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Country Reports
BELGIUM , Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: Belgium continued to play a leadership role in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Belgium served as co-rapporteur of the SCE on General Status of the Convention. The 1995 domestic AP mine ban law was amended to make it permanent. Belgium contributed about US$ 2.3 million to mine action programs in 1999, plus $1.4 million for mine action research and development activities.

Mine Ban Policy

In 1995 Belgium was the first country in the world to adopt domestic legislation banning the production, procurement, sale, export, use and custody of antipersonnel mines.[1] It played a central role in the “Ottawa Process” leading to the Mine Ban Treaty (MBT), which it signed on 3 December 1997 and ratified on 9 July 1998.

Part of the 1995 law was time-limited: Article 3 prevents the State or public administration from acquiring, supplying or using AP mines for five years. Parliament adopted a new law canceling the five-year limitation, which was voted in the Senate on 16 December 1999 unanimously with one abstention and in the Chamber of Representatives on 23 March 2000 unanimously. It was signed by the King of Belgium on 30 March 2000, published on 7 April 2000, and entered into force ten days later.[2]

Belgium continues to play an active role in the global movement toward the total elimination on antipersonnel mines, stating in April 2000, “Belgium’s global action considers three priorities, namely, the promotion of the further universalization of the Convention, the monitoring of the implementation of the Convention and the provision of assistance to victim countries both in the field and through the development of more efficient techniques.”[3]

Belgium participated in the First Meeting of States Parties (FMSP) to the MBT in May 1999, having been active in the preparation of the meeting with a group of countries, “all of which are ardent supporters of a rapid achievement of the goals of the Convention.”[4]

At the Meeting, in response to allegations of new AP mine use by some States, the Belgian Foreign Minister declared: “I notice with particular worry that in Europe, the Serbian Armed Forces are continuing to use anti-personnel mines. Belgium must insist that an end is brought to this practice as rapidly as possible. Belgium exhorts the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to renounce the use of anti-personnel mines.... While the removal of mines is a nearly superhuman challenge for the international community, it is incomprehensible that new mines are being laid. We have to strongly oppose those responsible for this deviation. As the Presidency of the European Union has underlined, it is even more serious that a signatory State of the Convention such as Angola continues to lay mines. It is with insistence that I have to exhort those countries to review their attitude.”[5]

Belgium was appointed as co-rapporteur (with Zimbabwe) of the Standing Committee of Experts (SCE) on the General Status and Operation of the Convention until the Second Meeting in September 2000, after which it will co-chair this SCE. It has attended all the intersessional SCE meetings of the MBT, with the exception of the second SCE meeting on stockpile destruction.

Belgium helped to develop the reporting format for reports required under Article 7 of the MBT. Although its first report was not required until August 1999, Belgium distributed an initial report at the FMSP in May 1999 to help develop a model of how to comply with the MBT obligations. This report covered from 3 December 1997 to the end of April 1999.[6] Belgium submitted its second report on 15 August 1999, covering 1 May to 15 August 1999.[7] A third report was submitted on 27 April 2000, covering the calendar year 1999. With other countries, Belgium is working to spur all States Parties to submit the annual implementation report in a timely manner, and various other initiatives have been undertaken to help States Parties to fulfil their obligations to report fully progress towards implementation. [8]

During 1999 and early 2000, with the change of government in Belgium, political will regarding the AP mine issue has remained strong and many measures have been taken to promote the universalization and the implementation of the MBT. In March 2000 Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Louis Michel sent letters to twenty-six countries encouraging ratification of the MBT, and explaining the intersessional process of SCE meetings which signatory states are welcome to attend.[9] Other bilateral actions have been taken during the year, with follow-up in June 2000.[10]

An interdepartmental working group established under the coordination of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has continued to work on promoting the MBT. This special working group is composed of representatives of the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Defense, and the State Secretary for Development Co-operation. The nongovernmental organization Handicap International is regularly invited to attend these meetings.[11]

Belgium sponsored and voted in favor of the UN General Assembly Resolution 54/54B in December 1999, which called for universalization and full implementation of the MTB; it has supported previous pro-ban UNGA resolutions in 1996, 1997 and 1998.

