+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
CANADA, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: Canada continued to exercise a lead role internationally in promoting universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It played a crucial role in the success of the First Meeting of States Parties and the intersessional work program. Canada contributed $16.7 million to mine action programs in its FY 1999/2000. The private Canadian Landmine Foundation was established.

Mine Ban Policy

Canada was the first nation to sign the ban convention on 3 December 1997 and was one of only three countries to deposit its instrument of ratification with the UN Secretary General on the same day. Its Implementation Act, passed by Parliament on 27 November 1997, entered into force on 1 March 1999, as did the Mine Ban Treaty internationally.[1] A description and analysis of the Act were provided in Landmine Monitor Report 1999.[2]

The Mine Ban Treaty serves as a central reference point in Canadian foreign policy, particularly with respect to its efforts to promote and institutionalize the concept of human security, which it did, for example, within the United Nations Security Council, where it is serving a two-year term ending 31 December 2000. Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy describes human security as an approach by governments that places the protection and well-being of individuals as the main criterion for international action. In virtually every official address or speaking engagement, which deals with Canada's human security agenda, Minister Axworthy refers to the Mine Ban Treaty as an example.

Government representatives frequently refer to the MBT as a model by which other issues emphasized in Canadian foreign policy may be advanced. Repeatedly, it and the contributions of civil society have been linked in official statements to human security, small arms and the role of the United Nations Security Council. Both domestically and internationally, the MBT is described as going beyond the elimination of mines, raising the profile of threats to human safety while providing a concrete example of how to advance the concept of human security.[3]

The appointment of an Ambassador for Mine Action in 1998 plus the creation of a new division within the Ministry specifically to work on landmines, the Mine Action Team (ILX), were intended not only to move the treaty process forward, but also to ensure that “Canada is able to continue to provide international leadership on the landmines issue.”[4]


Canada played a crucial role in the organization of the First Meeting of States Parties (FMSP) held in Maputo, Mozambique. It seconded a full-time staff person from its Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (ILX-DFAIT) to the FMSP secretariat in Mozambique for almost three months to assist with logistics and conference planning. From within Canada, staff worked to emphasize the importance of the FMSP to other states, describing the conference as a "key step" in the entrenchment of the MBT. A large contingent of Canadian officials, including Minister Axworthy, was present during the Meeting. All federal political parties and the Mines Action Canada coalition were represented on the Canadian delegation. ILX officials and staff helped to conceptualize and were vocal proponents of the Convention's intersessional work program. They also played a key role in developing and promoting the Article 7 Transparency Report formats, as well as the decision to post them to the Internet.

At the time of the FMSP, NATO was engaged in its bombing campaign in the conflict in Serbia/Kosovo. In his address to the opening plenary Axworthy called on the international community to develop a capacity for rapid, coordinated humanitarian mine action in post-conflict situations. “The international community must be ready to respond urgently to ensure that when the time comes, they can return to their homes in safety.”[5] He detailed the need to mobilize and coordinate available resources, to improve information gathering from refugees, and other sources and to identify demining priorities. The Minister also suggested the need for the quick assembly and dispatch of survey and assessment teams, ongoing identification of equipment and personnel available for mine action, as well as the provision of mine awareness training for refugees and those involved in their resettlement.

Transparency Reporting

Canada submitted its Article 7 Transparency Reports as required and made copies available immediately. The first report was submitted on 27 August 1999, reporting on the period 1 January 1999 to 31 July 1999 and the second was submitted on 27 April 2000, reporting on the period 1 August 1999 to 14 March 2000.[6] Canadian officials reported fully on all of the areas required under Article 7 and, in the second report provided additional information on the use of mines retained for research and development, as well as training (for further information, see section on Stockpiling and Destruction).

There have been problems with late submission of Article 7 Reports by other countries. Canadian officials have stressed the importance of states parties fulfilling the treaty's reporting requirements, have compiled reports detailing the reasons why states parties may be late in fulfilling this treaty obligation, and have made efforts to facilitate their submission while urging other states to do likewise.

As of 30 May 2000, Canada was one of only eight OAS member states to submit information to the OAS Register of Antipersonnel Landmines.[7]

International Promotion of the Mine Ban Treaty

Canada continues to play an important and leading role in the global campaign to ban antipersonnel mines and to eliminate their socio-economic impact. Canadians have worked to universalize the treaty, to increase funds for clearance and victim assistance and other mine action, as well as to promote the Mine Ban Treaty. The Government of Canada's Mine Action Team, through the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (ILX-DFAIT), was expanded with the addition of program officers and support staff. Through their efforts the issue has been raised repeatedly in regional and international fora around the world. From Kosovo to Latin America and Mozambique, Canadian delegations have raised the issue of landmines and the Mine Ban Treaty in efforts to persuade others to take these critical steps to fulfill their obligations to the treaty and to meet its objectives.

Canada has raised the MBT in statements made in the G-8, the UN Security Council, APEC, the OAS, the Commonwealth, the ASEAN Regional Forum, la Francophonie, and other international fora. While in Russia at a conference on human security and northern policy Foreign Minister Axworthy asked then acting president Vladimir Putin to put in place a timetable for signature of the MBT and destruction of Russian stockpiles.[8]

As in past years, in 1999 Canada helped to draft and was a major promoter of the UN General Assembly resolution supporting the Mine Ban Treaty. In December 1999 Canada voted in favor of UNGA Resolution 54/54B

The government has played a key role in the Mine Ban Treaty’s intersessional program. It is a co-chair of the SCE on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, and Canadian officials have also chaired or presented to other sessions within the SCEs.

Non-State Actors

In two separate statements Minister Axworthy referred to non-state actors (NSAs) in regards to the MBT and to human security and “the need to find ways to address the challenges they [NSAs] raise. Two years after the Ottawa Convention, the role of these non-state actors, as participants in armed conflict or in perpetuating the new war economies, is the subject of growing scrutiny from the G-8 to the UN.”[9] Canada provided C$40,000 to the conference "Engaging Non-State Actors in a Landmine Ban," 24-25 March 2000. The conference was hosted by the Swiss Campaign to Ban Landmines.

Naming Names

Canada was among the first and one of the most vocal countries to publicly name the states where new use of mines has been reported (especially Angola and Kosovo) since the conclusion of the MBT. Foreign Minister Axworthy has said, “This is cause for real concern.... We must use this opportunity to speak out about these acts that violate the new international norm created by the treaty. We must respond to those who challenge the validity of the treaty. We can do this by working at the regional level to bring pressure to bear on those governments to stop creating this humanitarian disaster in our neighborhoods. We must call these miscreants to account: to their own publics and to the international community.”[10]

With respect to Angola, a treaty signatory using mines in the conflict against UNITA, Minister Axworthy has suggested that Canadian assistance for clearance and other mine action would be withheld from states that continue to use mines. “The Convention is helping: the fact is that it makes much more sense to invest in the painstaking and costly task of mine clearance in places where governments have said they will never again use these weapons.”[11]

At the United Nations, Canada said, “No longer will countries, particularly signatory countries, be able to use landmines with impunity.”[12] Similar statements have been made in Helsinki, Finland and in St. Petersburg, Russia.[13]

In Geneva, in December 1999, a Canadian delegate raised the issue of mine use by Russia in its war on Chechnya. “Canada continues to have serious concerns about reports concerning the indiscriminate use of antipersonnel mines by the Russian military in the context of the ongoing conflict in Chechnya.... Many of these mines were remotely delivered against no apparent military target.... Russian forces appear to have taken few if any steps to protect civilians in that conflict from the effects of mines, for example through the posting of signs, sentries, or fences around known mined areas. Canada would welcome clarification of these issues from Russian authorities as soon as possible.”[14] In the same statement Canada called for clarification from Pakistan authorities on allegations that Pakistan Ordnance Factories offered AP mines to a British citizen, an infringement under Article 8 of Amended Protocol II.[15]

Landmine Monitor

Canada helped to conceptualize the Landmine Monitor system and has been among those countries supporting the Landmine Monitor initiative since its inception in 1998. In addition to financial grants the federal government also provided logistical and in-kind support for Landmine Monitor meetings held in Canada. [16] In his address to the First Meeting of States Parties, Axworthy welcomed the role of NGOs and civil society in monitoring the treaty. “We also have the power of civil society behind us -- a community committed to ensuring that the gains made in the negotiation and signing of the AP mine ban convention become real and remain respected. This community has made an incredible contribution to this effort with the publication, in record time, of Mine Monitor (sic), with its comprehensive documentation of the mine issue in over 100 countries. Canada is proud to have been an early and vigorous supporter of this effort -- we encourage others to join in funding this publication and helping it become an annual citizen's companion to our Convention.”[17] At that time Axworthy described the Landmine Monitor initiative as having "established itself as a world leader in highlighting international violations of the Ottawa Convention. I believe that they have proven instrumental in holding governments accountable for mine-related actions and obligations and that their annual report provides decision-makers with essential feedback on our progress in ridding the world of landmines.”[18]

Regional Promotion of the Mine Ban Treaty

The realization of the Western Hemisphere as a mine free zone and other mine action activities within the Americas has been identified as a top priority for Canadian foreign policy efforts. Canada has been a strong supporter of various Organization of American States (OAS) resolutions and declarations relating to landmines. Most significant is the 1996 OAS resolution calling for a hemispheric mine free zone.

