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Country Reports
COLOMBIA, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: Guerrilla groups have continued to use antipersonnel mines. In October 1999 UNICEF and other partners launched a mine awareness program. In November 1999, Colombia’s AP mine production facilities were destroyed. In January 2000 the President signed the ratification law, a crucial, but not final, step in the ratification process. In March 2000 Colombia ratified CCW Amended Protocol II. The Army cleared 35 minefields, in military operations, in 1999. More than 2,000 AP mines were destroyed from stockpiles.

Mine Ban Policy

Colombia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 but has not yet ratified. On 14 January 2000 at a public ceremony during an official visit by Canada’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Lloyd Axworthy, Colombian President Andrés Pastrana Arango signed ratification Law 554/2000 approving the treaty.[1] As established by Colombia’s Constitution, following President Pastrana’s signature of the law, the Constitutional Court is required to prepare the legal instrument for ratification of the treaty. In January 2000, Landmine Monitor was told that this process was expected to take between three to six months.[2] The ratification law does not contain other provisions for implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Colombia participated as an observer in the First Meeting of State Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Maputo in May 1999. The head of the delegation, Ambassador Jaime Girón Duarte, told the plenary that “the use of antipersonnel mines in armed conflicts is an affront to all notions of human dignity.” He went on to state that Colombia “has communicated its willingness to replace the use of antipersonnel mines protecting vital production and telecommunications sites, both military and civilian, with sensors and electrified fences.”[3] Colombia has not participated in the various intersessional meetings of the treaty in Geneva.

Colombia voted in favor of the December 1999 UN General Assembly resolution supporting the Mine Ban Treaty, as it had in 1997 and 1998.

On 16 June 2000, at the meeting of the Grupo de Río held in Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, Colombia was one of nineteen countries of the region that signed the Cartagena Declaration.[4] The Declaration’s paragraph 15 states, “We call on all States that have not done so to ratify as soon as possible the Ottawa Convention, in order to achieve the elimination of antipersonnel mines... and we renew our commitment to landmine victim rehabilitation as well as mine clearance in our region, in keeping with our goal to declare the hemisphere free of antipersonnel landmines.”[5]

According to an official in the Disarmament Unit in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, a questionnaire to gather data on the antipersonnel landmine situation in the country has already been submitted to relevant civilian and military authorities in preparation for the Article 7 transparency report.[6] It is expected that the “imminent ratification of the Ottawa Treaty will force those authorities to produce this data rapidly, for the preparation and submission of the document to the UN.” [7]

Colombia on 6 March 2000 ratified Amended Protocol II (Landmines) of the Convention on Conventional Weapons. A technical report has been requested from the Ministry of the Defense in order to comply with the Convention and its protocols, including Amended Protocol II regarding landmines.[8] Colombia did not attend the First Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 1999 in Geneva.

Colombia is a member of the Conference of Disarmament. According to an official at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Colombia maintains a “favorable position” on the question of negotiating a transfer ban on landmines in that forum.[9]

Over the past year, the Campaña Colombiana Contra Minas (Colombian Campaign Against Landmines), or CCCM, has made a concerted effort to press for ratification of the treaty in the National Congress, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of National Defense and has also urged support for the treaty by the various groups involved in Colombia’s internal war. CCCM has been active through a number of letters, forums, meetings and working documents, and has requested other organizations’ support as well. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Colombia has also advocated for ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty, and its law department has produced a document encouraging the government to incorporate the Mine Ban Treaty in Colombian law.[10] UNICEF Colombia has also played an important role in pressing for treaty ratification and for the extension of mine awareness programs throughout Colombia.[11]


According to the General Command of Colombia’s Armed Forces, Industria Militar (INDUMIL), a government-owned facility, destroyed its antipersonnel mine production equipment on 18 November 1999.[12] Landmine Monitor Report 1999 reported that the Ministry of Defense had instructed INDUMIL to cease production of antipersonnel mines in 1996,[13] but the General Command indicates that antipersonnel mine manufacture did not cease until September 1998.[14] According to INDUMIL’s Production Manager, there is still production of the Carga Direccional Dirigida (CDD) directional fragmentation mine (Claymore-type).[15] He said these are made to be used only in command detonated mode, and are not classified as AP mines by the Colombian Army. Claymore-type mines used in command detonated mode are permitted under the Mine Ban Treaty, but prohibited if used with tripwires.

Nearly all major guerrilla groups have publicly acknowledged that they are not only users but also manufacturers of AP mines. The Colombian Armed Forces have identified and denounced the production of AP mines by Colombian guerrilla groups in several documents and declarations in the past.[16] Most of these mines are homemade, using cheap and easy to find materials. The common “Minas Quiebrapatas” (Legbreaker mines) are mainly manufactured by the UC-ELN (Unión Camilista-Ejército Nacional de Liberación Nacional). There are also so-called “Kleimor” (Claymore) or “Cazabobos” (fool hunters) mines, “M-Klim” mines, Propelled Mine or Charge and the “Bomba Elena.”[17]

According to the Colombian Army’s Press Agency, in the past two years there has been an increase in the use of homemade antivehicle mines by guerrilla groups in Colombia. These antivehicle mines are manufactured with gas, oxygen, or refrigerating cylinders.[18]

