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Country Reports
SWEDEN, Landmine Monitor Report 1999


Mine Ban Policy[1]

Swedish discussion on landmines gathered momentum in 1993, when several Swedish nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), largely as a result of international attention to landmines, started to highlight the issue. The landmine problem was of course not new, but no real discussion about the legitimacy of landmines or a possible ban of the weapon had occurred prior to 1993. One of the first responses in Sweden to the growing concern around the use of landmines, was a declaration by the arms manufacturer Bofors in October 1993. The company stated that it would no longer manufacture AP mines.

Also, in 1993, following the lead of France, Sweden together with that country and the Netherlands submitted a resolution to UN General Assembly, requesting a review conference on Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Protocol II on mines. At that time Swedish policy was that the landmine problem should be tackled through restrictions on the export of mines and by strengthening the CCW. But this policy was increasingly questioned as Parliament began to take up the issue.

On 2 June 1994, Parliament finally decided that "Sweden in connection with the review conference (of the CCW) should declare that an international prohibition against AP mines is the only real solution to the humanitarian problem caused by the use of mines. Sweden should in this connection present proposals to achieve such a prohibition."

Following the decision in Parliament, the Swedish government formally presented a proposal for an international prohibition on the production, transfer, stockpiling and use of AP mines, at a meeting in August 1994 of governmental experts preparing for the review conference of the CCW. While this proposal made Sweden the first country during the review process to formally present a text calling for a total ban on AP mines, the government did not seriously push this option and it was withdrawn during the review conference in Vienna in October 1995.

Parallel with the review process of the CCW, the landmine debate in Sweden continued, and by the end of 1994, the issue of a unilateral Swedish ban on AP mines emerged. In response to a question in Parliament in October 1994, the Swedish Defense Minister declared that - while Sweden was firm in its support for an international ban on AP mines - a unilateral Swedish ban would have no effect at all at the international level while considerably weakening the Swedish defense capability. The position of the Defense Minister was challenged by various organizations and parliamentarians and public pressure for a ban continued to build. On 13 December 1996, the Swedish Parliament imposed a unilateral ban, prohibiting the use of AP mines, and requiring the destruction of all AP mines before the end of 2001.[2]

Despite this national position, Sweden was a surprisingly lukewarm participant in the Ottawa Process. Not a member of the Ottawa Process core group, Sweden was largely quiet throughout and then during the Oslo negotiations offered a proposal to increase the number of ratifications necessary for the MBT to enter into force to 60 (the number settled on, of course, was 40) which was certainly not viewed by the ICBL as “ban friendly.”

Sweden signed the Mine Ban Treaty in Ottawa 3 December 1997. On 5 February 1998 the Swedish Government informed the UN Secretary General that the general obligations under Article 1.1 were applicable, according to Article 18 of the Treaty. The Treaty was ratified on 25 November 1998 and the instruments of ratification deposited at the United Nations on 30 November 1998. At the time of ratification the Swedish parliament reaffirmed applicability of the treaty under Article 18.[3]

Sweden has ratified the CCW, both the original Protocol 2 and the revised 1996 Protocol 2 (ratified in July 1997).[4] In 1997 Sweden submitted a resolution 52/42, to the UN General Assembly First Committee, whereby the member states were urged to ratify the revised 1996 Protocol 2 on mines. Sweden supported Resolution 52/38 H, submitted by Finland together with, among others, Australia, Russia and US on negotiating a ban on mine transfer in the CD. While Sweden is focusing on the work to get as many signatories as possible to the Ottawa Convention rather than negotiating a ban on transfers, it will not oppose a ban on transfer in the CD as long as the criteria and definitions used are at least as strict as those used in the Ottawa Convention.[5]


Explosives have been the Swedish industry's most important contribution to global AP mine production. The Swedish companies FFV, Bofors and LIAB, produced and developed 21 different types of AP mines since World War II. The major part of the production was transferred to the Swedish Armed Forces.[6]

Swedish AP mines:

Weapon, Material, Characteristics, Comments[7]

- Airfield blast mine made from wood, not considered by the army to be an AP mine but designed to destroy landing planes. Destroyed (Discarded);

- AP 12 directional fragmentation mine. To be remodeled for command-detonation only;