At the 30th OAS General Assembly, hosted by Canada in Windsor, Ontario, 4-6 June 2000, delegates voted unanimously on a resolution calling on all OAS member states, donors and agencies working in mine action to increase efforts to complete clearance programs in Central America as soon as possible. A second resolution calls for the OAS to continue efforts to provide assistance in combating the AP mine problem in Ecuador and Peru. Also relevant to the AP mine issue are resolutions on small arms and the important role of civil society within the OAS. [19] The OAS has been Canada's main partner in mine action in the Americas. According to Minister Axworthy, the OAS Summit of the Americas will take place in Québec City, 20-22 April 2001.

In accepting the Endicott Peabody Award for Humanitarian Works, Minister Axworthy noted the refusal of the U.S. to sign the treaty while urging the Administration to accede to it and to “join the moral force of the United States with that of those who have already done so.”[20]

Domestic Promotion of the Mine Ban Treaty

Within Canada, the mine issue has been repeatedly raised. Federal ministers, in various appearances and speaking engagements for clubs and business meetings, have often raised the issue of the Mine Ban Treaty as a key example of Canadian efforts to promote human security. Domestically, Canadian youth, funded through the Youth Internship Program, have continuously educated the public on landmines-related issues. Their messages consistently emphasize the need to ban landmines, to raise awareness and to encourage Canadians to contribute to the support of humanitarian mine action. By all accounts the Youth Mine Action Ambassador Programme is a success and will continue into the foreseeable future.

Role of Canadian NGOs

Canadian NGOs and civil society initiatives in mine action range from implementation of programs in the field to directing advocacy efforts toward governments. The Mines Action Canada coalition remains the largest coordinated body working with NGOs in all aspects of mine action. The coalition currently has more than forty partner organizations. The MAC Secretariat and individual members have written letters to the Canadian government and to various other heads of state or state representatives on issues relating to the MBT. Topics have included the use of Claymore mines in peacekeeping operations, joint operations, promotion of a NATO policy on no use of AP mines, funds for mine action and the universalization of the MBT.

MAC was one of five campaigns which organized a non-state actor conference in Geneva and has undertaken a variety of education and outreach projects and been represented at numerous meetings and speaking engagements. Activities such as the MAC website, a newsletter, the Appropriate Technology Competition, and Africa Refugee Day are ongoing.

Throughout 1999/2000 MAC initiated several outreach activities with cultural and community groups on the mine issue and continues to host a series of capacity building workshops for NGOs involved in mine action.[21] The workshops are intended to share ideas and improve practices in mine action and are based on the Bad Honnef Guidelines for mine action from a development-oriented point of view. Workshops take place on a quarterly basis and have included participants from government and NGOs. Topics covered include mine awareness programs and establishing priorities for mine action based on community needs. MAC has also organized workshops and briefing sessions on Claymore mines and cluster bombs and presented papers to the Canadian government on both of these issues. Mines Action Canada, the Canadian Red Cross and the Youth Mine Action Ambassador Program organized a major exhibition called Ban landmines ’99 to mark the December anniversary of the opening for signature of the Mine Ban Treaty and also held a series of public events across the country as part of Canadian Landmine Awareness Week to highlight the 1 March 2000 anniversary of entry into force of the treaty.

MAC in partnership with the Canadian Red Cross and the Mine Action Team at DFAIT implement an outreach and sustainability program focused on Canadian students and youth. The Youth Mine Action Ambassadors Program (YMAA) grew from five youth interns in the first year to eight in the second year. Working within local host NGOs (UNICEF Québec, Canadian Red Cross, MAC and Oxfam Canada) the Youth Ambassadors raise public awareness, build public support for mine action and raise funds. These goals are met through organized events in schools, colleges and universities, as well as various activities with the general public. During the second year, the Youth Ambassadors undertook presentations and events in over 130 Canadian cities and towns reaching an estimated 35,000 people directly. This included 691 school presentations, fifty-four speaking events and 268 media interviews and articles.[22]

Mines Action Canada is a member of the Landmine Monitor Core Group and coordinates research in the Americas region. It is also developing the Landmine Monitor Database. The database is an information management tool that will facilitate the Landmine Monitor initiative specifically and mine action in general. Information collected and analyzed by Landmine Monitor is updated and published in the annual Landmine Monitor reports and incorporated into the database. The database is available online.[23] Mines Action Canada is a member of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) Coordinating Committee and is active in several of its working groups.

CCW and CD

While Canada has signed and ratified both the original and the amended protocols of the CCW dealing with landmines, it also has consistently promoted the MBT as the best method to advance a total ban on AP mines and promote mine action. At the First Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II of the CCW in Geneva, December 1999 the Canadian statement reaffirmed this position. “Canada continues to believe that the only sustainable and effective solution to the AP mines problem is a total ban on their production, stockpiling, trade and use. Partial restrictions such as those contained within Amended Protocol II must be seen as an important but temporary step on the path towards the total elimination of these weapons, which both in practical use and by technical design are quite obviously indiscriminate.”[24]

On 10 December 1999, Canada submitted its Article 13 report. In its report, Canada again noted the supremacy of the MBT over Canadian obligations under the CCW.[25]

The Canadian delegation proposed measures to the States Parties related to Articles 2 (definitions) and 14 (compliance) in the Amended Protocol II to bring them in closer alignment with the Mine Ban Treaty. Another proposal related to antivehicle (AV) mines and the need to better protect civilians against their effects. The delegate in his statement said Canada would support efforts to develop minimal detectability standards for AV mines similar to those currently in place for AP mines. “Moreover, we would also support efforts to examine restrictions and/or total prohibitions on remotely delivered AV mines which are not equipped with self-destruct and/or self-deactivation devices.”[26]

Canada participated in the January 2000 session of the Conference on Disarmament (CD) but made no statements regarding AP mines. However in the January 1999 session Canada said it would not support any work in the CD that will impair or hamper the effectiveness of the Mine Ban Treaty. “If such negotiations do take place, the only standards that we will accept are those of the Mine Ban Convention. Canada will not be a party to moving international law backwards.”[27]


The last mines produced in Canada were made by SNC Industrial Technologies of Le Gardeur, Québec. Production ceased in 1992 and the production capability was removed in 1998.[28] In 1999 SNC-Lavalin International established its Mine Action Services Branch. For detailed information on past Canadian production and export of the C3A1/2 AP mines, prior to the MBT, see the Landmine Monitor 1999 report.

Alternatives to AP Mines

The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT), created in 1998, is a joint initiative of the DND and Industry Canada. CCMAT’s research facilities are based at the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) in Medicine Hat, Alberta. Part of CCMAT's mandate is to investigate alternatives to AP mines, “to show that viable and more humane alternatives, that do not target civilians, can be developed as a way to persuade hold-out countries to sign the Convention.”[29] CCMAT's Project Charter outlines this aspect of the center's mandate: “while there is no single technology or device that provides for a one-for-one replacement for anti-personnel mines, there may be alternative approaches that can accomplish the anti-personnel landmine function within the constraints of the convention in some scenarios and for some threats. The Centre would study and document such alternative approaches and identify technologies necessary for their implementation.”[30] CCMAT plans to conduct its investigation into alternatives by acquiring, modifying and/or developing computer models (see below) to assess alternatives to landmines and the development of sensor and command and control technologies as components of alternative systems.[31] The budget is set at C$1.5 million over 5 years.