On 10 March 1999 Belgium ratified Amended Protocol II (1996)[12] of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and is currently preparing its full implementation.[13] The government submitted its annual report as required under Article 13 on 8 October 1999, and participated in the First Conference of States Parties to the Protocol in December 1999. The delegation made no statement, as there was a common European Union statement.[14] At informal expert meetings in Geneva prior to the Conference, on 31 May and 2 June 200, the government had spoken in support of the ICBL being invited to participate.[15]

Regarding the Conference on Disarmament (CD), the Belgian position has evolved since 1999: “In the international fora where this issue will be on the agenda, Belgium will support any additional action effectively contributing to the implementation of the Ottawa Convention, but will never agree to any measure which would be a step back vis-à-vis the Convention.”[16] In his opening speech at the CD on 8 June 2000 Ambassador Lint reminded delegates of the importance of universalizing the MBT.[17]

Belgium has not replied to the ICBL’s inquiries about Belgium’s position regarding the use of AP mines by a non-signatory of the MBT during joint military operations,[18] but has confirmed its intention of replying soon.[19] When asked how the government interprets the term “to assist,” it answered, “the Ottawa Convention...did not provide for a definition of the term ‘assist’ in its Article 2 relative to definitions. This being said, any Belgian unit engaged in joint operations outside national territory cannot use anti-personnel mines, in any circumstances, whatever framework and subordination mode this engagement is undergoing. Belgium will also continue to undertake diplomatic and political steps to NATO partners who have not ratified the Ottawa Convention for them to adhere to the Convention.”[20]

Production and Transfer

Belgium has not produced AP mines since demilitarization of facilities in 1990: “Belgium has neither produced or developed anti-personnel mines since PRB (Poudreries Réunies de Belgique) was closed down. The actions in which Belgium participates, whether as a promoter or as a participant, are by no means aimed at conceiving or developing munitions whose operation would be similar to the operation of anti-personnel mines.”[21] Details of past production and transfer were reported in the Landmine Monitor Report 1999.[22] It is known now that the last years of production were 1983 to 1986. During that period around 112,000 mines were produced, nearly all were AP mines and none was bought by the Belgian Army; all were destined for export.[23]


Belgium was one of the first countries to complete the destruction of all stocks of AP mines, in September 1997.[24] Mines retained for permitted training and development purposes under Article 3.1 of the MBT were reported as 5,980 Type M35Bg as of August 1999, and 5,816 as of 31 December 1999,[25] the difference being “due to the consumption for training purposes.”[26] In an April 2000 letter to Landmine Monitor, the government cited a figure of 5,770 mines retained for training.[27]

An issue of particular concern to the ICBL and others has been certain antivehicle mines (AVMs) with antihandling devices that might act like an AP mine and thus be banned under the MBT. This issue has been discussed in various fora, and was a point in the January 2000 meeting of the SCE on the General Status and Operation of the Convention. During that SCE, nine governments spoke to reiterate that under the treaty’s definitions antivehicle mines with antihandling devices which function like AP mines – which may explode from an unintentional act of a person -- are banned under the MBT, noting that this is also consistent with the diplomatic record. These governments supported a proposal put forth at the SCE to form an informal expert group to examine the antivehicle mine issue.[28] Belgium was silent on the issue, but later said that it believes that discussion of this subject has to be within the framework of an expert group.[29]

This issue had been noted in various country reports in Landmine Monitor Report 1999, including that of Belgium where it noted that Belgium possessed antitank mines and “that a certain percentage of the antitank mines retained by the army are equipped with antihandling devices.”[30] The response of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was that “the Landmine Monitor has a mission to monitor the implementation by States Parties of the obligation of the Convention on the prohibition of anti-personnel landmines. The move to open the debate on the problem of mines, notably to antitank mines, should be relevant only if antitank mines were conceived to explode in the presence or the contact of a person. The general references to antitank mines in the Landmine Monitor Report 1999 do then not have their place in the context of the mission of the International Landmines Monitor.”[31]

The Belgian antivehicle mines for which ban campaigners have asked clarification with respect to consistency with the MBT are: PRB-III and improved PRB-III, PRB-IV, PRM-ATK-3 (with PRB-M30 anti-lift device), as well as NR 141, NR 201, and PRB-408.[32] The Landmine Monitor researcher has received no response regarding these antivehicle mines previously produced by Belgium and therefore possibly remaining in stockpiles. Some States Parties have already opted to destroy certain types of antivehicle mines that function as antipersonnel mines.

