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Country Reports
MONGOLIA, Landmine Monitor Report 1999


Mine Ban Policy

Mongolia has not signed the Mine Ban Treaty. On 10 December 1996, Mongolia voted for UNGA Resolution 51/45S urging states to vigorously pursue an international agreement banning antipersonnel landmines (which passed 156-0, with 10 abstentions). Mongolia did not, however, embrace the Ottawa Process. It did not endorse the pro-ban treaty Brussels Declaration in June 1997, and did not participate in the Oslo negotiations in September, even as an observer. It was one of just eighteen countries which abstained in the vote on the 1997 UNGA Resolution 52/38A supporting the December treaty signing. However, Mongolia did attend the treaty signing ceremony and mine action forum in Ottawa in December 1997 as an observer. Mongolia subsequently voted for UNGA Resolution A/C.1/53/L.33 on 4 November 1998, welcoming the addition of new states to the Mine Ban Treaty, urging its full realization and inviting state parties to the First Meeting of State Parties in Mozambique.

Mongolia is a state party to the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and the original Protocol II on landmines, but has not yet ratified the amended Protocol II. Mongolia is a member of the Conference on Disarmament, but has not been a noted supporter or opponent of efforts to negotiate a ban on AP mine transfers in that forum.

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling, and Use

Mongolia is not believed to be a landmine producer or exporter. It has no legislation in place prohibiting production or export of landmines. The Soviet Union stockpiled an unknown number of landmines on Mongolian territory. The Soviet Union withdrew its troops from 1989-1992 and Mongolia is now seeking assistance in clearing hazardous materials from the Soviet military bases. It is not known if Mongolia has its own stockpile of mines.

Mine Action

Mongolia has a slight problem with uncleared mines in the eastern and north-eastern areas, from Japanese mining in World War II. There have been no reports of casualties.

Mongolia has made no contributions to the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Clearance or to other mine clearance/victim assistance programs. It requested U.S. assistance in destroying landmines and unexploded ordnance left by withdrawing Soviet troops after 1989. The U.S. would survey the areas but leave clearance operations to Mongolian personnel to carry out.[1]


[1] Robert Karniol, “Mongolia Seeks US Aid to Clear Unexploded Soviet Ordnance,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, Vol. 030/011, 16 September 1998.