- M-11 bounding, fragmentation mine. Will be destroyed;

- M-12 fragmentation mine. To be remodeled for command-detonation only;

- M-46 cardboard blast mine. Its stockpile status is unknown;

- M-41 wooden blast mine. Will be destroyed;

- M-43 cardboard blast mine. Its stockpile status is unknown;

- M-43T cardboard blast mine. Its stockpile status is unknown;

- M-48 fragmentation mine. Will be destroyed;

- M-49 cardboard blast mine. Destroyed;

- M-49B cardboard blast mine. Will be destroyed;

- M-43 (47mm) fragmentation mine. Destroyed;

- M-43 (80mm) fragmentation mine. Will be destroyed;

- M-43T (1-cm) fragmentation mine. Will be destroyed;

- Model 43 & 43(t) made from concrete and metal. Will be destroyed;

- Truppmina 9 fragmentation mine. Will be destroyed;

- FFV013 directional fragmentation Claymore mine. Not considered AP;

- FFV013R directional fragmentation Claymore mine. Not considered AP;

- Mina 5. Not considered AP;

- LI-11 plastic mine. Will be destroyed;

- LI-12 directional fragmentation. To be remodeled for command-detonation only.

The Swedish government has stated that Sweden has not produced or exported AP mines since 1974.[8] According to a report on mines that SPAS issued in 1994, Bofors produced Truppmina 12 (Claymore) mines until 1992. Furthermore, FFV 013, which is the commercial notation for the Fordonsmina 13 (Claymore), which officially is an antitank mine, still belongs to Bofors product program. In 1994 The Inspectorate-General of Military Equipment (KMI) told SPAS, "(T)he mine (FFV 013) cannot be categorized as an antitank mine, but?should be categorized as antipersonnel."[9] Both Truppmina 12 and Fordonsmina 13 offer command and tripwire detonation options.

The Swedish Armed Forces have nine different types of AP mines in stock, all of which will be destroyed before the end of 2001. Sweden is not engaged in developing alternatives to AP mines. This is due to financial constraints on the armed forces and the fact that Sweden is dismantling traditional territorial defenses against foreign military invasion. So there are neither funds nor the need for developing alternatives to APM in the Swedish Armed Forces.[10]


The Swedish export of AP mines has been limited, mostly consisting of mine components.[11] But Bofors did export large numbers of AP mines to Germany in the 1950s and 1960s. Switzerland purchased AP mines from Bofors from 1958 to 1964, and more than one million mines in 1971.[12] The company exported 33,000 Mina 5 to Pakistan in 1958. Some reports indicate that these mines, apparently resold by Pakistan many years later, were deployed by mujahadin guerillas in Afghanistan.[13]

Bofors is also known to have sold 573 tons of explosives (RDX) to the Italian industry Valsella 1981-1983. Another 670 tons of explosives were sold to Valsella via the French company SNPE. Arms researchers believe that the explosives transferred to Valsella were used in mines exported to Iraq. Some of this explosive, shipped via Singapore, was later found in Singapore-assembled mines in Cambodia. Bofors exported more than 750 tons of explosives to the Portuguese industry SPEL 1982-1984 and 231 tons of explosives to the industry FDSP in Yugoslavia 1985.[14]

As noted above, the Swedish government says that APMs have neither been produced or exported since 1974. This is accurate. But apart from large amounts of exports of explosives, Sweden has also exported Fordonsmina 13 and 13R (FFV 013 and 013R), which is a Claymore-type mine with tripwire detonation options, to Norway (1978), Ireland (1987), Japan (1990) and Switzerland (1991?).[15]


The Government has declared that the stockpile of AP mines will be destroyed before the end of 2001, except for small numbers of AP mines retained for R&D and training purposes. Sweden has started to destroy its stockpile of AP mines, but the number of mines in stockpile remains classified. According to an official at the Swedish Armed Forces HQ there was a discussion during the fall of 1998 if the data should be made public. It was decided that it "was not meaningful to make the data public now,"[16] as the information will be reported to the United Nations as required by Article 7 by September 1999. So, according to the official, the data on numbers of APM in stockpile, cost of destruction, location, numbers of APMs being retained for training purposes and so on will be classified until Sweden informs the UN Secretary General.[17]