Landmine Problem

Today Belgium is not considered to be affected by landmines but is still occasionally affected by unexploded ordnance (UXO) and mines from the two World Wars.[33] The Belgian Armed Forces maintains an explosive ordnance disposal unit, the SEDEE-DOVO, which still operates in Belgium on a regular basis as illustrated in the following statistics: in 1999 there were 3,463 notifications to the Unit and 1,489 in the first five months of 2000.[34] Also, in 1999 three incidents resulting in death or injury due to unexploded ordnance were registered by SEDEE-DOVO.[35] An engineer with the Braet company contracted to clear the beach of The Panne said in November 1999 that they had found thirty-nine mines and that the beach would be clear by the end of 2000.[36]

Mine Action Funding[37]

Belgium contributed approximately BEF 92.66 million (US$ 2.3 million) to mine action programs in 1999, including victim assistance programs. An additional $1.4 million was spent on research and development of new mine clearance detection and clearance technologies.

The financial contributions of Belgium to mine action in 1999 can be divided into various categories:

Support to advocacy work and public awareness: BEF 2.3 million (US$57,500)

  • BEF 1.9 million ($47,500) was contributed to coordination of the Belgian network of the ICBL campaign, operated in cooperation with Handicap International Belgium.
  • BEF 0.4 million ($10,000 for promotion of the MBT and advocacy through the production of the Belgian movie Vanna.

Support for the promotion and implementation of the MBT: BEF 6 million ($150,000) over two years

  • BEF 3 million ($75,000) to the UN to make funds rapidly available for the FMSP, to Mozambique for more mine-related activities, and to several countries to enable them to attend the FMSP.[38] (from the fiscal year 1998).
  • BEF 3 million ($75,000) to promote the MBT and follow-up the FMSP, including to give countries the opportunity to attend international meetings about AP mines, such as the yearly meetings of States Parties, the intersessional meetings, as well as Landmine Monitor conferences.

Support for monitoring the MBT: BEF 6,350,000 ($158,750)

To monitor correct implementation of the MBT, the Belgian Government has supported the Landmine Monitor since its creation in 1998. In 1999 BEF 2 million ($50,000) was granted to support the research conference in Brussels in January/ February 2000. In addition, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs put the Egmont Palace in Brussels and logistic support and BEF 1 million ($25,000) at the disposal of the ICBL for this event. Another BEF 3,350,000 ($83,750) was charged to the Development Co-operation budget to enable delegates from developing countries to participate in this conference. The Ministry of Defense also supported the conference in organising an exhibition of AP mines.

Support to mine clearance operations (humanitarian or military cooperation projects): BEF 60,060,000 ($1,501,500)

  • Kosovo, (BEF 10 million, or $250,000): In cooperation with the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) and Canada, for a first mine clearance capacity unit in Kosovo which later developed into a Mine Action Center which coordinates civilian mine clearance. A contribution was also given to setting up mobile units in order to react to emergency situations. Contributed via the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund and UNMAS. Belgium has also sent three permanent mine clearance experts to this region, who operate under the KFOR mandate and assist local demining organizations.
  • Croatia, (BEF 2 million, or $50,000): BEF 2 million was donated via the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund and UNMAS to CROMAC, the local mine clearance organization in Croatia, for demining agricultural land in the region of Osijek-Baranja. Three mine clearance experts have been operating under the SFOR mandate and assisting local demining organisations.
  • Cambodia, (BEF 31.36 million, or $784,000): Since 1994 three mine-clearance experts have served as technical advisers to Cambodia Mine Action Center for a development project in three provinces supported financially by Belgium. International financial and technical support provided to this governmental organisation is coordinated by the UN Development Program (UNDP). Technical assistance is provided to enabling the Cambodian staff of the CMAC to ultimately operate independently. BEF 11.36 million ($284,000) has gone to the financing of this specific project and BEF 20 million ($500,000) to the UNDP Trust Fund for the development of local mine clearance capabilities.
  • Laos: Since April 1998 four mine-clearance experts have served as technical advisers to the UXO LAO (the Lao National Unexploded Ordnance Program) to train Laotian mine-clearance experts in the province of Champassak.
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH): in-kind contributions have been made to BH.

