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Country Reports
AUSTRIA, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: Austria continued to play an active role in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It developed the reporting format for Article 7 reports, and has been an important player in the intersessional work program. The government has approved an increase in mine action funding to US$2 million in 2000.

Mine Ban Policy

Austria signed the Mine Ban Treaty (MBT) on 3 December 1997 and deposited its instrument of ratification at the United Nations on 29 June 1998. The Austrian Federal Law comprehensively banning AP mines entered into force on 1 January 1997, and, with penal sanctions for violations, served as the implementing legislation for the MBT in Austria.[1] Since the Austrian government was already committed to a total ban on AP mines, it was able to play a crucial role during the “Ottawa Process,” including drafting the successive working texts of the Treaty.

Austria submitted its initial Article 7 report on 29 July, covering the short period from 1 March 1999 - 30 April 1999. Its second report, covering 30 April to 31 December 1999, was submitted on 28 April 2000; there was no updated information to report.

For many years Austria has made efforts to sensitize other countries to the landmine issue, and to universalize the MBT by encouraging more countries to join and fully implement its provisions. During 1999 the Austrian government made particular efforts to achieve a coordinated EU policy on AP mines, and also issued a number of statements condemning landmine use, particularly by the Yugoslav army in Kosovo. The Foreign Ministry believes these efforts have helped to increase the number of countries ratifying the MBT.[2]

Austria took the lead in developing the format for Article 7 reporting, which was then adopted at the First Meeting of States Parties (FMSP) in Maputo in May 1999.[3] The Austrian government welcomed the release of the Landmine Monitor Report 1999 at the FMSP, and considers the information contained in the report as valuable for the regular work in the Foreign Ministry on mine ban issues.[4]

Austrian representatives from Vienna and its permanent mission to the United Nations in Geneva have participated fully in all intersessional meetings of the MBT’s Standing Committees of Experts. Austria has contributed in particular to the SCEs on Stockpile Destruction and on the General Status and Operation of the Treaty. At the first SCE meeting on General Status, held in January 2000, Austria was one of the governments that reiterated that under the definitions of the treaty antivehicle mines (AVM) with antihandling devices which function like AP mines – which may explode from an unintentional act of a person -- are banned under the MBT, noting that this is also consistent with the diplomatic record.[5]

On 27 July 1998 Austria ratified Amended Protocol II (1996) of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), which entered into force for Austria on 27 January 1999.[6] It submitted the required Article 13 report on 11 October 1999. The government participated in the First Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 1999.

Concerning the possibility of also dealing with AP mines in the Conference on Disarmament (CD), Austria has stated recently that it continues to support “all efforts that might contribute to the total elimination of anti-personnel mine world-wide, in all appropriate international fora, including the Conference on Disarmament, provided these efforts are in support of and consistent with the Ottawa Convention.”[7]


Production, export and use of AP mines were formally renounced in September 1995 under a prohibition order that was later superseded by the national legislation. The Austrian Chamber of Commerce has stated on several occasions that there has been no production of AP mines in Austria since 1945.[8] This does not include command detonated directional fragmentation (Claymore-type) mines, which are not banned by the MBT, and which continue to be produced today.[9]

Command detonated mines (or “charges” as they are now called in Austria) are considered AP mines under the treaty if used with a tripwire. The Chamber of Commerce stated early in 1999 that the Austrian Federal Army holds only command-detonated directional fragmentation charges.[10] More recently, the Ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs confirmed that stocks of directional fragmentation AP mines in the Austrian Federal Army have been modified by closing the inlet for the AP mine fuse to prohibit use in tripwire mode.[11] Dynamit Nobel Wien issued the following statement on 9 May 2000:

The Company DNW/DNG produces and distributes for more than 15 years Directional Fragmentation Charges and Anti Vehicle Charges. Since 1991 over 180,000 charges of this kind have been manufactured and delivered mainly to European countries. Only minor test quantities have been delivered into other countries outside Europe. Although the above-mentioned products have not been banned under the Mine Ban Treaty of Dec. 3rd 1997, DNW/DNG has acknowledged the worries and the meaning of the treaty and began to modify its products in a way that they were even succeeding the requirements of the 1997 treaty.