Nevertheless some information has been available. The agency responsible for the destruction of APMs, the Defense Materiel Administration (FMV), put out a bid for the destruction of Truppmina 10 mines on the European market in May 1998. There are strict instructions concerning safety and environmental standards for the destruction process. The Swedish Company NAMMO LIAB (former Bofors) received the contract due to its high environmental standards for destruction and for its low cost. In December 1998 another bid was put out for destruction of the remaining APMs. The eight other types of AP mines to be destroyed are: Trampmina m/41, Trampmina m/49B, Betongmina m/43T, Granatmina 8 cm, Granatmina 10 cm, Truppmina 9, Truppmina 11 and Splittermina m/48. NAMMO LIAB will destroy these AP mines too.[18]

A dismantling technique will be used to destroy the APMs and recycle the parts. The explosives (Trotyl), for example, will be used in the mining industry to blast away rocks. No recycled parts will be used for military purposes. FMV requires the company to recycle at least 80 percent of the explosives and NAMMO LIAB will recycle at least 90 percent of all dismantled parts.[19]

According to an official at FMV there are some 3 million AP mines to be destroyed before the end of year 2001. Truppmina 10 accounts for 2.5 million of these mines. The total cost of destruction is estimated to 25.5 million SEK (US$3.2 million).[20] In December 1998 approximately 315,000 Truppmina 10 were destroyed.[21] The destruction of the other mines will begin in February or March 1999.

No decision has yet been made as to how many APMs will be retained for training purposes. The decision is to be taken sometime during the year 2000. The armed forces have declared that it needs 3-4 APMs for every group that is trained for demining. Currently, approximately 10 groups are trained each year. An additional 1-2 mines are needed for every training site and year. The determining factor, though, is how many APMs will be required for extensive testing of mechanical demining devices. As yet, that number has not be deteremined. The armed forces will test Bofors´ "Mine-Guzzler" during 1999 and after that it will be possible to estimate how many AP mines are needed for every test. Then there will be a testing of the mechanical demining device from Countermine Technologies and maybe three more tests in the coming ten-year period.[22] The location of the retained AP mines will not be public in the future, as they might be desirable to some groups, e.g. criminals.[23]


The Swedish Armed Forces uses four Claymore-type mines: the AP mines Truppmina 12 and 12B and the antivehicle-mines Fordonsmina 13 and 13R. Truppmina 12 and 12B are directional, fragmentation mines that are usually used as an ambush or tripwire-triggered mine against uncovered troops. These mines can be fired by firing device 12 or by a pull wire or by a tripwire.[24] Fordonsmina 13 and 13R are directional fragmentation mines for use against vehicles, helicopters and aircraft on the ground and for troops. The mine is fired by a firing device or by a tripwire. The difference between the Fordonsmina 13 and 13 R is that the 13 R is lighter in weight to make it easier for the soldier to use.[25]

As mentioned above, Fordonsmina 13 and 13R are officially antivehicle-mines, but are also described as useful against troops. According to the instructions, the tripwire for Fordonsmina 13 and 13R should be attached two meters from the ground, in which case they would be intended for vehicles larger than a regular car.[26]

The Swedish Armed Forces will continue to use a modified version of Truppmina 12 and 12B (Claymore), now called Försvarsladdning 21 and 22. FMV has put out on order for the remodeling of Truppmina 12 and 12B to ensure that they can be used in command-detonated mode only. The remodeling will start 1 September 1999 and will be completed before the end of November 2000. There is no technical data yet available for the modified Truppmina 12 or 12B.[27]

The antivehicle-mines Fordonsmina 13 and 13R (Claymore), are not intended to be modified for command-detonated mode only. Sweden is interpreting the Ottawa Convention as not to include Fordonsmina 13 and 13R as they are designed to be detonated by the presence of a vehicle. Furthermore, as one official said, "These mines are not a problem in the world. I would not recommend that anyone use the mine against troops or by tripwire detonation. They are very expensive to use and the tripwire mechanism is not suitable even for vehicles."[28]

The work to update materials and instructions concerning Swedish landmines has just started. "Every publication and operation instruction that contains AP mines or tripwire mines?will be updated or discarded. FMV is at the moment updating several publications that contain AP mines for the armed forces."[29]