Support to victim assistance: BEF 18,008,400 ($450,210)

  • BEF 3 million ($75,000) for the special appeal launched by the International Committee of the Red Cross (CRC) for the period 2000-2005 for prevention and assistance to victims of AP mines, released in late 1999.
  • Financing (BEF 15,008,400, or $375,210) of a Handicap International project in Cambodia, aimed at the economic and social integration of war victims.

Support to research and development (R&D) of new mine detection and clearance technologies: BEF 51,235,930 ($1,405,773)

Belgium is involved in many different R&D projects and financial allocations to the main projects are summarized here:

  • In 1999 Belgium allocated BEF 14.69 million (US$ 367,250) to the HUDEM (HUmanitarian DEMining) program launched in 1997 on the initiative of the Minister for Defense, which looks at ground-penetrating radar, metal detectors and infrared, nuclear quadripole resonance. This is financed jointly by the Ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs (International Co-operation Division).
  • BEF 14,118,000 (US$ 352,950) was granted to the Airborne Minefield Detection pilot project, which is co-financed by the European Commission, several EU States and organisations.
  • Belgium contributed BEF 6,657,930 (US$ 166,448) to a minefield detection project in Mozambique which aims to demonstrate under real conditions the feasibility of marking out mined areas.
  • The APOPO project researching the use of ‘bio-sensors’ (African rats) in humanitarian mine-clearance operations continued in 1999, funded by BEF 15,765,000 (US$ 394,125).
  • The Ministry of Defense has contributed in kind to the ESPRIT/HOPE project, which is aimed at developing a portable, multi-sensor mine detection system demonstrator.
  • Belgium funded the PARADIS project for BEF 5 million (US$ 125,000) through the Scientific Policy department budget.

Research and Development[39]

Belgium has been involved in R&D for new mine-related technologies for several years. The Royal Military Academy is involved in many projects as a research center and as a coordinator for other actors such as universities and schools, private companies, research institutes and others.[40] Following presentation of the results of the HUDEM (humanitarian demining) project in Berlin on 6-9 June 1999, the Belgian Royal Military Academy has been designated to chair the expert group “Mines and Countermining” for its first task: distance detection of minefields and close detection of individual mines.[41] The Royal Military Academy also has the presidency of the Western European Union Mine Clearance Experts Working Group.[42]

Such projects, some of which are noted above, are carried out within the framework of national or international consortia, involving academic institutions and industrial circles. Belgium has led and participated in numerous initiatives in the development of mine detection and clearance technologies, including protection equipment, detection by physical methods, satellite minefield mapping, ground-penetrating radar, electronics- and animal-assisted detection, processes for the destruction of devices containing explosives or harmful residues such as chemical munitions.

The Royal Military Academy is involved in the International Program for Test and Evaluation (ITEP) within the framework of a common action between the UN, EU, and the USA, which started in May 1998.[43]

Casualties/Survivor Assistance

From time to time, accidents occur due to unexploded ordnance. There were three accidents in 1999. The “incidents involved only unexploded ordnance, two due to manipulation by the collectors and ended with one death and one person seriously injured. The third accident occurred while carrying the device, nobody was injured.”[44]

In addition to the contributions noted in the section above, two recent meetings have focused on mine victim assistance. On 25 February 2000 the scientific society of the military medical services organized a colloquium on the political, medical, humanitarian socio-economic and preventive aspects of AP mines, entitled “Anti-personnel Landmines, an Everlasting Problem.”[45] More than 200 members of the Armed Forces were present. There were various presentations, focusing on the medical aspects of the treatment of landmine victims. On 24 March 2000 a benefit gala in favor of Handicap International’s aid to landmine victims was organized under the patronage of Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Canadian Ambassador to Belgium and Luxembourg, and others.

