Cluster Munitions, 31 March–1 April 2008. Notes by CMC.

[4] ICBL, Landmine Monitor Report 2008 (Ottawa: Mines Action Canada, 2008), p. 133. Deminers have reported finding two types of Russian-made cluster submunitions in Angola: the PTAB-2.5 K0 and the AO-2.5 RT.

[5] Ibid. As of 22 February 2008, Norwegian People’s Aid reported clearing 13 submunitions in the municipality of Ebo in Kuanza Sul province. Mines Advisory Group reported clearing 140 submunitions in the Moxico province, and HALO Trust reported clearing 230 submunitions in Kunhinga municipality in Bié province. Information was retrieved from the national database with the Inter-sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance (Comissão Nacional Intersectoral de Desminagem e Assistancia Humanitaria).

[6] Robert Hewson, ed., Jane’s Air-Launched Weapons, Issue 44 (Surrey, UK: Jane’s Information Group Limited, 2004), p. 835.

[7] Landmine Action, “Note on Cluster Munitions in Angola,” 10 February 2004.