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Country Reports
ANGOLA, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: Both Angolan government troops and UNITA rebel forces have continued to use antipersonnel mines. Mine action funding in 2000 totals $17.4 million. Mine action programs have continued despite the ongoing conflict. As of May 2000, some 10 square kilometers of land and 5,000 kilometers of road have been cleared, and 15,000 mines destroyed. Funding for the government’s mine action office, INAROEE, has dried up, and its operations are largely suspended. NGOs continue to operate, though at reduced levels due to reduced funding. The number of mine victims was up sharply in 1999 (from 103 in 1998 to 185 in 1999 in Luena alone).

Mine Ban Policy

After active participation in the Ottawa Process, Angola signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997. The government has said that because of the renewal of the war in November 1998, it has been unable to ratify the treaty. Both government troops and UNITA forces have been using antipersonnel landmines since the resumption of fighting. The ICBL has condemned both sides for use of AP mines, but is particularly appalled at the Angolan government's disregard for its international commitments.

Though the Mine Ban Treaty has not entered into force for Angola, the use of mines by a signatory can be judged a breach of its international obligations. Under Article 18 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, “A state is obliged to refrain from acts which would defeat the object and purpose of a treaty when...it has signed the treaty....” Clearly, new use of mines defeats the object and purpose of the treaty.

At the First Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Maputo, Mozambique on 3-7 May 1999, the Angolan government delegation arrived only on the eve of the closing day and attempted to avoid discussing its new use of landmines in Angola. Vice Minister of External Relations Toko Serrão justified the government's use of landmines by saying, “We remain committed to the noble objectives of the treaty. But we are at war right now.”[1]

Roberto de Almeida, the speaker of the national assembly, constitutionally number two in Angola, justified the government's position to Human Rights Watch in December 1999 saying, “It is war. We have the right to self defend ourselves. Landmines are part of that right. Once Savimbi [UNITA] is defeated we will stop using landmines.”[2]

The country’s national mine clearance organization Instituto Nacional de Remoção De Obstáculos E Engenhos Explosivos (INAROEE) also gives the government's position on its web site, which states: “The Government of Angola has said that they have documented their mine laying activities, and will be fully responsible for the clearance operations when appropriate, without any additional cost and negative impact on the international community funded demining projects, currently implemented through NGOs.”[3]

Just as this Landmine Monitor Report 2000 was going to print, on 25 July 2000, Angola’s parliament approved ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty, with 147 votes in favour, one against and one abstention.[4] Before the vote, Vice Minister Toko Serrão, addressed the parliament: “Formal adherence to a convention is not sufficient to guarantee the application of all the provisions referred to. The Ottawa Convention envisages different mechanisms destined for the implementation of the convention and resolution of possible disputes. Through these mechanisms, the states that are part of the convention are forced to elaborate and regularly present reports about the measures that they have taken relating to the obligations that result from the convention.”[5]

Vice-Minister Serrão finished his address by stating that: “The entry into force of this convention is considered a historic achievement in the struggle to ban the use of antipersonnel mines. However given the provisions in Law 6/90 regarding international treaties it appears to us important that the Ministry of National Defense states its position on this issue.”[6] It is unclear precisely what additional steps are needed before Angola can formally submit its instrument of ratification to the United Nations, and thus be fully legally bound by the treaty. The incongruity of Angola apparently moving toward ratification at the same time that it admits to continued use of antipersonnel mines is cause for concern and requires close attention on the part of States Parties and others.

Angola attended three of the intersessional meetings of the Standing Committees of Experts of the MBT, one each on Mine Clearance, Victim Assistance, and the General Status and Operation of the Convention. It sponsored and voted in favor of the December 1999 UNGA resolution on the implementation of the MBT, as it had with previous pro-ban UNGA resolutions.

Angola has not signed the Convention on Conventional Weapons or its Landmine Protocol II, and is not a member of the Conference on Disarmament.

Inside Angola there has been little public discussion over the government’s policy of continued use of landmines although an exhibition and video show on the extent of the damage landmines have caused Angola and its people was shown at the Portuguese Cultural Center in Luanda in March 2000. Entitled “Ottawa Yes, No More Landmines,” the opening of the exhibition included a drama on mine awareness by the Julu theatre company.[7]

Production, Transfer and Stockpiles

Angola is not a known producer or exporter of landmines. Seventy-six different types of AP mines from twenty-two countries have been found or reported in Angola, eleven of which have not been confirmed by the UN.[8] Little is known about the size or composition of Angola’s current landmine stockpiles. Mine clearance NGOs claim there is no evidence of fresh imports of mines by the government. The mines government troops have are mostly from the USSR, East Germany, Cuba, China, Romania, and Hungary.[9] According to the UK-based demining agency HALO Trust, “Even the most recently laid mines are old-fashioned and appear to have come from the ‘80s stock or dug out of the ground and reused. This is very promising.”[10]

Little is known about UNITA’s stocks. According to the Angolan military, they captured 15,000 tons of military equipment from UNITA in October 1999 including 2,450 antipersonnel mines and 8,742 antitank mines.[11] In June 2000, the Angolan military announced they had discovered a UNITA bunker in Uige province full of weapons including “large numbers of antipersonnel mines.”[12] According to a document on a computer disk the government claims to have found at UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi's command bunker in Andulo when they captured it in September 1999, UNITA had deemed procurement of antipersonnel mines a priority for its sanctions-busting weapons procurements in 1998 as the rebels prepared for renewed hostilities.[13]

New Use of Mines

A re-survey of eleven provinces by Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) and HALO Trust in 1999 indicated that both the government and UNITA have laid new mines. UNITA has tended to mine primary, secondary and tertiary roads to impede transportation. The government has been using mines for defensive purposes around strategic locations. Mine clearance operators believe the number of mines laid is significantly less than during previous conflicts. According to HALO and NPA the majority of reported mine accidents, an estimated 75 percent, involve old mines where Internally Displaced Persons traverse unfamiliar areas.

Government Use

Although the Angolan government signed the Mine Ban Treaty in December 1997 it has since been responsible for laying new antipersonnel and antitank mines and minefields. In 1999 Landmine Monitor published eyewitness accounts of this gross disrespect of the treaty.[14] Human Rights Watch has continued to obtain credible information of continued landmine warfare and has interviewed a number of eyewitnesses to new use of mines in 2000. For example, two government soldiers admitted in June 2000 that they had laid landmines along paths to ambush UNITA patrols in Moxico province along the Zambian border;[15] they also admitted to laying two AP mines across the border inside Zambia.[16] Norwegian People’s Aid reports that FAA (Angolan Armed Forces) Engineers in April 2000 admitted to laying new mines, but claim to have maps of the areas mined.[17] Government troops also used mines in Luena in 1999, prompting Daniel Tessema, Program Director for Veterans International in Luena, to state that if the government “put signs up, the mines can be easily seen. (But) they don't even map the areas.”[18] Angolan troops appear to have also carried AP mines in an operation in northern Namibia,[19] but UNITA has more widely used mines in these border areas.[20]

In a document produced for donors in March 2000, INAROEE admitted, “There is no doubt that limited new mines have been planted in Angola within the last six months. These mines are primarily planted as reinforcement in already mined areas around military installations and other strategic locations such as hydro-electrical power plants or access to provincial capitals.”[21] INAROEE officials have also stated that the only area in which the government has mined since December 1998 is Bie, when UNITA tried to take Kuito, and that only antitank mines were used. INAROEE also said that the FAA always demines where it mines,[22] and that the mines in Bie had already been taken up. According to INAROEE the local provincial authorities monitor clearance.[23]