NGO Activity

In 1999 and 2000 various activities have been organized around the mine issue to keep the public informed of developments. To mark entry into force of the MBT on 1 March 1999 a big event was organized in Brussels with the fake mining of a forest and bell ringing. A press conference was held by Handicap International attended by the then- Minister of Foreign Affairs. On 29 April 1999 a press briefing was organized to announce the first Landmine Monitor report, followed by a press release on 3 May 1999 at the time of the FMSP, after which there was a presentation of the report to Belgian NGOs. The Landmine Monitor Report 1999 was widely distributed in Belgium. The Flemish section of the Belgian Red Cross organised a celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Geneva Convention on 9 May 1999, which the Belgian explosive disposal service SEDEE-DOVO attended and organized a demining demonstration in Sint Niklaas. On 25 September 1999 Handicap International organized a national day of blue laces for landmine victims, with many activities and awareness exhibitions for the public and the SEDEE-DOVO also put on an exhibition on landmines and demining.

The meeting on 31 January-2 February 2000 in Brussels of Landmine Monitor researchers was supported by the Belgian Government and included a press conference organized by Handicap International (HI). This was attended by Eddy Boutmans, State Secretary for Cooperation and Development, Jody Williams, Nobel Peace Laureate and ICBL Ambassador, and the Director General of Handicap International as guest speakers. On 1 March 2000, to celebrate the first anniversary of the MBT entering into force, HI launched a postcard campaign to encourage accession to the Treaty by the United States. The same day, HI representatives met the US Ambassador in Brussels to hand him more than 1300 petitions by landmine victims from around the world. Various other activities on the landmine issue including school and youth activities have been organized during the year.