- In future there will be no production, sales or trade with mechanical firing devices that can be tripwire operated.

- Development of ignition systems that can only be command operated.

- Since 1997 the DFC 19/29 are furnished with one firing well only (previously two wells) with a fixed built in electrical detonator to prohibit trip wire operation.

DNG/DNW fully supports the Austrian Government with its obligation to observe the keeping of the 97 Treaty and provides periodically information on its activities.[12]


The transfer of AP mines is banned in Austria under the MBT and the preceding national legislation. Any import, export or transfer of any type of mine is tied to a strict system of licenses under the War Material Act. The Federal Ministry of the Interior, under whose jurisdiction this falls, stated initially that there were no requests for transfer licenses during 1999 and up to April 2000.[13] Dynamit Nobel Wien indicated that it submitted a request for an export license in July 1999, which has not been processed.[14] The Ministry of the Interior has since confirmed that one application was received in 1999, which has not been processed.[15] The Chamber of Commerce states that there is strict control and monitoring of sales of directional fragmentation mines/charges, including strict checks on end-use; any such mines exported have been adapted so that they can only be command-detonated and re-conversion for use with tripwires is ruled out.[16]

A consignment of directional fragmentation mines/charges was exported to Norway in 1997.[17] The official Austrian response is that the license to export these was issued before 1996 and that the mines were not prohibited by the Austrian federal law.[18] This has been the subject of parliamentary questions to all relevant Ministers; they stated that the decision was taken in accordance with the law applicable at the time.[19] A meeting between the Legal Division of Austrian Red Cross, the Austrian Federal Army, Ministry of the Interior, Dynamit Nobel Graz, Irmtraud Karlsson MP and the Chamber of Commerce (at the latter’s invitation) revealed that directional fragmentation AP mines had been exported to Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, Brazil and the Netherlands; the export to Norway was in spring 1997; only those AP mines delivered to Brazil were physically adapted to prevent tripwire/victim-activation. The representative from the Ministry of the Interior considered that both tripwire-activated and command-detonated AP mines were exempted from prohibition under Austrian law; hence the permit for their export to Norway. This meeting took place on 3 December 1997, the same day that the MBT opened for signature in Ottawa.[20]

Official sources state that the dissemination of production and export data on armaments is protected by Austrian law[21] (although Dynamit Nobel Wien has in fact released some such data on the export of directional fragmentation mines/charges as noted above). The Austrian government has been asked to reconsider this and provide information in the spirit of transparency embodied in the MBT, which Austria did so much to bring about.[22]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that, as a neutral country, Austria is keen to prevent any violations of the MBT and has denied transit to NATO countries either across its territory or through its airspace of any transport containing any weapons, in spite of NATO requests to do so during the 1999 bombing of Yugoslavia.[23]

Stockpile and Destruction

The Austrian government has stated that the “destruction of all anti-personnel mines belonging to the armed forces has been completed in 1996.”[24] Austria’s AP mine stocks included 116,000 US M14 mines, classified in Austria as Schuetzenminen M14, which were destroyed by the end of 1995.[25]

The current stockpile of mines includes directional fragmentation charges modified to be MBT-compliant, and antivehicle mines. The quantities, dates and details of modification of these mines are not included in either of Austria’s two Article 7 reports. In this respect Austria adheres strictly to the requirement of the reporting format for Article 7 for details of “APMs destroyed after entry into force” (Form G). However, as these directional fragmentation charges previously formed part of the AP mine stockpile, it would enhance the effectiveness of Article 7 as a transparency measure if Austria reported information the details of modifications to the weapons under the section for “supplemental information.”