But, clearly antipersonnel mines have been used, and have been laid outside Bie, and are not always removed by government troops after use. Moreover, in June 2000, NPA found that an area in Luena declared clear of mines and safe by the army was still mined, casting doubts about the quality of the clearance by the Angolan military.[24]

There are also worrying reports that Angolans trained with international aid to do humanitarian demining have been used to plant fresh mines. Human Rights Watch interviewed a deminer from a folded NGO mine clearance operation who admitted that he had been conscripted into the Angolan armed forces and ordered to lay as well as clear mines.[25]


UNITA has continued to use landmines in its operations across the country. Save the Children reports that during a recent polio vaccination campaign, UNITA placed landmines on “previously cleared paths which mothers had to use to bring their children to vaccination posts. Unknown numbers of women and babies were killed and maimed in this way and many were dissuaded from vaccinating their children.”[26] UNITA has also used landmines to control and “effectively imprison populations” under its control by planting landmines around villages, according to Save the Children. In 1999 the rebels were reportedly paying infiltrators $300 to plant mines in Luena.[27] UNITA has also increased use of antitank mines. For example, on 24 April 2000 thirty-eight people were killed on the Puri-Negage road (north Uige province) when the vehicle they were traveling in triggered an AT mine in all probability laid by UNITA.[28]

UNITA rebels have conducted military operations in northern Namibia, including laying antipersonnel and antivehicle mines,[29] in response to Namibia granting permission in late 1999 for its territory to be used by Angolan government troops as a base for attacks on UNITA positions in southeastern Angola.[30] (See Landmine Monitor report on Namibia for more details on UNITA use in Namibia.)

Re-Mining of Cleared Land

In June 1999, NPA reported that some re-mining had occurred in Luena, Malanje, Huambo and Kuito. About 25% of the minefields previously cleared in Huambo and Kuito showed signs of re-mining. But HALO has said, “We've checked every single minefield we've cleared in six years (between 100 and 150) and none have been re-mined. Cleared land has not been re-mined.”[31] This may be the case in UNITA areas, too. When the government's military reached Bailundo in late 1999 they found no new minefields. HALO had cleared Bailundo in 1998 and UNITA, it appears, never re-mined. On the other hand, Santa Barbara has reported that UNITA re-mined one of the bridges it had cleared in 1999 for the World Food Program.[32]

Landmine Problem

Long cited as one of the most heavily mined countries in the world, the early UN estimate of 10 to 15 million landmines contaminating Angolan soil is widely still cited. While no comprehensive landmine survey has been completed, estimates have been revised downward, with the 1998 U.S. State Department report stating, “The source of the original baseline data remains unknown and the actual number of landmines may never be determined, although six million appears to be a more reasonable figure.”[33]

Through the end of May 2000, 2,610 mine or UXO fields had been identified, of which 517 had been cleared.[34] According to INAROEE Cuando Cubango, Moxico, Bie and Malanje provinces have very high density of UXOs and landmines; Bengo, Benguela and Cuanza Sul and Huambo have a high density; Lunda Sul, Cabinda, Cunene, Huila, Zaire, Uige and Cuanza Norte have a moderate density and Luanda, Namibe and Lunda Norte have a low density.[35] But these figures give little feel for the impact on communities.

Norwegian People's Aid has been contracted by the UN to conduct a nationwide survey of the landmine problem in the northern eleven provinces, the extent of damage, its consequences for local trade, and to map the existence of mines. By the end of 1998, NPA had completed an initial survey to identify mined or suspected mined areas in nine provinces, where about 80 percent of the population lives. By January 2000 fifteen provinces had been surveyed, thirteen by NPA and two by HALO. These surveys have not been fully comprehensive due to the war.

Mine Action Funding

Following the return to open conflict in November 1998, some donors became wary of continued funding of mine action in Angola, and some organizations carrying out mine action programs experienced reductions in funding.[36] It appeared some donors were concerned because of a perception that there was large scale re-mining of previously cleared areas, making continued funding of mine clearance pointless, and because the Angola government was laying mines even though it had signed the Mine Ban Treaty. INAROEE has stated, “Donor concern about the renewed laying of landmines, as well as the Angolan government’s reluctance to ratify the Ottawa Treaty, have made resource mobilization for mine action extremely difficult for all those who are trying to provide this assistance.”[37]

Five major mine action organizations (Handicap International, Medico International, Mines Advisory Group, Mine Clearance Planning Agency, and Norwegian People’s Aid) issued a statement at the Standing Committee of Experts on Mine Clearance in March 2000 that in part said: “Donors must ensure that sanctions against governments that have violated the 1997 Landmine Convention do not affect the availability of funds for Humanitarian Mine Action.... We believe that funding for Humanitarian Mine Action should be based on the needs in affected areas, and not on the Landmines Convention status. Sanctions against the violators and encouragement of non state-parties must be designed in a way that does not further victimise the people and communities in mine and ordnance-affected areas.”[38]

Because of this situation, in 1999 and 2000 many NGOs felt pressure to cut costs while trying to remain operational. HALO Trust roughly maintained its funding flows although gaps had to be covered by an individual donation. NPA had to cut expatriate staff and suspend contracts in early 2000. MAG suspended a program with more than 300 personnel and re-entered with a smaller operation. MgM had to temporarily halt its operations during the first six months of 1999 and in May 2000 required a loan from an individual to remain operational. Care International and HMD had to suspend their operations. INAROEE has had to halt its operations altogether and lay off most of its staff. INAROEE had received funds from seven sources, the Angolan government, the U.S., the Netherlands, Norway, Germany, Italy, and the EU.

Support for mine action in Angola in 1999 and 2000 came from the European Union, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and the United States. Italy became a major donor in 1999 for the first time.[39] The EU, U.S., Norway and Sweden were the top donors to mine action in Angola in 1999; in 2000 it is the EU, the U.S. and Norway.

As noted in the chart below, support for mine action in 2000 has totaled $17.4 million.


Project & Implementing partners
(Funding sources)
Funds available
Land Mine Survey & an assistance for secondment of National Database Capacity.
Implemented by: NPA
NORAD (Norwegian Agency Development)
Manual Demining Group 1
Implemented by: NPA in Malange Province
SIDA (Swedish International Development Agency )
Manual Demining Group 2
Implemented by: NPA in Kuanza Norte Province
Manual Demining Group 3
Implemented by: NPA in Southern Region
US Dept. of State
Negotiations in course

Manual Demining Group 4
Implemented by: NPA in Moxico Province
US Dept. of State

Mine Clearance Project implemented by: NPA
Hoque 4( Huila)
Figueira ( Huila)
Chibembo ( Huila)
Italian Cooperation
Explosive Ordnance Disposal Capacity Implemented by: NPA
DUTCH Government
Negotiations in course

Mine Dog Capacity-Free Run & EVD
Implemented by: NPA
AARDVARK Mechanically Assisted Demining Implemented by: NPA
DUTCH Government
Negotiations in course
HYDREMA Mechanically Assisted Demining
Implemented by: NPA
Danish Development Aid
US Dept. of State
Negotiations in course
Manual & Mechanical Mine Clearance
Implemented by: The HALO Trust in Bié, Huambo and Benguela Provinces
European Union/
Commission of the European Community
Humanitarian Mine Action
Implemented by: Mine Advisory Group in Kunene Province
British Organization as “ National Lotteries Charity Board and The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund”
Bengo ANG001/N18 Emergency Rehabilitation, Medical Support, Development Preparation in Support of Food Security and Road Access Programs
Implemented by MgM in Bengo Province
World Food Program
DUTCH Government
GERMAN Government
Kunene 00 03 EU
Emergency Rehabilitation, Medical Support, Development Preparation in Support of food security and road access programs
To be implemented by MgM in Kunene Province
US Dept. of State
Training of a Demining Brigade and Mine Clearance Activities
Implemented by: INTERSOS in Huila Province (18 months)
European Union/
Commission of the European Community
CARE (CAMRI Project ) in Kuito Province
European Union/Com. Of EC CARE U.S.
Mine Clearance Operation
Implemented by: Santa Barbara Foundation in Huila Province (Hoque 3)
Santa Barbara’s Funds
Road Rehabilitation and Mine Clearance Project
Implemented by: Santa Barbara Foundation in Huila Province
Santa Barbara’s Funds
Project & Implementing partners
(Funding sources)
Funds available
Mine Awareness and Clearance
Implemented by: HMD in Lunda- Sul Province
To be defined
Future Mine Action Project to be Financed by European Union/Commission of the European Community ( Funds currently available )
European Union/Commis-sion of the European Community