The Swedish Armed forces has the following antitank and antivehicle mines at its disposal:

- Stridsvagnsmina m/41-47;

- Stridsvagnsmina m/47;

- Stridsvagnsmina m/47-52;

- Stridsvagnsmina m/52;

- Stridsvagnsmina 5 (When adapted with Fire device 15 -- antenna mode -- it is very sensitive to contact);

- Stridsvagnsmina 6 (Anti handling option);

- Fordonsmina 13;

- Fordonsmina 13R;

- Fordonsmina 14.[30]

Mine Action Funding

On 10 February 1999, Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lind gave a speech in the Swedish Parliament outlining Swedish foreign policy for 1999. In that speech she said that Sweden "has a leading role in the work for demining and for support to mine victims."[31]

The Swedish International Development Agency, SIDA, is responsible for funding of humanitarian aid and other international humanitarian projects, such as mine victim assistance and rehabilitation. SIDA has provided data on its support for mine action, specifying every project, channel and for what action (i.e. demining, awareness and rehabilitation) for the years 1990-1998.

SIDA’s fact sheet shows that Sweden devoted 417 million SEK ($52.1 million) for the period 1990-1998 to support mine action. The funding has increased every year and amounts to 133 million SEK ($16.6) for 1998. Of these funds, 30 million SEK ($3.75 million) is for technical development. The absolute majority of support has gone to mine clearance, while minor allocations have gone to awareness and rehabilitation projects..[32]

The fact sheet provided by Sida shows that the support has mainly been channeled to:

- Angola, 41.1 million SEK (NPA, WFP, UNAWEM III, UNICEF, UNDP/INAROEE);

- Mozambique, 53.4 million SEK (UNDP, ADP-fund, CND, NPA, HI);

- Afghanistan, 105.4 million SEK (UNOCHA);

- Northern Iraq, 48.9 million SEK (MAG);

- Cambodia, 77.8 million SEK (MAG, UNDP TF, CMAC);

- Laos, 13.7 million SEK (MAG, UXO, UNDP, UNDP TF);

- Bosnia Herzegovina, 12.0 million SEK (DBKO/BHMAC, NPA, UNOPS/BHMAC);

- Honduras, 12.1 million SEK (Govn/OAS);

- Nicaragua, 12.9 million SEK (Govn/OAS);

- Costa Rica, 1.1 million SEK (Govn/OAS);

- International Coordination, 7,5 million SEK (DHA);

- R&D, other studies, 31.4 million SEK (MAG, FMV, FOA).

Landmine Survivor Assistance

SIDA funding for 1998 or 1999 does not mention support for mine victims.[33] When it comes to actual support for mine victims all of it goes through ICRC. Swedish general support to ICRC throughout the world was 208 million SEK ($26 million) in 1998. The responsible official at SIDA estimates that a maximum of 10 percent of the general support is related to the production of artificial limbs, mine victim assistance and rehabilitation.[34] When this was checked with ICRC it was found that the Swedish government responded to the ICRC´s special appeal for mine victim assistance launched in 1997 and 1998 with 500,000 SEK ($62,500) for 1997 and with no support at all for 1998.[35]

This contradiction -- that SIDA indicates 100 percent of the Swedish support to mine victims goes via ICRC and that the ICRC says that 100 percent of its mine related work for 1998 is financed by the contributions to its special appeal – remains quite unclear.

Mine Clearance

During 1998, the Swedish Armed Forces spent some 70 million SEK ($8.75 million) to prepare for and/or conducting mine clearance in conjunction with different international missions. Mainly this is broken down to 10 million SEK for research on ground penetrating radar conducted by the Defense Research Establishment, FOA; 40 million SEK has been spent for a Swedish EOD and demining battalion in Bosnia; 10 million SEK is related to a demining mission in the Western Sahara and 7 million SEK for demining training at SWEDEC. The 70 million SEK spent on mine clearance corresponds to 0.17 percent of the armed forces budget.

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs spent 25 million SEK ($ 3.1 million) on the demining mission in the Western Sahara.