On the topic of antivehicle mines with antihandling devices that may function as antipersonnel mines, and therefore be prohibited by the MBT, the Ministry of Defense stated in May 2000 that it “possesses only such types of anti-tank mines (including anti-vehicle mines) as are compatible with the content of the agreement concerning the ban on the deployment, stockpiling, manufacture and transfer of APMs and their destruction (so-called Ottawa Convention), as well as other national regulations and international obligations.”[26]

Other sources list several Austrian antivehicle mines with antihandling devices of potential concern: the ATM 6, ATM 7, ATM 2000E, PM 83 and Pz MI 85 M, all because of sensitive fuzing; the AVM, SCRAM 95, SMI 21/11C and SMI 22/7C because of IR sensors; the Model 67 and Model 75 because of secondary fuze wells for antihandling devices, and finally the PM 3000, which possibly has a built-in antihandling device.[27]

The Ministry of Defense states, “The mines of types PM 83 and PzMi 85M, which may be equipped with tilt rod fuses, are not known here. For this reason the Ministry of Defense cannot give an opinion on whether they would be permitted in agreement with the Austrian Republic's international legal obligations."[28] It does not mention the other mines of concern.

The ICBL has called upon states parties to report under Article 7 on Claymore mines and steps taken to insure command detonation only as well as information on antivehicle mines with antihandling devices that may function as AP mines.[29]

Mine Action and Victim Assistance

In addition to playing a leading role in the Ottawa Process, the Austrian government has also viewed mine action and victim assistance as critical elements of the ban movement. Speaking at the FMSP in Maputo in May 1999, Dr. Benita Ferrero-Waldner[30] (who was State Secretary for Foreign Affairs at the time and has since become Foreign Minister) said, “In our assessment there is not only a need for increased funding for mine action, but simultaneously for further improvement in international co-ordination and co-operation. We support the central co-ordinating role of the United Nations, in particular through the United Nations Mine Action Service, and acknowledge the first results of their as well as our common efforts. However, we view strengthening co-ordination and co-operation as an on-going endeavour that still offers considerable potential for refinement.”[31]

The draft Federal Budget for 2000 introduced a specific budget line for humanitarian mine action and increased the proposed sum for assistance from the previous annual figure (since 1996) of US$1.25 million (ATS 18 million) to $2 million (ATS 30 million). This was subsequently approved by the government. The Foreign Ministry is currently reviewing its policy on mine action funding and victim assistance, to be finalized in August 2000.[32]

In recent years Austria has supported a wide range of mine action programs, via direct financial assistance and in-kind contributions, including donations to nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international organizations, and research and development into technologies related to demining. In April 2000, the Foreign Minister said that in the past “Austria has supported programs and projects in the countries which are the focus of Austrian Development Co-operation. These are Mozambique, Cambodia, Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Croatia.... The co-operation in the field of mine action with internationally recognized NGOs such as Handicap International, Mines Advisory Group or Norwegian People's Aid has proved very helpful in the past. There is also a need to promote the relevant activities within the framework of the UN.”[33] Governmental financial and in-kind contributions to mine action and victim assistance in 1999 and 2000 are in Table 1.

Table 1. Austrian governmental financial and in-kind contributions to mine action and victim assistance 1999-2000: [34]

Donations in ATS (US$)
Support to NGO demining program (MAG)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Support NGO demining program (NPA) in Sarajevo
Support to NGO demining program in Kompong Thom (MAG)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Support NGO demining program (HI) in Bihac
Support to NGO demining activities (MAG) in Kompong Thom
EU Program
Palestinian Authority
EOD-training for 4 Palestinians in Austria
Palestinian Authority
Train the trainers program for EOD personnel in West Bank and Gaza.

[35] As part of its general promotion of the Mine Ban Treaty, the Austrian government provided financial support to delegations from the Cape Verde islands, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, Rwanda and Uganda,[36] and has supported the Landmine Monitor with grants of $80,000 in 1999 and again in 2000.[37]

Governmental support to international organizations in recent years for mine-related activities is summarized in Table 2:

Table 2. Austrian governmental support to international organizations for mine-related activities[38]

Donations in ATS (US$)


Support for Landmine Monitor
1 Expert Geographical Information System for WEU Mine Survey program in Croatia (in kind assistance) (EU Mine Action in Croatia)
Mine awareness program in Kosovo
Mine related activities in Kosovo
Slovenian Trust Fund (ITF)
Mine action programs in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Research and Development