± 1,500,000

US-funded Demining Equipment
US-funded Mine Awareness Activities (World Vision – Africare)
U.S. Dept of Sate
U.S. Dept of Sate
in course

Mine Awareness in Kwanza Sul, Benguela, Huambo, Bie. Implemented by HIF
Balance from Italian Gov. Contrib. Through VTF(UNMAS)
Italian Government
Available for selected projects (Huila or Bengo )
Italian Cooperation


UN agencies have also helped. World Food Program has supported mechanically-assisted demining of secondary and tertiary roads in Bengo province by MgM and bridge and road clearance in the south by Santa Barbara Foundation. WFP has also provided support to HALO Trust (supply of two mine protected vehicles) and NPA, as well as some food-for-work support for road clearing by INAROEE brigades.

Because of the tight nature of funding in 1999 and 2000, foundations and individual donations have played an important role in enabling mine clearance operations to continue. These include: Anti-Landmijn Stichting, Brot fur die Wit, Comic Relief, Christian Aid, Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund, Misereor, National Lottery Charities Board, Johanniter International, Action Medeor, and the German Association of the Economy. A British book publisher, a German rock band, and a British journalist have also provided bridging funds to keep a number of clearance projects operational.

Mine Clearance

Through the end of May 2000, 2,610 mine or UXO fields had been identified, of which 517 were cleared (20 percent of the total). A total area of ten million square

meters of land and some 5,000 kilometers of main roads had been cleared.[40] Some 15,000 mines have been cleared and 300,000 UXOs have been cleared since 1995.[41]


In 1995, the Angolan government established its own mine action office, INAROEE. By1998, INAROEE was operating with seven demining brigades. INAROEE was supposed to do four things: logistics, the Escola Technico Angola Desminagem (ETAM) demining training school, quality assurance and coordination of mine action.

When the UN Observer Mission in Angola (MONUA) withdrew in January 1999, its support of INAROEE was terminated, and INAROEE and UNDP/UNOPS started developing a contingency plan. In March 1999, a further review of the UN Mine Action Program in Angola was conducted, with the participation of representatives of the Angolan government, INAROEE, UNDP and UNOPS, and donors.[42] The main conclusions were that INAROEE should concentrate on its original mandate of coordination rather than direct involvement in clearance operations, and that its demining brigades should be handed over and managed by independent operators, such as NGOs.

INAROEE had its budget cut back in 1999 following renewed fighting.[43] At its headquarters, the expatriate staff has been reduced from eighteen (twelve in the main program and six in the training school) to two (a UNDP/UNOPS-funded program manager and support for the data base funded by NPA).

INAROEE had demining brigades in the field in Bie, Huambo, Uige, Cuando Cubango, Huila and Moxico provinces. In January 1999 all the brigade operations were suspended because UN funding dried up[44] although these forty-man brigades are theoretically still intact. Its regional offices also have only skeleton staff left and $6 million in demining assets remain idle at the ETAM logistics base in Viana.[45] According to its director Helder Cruz many of the brigade members will find work with the NGOs.[46]

This has caused problems for the NGOs because the standards of many of the INAROEE deminers has been low, raising further concerns about what purpose the ETAM school will serve.

The general view is that INAROEE's brigades were not very productive at demining because of poor logistics and the quality of expatriate advisors contracted by the UN. However, it does have a future as a coordinating office for the operators in the field although coordination is currently weak, with no meeting of mine operators taking place since November 1999.[47]

NPA has taken one brigade and INTERSOS has raised funds to operate another. HALO offered to employ 20-25 ex-INAROEE deminers, but INAROEE refused saying HALO could take all or none of their fifty-seven staff. HALO could not do this and therefore recruited from outside of INAROEE.

UNDP has tried to fundraise for INAROEE. In November 1999, it urged donors to provide funding for INAROEE arguing that it was better to keep it operational than dismantle it and recreate it post-conflict. UNDP also argued that Angola needs a national planning and coordination entity such as INAROEE for mine action. It has also stated, “For better or worse, INAROEE remains the single most vocal and effective advocate for adherence to the Ottawa Convention within the Government of Angola. To dismantle it completely would be ‘throwing out the baby with the bathwater.’”[48]

UNDP has applied for continued funding of $1 million for INAROEE in 2000 and has submitted two separate but smaller applications for further development of the mine action data base and the refurbishment of INAROEE's vehicle fleet. INAROEE’s Director Helder Cruz presented a demining plan for 2000, requesting $13 million from donors at a conference organized by the UNDP in Geneva on 20 March 2000.[49]

Helder Cruz hopes that although INAROEE will not be an operator, it will be a coordinator and trainer of deminers through the ETAM. Cruz hopes that plans to decentralize by setting up regional and national boards to coordinate and assess priorities for mine clearance will attract donor support.[50] Some funds have been received by INAROEE, but have mainly gone to NPA for taking over a brigade.

INAROEE is waiting for $4.5 million to come through from the Angolan government. In March, it presented the Minister for Social Assistance Albino Malungo with a document covering its needs/funds. It is now Malungo's responsibility to present this document to the Council of Ministers. However, the Council has not put demining or INAROEE on its agenda since the document arrived in Malungo's hands. The money from the government is urgently needed to rehabilitate the training school, ETAM, which Helder Cruz describes as “the basis of all our work,” and to create an independent brigade mechanism to demine areas such as the Benguela railway. INAROEE did receive $400,000 from the government, which has already been spent on payment of debts and hospital bills.[51]

The Angolan military is also active in demining operations in conflict zones or areas recently retaken from UNITA control. For example at UNITA’s former strong hold of Jamba in Cuando Cubango province, military sappers have been clearing mines but with casualties. A number of these have been hospitalized in Namibia.[52] INAROEE has also indicated its desire to also coordinate the Military Engineering Units of the Angolan Army to carry out humanitarian mine clearance.[53] However, incidents such as at Sangondo, Luena where the Engineering Unit missed mines and declared the area safe, resulting in civilian casualties, raises a question at to whether the military has the skills to demine to humanitarian standards.

INAROEE-based GIS Landmine Database: The database continues to exist and is useful. Every minefield surveyed in Angola goes onto the database. Every time an operator completes a task or survey or discredits a task, a full report is sent to INAROEE. It also maintains information on the humanitarian priority of each minefield, coded between one and five in terms of importance/desperation. Priorities do change, for example in Kuito, when IDPs moved closer into land contaminated by mines laid in the 1980s or during the 1992-1994 war. The database can generate maps on a scale of 1:1,000,000 in digital form for all of Angola and also contains geo-referenced information on minefields, mine clearance, mine awareness programs, and mine accidents.