Concern has been raised by Mines Action Canada about the use of the Canadian Landmine Fund to finance research into alternatives to landmines.[32]

CCMAT's activities on alternatives coincide with NATO's research into alternatives to AP mines says Dr. Bob Suart, CCMAT's Director. He is adamant that CCMAT is looking into non-lethal alternatives only.[33] According to Suart, NATO's research into alternatives has been ongoing since 1998 under what he referred to as NATO SAS 023. “NATO is concerned that if the army gives up AP mines, what is the impact and what are the appropriate measures to make up for that loss. NATO is liable to come up with an alternative weapons system and we're not interested in that,” said Suart. "We don't have the budget to develop alternative [weapons systems]. We don't have the inclination and we don't have the mandate."[34] Under CCMAT, operational research staff from DND are taking part in NATO meetings as part of Canada's contribution to the NATO study on alternatives to AP mines. “There have been no expenditures or assignments of CCMAT funds to develop alternatives,” Suart told Landmine Monitor.[35]

CCMAT developed an operational research study in computer modeling on the military utility of AP mine use. Carried out by the Directorate Land Strategic Concepts at DND, the study reviewed the historical use of AP mines to identify the operational gap caused by removing AP mines from military inventories. As recorded in CCMAT Management Committee Minutes dated 26 February 1999, early results of the research suggest that the operational impact of removing AP mines from combat is marginal and that there are no obvious replacement technologies.[36] The next step for CCMAT in the search for alternatives to AP mines is to build computer models to assess proposed alternatives.

MAC was invited to sit on the CCMAT management committee, but because of the concern vis-à-vis alternatives (particularly the possible use of funds allocated for humanitarian mine action to develop alternative weapons systems) chose to sit as an observer only and has no vote on the selection of projects.

Transfer and Transit

Canada distinguishes between the transfer and the transit of AP mines. Canada continues to maintain that while the transfer (import/export) of AP mines is prohibited under the Convention, the Convention does not address the issue of the transit of mines. "Transit is the movement from one part of a state's territory to another part of the territory of the same state. Canada has no legal obligation to prohibit the transit of mines through our territory by other states. However, Canada discourages this."[37] A number of States Parties, as well as the ICRC, have said that transit is prohibited by the Mine Ban Treaty.[38]

Stockpiling and Destruction

The destruction of Canadian stockpiles, with the exception of those retained for training in mine clearance and the testing of clearance technologies, was completed in November 1997.

Before the UN in November 1999, Canada's Ambassador for Mine Action, Daniel Livermore, placed emphasis on the destruction of stockpiled mines as one of the most important methods for eliminating landmines, thereby preventing their trade and use. “Canada commends states that have partially or completely destroyed their stockpiled mines, and we call on all signatories to the Ottawa Convention to finalize a timetable for stockpile destruction. Canada is working in partnership with Ukraine to assist in the destruction of its anti-personnel mines, and we urge other states which have the means to do so to provide similar assistance in the destruction of mine stockpiles wherever it may be needed.”[39] Minister Axworthy has also placed emphasis on Canada's willingness to help with destruction of stockpiles and referred to Canadian assistance in destroying Ukraine's 10 million stockpiled mines. [40] (See report on Ukraine for details.)

According to public statements by the Minister of Defence, Art Eggleton, and Minister Axworthy, Canada has elected to keep a maximum of 2,000 AP mines under the treaty exception for training purposes. This is not codified in Canadian law, but appears to have taken the form of a ministerial directive.[41] In Canada’s second Article 7 Report there is clear mention that the Department of National Defence (DND) retains a maximum of 2,000 mines for this purpose.[42] These numbers will change over time as mines are used (at a projected rate of 50 per year), and more foreign mines are imported. Mines have already been imported in this way from Georgia.

Following a call by the ICBL in December 1999 for states to include in their Article 7 reports the anticipated and actual use of mines retained for training purposes, Canada added a detailed description on this to its second report. “Canada retains live AP mines to study the effect of blast on equipment, to train soldiers on procedures to defuse live AP mines and to demonstrate the effects of landmines. For example, live mines help determine whether suits, boots and shields will adequately protect personnel who clear mines. The live mines are used by the Defence department's research establishment located at Suffield, Alberta and by various military training establishments across Canada. DND represents the only source of AP mines which can be used by Canadian industry to test equipment.”[43]

During interviews for the 1999 Landmine Monitor, it was revealed that likely DND sites with stockpiled AP mines for training are the base near Dundurn, Saskatchewan, and another defense research establishment at Valcartier, Québec.[44]

In its first Article 7 report, Canada reported that it had a stock of 1,781 training mines.[45] In its second Article 7 report, Canada reported that its stock of training mines was 1,668.[46] Thus, a total of 113 training mines were used between 31 July 1999 and 14 March 2000; a total of eighty-four AP mines were used for research and development and twenty-nine AP mines were used for Canadian Forces’ training. Nearly all of these (106 mines) were emplaced at the Canadian Forces Base Suffield, Alberta, “for the research and development of mine detection, mine clearance equipment and mine detection procedures.”[47]

As of 14 March 2000, Canada’s stockpile of 1,668 training mines included 962 C3A2 (Canadian), 485 M16A1/2 (U.S.), 42 PMA-1 (former Yugoslavia), 28 PMA-2 (former Yugoslavia), 30 PMA-3 (former Yugoslavia), 84 PP-MI-No.1 (Czechoslovakia), 15 VS50 (Italy), 10 VAL M69 (Italy), 8 VS MK2 (Italy), and 4 SB-33 (Italy). An additional 67 PMN-2 mines were imported from Georgia and added to Canadian stockpiles for clearance training and testing technologies.[48]

In addition to its program with Ukraine, Canada sent a delegation to Honduras and Nicaragua in February of this year to provide technical assistance in the destruction of AP stockpiles.[49] In December 1999 and March 2000 during the SCEs on Stockpile Destruction, General (Ret'd.) Gordon Reay chaired the session "Stockpile Destruction as an Integral Part of Mine Action" and presented on the topic. General Reay is an advisor to the Canadian Mine Action Team on stockpile destruction.

DFAIT is currently working with the United Nations Mine Action Service (UNMAS) to develop a stockpile destruction website/database as an in-kind contribution to UNMAS. The purpose of the proposed website/database is to enable the mine action community to share information on all matters pertaining to stockpile destruction, thereby facilitating cooperation between potential donors and recipients and more effectively disseminating best practice and standards on stockpile destruction experiences and expertise.

Canada retains stockpiles of Claymore mines. The number of Claymore mines held by Canada is unknown; this information was not reported in either of Canada's Article 7 reports submitted to date.


Claymore Mines

In October 1999, Canadian Forces taking part in UN peacekeeping operations brought Claymore mines to East Timor. While there is no evidence the Claymores were used, the incident received considerable media attention in early February 2000. A Captain in the Canadian Forces was reported as saying that less than 100 Claymores were taken to East Timor.[50]

A letter sent to Minister Lloyd Axworthy from Mines Action Canada, dated 18 February 2000, raised concerns about the potential for Claymore mines to be used in either of two modes: command-detonated or tripwire activated. The letter from MAC was not based on concerns that Canadian Forces may have been using Claymores in victim-activated (tripwire) mode. MAC wrote, “Although understood the use of these weapons in command-detonated mode is not prohibited under the MBT, it is unclear if modifications to them are an adequate response to concerns regarding indiscriminate nature and long-term negative impact. While modifications suggest a change in intent they may not fundamentally alter the weapon....”[51]

The Minister's response to MAC's letter, dated 20 June 2000, states that the C19 and the M18A1 Claymore weapons are of the same design and contain sockets or fuzewells in which a detonator is placed. The letter goes on to explain that detonators are of two varieties: command activated (through the application of an electrical current) and mechanically or victim-activated. “It is possible to attach a tripwire to this second type of detonator only. A tripwire would be incompatible with the first variety of detonator (command-activated). Let me emphasize that the Canadian Armed Forces do not possess, and are not permitted to possess, victim-activated detonators for application to the C19. Canada only stocks command-activated detonators and simply does not possess the accessories required for conversion of the C19 into an antipersonnel mine.”[52] Canadian Forces personnel have been advised through several means that the use of AP mines and the unauthorized use of Claymore mines, that is booby-trapping to facilitate victim-activation, is illegal and is punishable under Canadian law.[53]

Joint Military Operations

Canada appended the following “understanding” on joint military operations to its ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty: "It is the understanding of the Government of Canada that, in the context of operations, exercises or other military activity sanctioned by the United Nations or otherwise conducted in accordance with the international law, the mere participation by the Canadian Forces, or individual Canadians, in operations, exercises or other military activity conducted in combination with the armed forces of States not party to the Convention which engage in activity prohibited under the Convention would not, by itself, be considered to be assistance, encouragement or inducement in accordance with the meaning of those terms in Article 1, paragraph 1(c)."[54] In addition, Canadian legislation states that participation in operations with a state not party to the MBT is allowed “if that participation does not amount to active assistance in that prohibited activity.”[55]

Canadian officials have said that the intent of the understanding is mainly to ensure Canadian military personnel are able to participate fully in joint operations, for example with NATO allies, without fear of prosecution.[56]

Concerns about Canada's position regarding joint military operations were reported in the Landmine Monitor Report 1999. However, since then, the NATO alliance was involved in the military conflict in Kosovo and Yugoslavia. During the conflict the U.S. maintained the right to use AP mines (though it never did), making concerns about the implications of use of AP mines by a non-State Party in a joint military operation more immediate and tangible than before. In September 1999 Mines Action Canada wrote to Minister Axworthy asking him to support the ICBL's call for a “no use” policy by NATO. Although a written reply has not been received, MAC has been informed by a DFAIT official that the government's policy on joint operations remains unchanged.