During 1999, the Swedish Rescue Service Agency, SRV, will begin a program to support development and testing of different demining projects and plans to become a prominent demining actor. SRV intends to spend some 20 million SEK ($2.5 million) on its programs for 1999.[36]

Additionally, there are a number of research projects underway, which are fully or partly financed by different companies or institutions. FOA is studying a method for chemical analysis based on mass spectrometry to define the detection levels of different types of explosives. In 1998 FOA asked for 7.5 million SEK from the Defense Ministry to conduct a three-year joint project with the Norwegian Defense R&D Institute, FFI. SRV decided to co-finance the project.[37]

The Swedish Armed Forces Dog Instruction Center trains mine dogs, both in Sweden and in Cambodia.

The company Biosensor Application Sweden AB is developing an "artificial dog-nose" biosensor to detect mines containing the explosive TNT. It is a private company, which partly has been financed by the Foreign Ministry in a joint project with FOA for developing a multi sensor. SRV has decided to cofinance the biosensor project. The Norwegian FFI is discussing support for the project as well.[38]

FOA is leading a project to develop a multi sensor, consisting of the biosensor from Biosensor Applications, a metal-detector from CelsiusTech Electronics and ground penetrating radar from FOA. The project is due to being completed before the end of 1999.[39] Celsius AB has received 30 million SEK ($ 3.75 million) from the European Union to develop a multi sensor, based upon the FOA project but without the biosensor.[40]

As noted previously, Bofors has developed a mechanical demining device, which can be compared to a huge rotary cultivator, the Mine-Guzzler. SWEDEC and SRV intend to test the device during 1999.[41] The private company Countermine Technologies has developed a similar device and intends to conduct demining operations on contract.[42]

Swedish Non-Governmental Mine Action Activities

Since 1993 the Swedish Peace and Arbitration Society (SPAS) has supported the Mines Advisory Group in Iraqi Kurdistan. Initially, SPAS raised funds for MAG’s mine clearance project in Choman; subsequently its support has mainly been devoted to MAG’s mine awareness project for children. Today SPAS lectures in schools about the mine problem and ICBL, and has produced a photo-exhibition about MAG’s mine awareness activities in Iraqi Kurdistan. In late 1998 SPAS began a newsletter concerning Swedish mine clearance efforts. The newsletter reaches every interested partner in Sweden, the Defense and Foreign Ministries, R&D agencies, companies, journalists, governmental agencies and NGOs.

The Swedish Committee for Afghanistan (SCA) is one of the major NGO actors in mine action. Since 1991 SCA has cooperated with UN on the Disabled Afghans Project. SCA has spent some 10 million SEK ($1.2 million) each year on mine victim assistance. Additionally it runs an extensive mine awareness program via the 650 schools it supports. SCA estimates that the program reaches approximately one million individuals.[43]

Radda Barnen (Swedish Save the Children)[44] works in different ways to support those who have been affected by mines or live in mine affected areas. In Afghanistan and in Yemen Radda Barnen runs a rehabilitation program and a mine awareness program. In Yemen, it initiated a program to teach children how to teach other children about the dangers of landmines. Radda Barnen also supports mine clearance missions at playgrounds in Afghanistan. In the years leading up to the Mine Ban Treaty, Radda Barnenn was a key actor in the ICBL, serving as a member of its steering committee. The organization arranges seminars and other activities in Sweden and abroad to highlight the landmine issue. Currently Radda Barnen’s involvement in the landmine issue is a part of their work for children in war. The total budget for its international work for children in war and refugee children was 25 million SEK ($3.1 millions) in 1998. Only a small part of that is directly for mine related work.

The Swedish Red Cross runs a mine awareness project in Mozambique worth 2.5 million SEK ($ 0.3 million).

Forum Syd[45], an umbrella organization for international aid conducted by Swedish NGOs, has workers in Cambodia engaged in the rehabilitation of mine victims. Forum Syd continued the support in relation to a mine awareness campaign. In the spring of 1999 Forum Syd is arranging a seminar on mine clearance. Forum Syd is involved in the support to the organization Kurdistan Solidarity and their mine clearance programs in Iraqi Kurdistan.


[1]This section is partly drawn from the study made by Radda Barnen (Swedish Save the Children) in 1996: Carl von Essen, Minrapport (Radda Barnen, 1996), web version www.rb.se/kampanj/mine1.html.

[2]Government Bill 1997/98:175.