Commercial Demining

During 1999 and 2000 there has been little commercial demining activity in the country. The only commercial firm active is the South African firm BRZ International Ltd, which operates in Angola through Saracen Angola Lda. and in a joint venture with an Angolan commercial demining company, Mamboji Lda.[54] BRZ International reports that in 1999 it conducted clearance and de-bushing work at Soyo for FINA Petroleos de Angola.[55]

NGO Mine Action Initiatives

The latest conflict resulted in mine action efforts being shifted and adjusted to directly support and integrate into the overall humanitarian emergency relief efforts. This was very evident in the major war zones around provincial capitals such as Malanje, Huambo and Kuito. The priority changed from area clearance to surveying for mines and UXO, awareness building among IDPs and resident populations, elimination of mines and UXO, and finally area clearance.

Norwegian People's Aid: NPA’s demining operation remains the largest in Angola. Like HALO Trust, in January 1995, NPA obtained a government permit to clear mines. It suffered significant reduction in donor support in 1999 as it became difficult to convince donors to keep the funds flowing.[56] In 1999, its funds from Norway dropped by ten percent, from Denmark by forty percent, from the Netherlands by half, and Australia pulled out completely. Overall support has dropped to about fifty percent of its 1998 funding level. NPA has tried to maintain its total workforce of some 700 Angolans and twenty expatriate staff and avoid lay-offs.

NPA’s main role is to open up roads and bridges and to facilitate IDPs settling into agricultural areas and in camps. Between June 1999 and March 2000, it cleared 3,127,349 square meters of land. In this period, 219 AP mines, fifteen AT mines, and 101,179 UXO were found and destroyed. NPA sent a survey team into Malanje city on 4 May 1999 and established a presence until November 1999 when the deminers returned. The NPA team removed eighty-nine UXO resulting from five months (January to May 1999) of UNITA shelling.[57]

Highlights of NPA demining/mine action operations during 1999 are:

  • doubling the area cleared in Angola through consolidation of resources in the South (Huila, Benguela and Cunene provinces);
  • temporary shifting of demining programs from areas of conflict, most notably from Malanje to Ndalatando/Dondo in January 1999;
  • stopping the systematic Level 1 Survey short of completing the three remaining provinces (Moxico, Lunda Norte and Cuando Cubango) and redeploying the teams nationwide to monitor and assess recent mine accidents and record information of newly reported minefields.

In 2000, its mine action program consists of six different projects. They are:

  • The Manual Demining Project: Three manual groups, with a total of 300 manual deminers, deployed in the Malanje, Kwanza Norte[58] and Huila provinces;
  • The Mechanical Verification and Mine Clearance Project: Two Hydrema and three Aardvark mine clearance machines for verification, area reduction and mine clearance tasks, currently in Namibe province (on the border with Huila, doing road clearance for IDPs). In Cunene NPA is working on road clearance and on some small minefields;
  • The Mine Detecting Dog Project: Explosive vapor detecting dogs utilized for verification of air samples collected in suspected mine contaminated areas by sampling teams, and free running and UXO detecting dogs;
  • The EOD/BAC Project: EOD and battle area clearance teams deployed for the removal and disposal of UXO;
  • The Landmine Survey Project and Database Collection: The collection, analysis, management and dissemination of mine and mine-related information for the effective coordination and organization of a coherent humanitarian mine action program; and
  • The Mine Awareness Project: Mine awareness campaigns for the local population and communities about the danger of mines and UXOs.

NPA pulled out of Uige on 28 May 2000 because of security worries but may return. On 1 May 2000, NPA received funding to work in Moxico province,[59] where it set up an office and opened a training center. It will take on an INAROEE brigade, some seventy people from INAROEE and MAG, who will be given a refresher course and the best people selected to work with NPA.

As noted above, NPA suffered significant reductions in donor support in 1999, but lay-offs were avoided by halving the number of expatriate advisors and putting the remainder in low-cost accommodation. Recent cash flow problems were dealt with by suspending contracts temporarily (January to March 2000).[60]

NPA’s funders over the last two years include: Norwegian Agency for Development (NORAD) in 1999 and 2000 -- $2 million; the U.S. State Department from May 2000 to May 2001 -- approximately $2 million; USAID from October 1998 to January 2000 -- $2.2 million; Swedish National Development Agency from January to December 2000 -- $1.1 million; the Netherlands in 1999 --$592,000, and in 2000 -- $437,853; Italy in 2000 --$536,544; and Denmark, which in 1999 supported costs of running two mechanical mine clearance machines.

Mines Advisory Group (MAG): British-based MAG's presence dates back to mid-1992 with the start of a mine awareness poster campaign. It began mine clearance operations in April 1994 in Moxico province. MAG was forced to suspend operations in Moxico in mid-1998 and withdrew most staff from that province in August 1998. At the request of INAROEE, MAG established in January 1998 an operations base in Ondjiva, Cunene province in the south of the country following an assessment mission in November 1998. This mission confirmed the need for mine action in the province. MAG recruited and trained local personnel, with the help of its National Training Team (NTT) brought from the suspended Moxico operation. MAG's first two mine action teams were deployed in April 1999, followed by two more in September 1998.

MAG is working in close partnership with other NGOs and government bodies. It has established a “Sub-committee for Demining” involving local authorities, police, the provincial governmental humanitarian agency, MINARS (Ministry of Social Affairs and Rehabilitation), the Army and NGOs to coordinate mine action and development within the province. MAG has also been working closely with AICH, a Spanish NGO involved in the rehabilitation of water wells across the province. It has cleared well access, and existing and new well sites.

There is also a relationship with the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC), which currently runs a mine awareness program in the province. IFRC staff pass all reports of mines and UXOs to MAG, which then deals with them and reports back to the IFRC the actions taken in response to the report. This positive action creates community confidence and leads to further information. During 1999 the program trained four mine action teams and has developed them to the point that they can deploy and manage themselves on a daily basis. In 2000 MAG will further upgrade the NTT's technical and managerial skills in preparation for handing over the ownership of the program. Due to the large number of mine and UXO tasks being reported and undertaken by the teams, MAG is reevaluating (upwards) the community need in the province in response to requests from INAROEE and from the local authorities in Luena, Moxico province. MAG is looking to re-start its suspended operations based in Luena initially. MAG is seeking funding to support the mine action element of an integrated post-conflict rehabilitation project underway in the town involving medico international, VVAF and the Trauma Care Foundation.

In 1999 MAG received $1.21 million from the Anti-Landmijn Stichting, Brot fur die Welt, Comic Relief, Christian Aid, the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund, Misereor and the National Lottery Charities Board. In 2000 (Jan.-Dec.) support is less, $992,250 of which $549,000 is from the National Lotteries Charities Board, $54,000 from the Anti-Landmijn Stichting, $287,000 from Brot fur die WELT and Misereor, and $116,250 from the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund. No funds are yet secured for 2001 and MAG is very concerned, as are other agencies, that the level of funding support currently available from the international community is no way commensurate to the acute need of the affected populations.

HALO Trust: The British NGO HALO Trust began operating in Angola in late 1994. In January 1995, the government through the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Cooperation issued a permit to HALO for demining operations in Bie, Benguela and Huambo provinces.

HALO is currently operating in Huambo and Bie provinces, and in spite of the fluctuating security situation, it remained operational throughout 1999. Just prior to the onset of renewed fighting, HALO withdrew its expatriate monitoring staff, but the deminers continued working under local supervision and continued to report their progress by radio. This continued until government forces attacked Bailundo and the equipment was lost. HALO has shifted its demining efforts to support humanitarian organizations and their efforts to resettle IDPs. In the period January to November 1999, 414 AP mines, 96 AT mines, 1,254 items of UXO and 1,731 items of stray ammunition were destroyed. In 1999 HALO reduced the size of its demining teams in Kuito and Huambo and shifted that capacity to safer areas around Cubal. At the same time, it continued to demine, clearing mines around two bridges, a power transmission line and an agricultural area, all within the Huambo-Caala corridor.