Mine Action Funding

On 3 December 1997 at the signing of the MBT in Ottawa, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien announced the establishment of a C$100 million (US$67.3 million) fund over a five-year period to implement the treaty.[57] This funding evolved into the Canadian Landmine Fund (CLF), which is jointly managed by four government departments: the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), the Department of National Defence (DND), and Industry Canada (IC).

Unless otherwise indicated projects reported here are funded during Canada’s Fiscal Year (FY) 1999-2000, which ran from 1 April 1999 to 31 March 2000.

In FY 1999-2000, Canadian funding for mine action totalled C$26 million (US$16.7 million), a very significant increase over last year’s US$9.5 million.[58]

Government Reports

Canadian government transparency on reporting how funds are expended on mine action both domestically and internationally is very good. Information is provided in annual reports to Parliament, through press releases, regular progress reports and publications, on departmental websites and a detailed financial listing is available on the UN Mine Action Investment Database.

A report on the activities and projects supported by the Canadian Landmine Fund is submitted annually to the Parliament. The Mine Action Team at the Department of Foreign Affairs takes the lead in reporting on behalf of the four departments involved in the Canadian Landmine Fund. The first annual report (1998-99) was submitted to Parliament on 3 December 1999, the second anniversary of the signing of the Mine Ban Treaty. The document, entitled “Seeds of Terror, Seeds of Hope” is available to the general public as well and is posted to the Department of Foreign Affairs “Safelane” website.[59]

The report provides a good overview of the issue and international efforts to implement the treaty. It also provides a description of the numerous steps that the Government of Canada is taking as part of its commitment to the treaty, including country-by-country reports of where Canada is funding mine action. The report generally provides short descriptions of each project or program, including government and NGO partners including the sums of money contributed.[60] The projects are categorized according to various mine action sectors.

UN Mine Action Investment Datatbase

The ILX-DFAIT Mine Action Team has made significant contributions to the development and operation of the UN Mine Action Investment Database. As more and more countries supply data it has the potential to be a valuable tool for a thorough understanding of global mine action funding. For specific donors the database can provide annual reports that include a description of the country's funding by recipient country and by regional/multilateral/thematic programming. Each program expenditure lists the country, amount in U.S. dollars, the funding source (e.g. department/agency), contribution type (monetary or in-kind), activity type (e.g. victim assistance, integrated mine action), program description, and funding channel/implementing agency. The program contributions for each country are totalled.

Government Policy on Mine Action Funding

The Canadian Landmine Fund uses the following criteria for project funding: humanitarian or developmental impact of landmines in the recipient country, the political commitment of the recipient country to the Mine Ban Treaty, recipient country's commitment to carrying out mine action, Canadian capacity, and neutrality and impartiality.[61]

In addition to the above criteria, projects funded by the Canadian International Development Agency must also complement CIDA's programming objective in the country in which it is to be implemented, and demonstrate an acceptable level of gender and environmental analysis.[62] CIDA continues to work to improve its activities in humanitarian mine action (mine clearance, surveys, mine awareness and victim assistance). Changes at CIDA have brought the management of Canadian NGO projects into the Mine Action Unit, which should result in having them more closely integrated into the overall mine action programming of CIDA.

Further to these criteria the Canadian Government has also begun to draft both Progress Indicators and Guidelines to determine program or project funding and influence the overall direction of Canadian funding in mine action. The Mine Action Team of the Department of Foreign Affairs (ILX-DFAIT) has taken the lead on both of these policy areas.

On 1 May 1999 it issued a document entitled, “Measured Steps: Assessing Global Progress on Mine Action,” which states that indicators are needed to measure any progress in the fight against landmines.[63] DFAIT suggests likely indicators for Canadian initiatives and proposes to use these indicators to analyse the progress made to date. Measures of progress used in the report include: banning the production, stockpiling, trade and use of antipersonnel mines; reducing mine casualties; clearing mined land; providing assistance to mine victims and their communities; developing mine awareness; and, improving mine action information and planning. [64] Since the release of the report ILX staff have consulted widely and continue to refine the indicators to be used in measuring this progress.[65]

The Mine Action Team at DFAIT has drafted a set of Guidelines that would seek to provide a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating mine action programs.[66] The indicators focus on the following six areas: improving mine action information and planning; clearing mined land; delivering mine awareness education and reducing casualties; meeting the needs of landmine victims; ending the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of AP mines, and; sustaining mine action efforts.

The Canadian Mine Action Progress Indicators seek to provide the mine action community with a clearer understanding of the state of mine action on a county-by-country basis. This will enable donor governments, NGOs and international agencies to see where effective mine action is absent, assess which forms of delivery are the most/least effective, and indicate where successes can be reinforced with the application of increased mine action efforts. Parallel to this process two DFAIT consultations have also been held within Canada on the various international standards and Canadian mine action capacity.

Mine Action Programs Funded By Canadian Landmine Action Fund

Mine Clearance

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Deployment of 550 SFOR-trained Entity Armies deminers and two Bozena mini-flails. Implemented by the Canadian Engineering Division of SFOR. C$630,000 (US$423,990)Support to Bosnian demining NGO, Akcija Mina in partnership with Handicap International. C$790,000 (US$531,670); training and deployment of 24 Bosnian deminers as part of Norwegian People's Aid mine clearance project in Sarajevo Canton. C$250,000 (US$168,250); training and deployment of 12 mine detection dogs and their Bosnian handlers. Implemented by the Canadian International Demining Centre (CIDC). C$350,000 (US$235,530)

Cambodia: Emergency bridge funding to the Cambodia Mine Action Centre (CMAC) to assist the centre in addressing short-term financial requirements while it addresses necessary reforms to its management practices. C$400,000 (US$269,200); provision of middle management training for CMAC personnel. C$11,000 (US$7403)

Ecuador: Contribution to the OAS/UPD Trust Fund for Demining Program in Ecuador and Peru. The objective is to allow the OAS to coordinate and execute operations within the program. C$200,000 (US$134,600); funding provided to the Government of Ecuador for demining and protective gear. C$92,500 (US$62,253)

Jordan: Funding to the Canadian International Demining Centre for the provision of protective demining equipment. C$500,000 (US$336,500)

Moldova: Provision of 10 mine clearance personal protection systems (suits) to the Moldovan Army Engineers. Protective suits are the SRS-5 model manufactured by Med-Eng Systems of Canada. C$120,000 (US$80,760)

Nicaragua: Funding provided to strengthen the OAS Assistance Programme for Demining specifically in the northern border region with Honduras in the area known as Operational Front #4. Canada and Norway are funding this two-year program covering operational expenses in the field, protective clothing, food, vehicle maintenance insurance and minimal administrative costs. C$1,000,000 (US$673,000); provision of minefield marking signs to OAS. C$4,984 (US$3,354)

Peru: Contribution to the OAS/UPD Trust Fund for Demining Program in Peru and Ecuador. The objective is to allow the OAS to coordinate and execute operations within the program. C$200,000 (US$134,600); provision of personal protective demining equipment to Government of Peru. C$92,500 (US$62,252)

Canada: Funding provided to the CIDC for the development of a center of excellence in explosives detection dogs.