Mines and improvised explosive devices are also made and used by non-combatants in Colombia. In several parts of the country, including Chocó, Santander and Antioquia Departments, farmers make “pig mines,” for various reasons, including protection of crops from animals and theft.[19] Antipersonnel landmines are also manufactured and used by coca, poppy, and marijuana growers to protect illegal drug crops, and by alkaloid processors in order to keep the Army and others away from their laboratories and stockrooms.[20]


Colombia maintains that it has never exported AP mines, though it has not adopted a formal moratorium on exports.[21] In the past, it has imported AP mines from the United States and perhaps other nations.[22] A Ministry of Foreign Affairs official told Landmine Monitor of his growing concern over the increasing illegal traffic of light weapons, including AP mines, across Colombia’s borders with Ecuador, Venezuela, and Panama by land, air, and sea routes.[23] During the crisis sparked by the multiple kidnapping of civilians at the Church of La María, in Cali, Valle del Cauca, the Army said it found approximately 500 industrially manufactured foreign landmines while searching for the victims.[24] No additional information was released about the mines.

Stockpiling and Destruction

According to a March 1999 letter from the Office of the General Inspector of Colombia’s Armed Forces, the Armed Forces have at least 18,000 AP mines in stockpile.[25] In January 1999 Colonel José Manuel Castro, a legal advisor in the Ministry of Defense, stated that the Colombian Armed Forces have mines in stockpile and that “the Ministry wants to search for alternatives, to destroy them as soon as possible.”[26] According to an official in the Disarmament Unit of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, information on the size and composition of the AP mine stockpile will be made available when Colombia ratifies the Mine Ban Treaty.[27]

According to a letter from the General Command of the Armed Forces, on 2 July 1999 INDUMIL destroyed 2,542 AP mines from its stockpile, at the José María Córdoba Factory.[28]

It is not possible to get accurate information on guerrilla-held stockpiles of AP mines.


Landmine Monitor knows of no instances of new deployment of antipersonnel landmines by the Colombian Army since Colombia signed the ban treaty in December 1997. The Commander of Colombia’s Armed Forces, General Fernando Tapias Stahelin, has stated that the Armed Forces laid approximately 20,000 AP mines throughout Colombian territory in the past.[29] In January 2000, he told Landmine Monitor, “Colombian Military Forces have defensive minefields, located near installations of high risk and difficult to access.” He stated that the Armed Forces’ minefields “are correctly identified, marked and protected by military personnel, and follow international guidelines.”[30] According to General Stahelin, Colombia’s Armed Forces have maps of their minefields, but for security reasons this information is not available to the public.[31] During a recent field visit to La Calera district near the capital Bogotá, the Colombian Campaign observed that Army minefields there did not have the necessary measures to prevent risk to the nearby population.[32]

Colombia’s main guerilla groups are: FARC – Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), the UC-ELN – Unión Camilista-Ejército Nacional de Liberación Nacional (Camilista Union-National Liberation Army), and the EPL – Ejército Popular de Liberación (Popular Liberation Army). There are also numerous paramilitary groups, collectively termed the AUC – Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia (United Self-defense Groups of Colombia).

Two of the guerrilla groups, FARC-EP and the UC-ELN, as well as paramilitary groups, have used and are believed to still be using antipersonnel mines in the country.[33] There is no evidence that the EPL has used AP mines. The FARC-EP and the UC-ELN have both in the past acknowledged their use of AP mines.[34] According to a newspaper article published in Cali in May 1999, during talks with government officials FARC representatives discussed the landmines issue under the item that deals with International Humanitarian Law.[35] Colombia’s Armed Forces reported that 52 mines placed in San José de Sumapaz department had been discovered on 28 February 2000. The mines were found along village paths, around the school and football field, and near the radio transmission station on Granada Mountain.[36]

Landmine Problem

Colombia is perhaps the country most affected by mines in the Americas region. Information collected by the Colombia Campaign to Ban Landmines (CCCM) indicates that at least 135 of Colombia’s 1,050 municipalities in twenty-three of the country’s thirty departments are mine-affected in all five regions of Colombia (Caribbean, Andean, Amazonian, Orinoquia, and Pacific regions). The 135 municipalities cover a total area of 145,000 square kilometers or 13% of the national territory. The department of Santander is one of the most affected, and has reported mine victims since 1990.[37]

In updating its list from Landmine Monitor Report 1999, the CCCM has identified the following mine affected areas:[38]

1) Amazonian region

  • Amazonas department: Santa Sofia municipality.
  • Caqueta department: Florencia, Montañita, Miraflores, Puerto Rico, San Vicente del Caguán, Remolinos del Caguan, and Cartagena del Chairá municipalities.
  • Guaviare department: Calamar, Miraflores, and San José del Guaviare municipalities.
  • Putumayo department: Puerto Asís and Orito municipalities.
  • Vaupes department: Mitú municipality.