At the request of the provincial government of Huambo, demining efforts were suspended between 3 March and August 1999; in November 1999, the provincial governor gave HALO his permission to operate anywhere in the province. On 18 November 1999, the government also handed over thirty-four AP mines to HALO to destroy and on 25 and 26 November sixty-seven AT mines they had cleared in the Vila Nova area.[61] Since November 1999 HALO has started work on opening up some routes to survey villages further away from Huambo, working with MSF, ICRC and ADPP. In April 2000, it started demining in Caala, clearing 164 landmines that month in Muangunja suburb in an area of 935 square meters.[62] However, it is unable to demine in any municipalities forty kilometers beyond Huambo because of poor security. Three of its staff were killed and three injured when three of its vehicles were ambushed on Quilengues-Vhongoroi road, Huila, on 24 January 2000.[63] HALO asked to work in Andulo but government forces refused them permission on the grounds that they could not guarantee security.

In Kuito, HALO has been working close to Kuito and Kunje (within the perimeter) because of the security situation. Between January and November 1999, the HALO team removed nearly 1,000 UXO, seventeen AT mines and nineteen AP mines. Four teams are operational using manual and mechanical methods. At a request of the provincial government, demining activities were suspended from 3 March 1999 to 24 May 1999. In July HALO voiced its concern to the Angolan press about the increased number of mine accidents in the province.[64] HALO also initiated mine awareness efforts during 1999, making appearances at 174 different localities and reaching a total of 40,000 people during this period.

HALO currently has 300 staff (three of which are expatriates), and its funding comes mainly from the U.S. government and the EU. From 1 June 1999 through 9 September 1999, the EU gave HALO approximately $400,000, followed by a $1.12 million funding contract from 1 January 2000. The EU has just asked HALO for another proposal for December 2000 to May 2001, and it has submitted one for $600,000. From 1 October 1999 to 31 December 1999, another $120,000 came from the Dutch Anti-Landmijn Stichting, which helped bridge a funding gap.

In May 2000, the U.S. Department of Defense provided HALO with $400,000 for six months work, permitting an expansion of fifty people, of which thirty were recruited in April. All operators in Angola have been asked by the U.S. to put in bids for funding which will total $3-4 million. HALO has submitted a proposal for $1.1 million. The Japanese government paid for two land rovers, with a one-time grant of $82,412 in July 1999.[65]

Care International: Care International funded Greenfield Consultants,[66] a commercial firm based in the UK, to field two clearance teams in Cuando Cubango province, and carry out mine awareness programs in Bie, Cunene, Huila and Cuando Cubango provinces. These teams were deployed in December 1995. Care terminated its mine-related work in Bie province in mid-March 1999 because of the increased fighting between the government and UNITA and because it ran out of funds. Between February 1998 and June 1999, the project had been supported with a $1.1 million grant from the EU as well as $15,000 from the British-based Rowan Trust and $39,658 from TRAID. This Care Mine Related Interventions Project (CAMRI I) had a twenty-one person mine action team working to clear and dispose of mines and explosives. This project destroyed or clearly marked more than 100 mines.[67]

Care’s teams have also trained almost 5,000 people in mine awareness and have assessed four campsites and surrounding agricultural land for temporary but safe resettlement of internally displaced persons. Care has requested funds in 2000 for a nine-month follow up CAMARI II project from the European Commission’s DG Dev and a team from European Landmine Solutions visited Angola in June on an assessment mission.

Menschen gegn Minen (MgM): MgM, a German-based NGO, became operational in Angola in 1996 when it was awarded a contract from the World Food Program to clear roads for the internally displaced in Caxito, Bengo province. Since July 1999, it has cleared fifty-eight hectares of mined land in Libongo, Bengo province. The project for 1999 was called Bengo X and was dedicated to unfinished clearance from the Bengo VIII work and clearance of Dembos District and the village of return for people from Cambambe 2.

Due to the security situation in these areas, MgM relocated to the Libongo area and completed the clearance of a minefield that Save the Children Fund (USA) had started but had abandoned after a serious accident, which resulted in the closing of the program. Other mined areas were also cleared. During this operation MgM cleared sixty-one AP mines, nine AT mines and 900 pieces of unexploded ordnance. The bulk of the work was carried out along seventy kilometers of road, equal to fifty-six hectares; the remaining two hectares were mined fields. MgM estimates that it has opened up 3,000 hectares of farming land, which allowed some 56,000 internally displaced persons return home to Nambuangongo in early 2000.[68]

MgM also hopes to operate in Dembos, in the eastern Bengo province or Cuanza Sul (depending on which map you look at). They are waiting for the go-ahead from the military. The governor appears to support the program but the military is against it. Dembos is still an area of conflict and some 28,000 IDPs are waiting to go home, presently in IDP camps just outside Caxito. There are also plans for work in Ambriz, Nambuangongo and Caxito and long-term plans for work in Moxico, Uige, and Cuando Cubango provinces.

MgM is preparing to work in Cunene province and a base camp and workshop are ready.[69] The job is to open feeder roads to Cuando Cubango and at a later stage, into Moxico province. MgM has roughly doubled its mechanical assets over the past year, employs eighty Angolans and operates seven dogs.

In 1999, it received $1,780,000 from donors and in 2000, $1,246,000. The funds have come from the Dutch, German, and U.S. governments; Johanniter International; Action Medeor; and from individuals.

Santa Barbara: Santa Barbara is also a German-based mine clearance organization. Like MgM, it became operational in Angola in late 1996. In 1999 it obtained a contract with SBF and the Swedish NGO Swed Relief to clear mines from twenty-five kilometers of roads and around four bridges in Huila province. It also cleared road sections and bridge areas in the rehabilitation of a major road between Matala (Huila province) and Menongue (Cuando Cubango province). Due to the changing security situation the work has shifted to Cunene province. This specific project was funded by $450,000. In 1999, it also received $1.21 million from the German Association of the Economy, the German government and the Swedish government for clearance work that resulted in 10,000 square meters of farmland near Lubango being cleared during which twenty-five AP mines, thirteen AT mines and 123 UXO were cleared.

Santa Barbara continues to maintain an operational base in Xangongo and is working in Huila at Hoque, and Cunene near Xangongo on micro projects with $350,000 in funding from the Italian government and from the German Association of the Economy. By mid-June 2000, they had cleared seventeen AP mines and nine UXOs. It uses detectors, a vegetation cutter, and a Wolf demining vehicle in its clearance operations.[70]

Humanitarian Medical Development Response (HMD): HMD, an Irish/British organization, started operations in 1998 rehabilitating a hospital in Saurimo as part of a three-year $468,000 co-funded project, with $220,500 from an individual donor. HMD wanted to reduce the number of patients by branching into mine action (survey and mine awareness work). A second twelve-month mine clearance project by HMD ended in August 1999 after funding ran out. HMD had sent forty local deminers for training in mine clearance at the ETAM in October 1998 and then they cleared mines and UXO in the Saurimo area when they obtained reports from local people. This project was funded by a 200,000 Euro grant from the EU Food Security Program and $187,000 from an individual donation.[71]

INTERSOS: An Italian NGO, provided experts from its Humanitarian Demining Unit (HDU) who operated in 1997/98 as supervisors of a UNAVEM III/UNDP project clearing mined territory in Cuando Cubango with the 7th Demining Brigade of INAROEE. In November 1999 an eighteen-month demining project started in Lubango, Huila province, aimed at supporting IDPs. The project is funded by the EU and the Italian government. INTERSOS is taking over an INAROEE brigade to do this work.[72]

Demira: A German NGO that worked on the Cunene river bringing water in from Namibia but finished operating in Angola in August 1999. Demira never engaged in formal mine clearance although it cleared a few mines from roads that it operated on.