[1] Law related to anti-personnel mines, booby traps and devices of similar nature, N95-778, 9 March 1995, published in Le Moniteur (official publication), 1 April 1995, p. 8225.
[2] Law relative to the definitive interdiction of antipersonnel landmines, File No. 2-76, 30 March 2000, Le Moniteur, 7 April 2000.
[3] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position Regarding Action Against Anti-personnel Mines, realized in a coordinated approach by the Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs, Louis Michel, the Minister of Defense, André Flahaut, the State Secretary for Cooperation and Development, Eddy Boutmans, and their administrative representatives under the coordination of the Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs,” update of the 1999 Position Paper, April 2000, p. 1. Hereafter referred to as: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000.
[4] Ibid, p. 2.
[5] Message from Erik Derijcke, Minister of Foreign Affairs, read by Ambassador Jean De Ruyt, Head of the Belgian Delegation, at the First Meeting of States Parties, Maputo, Mozambique, 3 May 1999.
[6] Belgium First Article 7 Report, submitted 2 May 1999, covering 3 December 1997 to 30 April 1999.
[7] Belgium Second Article 7 Report, submitted 15 August 1999, covering 1 May to 15 August 1999.
[8] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000, p. 2; interview with the Non-proliferation and Disarmament Service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 15 June 2000.
[9] Interview with the Non-proliferation and Disarmament Service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 15 June 2000; Letter from the Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs Louis Michel to the Director of Handicap International, 18 May 2000; sample letter from the Minister of Foreign Affairs to signatory states, 23 March 2000.
[10] Interview with the Non-proliferation and Disarmament Service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 15 June 2000. Also, in an earlier interview the Ministry clarified the origins of an earlier Belgian initiative – the annual reports by each country on their position vis-à-vis landmines to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) – started before November 1997, not as had been reported in Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 537.
[11] Speech of the State Secretary for Development and Co-operation, Landmine Monitor Researchers’ Conference, Brussels, 31 January 2000.
[12] CCW Protocol II on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby Traps and other Devices, CCW/CONF.I/partII,8/rev.1, 1996, page 7, available at: www.un.org/plweb-cgi.
[13] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000, p. 3.
[14] Interview with the Non-proliferation and Disarmament Service, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, at the Conference of CCW States Parties, Geneva, 15-17 December 1999.
[15] Interview with a representative of the Belgian mission to the UN in Geneva at the informal expert group meeting of the CCW, Geneva, 31 May 2000.
[16] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000, pp. 2-3.
[17] Opening speech of the Belgian Presidency of the UN Conference on Disarmament by Ambassador Lint, CD Plenary Session, Geneva, 8 June 2000.
[18] ICBL letter to all NATO member-states, 20 September 1999.
[19] Interview with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 15 June 2000.
[20] Letter from Vice Prime Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister Louis Michel to Handicap International, 18 May 2000.
[21] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000, p. 1.
[22] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 540-543.
[23] Answer by the Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Justice and Economic Affairs to a parliamentary question by Senator Hugo Vandienderen, 25 April 1994, ref. 939411403.
[24] In the Landmine Monitor Report 1999 this was reported as November 1997. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has since stated that the destruction officially ended in September although this was only reported in the press in November 1997.
[25] Article 7 Reports, submitted 15 August 1999 and 27 April 2000.
[26] Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000, p 1.
[27] Ibid.
[28] See, Report to ICBL from Stephen Goose, Human Rights Watch, Chair, ICBL Treaty Working Group, January 2000. (distributed via email).
[29] Interview with Belgian delegation, SCE on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 29-30 May 2000.
[30] Discussion with Belgian government representative at interdepartmental meeting, 18 March 1999.
[31] Comments regarding the Belgian report in the Landmine Monitor Report 1999, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, May 2000.
[32] See Human Rights Watch Fact Sheet, “Antivehicle Mines with Antihandling Devices,” January 2000, p. 4.
[33] GW, "La Maison Minée," Nord Eclair /Mons Borinage, 12 April 1999; "Un arsenal dans l'Eglise de Virton," La Dernière Heure, 28 January 1999; "Landmijn," Het Laatste Nieuws, 10 August 1999; "La place du jeu de balle minée," Le Soir, 26 January 2000; Désiré De Poot, "Verkoper landmijnen zaait paniek op rommelmarkt," Het Gazet van Antwerpen, 26 January 2000; DDP, "te koop aangeboden landmijnen zorgt voor paniek op markt," Het Belang van Limburg, 26 January 2000.
[34] Fax from Major Valentin, Head of Service for Removal and Destruction of Explosive Devices (SEDEE-DOVO ), 7 June 2000.
[35] Fax to Landmine Monitor/Belgium from Major Valentin, 7 June 2000.
[36] “Strand van de Panne Kruitvat,” Het Volk, 29 November 1999.
[37] Unless otherwise specified below, the source of information in this section is: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000, pp. 3-10; all figures given are from the 1999 fiscal year budget except otherwise stated.
[38] Speech of Erik Derijcke, Minister of Foreign Affairs, at Press Conference organized by Handicap International on the occasion of the entry into force of the Mine Ban Treaty, 1 March 1999.
[39] Unless otherwise specified below, the source of information in this section is: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Belgium’s Position regarding Action against Anti-personnel Mines,” April 2000.
[40] Contribution from the Royal Military Academy to the Definition of National and European Policies in Humanitarian Mine Action Research, April 2000, p. 2.
[41] Contribution from the Royal Military Academy, April 2000, p. 4.
[42] Ibid, p. 3.
[43] Ibid.
[44] Fax to Landmine Monitor/Belgium from Major Valentin, 7 June 2000.
[45] Alessandra Vicenzi, “Quand le travail des ONGs rencontre celui de l'Armée,” Vox, 11 April 2000; Annales Medicinae Militaris Belgicae Belg 2000, 14 January 2000; Ph.G., “Attention terrain mine,” Vlan Bruxelles, 23 February 2000, p. 13.