The Austrian company Schiebel produces a wide variety of mine detectors and systems. It is currently concentrating on developing the CAMCOPTER, an unmanned, remote controlled mini-plane to detect mines from the air. Initially designed to detect antitank mines, it is now being refined to detect AP mines. Schiebel says it is trying to bring down the cost of the CAMCOPTER in order to put it within reach of humanitarian organizations, either by sale or lease, but to do this military involvement is needed. It considers the EU spending on research and development too little to get results within a short period of around five years.

Schiebel works closely with other research and development efforts, such as the EU FP4-ESPIRIT program whose objectives are set out in a March 2000 draft memoranda.[39] It is also involved in the “Angel” project, under Spanish management, which is trying to combine different technologies to create a complete demining system, and in the “Pice” project, mainly funded by Sweden, which aims to develop a hand-held device, which combines a metal detector with ground penetrating radar, to reduce the false alarm rate in mine detection. To date, the Austrian government has provided no funding for this research and development, nor has the EU. Most of the testing is done in cooperation with the United States Army in the USA, the Austrian Army abroad, and elsewhere where demining is being carried out.[40]

Non-governmental Organizations

Austrian NGOs, including Austrian Aid for Mine Victims (AAMV), UNICEF, Care-Austria, the Austrian Red Cross, Caritas-Austria, Dreikonigsaktion, and Friedensburo, support mine action and victim assistance programs in a number of countries. AAMV, Caritas, the Austrian Red Cross and ORF (the Austrian broadcasting company) participated in a national fundraising campaign “Neighbor in Need” to help mine victims in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Cambodia.

AAMV has helped to raise funds for MAG projects in Cambodia, Namibia and the Sudan. In 1999/2000, it funded victim assistance projects in Cambodia; $11,740 was donated to Jesuit Services-Cambodia for income generating projects and vocational training, with a further $3,000 for wheelchairs etc. AAMV has received a donation of $69,000 (ATS 1 million) from the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra,[41] which has been earmarked for humanitarian mine action and victim assistance support in 2000. The Rotary club in Salzburg-West donated $4,200 (ATS 60,000) to AAMV for mine action, and Rotary-Klosterneuburg donated $3,500 (ATS 50,000) for mine action in Kosovo.

The UNICEF-Austria committee produced the German version of the UNICEF film “The Silent Scream” to be shown in schools in Austria. The Austrian Committee has also produced a user's guide and a summary of the MBT adapted for children, with the intention of raising awareness of the problem. The Austrian Committee fundraised for landmine-related UNICEF programs and contributed $69,000 (ATS 1 million) to mine awareness programs in Bosnia and Croatia, as well as $61,000 (ATS 886,250) to mine awareness and rehabilitation programs in Mozambique.[42]

Care-Austria provided $18,500 (DM 40,000) for a project in 1999 in Gornji Vakuf, central Bosnia, demining the local water supply pipeline and the bus station.[43]

The Austrian Red Cross provided victim assistance in the Banja Luka area of the Bosnian Serb Republic, from March 1998 to April 2000. By the end of 1999, 170 mine victims were aided and fifty-four artificial limbs supplied. The Red Cross provided the equipment and technology for production of the prostheses, while the local manufacturers provided materials and labor. The cost per artificial limb was $700 (DM 1,500).

It also supported rehabilitation programs and income-generating projects for mine survivors in Bosnia. The funding of this program was divided into two phases: from March to September 1999, $45,000 (ATS 650,000) was provided by the 1998 Nachbar in Not (Neighbors in Need) fundraising effort in Austria; from September 1999 to April 2000 the Austrian Red Cross allocated $69,000 (ATS 1 million) to this project.[44]