Mine Awareness

Angola: Working though four local NGOs, UNICEF delivers mines awareness messages at the community level using theater, puppet shows, posters, wooden mine dummies, traditional songs and dances. The target groups of this project are primary and secondary school aged children of displaced communities who are congregating in the provincial capitals of Huambo, Kuito, Huila and Bengo. C$250,000 (US$168,250); evaluation by CIET Canada of mine awareness programming in Angola. C$60,000 (US$40,380)

Colombia: Support to UNICEF and the Colombian Ministry of Education for mine awareness activities. C$100,000 (US$67,300)

Victim Assistance

Afghanistan: Funding for the UNDP's Comprehensive Disabled Afghan Program (CDAP) directed at the orthopedic component. Covers salaries, raw materials for orthopedic devices, training sessions, and seminars on the standardisation of orthopedic technology and physiotherapy training. C$300,000 (US$201,900); funding to provide comprehensive rehabilitation services, particularly orthopedics and physiotherapy, to landmine victims through existing NGO, Guardians, in Kandahar. Also supports skills analysis and delivers appropriate training for staff of the clinic in Kandahar by the Royal Ottawa Rehabilitation Centre. C$163,000 (US$112,391)

Africa (not country specific): Support to the WHO for pilot testing of mine victim survey tools in various African states. C$250,000 (US$168,250)

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Contribution to Slovenia Trust Fund for victim assistance. C$70,000 (US$47,110)

Cambodia The goal of this World Vision Canada project is that the disabled population in Battambang, Pursat, Banteay Meanchey, and Pailin provinces become reintegrated into society with either employment skills or an established business that will enable them to be self-sufficient. C$250,000 (US$168,250)

Central America: Community Based Rehabilitation for Landmine Victims in Central America; A tripartite Canada-Mexico-PAHO Initiative. The overall goal of the program is to assist landmine victims in Nicaragua, El Salvador, in a context of post-conflict reconstruction and to integrate victims in the development effort of these countries. This initiative has been developed in co-operation with Mexico and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and in consultation with the Central American Republics. The program consists of: (1) rural rehabilitation services through long-term sustainable community-based rehabilitation programs, (2) prosthetic/orthotic development on a regional basis and (3) a landmine victim socio-economic reintegration program. C$750,000 (US$504,750)

El Salvador: The Healing Ourselves Healing The Land Project aims at training landmine victims in the development of environmentally appropriate technologies. A small enterprise loan and local alternative economic trading initiative will help support community economic development. The Sierra Club of British Colombia (The GAIA Project) collaborates with a local NGO in implementing the project. C$125,000 (US$84,125)

Guatemala: In collaboration with the Government of Israel, the International Centre for Community Based Rehabilitation at Queens University, Kingston, Canada implements this victim assistance project. Its goal is to facilitate the full social and economic reintegration of persons with disabilities in a post-conflict region though the implementation of community based rehabilitation. C$200,000 (US$134,600)

Nicaragua: The Falls Brook Centre in collaboration with local partners operates the “Creating New Energy-Building the Future,” a project offering mine awareness education to communities in the East and West Rio Coco region. The main focus of the project is to train landmine victims in solar electrification so that they can be employed as distributors, installers and system maintenance experts for the community solar systems in the villages. The project also assists landmine victims with fitted prostheses. C$ 100,000 (US$67,300)

Sierra Leone: Support for a victim assistance rehabilitation program implemented by the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation. C$29,400 (US$19,786)

Uganda: This Canadian Network for International Surgery project aims at developing an information database for program planning and resource allocation, to improve health worker skills in emergency care hospitals and to enhance public education on all aspects of landmine victims problems. C$75,000 (US$50,475)

Yemen: The main objective of this ADRA Canada project is to provide community based rehabilitation services to the severely disabled persons and to provide vocational assistance in establishing a means of income for landmine victims and/or their families. C$150,000 (US$100,950)

Integrated Mine Action

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Institutional support to the Mine Action Centres. This program is implemented by the UNDP and it supports core functions of the BHMAC and Entity MACs, and the secondment of DND experts to serve within these MACs. C$930,000 (US$625,890)

Cambodia: Funding to Geomatics Canada for a Level 1 Survey. C$146,000 (US$90,858)

Chad: Core funding to support Chad Mine Action Centre. C$150,000 (US$100,950)

Lao People's Democratic Republic: Contribution to the UNDP Trust Fund to support UXO Lao in developing a national capacity to manage a mine action program. C$ 150,000 (US$100,950)

Mozambique: The Canadian Auto Workers (CAW), in partnership with CUSO, Handicap International and COCAMO (Co-operation Canada-Mozambique), project supports mine awareness, victim assistance, proximity demining and post-clearance community development activities, in close collaboration with provincial authorities, development agencies and local NGOs. CIDA's financial assistance ($330,000) is matched by the CAW. C$333,000 (US$224,109); a program consisting of three components that will significantly support and strengthen mine action in Mozambique: organizing and conducting a national level one survey implemented by Canadian International Demining Centre (CIDC); geospatial information gathering for the production of maps at a scale of 1:50,000 that will facilitate mine action by various demining organizations throughout Mozambique; and the provision of Canadian technical mine action specialists to the UN-supported Accelerated Demining Program to support training of survey personnel and database management. C$1,716,000 (US$1,154,868); emergency mine action assistance in support of UNMAS program to respond to Mozambique flooding. Funding for mine awareness activities to prevent an increase in the number of landmine accidents when the population return home. C$500,000 (US$336,500).

International: Core funding to UNMAS for Emergency Contingency Funding for Urgent Humanitarian Situations. Humanitarian emergency mine action situations due to natural disasters or to political crises, are impossible to plan for. Each situation is different and creates or worsens a mine contamination problem, which further exacerbates the humanitarian crisis on the ground. C$250,000 (US$168,250); core funding for UNMAS (unearmarked). C$500,000 (US$336,500); funding to the ICRC special appeal for Mine Action (1999-2003) to cover the cost of preventive action (mine awareness) and victim assistance (surgical, medical and hospital assistance and well and physical rehabilitation) in communities most affected by landmines. C$300,000 (US201,900); seed money for the Canadian Landmine Foundation (for details see below). C$550,000 (US$370,150)

Advocacy and Prevention

Cambodia, Vietnam: Support to Landmine Survivors Network for an awareness raising trip by Queen Noor to both countries. C$10,000 (US$6,730)

Croatia: Funding to Strata Research to support June 1999 Zagreb Regional Landmines Conference. C$10,000 (US$6,730)

Georgia: Support to IPPNW for a landmines conference in Tblisi, Georgia. C$20,000 (US$13,460)

India: Support to the All India Women's Conference for six workshops on mine issues held from August 1999 to March 2000. C$30,000 (US$20,190)

International: Core funding to the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. C$200,000 (US$134,600); support for the Landmine Monitor initiative of the ICBL. C$200,000 (US$134,600); support for Mines Action Canada advocacy work in support of the antipersonnel landmines ban in Canada and abroad. C$306,000 (US$205,938); support to York University Centre for International and Security Studies to implement the Mine Action Research Program to promote research on the univerzalization and implementation of the AP mine ban. C$47,215 (US$31,776)

Nigeria: Support for a workshop on mine action held in Nigeria. Implemented by African Topics Magazine and the Centre for Conflict Resolution and Peace Advocacy. C$10,000 (US$6,730)

Russia: Support to the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War (IPPNW) for landmine ban campaign activities in Russia and the former Soviet republics. C$100,000 (US$67,300)

Domestic: Funding to Cineflix for a documentary film on the landmine crisis. C$30,000 (US$20,190); contribution to the Survive the Peace campaign of the Canadian Red Cross. C$9,070 (US$6,104); funding for “Ban Landmines '99” a major public event to raise awareness of landmines issues and to mark the anniversary of the signing of the Ottawa Convention. Implemented by the Canadian Red Cross. C$99,725 (US$67,114); seed money for the Canadian Landmine Foundation. C$450,000 (US$302,850); contribution to Mines Action Canada to support the Youth Mine Action Ambassador program to increase public awareness in Canada. C$276,725 (US$186,237)

Research and Development

Canada: Funding for research and development activities of the Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT). C$2,529,000 (US$1,702,152)


Bosnia and Herzegovina: Fact finding mission by Rebuild International to explore the possible conversion of mine production facilities. C$59,640 (US$40,138)

Thailand: Funding for consultants to do an assessment of Thailand's Mine Action Centre. C$19,470 (US$13,103)

