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Country Reports
CHAD, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Chad on 1 November 1999. A Level One Impact Survey is currently underway and mine clearance is due to begin this year. At least 127 mine and UXO-related casualties are reported to have occurred from September 1998 to October 1999. Chad has not submitted its Article 7 report which was due by 29 April 2000.

Mine Ban Policy

Chad signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 6 July 1998 and ratified it on 6 May 1999. Thus, the treaty entered into force for Chad on 1 November 1999. Chad has not enacted domestic implementation legislation for the treaty.

Chad attended the First Meeting of States Parties in Maputo in May 1999. In a statement to the plenary, the head of delegation Adoum Hassan Bakhit stated, “Chad, in spite of all its limited resources, will do everything in its power to address the source of the problem posed by the presence of mines in its territory. The probability of success of this program is strongly reinforced by the visible adhesion of the Government of Chad to the program, by a stable political environment, the absence of conflict, and long-term engagements to several international partners. Chad will not succeed alone. This will not occur without the aid of the international community, which is capable of constructing an efficient, national demining program.”[1]

Chad did not participate in any of the treaty intersessional meetings of Standing Committees of Experts. Chad has not yet submitted its Article 7 transparency report, due by 29 April 2000. Chad voted for UN General Assembly Resolution 54/54B in support of the Mine Ban Treaty in December 1999.

Chad is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons nor is it a member of the Conference on Disarmament.

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling, Use

Chad is not known to have produced or exported AP mines. It is believed that Chad has a sizable stockpile of antipersonnel mines, but no details are available.[2] There have been reports of rebels, particularly in the mountainous north, using mines, but Landmine Monitor has not been able to verify these reports. There is no evidence of government armed forces using antipersonnel landmines.

Landmine Problem

Decades of conflict and the 1973 Libyan invasion have left Chad with a landmine and UXO problem. Minefield records are close to non-existent, and there is not yet a comprehensive mine database.[3] In 1999, the UN Development Program and Chad’s mine action center, the Haut Commissariat National au Déminage (HCND) identified the following types of mines:

Landmines Present in Chad[4]
PRB M3 (NR441)
PRB M3 A1(NR201)
PRB M 35
M 19
NR 109
M 7 A2
TM 46
TM 57
PT MI Ba 2

The Aozou-Bardaï-Wour-Zouar zone in the north is mine-affected as a result of internal conflict and also from the Libyan incursion into the Aozou strip. Faya Largeau is also mined due to its position as the staging point for a military advance upon the capital Ndjamena. In the east, the Iriba and Guereda areas along the Sudanese border are mined, as are certain key points inwards towards Ndjamena.[5] Mined areas generally include both antipersonnel and antitank mines, but unexploded ordnance is also a problem, especially in the north and east.

Mine Action Funding

Several meetings have been held to attract donor support for mine action in Chad, including a July 1998 donor conference in New York, a round table in Geneva, and another donor conference in New York on 29 October 1999. At the donor conference in New York, the UNDP and HCND indicated a funding shortfall of $2.425 million for mine action in Chad.[6]

Contributions for mine action programs have been received from the UNDP ($2 million) Italy ($500,000), Japan ($400,000), Chad ($245,000) and Canada ($66,000).[7] Germany has also donated forty-two Ebinger mine detectors to Chad. A total of $1.4 million in funding for the Level One Impact survey has been secured from the U.S. Department of State and the UN Voluntary Trust Fund for Mine Action.[8]

Through its fiscal year 1999, the U.S. had provided $1.9 million in assistance to Chad to support and sustain the training of military engineers as deminers. In 1999 and 2000, the U.S. was planning to provide $3.5 million in in-kind and financial assistance for mine action.[9] This includes for the rehabilitation of a demining training school in the capital, the establishment of a regional demining office in the northern part of country, training in mine awareness education, and the collection of historical data. The allocation of U.S. funding in 2000 includes $210,000 for the purchase of vehicles, $11,000 to purchase radios, a $196,000 grant to UNDP to contract aerial medical evacuation services, $12,000 for repairs to the deminer’s building in Faya in the north of the country, and $108,000 for the purchase of spare parts for C-130 aircraft supporting demining operations.[10]

Mine Action

The UN Development Program has set up a national mine action center under the Haut Commissariat National au Déminage.[11] The UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS) serves as implementer of the program.[12] The demining program is described as “one of the few programs, if not the first, which has not resulted from a United Nations Peacekeeping mission,” meaning that the program “started with nothing.”[13]

In October 1999, at the donors conference, the UNDP and HCND presented a national mine action plan, but it has not been implemented and a new national plan for mine action for 2000-2001 was due for release in July 2000.[14]

A Level One Impact Survey started in Chad in November 1999, following pre-testing of survey instruments and training of local staff. Handicap International is the implementing partner for the survey. An assessment mission from the Survey Action Center visited Chad in July 1999. In June 2000, a UNICEF consultant visited Chad to undertake a needs assessment for mine awareness.