Between January 1999 and May 2000, Caritas-Austria contributed ATS 5,096,540 (US$352,000) to mine victim assistance projects. In Cambodia, it contributed to projects involving mine awareness in Pursat province via the Mines Advisory Group, an income-generating project for women carried out through AAMV, and via help packs, wells and housing grants through the Jesuit Service-Cambodia. In Croatia it funded Caritas-Zagreb for the medical and psychological rehabilitation of mine victims and Caritas-Djakovo for medical rehabilitation and computer training for mine victims. In Bosnia Caritas-Austria funded the Jesuit Service-Bosnia for the rehabilitation of elderly mine victims. In Sudan it co-funded the MAG project for training an OSIL demining team. The Carinthia branch of Caritas funded prostheses and rehabilitation for three Kosovar boys with double amputations, and rebuilt their homes and some others in Kosovo. The Entwicklungshilfe Club contributed $15,000 to victim assistance funding Jesuit Services-Cambodia projects building bamboo housing, with Misereor as partner-organization, starting in November 1999.

Dreikonigsaktion and other Catholic organizations were involved in several mine-related activities during 1999: the ‘Three Kings Action’ run by the Catholic Church youth movement, the Cambodia/Laos/Vietnam project (together with the Catholic Women's movement, the Diocesan Committee for the World Church and the development program of the Diocese Graz-Seckau). In previous years Dreikoningsaktion supported the South African Campaign to Ban Landmines with $17,000 (ATS 250,000) and a rehabilitation project for mine victims in Gulu (Uganda) with $7,000 (ATS 100,000).[45]