UNMAS: Funding to UNMAS for studies pertaining to the socio-economic impact of landmines in Kosovo, Laos and Mozambique. C$100,000 (US$67,300); funding for training and provision of more and better information on the landmines problem for UN and NGO personnel involved in humanitarian work. C$60,000 (US$40,380)


Azerbaijan: Support for the development of national mine action capacity. Implemented by UNDP. C$100,000 (US$67,300)

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Secondment of a Canadian expert as the UNDP Task Manager to assist in coordination of mine action efforts. One year secondment. C$75,000 (US$50,475); contribution to the Slovenian International Trust Fund for provision of funds for mine action institutional support. C$200,000 (US$134,600)

Croatia: Contribution to the Slovenian International Trust Fund for provision of funds for mine action institutional support. C$200,000 (US$134,600)

FSMP: Support to representatives of various states to participate in the First Meeting of States Parties. C$ 36,740 (US$24,727)

Mozambique: Support to the Mozambican government in its role as host of the First Meeting of States Parties in Maputo, May 1999. C$20,000 (US$13,460)

United Nations: In-kind contribution to the development and maintenance of a database on mine action investments made by donors, UN Mine Action Investment database. C$20,000 (US$13,460)

Other Canadian Government Funded Mine Action Programs

The majority of Canada's mine action funding has come from the C$100 million, five year Canadian Landmine Fund announced by the Prime Minister on 3 December 1997. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has in the past also funded mine clearance programs from its humanitarian assistance or other program budgets. This has continued again this year.

Afghanistan: Funding for mine clearance and mapping activities through UNOCHA. C$1,000,000 (US$673,000)

Bosnia and Herzegovina: A joint health and victim assistance project implemented by Queen's University. The Community Based War Victims Rehabilitation Project is a four-year, C$2.5 million (US$1,682,500) initiative. Funding this year was C$243,246 (US$163,705).

In addition this year there were two major developments in terms of new funding for mine action programs. The first of these was the launch of the Canadian Landmine Foundation, a new private sector initiative to raise funds for mine action (for more detail see Other Funding Sources section below). The second major development has been the Government of Canada's funding of major programs in Kosovo following the Balkans conflict in 1999. The mine action elements of the Kosovo response are in addition to what is funded by the Canadian Landmine Fund.

Kosovo: Following the cessation of conflict in the Balkans the government of Canada began announcing humanitarian measures in support of rehabilitation of Kosovo specifically and the Balkans in general. This included a number of mine action activities funded through humanitarian program funding envelopes and, therefore, separately from projects and programs supported by the Canadian Landmine Fund.

Mine Clearance Programs: In-kind contribution of three Canadian Forces personnel to support database and mapping work of UNMAAC for a period of six months. C$76,000 (US$51,148); landmine and UXO removal operations in Kosovo implemented by CIDC and Wolf Flats Ordnance Disposal Corporation. One four-person mine/UXO clearance team was deployed over a four-month period. C$528,000 (US$355,344) ; training and deploying mine action teams to focus on clearance of emergency shelter areas. Five mine/UXO clearance teams totalling twenty persons were deployed over a four-month period. Implemented by International Demining Alliance Canada Inc. (IDAC) C$2,565,000 (US$1,726,245); institutional support to the MACC provided three Department of National Defence staff members seconded over a four month period to enter data for the database and mapping services. C$150,000 (US$100,950); institutional support to MACC supported core functions of the MACC. Implemented by UNMAS. C$500,000 (US$336,500); demining in Kosovo, Phase II will entail the provision of a self-sufficient integrated mine/UXO clearance capability which will comprise the Canadian/CIDA contribution to the UNMIK-MACC Year 2000 Mine Action Program for Kosovo (project duration: 5 months). It consists of a project management team, a manual mine clearance team, a mine detection dog team, an explosive ordnance disposal team (EOD) and a mechanical system (mini-flail) clearance team. C$2,800,000 (US$1,884,400). The phase is implemented by a consortium of Canadian companies led by IDAC.

Mine Awareness Program: Support to UNICEF's Balkans Regional/Mine Awareness Program to respond to the needs of women and children including the implementation of mine awareness programs in Kosovo. C$200,000 (US$134,600)

Victim Assistance Program: Implemented by Queen's University this project focuses on human capacity building, institutional support, and training at the community center/health clinics level. C$500,000 (US$335,500); emergency shelter and related demining project implemented by CARE and Minetech over a four month period. The demining portion represents C$300,000 (US$201,900)

Coordination: Canada and Belgium co-funded an UNMAS assessment mission to identify priority areas for humanitarian mine action. C$75,000 (US$50,475); six month secondment of a lieutenant colonel to serve as a liaison between KFOR and the UNMAAC. $65,000 (US$43,745)

On 14 June 2000, a lead story on the front-page of a major Canadian daily newspaper alluded to problems in CIDA's contracting procedures, which resulted in a long delay in a C$2.5 million contract tender.[67] In a follow-up article the next day, the Minister responsible for CIDA, Maria Minna, stated that the approval process slowed down when Canada considered new UN requirements for demining companies. “It took a little longer than normal,” she said. “We wanted to make sure that it was done right...It’s a very complex process, and the technical and safety standards are very high.” The UN sent a letter of appreciation to the Editor of the Globe and Mail newspaper stating that Canada’s mine action efforts [last year in Kosovo], as well as those of other donors, were [deployed] in the most effective and efficient manner possible, in difficult circumstances.”[68]

In-Kind Support

Given the leadership role taken by Canada on the landmines issue it is difficult to report or to calculate the amount of in-kind contributions made. Canadian Forces personnel often contribute to mine action in countries where they are stationed as part of Canada's peacekeeping duties. Such activity may not be noted in any summary of Canadian activities. The Department of Foreign Affairs has provided support to numerous countries needing assistance either in deciding to sign or accede to the treaty, but particularly in assisting countries with depositing their ratification documents. Similar assistance is also provided for Article 7 Transparency reports. Not all of these activities may be reported in either the Mine Action Investment Database or the annual reports to Parliament.

In-kind contributions reported in the UN Mine Action Investment database for FY99-2000 are reported above. For 2000-2001 US$1,800 has been budgeted for an in-kind donation for support of a conference in Belarus on demining and stockpile destruction.

Other Funding Sources

Canadian Landmine Foundation

Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy announced the creation of the Canadian Landmine Foundation public in a public address to the Empire Club in Toronto on 28 June 1999. The Foundation received C$1 million (US$680,000) to assist with its start up and first year's operating costs. In his speech Minister Axworthy stated that the Canadian Landmine Foundation was launched so that “individuals and corporations can contribute to help eradicate landmines and ease the human suffering they cause. It will encourage Canadians to maintain the lead and set the example for demining efforts across the globe.”[69] Of the initial seed money from the government $450,000 (US$302,850) was for start up and initial fundraising events and $550,000 (US$370,150) was for project funding.

Canadian foundations and charities are required to register with the federal taxation department. The Foundation received its charitable status 29 April 1999. It was formed to raise funds to eradicate landmines around the world and to end the human and economic suffering they cause. According to its interim Executive Director, Scott Fairweather, the foundation is believed to be the first private sector foundation in the world totally dedicated to this purpose. It was felt there was a need for such an organization because, “there was a concern that governments’ commitment and evolvement to this issue might not last the length of time needed for the issue. That the government itself did not have the resources necessarily to deal with the issue so the Canadian Landmine Foundation formed to generate interest and funding from the private sector and other communities in Canada.”[70]

One area of focus for the Foundation will be supporting mine action in the Americas. Fairweather believes the Foundation has an obligation to help “clean up our own backyard” until the Americas are mine free.[71] To date this has resulted in a contribution of C$100,000 (US$68,000) to the Organization of American States (OAS) demining efforts in Nicaragua. This phase of the OAS program is due to be finished at the end of June 2000. Future funding for the OAS demining program in Nicaragua is possible but is dependent upon a detailed final report. In June 2000 the Foundation announced a one-time contribution of C$13,633 (US$9270) to support OAS work and activities in the rehabilitation of landmine victims in Central America. The funds will be added to funds raised at a charity event hosted in May by the OAS “Women of the Americas,” a non-profit organization chaired by the wife of the OAS Secretary General, Ana Milena de Gaviria.[72]

On 6 June 2000 the Canadian Landmine Foundation launched two major initiatives. One was an “e-philanthropy” approach to raising money, called Clear Landmines.[73] The Foundation liked the innovative approach of raising funds through advertising on the Internet while at the same time not costing potential donors' any money. It is a new approach, which has been successful in raising awareness and funds for issues such as hunger, peace, the rainforest and cancer.