Mine Awareness

Since 1995, 1.8 million people in fifteen of the country’s eighteen provinces have participated in mine awareness programs. There has been a significant increase in the need for mine awareness in 1999 and 2000 due to the resumption of the war and the large number of IDPs on the move within Angola. Moving populations are often exposed to unfamiliar areas and the marking of mine sites and mine awareness programs in IDP camps can reduce accidents in such areas.

UNICEF has used the Programa de Educação e Prevenção de Accidentes de Minas (PEPAM) as its mine awareness program. UNICEF/PEPAM has worked through INAROEE (capacity building and salary support), with INAROEE mine awareness NGO partners (World Vision, Handicap International, CARE, MAG, Medico International, and the IFRC in Cunene province) and various other NGOs.[73] It also supports the Palanca Negra mine awareness theater group in Malanje. It has also been instrumental in developing a standardized mine accident registration system which has been integrated into INAROEE's landmine database.

A UNICEF-sponsored school mine awareness project runs in eleven provinces and has reached 224 schools and 1,900 teachers. It also worked with CIET International on “mine smartness” surveys with CIDA/DHA support. UNICEF has also subsidized INAROEE's remaining provincial coordinators (after INAROEE brigades were dissolved in April 1999) through salary support, who now have a coordination function to gather accident data and monitor local mine awareness projects.

World Vision in Malanje has been the principle provider of mine awareness services to both IDPs and resident populations. They continued through 1999 despite frequent UNITA shelling. However, their financial support dwindled in 1999, so that three of their six mine awareness instructors had to leave. In the period February to September 1999 (the period of heaviest fighting) they reached 11,379 persons.[74] In September 1999, World Vision requested to expand their work outside Malanje city in order to pave the way for relocation of IDPs, but the government police did not approve the request for security reasons.[75] World Vision, jointly with Africare, was awarded $1 million from the U.S. Department of State for mine awareness activities in 2000.

In Huambo and Kuito, GAC (Grupo de Apoio e Criança) is the largest mine awareness NGO. GAC mine awareness work continued throughout 1999 in Huambo, except for the days of heavy shelling. They have twelve instructors (two teams of six) in Huambo and an equal number in Kuito. In November 1999 they estimated that they reached a total of 3,521 people (1,843 children, 423 youths, 738 women and 517 men).[76]

Supported by UNICEF, INAROEE, GAC, and the Ministry of Education, Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo (ADPP) runs a teacher training program in Huambo, which in 1999 for the first time included a week-long module on mine awareness for all future teachers. The ICRC has also been active on the Planalto. Between January and September 1999, the ICRC conducted fifty-eight mine awareness sessions for 2,913 primary school pupils in the Planalto region.[77] UNICEF mine awareness sessions also reached 2,212 students and 142 teachers in four schools, and 1,100 people in three churches in the same region.

The IFRC runs a mine awareness program based in Benguela. The program conducts training courses for volunteer instructors and a course for twenty-five teachers in support of the Ministry of Education initiative to introduce mine awareness into the school curriculum. It is anticipated that the teachers will train 1,125 students in 2000. IFRC also works with MAG and NPA.

In 1999, NPA has continued to carry out monitoring and supervising of the mine awareness programs carried out by Medico International in Moxico province, UNICEF and the Danish Refugee Council.[78] Although NPA has reduced its operational role in mine awareness in Angola, the organization has the skills and capacity to train mine awareness instructors and design projects for other organizations. Therefore, NPA has through its partnership with other organizations played a key role in what has been by far the largest mine awareness initiative in Angola.[79]

INAROEE has been involved in nominal mine awareness work. It has also facilitated landmine committees in locations affected by minefields such as Huambo's three committees in Bairro Fatima, two in Cainhe, two in Santo Antonio.[80] Handicap International (France) has also engaged in mine awareness work in six provinces with INAROEE, supporting radio programs and working directly in IDP camps.[81]

Landmine Casualties

Angola has one of the highest rates of landmine injuries per capita in the world. Out of a population of about nine million, it has tens of thousands of amputees, the great majority of them injured by landmines. The government claims that there are 90,000 amputees in the country although the more widely used figure is 70,000. However, in general an estimated one in every 415 Angolans has a mine-related injury, and the proportion of child casualties ranged from 41 percent to 76 percent in the heavily mined provinces of Moxico, Huila, Bie and Huambo.

A total of 1,004 mine and UXO casualties are officially registered by INAROEE for the period mid-1998 to January 2000, but the real figure is much higher. [82] The number of AP landmine accidents registered by INAROEE went up sharply in 1999: in 1998, ninety-five mine accidents were registered; in 1999 there were 486 mine accidents; from January to March 2000 there were twenty-nine mine accidents.[83]

The situation in Luena is instructive. The number of victims in Luena was 83 in 1995, and dropped to 32 in 1996, but jumped to 103 in 1998 and rose to at least 185 in 1999 because of the renewed hostilities.[84] According to the Jesuit Refugee Service, between January and October 1999 in Luena there were 105 mine victims from sixty-eight AP accidents.[85] INAROEE reports that in October 1999 there were twenty-nine mine victims from eighteen mine accidents around Luena. In November 1999 there were twenty-nine victims from fourteen mine incidents.

The situation in Luena was not helped by the local representative of the Ministry of Social Assistance declaring that a field in Sangondo suburb was fit for settlement by IDPs. On 2 March 2000 a women lost her sight after touching a mine and two more mines and twenty-four pieces of UXOs were discovered and destroyed. A month later a women and man were killed by a reinforced antipersonnel mine.

For over a month, a number of NGOs operating in Luena had contacted the Ministry of Social Assistance to voice their concern about the dangers of resettlement on Sangondo but were ignored. Finally they sent an open letter complaining about this situation to the Provincial Governor and copied it to the Minister of Social Assistance Albino Malungo in Luanda.[86] The crisis was only resolved when the Minister intervened and a meeting was held on 7 April at which it was agreed that the armed forces would need to clear the mines prior to continued settlement.[87]

Luena was not alone in seeing new mine victims. In and around the periphery of Malanje city, 184 mine accidents occurred in the period January-November 1999. While in Andulo, UNITA's former headquarters but under government control since October 1999, up to ten landmine incidents, mostly resulting in death or amputations, were reported every week.[88] According to INAROEE, twenty people have died and fourteen others have been seriously injured in eastern Moxico province between January and May 2000.[89]

Landmine Survivor Assistance

Care and rehabilitation of FAA soldiers is the responsibility of the Serviço de Ajuda Medica-Militar (SAMM) of FAA. Civilian victim assistance in Angola consists mostly of physical rehabilitation provided by several international NGOs, but the provision of rehabilitation services outside Luanda has also been significantly affected by the renewed war in Angola.

The ICRC runs an orthopedic center at Bombo Alto, near Huambo and a new center in Kuito. The Swedish Red Cross had run an orthopedic center at Neves Bendinha, but responsibility for this center was taken over in February 1999 by the ICRC and it became fully operational in August. The ICRC reports that its orthopedic activities have been reduced because of security problems. Similarly, the transportation of amputees from other provinces to the orthopedic centers had been suspended in 1999 although this program resumed in January 2000. In 1999 the ICRC treated 1,547 patients in its three centers. Of these, 1,237 were victims of antipersonnel mines.[90] The ICRC also manufactures and supplies components for seven prosthetic centers throughout Angola for the production of 4,000 prostheses.[91] The Dutch Red Cross has a center at Viana, Luanda Province.