[5]Email from the Swedish Foreign Ministry, 19 January 1999.

[6]Lars Jederlund, Dödens Fält - Om minor och dess offer (Deadly Fields - Mines and their victims), (Stockholm, Svenska Freds, 1994), p. 11.

[7]Lars Jederlund, Dödens Fält - Om minor och dess offer (Deadly Fields - Mines and their victims), (Stockholm, Svenska Freds, 1994), p. 11; and also U.S. Department of Defense, “Mine Facts,” CD Rom.

[8]Government Bill 1997/98:175.

[9]Jederlund, Dödens Fält, p 12.

[10]Telephone interview with Olof Carelius, the Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 7 January 1999.

[11]Jederlund, Dödens Fält, p. 11.

[12]Ibid, p. 13.

[13]Ibid, p. 13.

[14]Ibid, p. 13.

[15]Government Bill 1997/98:175.

[16]Telephone interview with Olof Carelius, the Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 7 January 1999.


[18]Telephone interview with Anna-Helena Brandt, FMV, 8 January 1999. We tried to get copies of the orders but they were classified. The list of AP mines that are to be destroyed was published in an internal magazine for FMV (Vi I FMV #7/98).

[19]Telephone interview with Hugo Kreij, Branch Manager, NAMMO LIAB, 21 January 1999.

[20]Telephone interview with Anna-Helena Brandt, FMV, 8 January 1999.


[22]Telephone interview with Olof Carelius, the Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 29 January 1999.

[23]Telephone interview with Olof Carelius, the Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 7 January 1999.

[24]Beskrivnig Landminmateriel, cMV, 1996, p 183.

[25]Ibid, p. 114.

[26]Telephone interview with Camilla Gustafsson, FMV, Division VapenP, 28 January 1999.


[28]Telephone interview with Olof Carelius, the Swedish Armed Forces HQ, 29 January 1999.

[29]Email from FMV, 28 January 1999.

[30]Bestrivnig Landminmateriel, FMV, 1996, pp. 7-146.

[31]Speech by Swedish Foreign Minister Anna Lind in the Swedish Parliament, 10 February 1999.

[32]Swedish International Development Agency, Support to Demining 1990-1998, Fact Sheet, December 1998.

[33]UD97/1827/IC Regleringsbrev för budgetaret 1998 avseende anslag genom Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingsarbete (Sida) and UD/98/1567/IC Regleringsbrev för budgetaret 1999 avseende anslag genom Styrelsen för internationellt utvecklingsarbete (Sida) (The Governments directives for SIDA 1998 and 1999.)

[34]Telephone interview with Peter Swartling, Division for Humanitarian Assistance, SIDA, 20 January 1999.

[35]Fax from ICRC, Mines-Arms Unit, 19 February 1999; follow-up phone interview with Mr Julier, Deputy Head of External Resources Division, 23 February 1999.

[36]Humanitär Minröjning (Humanitarian Mine Clearance), Memorandum, SRV, 3 November 1998.

[37]A FOA Research Project for Military Mine Clearance and Humanitarian Demining, Speech by Lena Sarholm, FOA Weapons and Protection Division, held at a mine clearance hearing in the Swedish Parliament, 9 December 1998.

[38]Biosensorprojektet, Memorandum, Biosensor Applications Sweden AB, 11 November 1998.

[39]A FOA Research Project for Military Mine Clearance and Humanitarian Demining, Speech by Lena Sarholm, FOA Weapons and Protection Division, held at a mine clearance hearing in the Swedish Parliament, 9 December 1998.

[40]Speech by Jan Cederlund, manager, Celsius, held at a mine clearance hearing in the Swedish Parliament, 9 December 1998.

[41]Speech by Allan Carlsson, Sales Director, Bofors held at a mine clearance hearing in the Swedish Parliament, 9 December 1998.

[42]Demining Policy, Memorandum, Countermine Operations AB, 1998.

[43]Afghanistan-nytt, (Svenska Afghanistankommittén) 4/98 and telephone interview with Peter Hjukström, Secretary-General, Swedish Committee for Afghanistan, 21 January 1999.

[44]The facts were gathered through a questionnaire which was sent out to thirteen of Sweden’s largest NGOs working with international aid.