Also launched on 6 June 2000 was Adopt-A-Minefield Canada (TM). The Foundation entered into an agreement with the United Nations Association of the USA, Inc. to raise Canadian funds for countries where the Adopt-A-Minefield program exists. Currently those are Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Cambodia, Mozambique and Afghanistan.

The Foundation has signed an agreement with Mines Advisory Group (MAG) to work together on mine action in the Middle East, with details to be worked out in the months to come. The Canadian Landmine Foundation has set aside C$100,000 (US$68,000) for work in the region. The Foundation and MAG are negotiating terms of reference for potential project partners. Canada’s missions in Tel Aviv and Ramallah are providing assistance in these negotiations.

Canadian Landmine Action Fund

In 1998 Mines Action Canada and the Mine Action Team at DFAIT created the Canadian Landmine Action Fund as another mechanism through which Canadians can financially contribute. Funds raised through the Youth Mine Action Ambassador Program are generally donated to this fund. On 3 December 1999 the first check from this fund was presented to the Canadian International Demining Centre (CIDC) to support the training and maintenance of the mine detection dog program. C$30,000 (US$20,190)

Canadian Red Cross Society

Tajikistan: The Canadian Red Cross Society (CRCS) operates a large orthopedic project under a delegated project arrangement with the ICRC. The annual funding of $790,000 (US$537,200) comes solely from private donations to the CRCS. The orthopedic program in Tajikistan is an important institution for the country and the amputees, which it serves. A 1997 initial survey identified an estimated 3,000 amputees throughout the country. On 21 March 1999 the first prosthetic was produced. Since March 1999 there have been 366 new patients registered. There were 188 new patients fitted with prostheses.

Countermine Research and Development

Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT) operates out of the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES) in Medicine Hat, Alberta. DRES provides access to sophisticated test-and-evaluation (T&E) facilities. Testing and evaluation undertaken by CCMAT is done on behalf of Industry Canada (IC) to support the development of new technologies in mine action, particularly detection and clearance. IC's primary role with respect to mine action is to market viable technologies developed under the auspices of CCMAT.

With regard to Canadian R&D in clearance technologies and other equipment for mine action, perhaps the most significant contribution is the development of “surrogate” mines for use in the test and evaluation of equipment. Universal acceptance of these devices could reduce the need for the use and stockpiling (as allowed under Article 3 of the MBT) of live mines. The surrogate mines are formally referred to as “reproduction mines” and have been developed for four common mines -- PMA-1, PMA-2, PMA-3 and Type 72. “The reproduction mines duplicate these types in shape, size, weight, fuse principle and trigger force characteristics without the explosive content,” says Dr. Bob Suart, Director of the CCMAT. “The need for these reproduction mines was determined by CCMAT, as were the requirement and the concept; the engineering was designed by an outside company. The reproduction mines were devised by CCMAT to get away from testing equipment with live mines.”[74] The surrogate mines were first used in June 2000. The Frangible Synthetic Leg is also in use by CCMAT to develop and test protective gear.

Through its association with the Defence Research Establishment Suffield (DRES), the CCMAT is able to provide basic research to Canadian companies who in turn apply it to the design of equipment for use in mine action. Prototypes are then sent to CCMAT for testing. CCMAT facilities are used for trials of Canadian technologies and may, through the International Testing and Evaluation Program (ITEP) in Europe, be used to test equipment developed elsewhere. ITEP's role is to develop universal methodologies and standards for T&E and for mine action technologies.

A problem often stated in reference to the research and development of clearance technologies is that final products tend to be developed in a vacuum, without basic research information or consulting those working in the field. As a result, the adaptation of new technologies to environmental and other conditions unique to each mine-affected area rarely takes places. Consequently, funds and expertise are channeled into technologies that will not be of use in the field.

To address this problem, in May 1999 CCMAT proposed the Demining Technologies Information Forum (DTIF). “There's a lot of effort expended in both R&D and test and evaluation of technologies. The idea behind the Forum is to put forward ideas that might come to fruition,” said Suart. “Other forums, such as ITEP are useful in testing and evaluating equipment that is at the end of the development process. DTIF and ITEP can coordinate activities in [development of clearance technologies] and provide a place where scientists in both areas can compare notes.”[75] DTIF will publish findings from research on its web site and provide access to conference documents, research findings and technology required for various aspects of mine action. DTIF was founded by Canada and the European Union and ITEP was founded by the U.S. and the European Commission.

A pilot project for ITEP in which CCMAT played a key role was the performance test and evaluation of metal detectors. The British, Dutch and the U.S. were also active in the tests. The U.S. procured three copies of each known metal detector for use in the trials. At the CCMAT testing grounds all detectors were run through a series of highly controlled tests to gauge levels of accuracy based on speed and distance from the targets. Detectors were rated on their operability and ease of maintenance and field tested in Cambodia and Croatia. The results of the tests will be published jointly in October 2000 or late fall. Detector trials, under the auspices of the Mine Action Planning Afghanistan (MAPA), also took place in Afghanistan with the assistance of CCMAT staff. MAPA has not yet published the results of these tests.

An explosive for destroying mines in situ (FIXOR) and a mechanical neutralization device (PRO MAC) are two Canadian developed technologies that show promise for use in mine action. Both have been tested by CCMAT.

Landmine Casualties and Survivor Assistance

Canada is not a mine-affected country. However some former or active Canadian Force Bases have been used as practice or training ranges. In both Article 7 reports Canada lists the areas where defused mines have been placed for testing clearance technologies at the Canadian Forces Base Suffield, in Alberta. The locations of mined areas are given in UTM Grid References.[76]

The majority of Canadians injured or killed by landmines have been members of the Canadian Forces active in overseas military operations, peacekeeping duties or mine clearance.[77] Benefits guaranteed by law to persons with disabilities include health and medical care, training, rehabilitation and counseling, employment and participation in decisions affecting themselves.[78]