[1] Federal Law on the Ban on Anti-personnel Mines, Bundesgesetzblatt I, no. 13/1997.
[2] Interview with Dr. Gerhard Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Lt. Col. Hans Hamberger, Section for Arms Control, Non-proliferation and Verification, Ministry of Defense, Vienna, 20 March 2000.
[3] Interview with Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Lt. Col. Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, Vienna, 20 March 2000.
[4] Interview with Dr. Wernfried Koeffler and Dr. Gerhard Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vienna, 19 April 2000.
[5] Oral statement of the Austrian Delegation, Standing Committee of Experts on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, Switzerland, 10-11 January 2000.
[6] Budesgesetzblatt III, no. 17/1999.
[7] Report of the Permanent Mission of Austria to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 1 December 1999, p. 2.
[8] Interview with Dieter Skalla, Department for Defense Economy, Chamber of Commerce, 2 March 1999; Letter from the Austrian Chamber of Commerce to Austrian Aid for Mine Victims, 8 December 1997.
[9] Eddie Banks, Antipersonnel Mines: Recognizing and Disarming, (London: Brasseys, 1997), pp. 45-59; annual volumes of Jane’s Military Vehicles and Logistics; United States Department of Defense database ((http://www.demining.brtrc.com); Norwegian People’s Aid database (www.angola.npaid.org/minelist); both accessed 25 May 2000. These sources indicate Austria produced up to fifteen types of directional fragmentation mines, one of which has been found in Angola.
[10] Telephone interview with Dieter Skalla, Chamber of Commerce, 2 March 1999.
[11] Interview with Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Lt. Col. Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, Vienna, 20 March 2000, and subsequent telephone interviews and emails, March-April 2000.
[12] Letter from H Richter, Managing Director, Dynamit Nobel Wien, to Austrian Aid for Mine Victims, 8 May 2000.
[13] Interview with Dr. Schnabl, Ministry of the Interior, Vienna, 30 March 2000.
[14] Interview with Herr Richter, Director of Dynamit Nobel Wien, Vienna, 8 May 2000.
[15] Telephone message from Dr. Schnabl, Ministry of the Interior, 22 May 2000.
[16] Interview with Dr. Lohberger, Chamber of Commerce, Vienna, 28 March 2000; Dr. Lohberger was formerly an executive at Dynamit Nobel Graz).
[17] Nils-Inge Kruhag, “Norges store minebloff,” Dagbladet (Norwegian daily newspaper), 28 August 1997.
[18] Interviews with Dr. Koeffler and Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vienna, 19 April 2000, and with Dr. Schnabl, Ministry of the Interior, Vienna, 30 March 2000; Nils-Inge Kruhag, “Norges store minebloff,” 28 August 1997.
[19] Interview with Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vienna, 4 May 2000.
[20] Alexander Lang, Report 18 December 1997 of meeting, Felixdorf, 3 December 1997.
[21] Interview with Dr. Alfred Schnabl, Head of Department II/13 (War Materials), Ministry of the Interior, Vienna, 30 March 2000; Interview with Dr. Rudolph Lohberger, Chamber of Commerce, Vienna, 28 March 2000.
[22] Interview with Dr. Koeffler and Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vienna, 19 April 2000.
[23] Ibid.
[24] MBT, Article 7 report, submitted on 29 July 1999, covering 1 March 1999-30 April 1999.
[25] Telephone interview with Lt. Col. Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, 4 March 1999 and with Alexander Lang, Legal Division, Austrian Red Cross, 8 June 2000; Alexander Lang, “Report of meeting between the Austrian Red Cross, Federal Army, Dynamit Nobel Graz, Chamber of Commerce, Ministry of the Interior, and Irmtraud Karlsson MP, Felixdorf, 3 December 1997,” 18 December 1997.
[26] Letter from Lt. Col. Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, 9 May 2000.
[27] Mark Hiznay and Stephen Goose, Human Rights Watch Fact Sheet, “Antivehicle Mines with Antihandling Devices,” Prepared for the SCE on General Status of the Convention, Geneva, 10-11 January 2000, p. 4.
[28] Letter from Lt. Col. Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, 9 May 2000.
[29] ICBL letter to Foreign Minister, 20 December 1999, in preparation for the January 2000 SCE on General Status and Operation of the Treaty.
[30] Interview with Foreign Minister Ferrero-Waldner, Vienna, 28 March 2000. Foreign Minister Benita Ferrero-Waldner, whose Ministry is in charge of the funding of these projects, is herself the daughter of a landmine victim. She has given personal assurances that the government remains committed to outlawing AP mines worldwide.
[31] Speech by Dr. Benita Ferrero-Waldner to the First Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, Maputo, Mozambique, 3 May 1999.
[32] Interview with Dr. Koeffler and Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vienna, 19 April 2000.
[33] Answer to a Parliamentary Question by Foreign Minister Ferrero-Waldner, 12 April 2000.
[34] Email from Dr. Doujak, Foreign Ministry, 24 May 2000; abbreviations: MAG – Mines Advisory Group, NPA – Norwegian People’s Aid, HI – Handicap International.
[35] Interview with Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Lt. Col. Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, Vienna, 20 March 2000.
[36] Email from Dr. Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 17 February 2000.
[37] Interview with Dr. Gerhard Doujak, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Lt. Col. Hans Hamberger, Ministry of Defense, Vienna, 20 March 2000, and telephone interview with Dr. Doujak, 26 April 2000.
[38] Email from Dr. Doujak, Foreign Ministry, 24 May 2000; abbreviations:UNDP – United Nations Development Program, UNICEF – UN International Children’s Emergency Fund, UNOCHA – UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Action, ICBL – International Campaign to Ban Landmines, WEU – Western Economic Union, ICRC – International Committee of the Red Cross, UNHCR – UN High Commissioner for Refugees, ITF – International Trust Fund, EOD – Explosive Ordnance Disposal, UNMAS – UN Mine Action Service.
[39] European Commission, Humanitarian Demining Technologies: R&D and Support Projects, Draft Document on EU Mine Action, ref DG INFSO B4, March 2000.
[40] Interview with Dr. Schrottmayer and Leopold Skalsky, Schiebel, 20 March 2000.
[41] This donation was pledged on stage at the Musikverein on 30 December 1999, after the New Year’s Concert, which is traditionally reserved for the Austrian Federal Army.
[42] Letter from Sylia Trsek, UNICEF-Austria, 23 March 2000.
[43] Letter from Astrid Wein, Program Coordinator, Care-Austria, 29 February 2000.
[44] Letter from the Press Department, Austrian Red Cross, 4 February 2000.
[45] Letter from Johannes Trimmel, Project Leader, Dreikonigsaktion, 9 February 2000.