Clearance activities in Chad have been sporadic, mostly due to resource constraints. Some 100-200 Chadian military have been trained in mine clearance. One priority set by the HCND is mine clearance in a 100-kilometer radius around Faya Largeau, scheduled to begin in March 2000.[15] In May 2000, the German demining organization HELP, which won a tender to carry out the demining, was due to begin operations with additional German government funding. Clearance will be conducted in conjunction with a wider Islamic Development Bank-sponsored rural development program in the same areas.[16]

Landmine Casualties

Reliable and comprehensive information on victims is hard to come by in Chad. Accidents that take place at great distances from a medical facility are unlikely to be officially recorded.[17] But in October 1999, the HCND reported 127 mine and UXO-related casualties since September 1998.[18] Of these casualties, approximately one-third resulted in death and another one-third in amputation.[19] There have been fifteen reported incidents involving children. Particularly at risk are adolescent goat and sheep herders who pick up UXO they find in the fields.[20] UNICEF and HCND report that in Iriba region, eleven of twenty-five reported mine and UXO casualties were children.[21] It is not known how many nomads have been killed or injured by mines or UXO; Chad has a considerable nomadic population. In addition, forty-seven vehicles were reported destroyed and a large number of domestic animals upon which local economies depend.[22]

Victim Assistance

Medical care and rehabilitative services for mine victims in Chad are generally rudimentary. Lack of medical infrastructure and evacuation leads to an average of four to five days for a mine or UXO victim to reach hospital care.[23] The capital boasts a well-run prosthetics clinic managed by SECADEV, a Catholic development organization, and supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). The ICRC plans to locate and transport an estimated 300 mine and UXO victims from the north of the country in a program beginning in July 2000. This initiative will later spread to the rest of the country.


[1] Statement by delegation of Chad to the First Meeting of States Parties, Maputo, 3-7 May 1999.
[2] Landmine Monitor was told by local sources that there could be several hundred thousand mines in stock, but Landmine Monitor has no means of assessing the accuracy of such a claim. Likewise, Landmine Monitor was told that some 3,000 antipersonnel and antitank landmines were destroyed in early 2000, but Landmine Monitor has not been able to verify that information.
[3] The Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) software has been provided to the HCND but it is not yet operational.
[4] Republic of Chad, Mine Action Chad presentation, December 1999.
[5] United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and Haut Commissariat National au Déminage (HCND), “Mine Action Chad: Program Overview,” prepared for Donors Conference, New York, 29 October 1999, p. 1.
[6] UNDP/HCND, “Chad Mine Action: Program Overview,” October 1999, p. 14.
[7] Ibid., p. 9.
[8] Ibid. The Survey Action Center lists the U.S., the UN Foundation, and the United Kingdom as donors. See SAC appendix to Landmine Monitor Report 2000.
[9] U.S. Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” April 1999, p. 8.
[10] U.S. Department of State, “FY 00 NADR Project Status,” p. 1.
[11] “CHAD: Mine Action Country Profile,” UNDP website accessed 29 July 2000, http://www.undp.org/erd/mineaction/.
[12] UNDP/HCND, “Mine Action Chad: Program Overview,” October 1999, p. 1.
[13] Ibid, p. 4.
[14] Ibid, p. 14.
[15] UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Integrated Regional Information Network for West Africa, “IRIN-WA Weekly Roundup 5 covering the period 31 January - 4 February 2000.”
[16] UNDP/HCND, “Chad Mine Action: Program Overview,” October 1999, p. 11.
[17] Interview with an official from the Ministry of Territorial Administration, Ndjamena, 21 March 2000.
[18] UNDP/HCND, “Mine Action Chad: Program Overview,” p. 2.
[19] Ibid.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Ibid., p. 15.
[22] Ibid., p. 2.
[23] Ibid.