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Country Reports
ROMANIA, Landmine Monitor Report 1999


Mine Ban Policy

Romania signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997. The statement of the Romanian delegation at the signing ceremony emphasized the need for “financial solidarity for those countries committed to the Convention but which require assistance to fulfill their obligations.”[1] Romania had not ratified the treaty.

Romania did not decide to sign the treaty until very late in the Ottawa Process. Romania attended all the treaty preparatory meetings, but did not endorse the pro-treaty Brussels Declaration in June 1997, and participated in the Oslo negotiations only as an observer. However, Romania had voted in favor of the 1996 United Nations General Assembly resolution urging states to pursue vigorously an international agreement banning antipersonnel mines, and also supported the pro-Mine Ban Treaty UNGA resolution in late 1997. An official from Romania’s Ministry for Foreign Affairs attended the Regional Conference on Landmines in Budapest, Hungary on 26-28 March 1998, where he stated that Romania had started the ratification process.[2] Romania voted for the 1998 UNGA resolution in support of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Romania is a state party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (as of 26 July 1995), but has not ratified 1996 amended Protocol II on mines. Romania is a member of the Conference on Disarmament and has expressed support for efforts to achieve a ban in that forum, provided these efforts complement the existing Mine Ban Treaty.[3] In February 1999, Romania was one of 22 countries that endorsed a statement advocating the negotiation of a ban on transfers of antipersonnel landmines through the CD.[4]

Production, Transfer, and Stockpiling

Romanian state factories have produced seven types of antipersonnel landmines: the MAI 2 stake fragmentation mine, the MAI 68 blast mine, the MAI 75 blast mine, the MAI-GR 1 blast mine, the MAI-GR 2 blast mine, the MAIGA-4 directional fragmentation mine, and the MSS bounding mine.[5] Romania has also been a landmine exporter; its mines reportedly have been used in the conflict in Iraqi Kurdistan.[6] On 1 July 1995, Romania declared a one-year moratorium on the export of all landmines, and later extended it until 2000.[7] The size of Romania’s current stockpile is unknown, but is thought to be substantial.[8] At the Regional Landmine Conference in Hungary in March 1998, the Romanian representative stated that Romania requires assistance with destruction of stockpiles.[9]

Humanitarian Mine Action

Romania is not mine affected.[10] As part of its contribution to United Nations peacekeeping efforts in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Romania has deployed an engineering battalion with a demining unit. Romania has also participated in mine clearance efforts and donated medical equipment, including a radiological laboratory and a mobile medical unit, to Angola.[11]


[1]Delegation of Romania, Statement to the Ottawa Signing Conference, 3 December 1997.

[2] Statement at Budapest Conference by Mr. Anca Visan, Deputy Head of NATO-WEU Department of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Romania, in International Campaign to Ban Landmines, “Report: Regional Conference on Landmines, Budapest, Hungary, 26-28 March 1998,” p. 22.

[3]Statement at Budapest Conference by Mr. Anca Visan; see also, Country Profiles, United Nations Demining Database, http:www.un.org.Depts/Landmine/

[4]Statement by Ambassador Petko Draganov, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Bulgaria to the United Nations Office and the other International Organisations in Geneva, (undated) February 1999.

[5]U.S. Department of Defense, “Mine Facts” CD ROM.

[6]Human Rights Watch Arms Project and Physicians for Human Rights, Landmines: A Deadly Legacy (New York: Human Rights Watch, October 1993), p. 104.

[7] United Nations General Assembly, “Report of the Secretary-General: Moratorium on the export of antipersonnel landmines,” A/50/701, 3 November 1995, p. 7; Statement at Budapest Conference by Mr. Anca Visan, 26-28 March 1998.

[8] The Mines Advisory Group has estimated that it could be several million, based on discussions with Romanian officials. See MAG Stockpile Fact Sheet, September 1998.

[9] Statement at Budapest Conference by Mr. Anca Visan, 26-28 March 1998.

[10]United States Department of State, Hidden Killers, July 1993, p. 146.

[11]United States Department of State, Hidden Killers, September 1998, p. C-3.