[1] Canada became the first country known to have charged a citizen with a violation of MBT implementation legislation. In July 1999, a raid of a private home reportedly resulted in the confiscation of a large number of weapons, including landmines. Police arrested a 47-year old Canadian man who was released on CND$5,000 bail the following day and is scheduled to appear in court 23 August 2000. Mike McIntyre, "Weapons cache included mines, machine guns," Winnipeg Free Press, 25 July 1999; "Bus driver gets bail," Winnipeg Free Press, 27 July 1999; interviews with various sources, June 2000.
[2] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 221-224. Statutes of Canada, Chapter 33, An Act to Implement the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on their Destruction; Bill C-22, Assented to 27 November 1997. For more on the provision in the Act related to joint military operations, and the related “understanding” submitted with the ratification instrument, see below in “Use” section.
[3] Notes for an address by Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to a Newsmakers Breakfast, Ottawa, 3 December 1999.
[4] DFAIT, press release No. 129, “Axworthy Appoints Ambassador for Mine Action,” 22 May 1998, Ottawa.
[5] Notes for an address by Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to the FMSP, Maputo Mozambique, 3 May 1999; Press release, No. 96, “Axworthy calls for post-conflict mine action capability in areas such as Kosovo,” 3 May 1999.
[6] The most recent Article 7 report submitted should be considered the standard.
[7] OAS, Register on Antipersonnel Landmines, submitted by Peter M. Boehm, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Permanent Mission of Canada to the OAS, OES/Ser. G, CP/CSH-190/00 add. 1., 14 April 1999.
[8] Statement by Lloyd Axworthy, “Canada and Russia: Human Security and Northern Policy,” St. Petersburg, Russia, 2 February 2000.
[9] Notes for an address by Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to A Newsmakers Breakfast, Ottawa, 3 December 1999; Statement by Lloyd Axworthy, on the acceptance of the Endicott Peabody Award, Boston Massachusetts, 22 October 1999.
[10] Notes for an address by Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to the FMSP, Maputo Mozambique, 3 May 1999; Press release, No. 96, “Axworthy calls for post-conflict mine action capability in areas such as Kosovo,” 3 May 1999.
[11] Ibid.
[12] Statement by Daniel Livermore, Ambassador for Mine Action, to the 54th Session of the UNGA, Item 35: Mine Action, New York, New York, 18 November 1999.
[13] Statement by Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy, to the Paasikivi Society, Helsinki, Finland, 1 September 1999; Statement by Lloyd Axworthy, “Canada and Russia: Human Security and Northern Policy,” St. Petersburg, Russia, 2 February 2000.
[14] Statement by Bob Lawson, Senior Policy Advisor/Deputy Coordinator for Mine Action, at the First Annual Conference of States Parties to the Amended Protocol II CCW, Geneva, 15 December 1999.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Press release, #109, “Axworthy announces support for global landmine watchdog,” 19 May 2000.
[17] Notes for an address by Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy to the FMSP, Maputo, Mozambique, 3 May 1999.
[18] Ibid.
[19] Press Release, No. 141, “Axworthy welcomes progress on democracy and human security at OAS General Assembly,” 6 June 2000.
[20] Statement, Lloyd Axworthy, 22 October 1999 on the acceptance of the Endicott Peabody Award, Boston, Massachusetts.
[21] Reports on Mines Action Canada’s capacity building workshops are available at http://www.minesactioncanada.org.
[22] Figures supplied by YMAAP Secretariat.
[23] Available at: http://www.lm-online.org.
[24] Statement by Bob Lawson, Senior Policy Advisor/Deputy Coordinator for Mine Action, to the First Annual Conference of States Parties to the Amended Protocol II of the CCW, Geneva, 15 December 1999.
[25] Annual Report of Canada in Accordance with Article 13, paragraph 4 of Protocol II as Amended on 3 May 1996, 10 December 1999.
[26] Statement by Bob Lawson, Senior Policy Advisor/Deputy Coordinator for Mine Action, to the First Annual Conference of States Parties to the Amended Protocol II of the CCW, Geneva, 15 December 1999.
[27] Statement by Mike Moher, Canadian Ambassador to the CD, January 1999.
[28] Government news release, No.5, on the announcement of comprehensive, unilateral moratoria on the production, export and operational use of AP mines by Canada, 17 January 1996. Other sources indicate production halted in 1994. See, Mark Abley, The Gazette, Montreal, 17 November 1994; Jane’s Military Vehicles and Logistics, 1994-95, p.175. See also Article 7 Reports, Canada, 27 August 1999 and 27 April 2000, http://domino.un.org/ottawa
[29] CCMAT Project Charter, October 1998.
[30] Ibid.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Mines Action Canada, letter to ministers of foreign affairs, defense, international cooperation and industry, copied to CCMAT director, 29 January 1999.
[33] Telephone interview with Dr. Bob Suart, Director of CCMAT, 28 June 2000.
[34] Ibid.
[35] Ibid.
[36] Valerie Warmington, CCMAT Work on Alternatives to AP Landmines Summary, undated.
[37] Fax from Kristeva Zoe, Political and Multilateral Issues, DFAIT-ILX, 11 February 1999.
[38] This issue was discussed at the SCE on General Status of the Convention meetings in January and May 2000 in Geneva. Not only the prohibition on transfer must be considered, but also the prohibition on assisting anyone in a prohibited act.
[39] Statement by Daniel Livermore to the 54th Session of the UNGA, Item 35: Mine Action, 18 November 1999, New York.
[40] Press release No. 262, 1 December 1999, “Axworthy marks landmine anniversary in Ottawa”; Notes for an address by The Honourable Lloyd Axworthy, Minister of Foreign Affairs to a Newsmakers Breakfast, 3 December 1999, Ottawa, Canada.
[41] Telephone interview with Col. Normand Levert, Liaison Officer to the Mine Action Team (ILX), 23 February 1999; telephone interview with Lt. Col. J.P. Chabot, Directorate of Arms and Proliferation Control Policy, 23 February 1999; telephone interview with Major Perrin, April 1998; LM-MAC/Fredenburg, February 1999.
[42] Article 7 Report, Form D, submitted 27 April 2000, for the period 1 August 1999-14 March 2000.
[43] Ibid.
[44] Telephone interview with Major Perrin, April 1998; MAC/Fredenburg, Feb 1999;
MAC/Levert, Feb 1999.
[45] Article 7 Report, Form D, submitted 27 August 1999, for the period 1 January 1999-31 July 1999.
[46] Article 7 Report, Form D, submitted 27 April 2000.
[47] Ibid, Form C.
[48] Ibid, Form D.
[49] Press Release No. 134, “Axworthy and Minna announce funding for landmine projects in the Americas,” 4 June 2000.
[50] Dennis Bueckert, “Canadian Forces issued mines despite campaign,” The Ottawa Citizen newspaper, 14 February 2000. See also “Les Canadiens sont equips de mines,” Le Journal de Québec, 14 Février 2000.
[51] Letter from Mines Action Canada to Minister of Foreign Affairs Lloyd Axworthy, 18 February 2000. The letter was accompanied by a two-page backgrounder.
[52] Letter from Minister Lloyd Axworthy to Mines Action Canada, received 23 June 2000. MAC has received contradictory information from different sources about whether modifications can or have been made to ensure the Claymore mines in Canadian stockpiles cannot be fitted with a booby-trap or made to be victim activated.
[53] Article 7 reports and report to the CCW amended protocol II, 10 December 1999. However, it was reported to MAC, that on at least two different occasions, at an event in the spring of 2000 in Montreal, Quebec and another in British Colombia, representatives of the Department of National Defence have dismissed the Mine Ban Treaty said that Canada would use AP mines in a conflict, which raises concern about how well Canada's position is being communicated to the lower ranks of the Canadian Forces. The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade is reported to be looking into the matter.
[54] Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,.C.N.473.1997.TREATIES-2
[55] Statutes of Canada, Chapter 33, An Act to Implement the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on their Destruction; Bill C-22, Assented to 27 November 1997.
[56] Email communication from Bob Lawson, Senior Policy Advisor, ILX-DFAIT, received 15 March 1999.
[57] Speech made by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien to the Opening Plenary of the Ottawa Treaty Signing Conference, 3 December 1997. For a description of the Canadian Landmine Fund see 1999 Landmine Monitor, Canada report, p.235; UN Mine Action Investment Database (www.un.org/Depts/dpko/mine/). The exchange rate used is C$1 = $US0.6730. This is the official exchange rate used by the Canadian government for 1999-2000 in its reports to the UN Mine Action Investment database.
[58] FY 1999-2000 figure is based on the total of the projects detailed in this report (C$26,021,215). FY1998-1999 figure is as reported by the government of Canada in the UN Mine Action Investment Database for the year 1998. Canada has reported US$15.4 million for 1999 in the UN database.
[59] Available at: www.mines.gc.ca.
[60] “Seeds of Terror Seeds of Hope, 1998-199 Report on the Canadian Landmine Fund,” report submitted to the Canadian Parliament by the Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, 3 December 1999. p. 26.
[61] Mines Action Canada files.
[62] Ibid.
[63] See www.mines.gc.ca/english/documents/measeng-final.htm
[64] Ibid.
[65] Copies of the draft Canadian guidelines were circulated to Canadian NGOs in March and April 2000 meetings.
[66] The Mine Action Team presented the Canadian Mine Action Guidelines and Canadian Mine Action Progress Indicators during a consultation meeting on mine action, held in Ottawa, Canada, 17 March 2000. The consultations also included presentations by key Canadian mine action organizations on: plans and priorities for the fiscal year 2000/2001, made by key Canadian mine action organizations; as well as Canadian mine action capacities.
[67] Andrew Mitrovica, “Landmine chaos give Canada ‘black eye,’” The Globe and Mail, (Canadian newspaper) 14 June 2000. p. 1.
[68] Andrew Mitrovica, “Canada's delay in mine crisis puts many at risk, officials say,” The Globe and Mail, (Canadian newspaper) 15 June 2000. p. A5.
[69] Notes for an address by the Honourable Lloyd Axworthy to the Empire Club, Toronto, 28 June 1999.
[70] Telephone interview with Scott Fairweather, Interim Executive Director, Canadian Landmine Foundation, 16 June 2000.
[71] Ibid.
[72] Press release 5 June 2000
[73] Available at: www.clearlandmines.com.
[74] Telephone interview with Dr. Bob Suart, Director of CCMAT, 28 June 2000.
[75] Telephone interview with Dr. Bob Suart, Director of CCMAT, 18 June 2000.
[76] Article 7 Reports, Form C, 27 August 1999 and 27 April 2000.
[77] See Landmine Monitor 1999 p. 239 for more details.
[78] See Canadian submission to the United Nations global Survey on Disability Policy, 15 September 1996, www.independentliving.org/Library