Because of the renewed outbreak of fighting in the Planalto region in December 1998, the ICRC began a medical assistance program for civilian patients at Huambo hospital in which all patients arriving for surgical and orthopedic treatment were supported by the ICRC. In April 2000 the ICRC held a six-week seminar in war surgery in Huambo hospital.[92]

By late 1998, Handicap International (HI) operated two orthopedic clinics outside Luanda in Benguela, Lobito. A center in Negage in Uige province was turned over to the Ministry of Health in November 1998 and continues to function to some extent. The two centers in Benguela and Lobito have not been directly affected by the war, but have experienced a deficit in patients of some ten to twenty a month due to their inability to safely reach the workshops. HI plans to start general social reintegration projects related to both workshops, but limit its activities to the urban centers until the security situation improves in surrounding areas. HI continues to work at the Viana Center outside Luanda producing feet for all the physical rehabilitation programs in Angola. Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation, a U.S.-based NGO, provides physical and social rehabilitation to mine victims in Luena in Moxico province.[93] Between September 1997 and 31 March 2000 the Center produced 738 prosthetic limbs, most of them for mine victims and funded by the War Victims Fund/USAID.[94] In 2000, the Italian NGO INTERSOS obtained EU and Italian government funding for a two-phase project to rehabilitate and open a prosthetics clinic in Menongue in Cuando Cubango, aimed at servicing the whole province.[95]

Angola remains a desperately poor country in which few facilities are available for the physically disabled. Most amputees are reluctant to leave the relative comfort of rehabilitation centers. Their future will consist of being cared for by their families, or attempting to earn a living in one of the few occupations open to them, such as the street trading or--for those with education--secretarial work. The majority who come from farming backgrounds are likely to remain a burden on their families for the foreseeable future. Many have been reduced to begging; amputee beggars are already a common sight in Angolan towns. Angola will have to live with the human cost of the landmine wars for many years to come.


[1] Inter Press Service, 19 May 1999.
[2] Human Rights Watch interview, Luanda, 17 December 1999.
[3] INAROEE website at: www.landmine.org/inaroee, date read 6 June 2000.
[4] Manual da Conceicao, “Angola: Parliament ratifies Ottawa Convention on prohibition of landmines,” Telivisáo Publica de Angola, Luanda, in Portuguese 1930 GMT 25 July 2000, BBC Monitoring, 26 July 2000.
[5] Translation from Portuguese to English provided by the ICBL Coordinator. Statement by Vice Minister of External Relations, Toko Serrão, to the National Assembly, 25 July 2000.
[6] Translation from Portuguese to English provided by the ICBL Coordinator. Statement by Vice Minister of External Relations, Toko Serrão, to the National Assembly, 25 July 2000.
[7] Panafrican News Agency, 1 March 2000.
[8] Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), mine action NGO, on its website at: www.angola.npaid.org/minelist_complete_angola.htm, seen on 15 May 2000.
[9] This is according to NPA. On its website, INAROEE lists the most commonly found AP mine types in Angola as from Italy, China, the former Soviet Union, Germany, and Romania. However, its director Gen. Eugénio da Silva Helder Cruz blamed the U.S., Russia, and South Africa as the countries responsible for mining Angola. "They are the ones who should give the most funds for demining. South Africa has a big responsibility.” Interview, Luanda, 16 May 2000.
[10] Interview with HALO Trust, Huambo, 18 May 2000.
[11] Human Rights Watch interview with Angolan military official, Luanda, December 1999. Some of these mines were South African manufactured claymores.
[12] Text of report on Angolan TV on 10 June, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 13 June 2000.
[13] Document “Nota O8 DGM 0103,” seen by Human Rights Watch.
[14] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 113-114.
[15] Human Rights Watch interview, June 2000.
[16] UNITA has been blamed for the laying of these mines. The rebels have denied this and have called for an international inquiry. See, Post (Lusaka), 14 April, 2000.
[17] NPA email to Landmine Monitor, 7 July 2000.
[18] Reuters, 26 November 1999.
[19] “Namibia: Angolans face terror charge,” IRIN, 24 May 2000; journalist Pedro Rosa Mendes obtained similar accounts from local residents, interview, 6 June 2000; Publico (Lisbon), 10 May 2000.
[20] Namibian Police, “Report on Anti-Personnel Mine Incidents: Kavango Region, January - April 2000,” 10 April 2000.
[21] “Programa Nacional De Acção Humanitária Contra As Minas Em Apoio A Reabilitação E Desenvolivmento Sócio Económico Angola,” INAROEE & UNDP/UNOPS, March 2000.
[22] In an incident on 12 May 2000, a HALO armored land rover drove over an antitank mine in Huambo province, at Liandambi, injuring three people. Local people said the mine had been laid by the FAA in December 1998. (Interview with HALO Trust, Huambo, 18 May 2000.) Either the current military forces did not know about the mines in the area, which would indicate that all mines are not mapped and lifted, or the military did know and failed to warn HALO. NPA has noted that there are instances of areas mined in the evening and demined the following morning. But this too can result in accidents if the soldiers forget where the mines are laid or oversleep. Such an incident occurred at a military position near Malanje in late June 2000. (NPA email to Landmine Monitor, 7 July 2000.)
[23] Interview with Gen. Eugenio da Silva Helder Cruz, Director, INAROEE, Luanda, 16 May 2000.
[24] E-mail communication from NPA, 7 July 2000.
[25] Human Rights Watch interview, Angola, 16 December 1999; information also provided by an NGO involved in mine clearance in Angola.
[26] Save the Children, War Brought Us Here: protecting children displaced within their own countries by conflict, (London: SCF-UK, May 2000) p. 37.
[27] Reuters, 26 November 1999.
[28] Angop, 24 April 2000. HALO Trust reports from its work in Huambo and Bie a dramatic increase in AT mines cleared from nineteen in 1998 to ninety-eight in 1999. By April 2000 they had cleared thirteen AT mines.
[29] “Angola’s UNITA Rebels Say They Will Go on Harassing Namibian Civilians,” Republikein (Nambiain Newspaper), BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 6 February 2000.
[30] “Angola: New concerns as fighting rages along southern border," IRIN, 22 December 1999; “Sergeant killed in UNITA attack,” The Namibian, 22 December 1999; “Civilian killings spark concern,” The Namibian, 22 December 1999; “Unita 80 percent destroyed, says Angolan army chief,” The Namibian, 21 December 1999; “Angolan fighting spread into Namibia,” The Independent Online, 20 December 1999.
[31] Information provided by HALO Trust, 18 May 2000.
[32] Email from Santa Barbara Director Norbert Rossa, 7 June 2000.
[33] U.S. Department of State, Hidden Killers: The Global Landmine Crisis, September 1998, p. 19. The report also notes that HALO Trust estimated the number to be 500,000 in 1997.
[34] “Programa Nacional De Acção Humanitária Contra As Minas Em Apoio A Reabilitação E Desenvolivmento Sócio Económico. Angola,” INAROEE & UNDP/UNOPS, March 2000. Updated figures provided by UNOPS Luanda, 21 June 2000.
[35] INAROEE website at: www.landmine.org/inaroee.
[36] The generally accepted notion that funding decreased significantly from 1998 to 1999 is incongruously not borne out by the reporting coming from donors. For the ten major donors reporting to the UNMAS Mine Action Investment Database, combined funding increased significantly from 1998 to 1999: from $9 million to $12.6 million. Two governments stopped contributing, Australia and Belgium (combined $890,000 in 1998), but two governments also made contributions for the first time, Denmark and Ireland (combined $1.516 million in 1999). The EU, U.S., Norway, and Canada all increased funding from 1998 to 1999; only Germany reported decreasing funds. The UK had not provided since 1995. Some donors to mine action in Angola have not reported to this database, including Sweden, Netherlands, Japan, and Italy. Mine Action Investment Database, accessed through UNMAS website on 28 July 2000. http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/mine/.
[37] INAROEE website at: www.landmine.org/inaroee.
[38] Handicap International et al, “Funding for Humanitarian Mine Action must not be dependent on Landmines Convention status of mine-affected countries,” March 2000.
[39] A number of operators have complained that Italy dictates what is cleared and does not provide funds for overhead.
[40] “Programa Nacional De Acção Humanitária Contra As Minas Em Apoio A Reabilitação E Desenvolivmento Sócio Económico. Angola,” INAROEE & UNDP/UNOPS, March 2000. Updated figures provided by UNOPS Luanda, 21 June 2000.
[41] These UNOPS figures are contradicted by INAROEE's web site, which states that 2.4 square kilometers of high priority areas and 4,429 km of road had been cleared, removing 17,000 landmines, and that 6,000 minefields have been identified since 1995.
[42] “Programa Nacional De Acção Humanitária Contra As Minas Em Apoio A Reabilitação E Desenvolivmento Sócio Económico. Angola,” INAROEE & UNDP/UNOPS, March 2000.
[43] In 1999 UNDP sought to raise $1.2 million for INAROREE.
[44] Helder Cruz blamed UNOPS for this, saying that between 1997 and 1999 UNOPS took equipment back from the provinces, stopping his brigades from working. Interview, Luanda, 16 May 2000.
[45] Helder Cruz, “Mine Clearance in Conflict Zones,” paper presented at The Road Forward: Humanitarian Mine Clearance in Southern Africa conference, South African Institute of International Affairs, Johannesburg, 7-8 June 2000.
[46] Ibid. The handing over of responsibility for humanitarian demining to the NGOs was announced by Gen. Cruz on 22 June 2000. See, Jornal de Angola, 23 June 2000.
[47] Correct as of mid-June 2000.
[48] UNDP, “Mine Action Update, Country and Global Programs,” 17 November 1999.
[49] Angola News, no.66, March 2000.
[50] Helder Cruz, “Mine Clearance in Conflict Zones,” 7-8 June 2000.
[51] In the past the government has been worse, in 1997, 1998 and 1999 the government did not appear to support INAROEE.
[52] South African Press Association (SAPA), 9 June 2000.
[53] Helder Cruz, “Mine Clearance in Conflict Zones,” 7-8 June 2000.
[54] Saracen was originally linked to the private military company Executive Outcomes, which announced it had disbanded on 1 January 1999.
[55] BRZ International, “Humanitarian Mine Clearance Profile,” Document: BRZ 302; Doc Edition: B, p. 14.
[56] Norwegian People’s Aid website at: www.angola.npaid.org; interview with Harvad Hosknes, Luanda, 5 June 2000.
[57] Up to twenty shells per day had been coming into Malanje, and some 10 percent of these did not explode on impact. In the period May to October, the NPA survey team deactivated 114 UXOs.
[58] Kristian Berg Harpviken, “A community Study of Landmines and Humanitarian Demining: Cassua, Kwanza Norte, Angola,” Landmine Memo no.7, International Peace Research Institute, March 2000.
[59] Angop, 16 May 2000.
[60] Interview with Harvad Hosknes, Luanda, 5 June 2000.
[61] HALO was dealing with junior troops during this period and believes that this “good behavior” was a result of over-optimism that the war was over.
[62] Angop, 16 May 2000.
[63] WFP Report No. 04 of 2000, 27 January 2000.
[64] Angop, 9 July 1999.
[65] Jornal de Angola, 15 July 1999.
[66] Greenfields was taken over by a German commercial firm in 1999 and renamed European Landmine Solutions. They claim that since 1995 they have released over 6,000 hectares of land and cleared more than 3,000 mines and 70,000 major items ordnance. When Human Rights Watch contacted ELS, Rody Skidmore on 15 May 2000 refused to even acknowledge that Care had been their client although this information is posted on the Care and INAROEE web sites.
[67] Care website at: www.care/.../land_mines/lm_landmines0903.html, "Land Mines Continue to Threaten the Life and Limbs of the People of Angola," 3 September 1999. However, data provided by Care in a 30 June 2000 e-mail to the Landmine Monitor states that thirty-two mines were found and destroyed in this project and that 3,906.5 sq.m. of land was cleared.
[68] MgM website at: www.MgM.org; interview with MgM project manager Kenneth O'Connell, Luanda, May 2000.
[69] MgM on 30 May 2000 announced on the MgM Deming Network that it would distribute a Spanish version of the DC Comic “Superman” in Cunene to test its suitability as a mine awareness tool. Member organizations of the ICBL e-mailed MgM on 1 June 2000 questioning the cultural suitability of this comic.
[70] Santa Barbara website at: www.stiftung-sankt-barbara.de; email from Santa Barbara manager Norbert Rossa, 6 June 2000.
[71] HMD website at: www.hmdresponse.org/Programs/angola.html; interview with program manager Kate Stanley, London, 7 June 2000.
[72] INTERSOS website at: www.intersos.org. The project has received funding for two phases, $936,000 from EU-DG Dev followed by a second phase of $655,000 funded jointly by EU-DG Dev and the Italian government.
[73] GAC in Huambo and Kuito, Clube de Jovens in Huila province, Trindade Ninho de Infançia in Bengo province and Grupo Julo nationwide.
[74] This included 2,016 men, 2,551 women, and 6,812 children, over fifty per cent during relative peace and proportionately more children.
[75] Information provided by IDRC in May 2000. They are funding a survey of the humanitarian impact of mine action during conflict in Angola by the Angola-Instituto de Pesquisas (AIP). AIP will also produce a study, “A Preliminary Evaluation of Mine Clearance in Angola 1992 - 1999.”
[76] Ibid.
[77] International Committee of the Red Cross, “Fact Sheet: ICRC in Angola,” 26 January 2000.
[78] Medico International on 24 March 2000 wrote to the provincial authorities it was closing its mine awareness program due to lack of funds. Medico hopes to raise funds for further work in a joint application with MAG. See, www.medico.de, and, Angola: Annaherungen. Das gemeiwesenorientierte Rehabilitationzentrum von Luena, (Frankfurt: Medico International, no date).
[79] NPA website at: www.angola.npaid.org.
[80] Information provided by ICRC, May 2000.
[81] “Note Program Handicap International – section France Angola,” 15 June 2000. This project is funded by the Italian government (see table above).
[82] “Programa Nacional De Acção Humanitária Contra As Minas Em Apoio A Reabilitação E Desenvolivmento Sócio Económico, Angola,” INAROEE & UNDP/UNOPS, March 2000.
[83] Ibid. This is not only due to renewed war but also a reflection of better reporting systems at INAROEE.
[84] Reuters, 26 November, 1999.
[85] List of victims provided by the Jesuit Refugee Service, 14 April 2000.
[86] “Assunto: Novo campo de Sangondo,” Luena, 4 April 2000.
[87] Governo da Provincia do Moxico, “Conclusoes Finais,” Luena, 7 April 2000.
[88] Africa Analysis, no.346, 5 May 2000.
[89] Angop, 26 May 2000.
[90] ICRC website at: www.icrc.org, “ICRC News 00/07,” 2 March 2000.
[91] ICRC Update No. 00/1, “Economic Security Programs in Angola,” 26 January 2000.
[92] “ICRC News 00/13,” 13 April 2000.
[93] Veterans International website at: www.vvaf.org.
[94] Information provided by VVAF's program manager, Washington DC, 15 June 2000.
[95] INTERSOS website at: www.intersos.org. The funding is $936,000 from the EU DG Dev for start up and a second sum of $280,000 split between the EU and the Italian government.