2) Andean region

  • Antioquia department: Caicedo, San Roque, San Carlos, San Francisco, Segovia, Mutatá, Turbo, Apartadó, Currulao, Zaragoza, Yondó, San Luis, Cáceres, Amalfi, Dabeiba, Tello, Bello, Yali, Puerto Triunfo, Cocorná, Granada, El Bagre, Maceo, Campamento, Carmen de Viboral, Copacabana, and Vegachi municipalities.
  • Boyacá department: Pajarito, Pauna and Chiscas municipalities.
  • Cauca department: Argelia, Caloto, Caldono, Corinto, El Bordo, and Patía municipalities.
  • Cundinamarca department: Cabrera, Claraval, Junin, Guayabeltal, Medina, San Bernardo, Viotá, and Sumapaz municipalities.
  • Huila department: Suaza, Acevedo, Algeciras, and Anzoátegui municipalities.
  • Nariño department: Puerres and Tuquerres municipalities.
  • Norte de Santander department: Ocaña, Convención, Cucutilla, Chitaga, Cachipa, Los Patios, El Turra, Tibú, and Teorama municipalities.
  • Santander department: Barrancabermeja, Bucaramanga, California, El Playón, Florida Blanca, Galán, Piedecuesta, San Vicente de Chucurí, Lebrija, Matanzas, El Carmen de Chucuri, Betulia, Suaita, Suratá, Zapatoca, and Macaravita municipalities.

3) Caribbean region

  • Bolivar department: Simití, Morales, San Pablo, Santa Rosa del Sur, Rioviejo, Tiquisio, Achí, Cantagallo, Altos del Rosario, Córdoba, Montecristo, Carmen de Bolivar, San Martín de Loba, and Zambrano municipalities.
  • Cesar department: Curumaní, La Jagua de Ibirico, La Jagua del Pilar, Pailitas, Pelaya, San Alberto, Chiriguaná, Codazzi, El Copey, and Valledupar municipalities.
  • Cordoba department: Tierralta and Puertolibertador municipalities.
  • Magdalena department: Ciénaga and El Banco municipalities.
  • Sucre department: Toluviejo, Guaranda and Ovejas municipalities.

4) Orinoquia region

  • Arauca department: Fortul, Tame, Saravena, La Esmeralda, Arauca, and Arauquita municipalities.
  • Casanare department: Támara and Sacama municipalities.
  • Meta department: Calvario, El Castillo, Lejanías, Mapiripán, San Juanito, and La Uribe municipalities.

5) Pacific region

  • Chocó department: Riosucio municipality.
  • Valle del Cauca department: Palmira and Jamundi municipalities.

Not all the territory of each municipality is mine-affected. Most of the mine-affected lands are in rural areas inhabited by peasants who rely on small-scale subsistence agriculture and herding. Paths and walkways are often mined. Some urban centers have also been affected. There are some reports of increased mining of communal areas frequented by civilians, such as schools, football fields and bridges. In the department of Norte de Santander and Bolivar, most mine-affected areas are illegal drug plantations.[39] CCCM has noted that a majority of minefields in Santander and Bolivar are unmarked, the exceptions being those closer to urban centers.

The humanitarian impact of AP mines is widespread and great. The government of Bolivar Department has estimated that 60% of school absenteeism in Santa Rosa del Sur was due to the risks posed to children by AP mines near schools and towns.[40] CCCM carried out a field visit to the southern region of Bolivar Department and found that peasants in Buena Vista, near Santa Rosa del Sur, preferred not to send their children to school because of the threat of landmines.[41] They estimated that at least twenty of their cows as well as other farm animals have died because of exploding mines in the past six months alone. The inhabitants of the area live in constant fear, and children suffer severe traumas associated with war, such as night terrors, incontinence and personality disorders.

Some communities are unable to produce food or earn money needed to survive; others suffer tremendous economic losses due to the mining of productive agricultural lands and the death of their farm animals.[42] Equally devastating is the psychological damage suffered by people in mine-affected communities.[43]

These mine-affected communities urgently request help from NGOs, state institutions and international organizations to begin the processes of prevention, attention to victims and demining. Members of these communities feel they are military targets for the armed groups, and are completely abandoned by organizations and institutions that could help.[44]

Mine Clearance

While Colombia’s rural population would greatly benefit from mine clearance programs, there are currently no official humanitarian mine clearance programs in progress. Mine clearance is undertaken by the National Army and is primarily military, not humanitarian, in its purpose as it is usually conducted during combat situations.[45]

The Colombian Army has reportedly destroyed a considerable number of antipersonnel mines belonging to the Colombian guerrillas. According to a report by the Press Agency of the Colombian Armed Forces, during 1999 the Army cleared 35 minefields and deactivated 370 AP mines. It also seized 239 mines from the guerrilla groups.[46] Another military official reported that during the last week of 1999, sixteen minefields were cleared near the villages of San Vicente, San Luis, San Carlos, and San Francisco, in Antioquia department.[47]

The Department of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Los Andes in Bogotá is interested in carrying out research to develop a robot for the detection of landmines. The research project has the support of the Mars Group, the explosives unit of the National Army.[48]

Mine Awareness

On 4 October 1999, the Ministry of Communications, UNICEF Colombia and the Canadian Embassy in Bogotá signed an agreement for implementing a mine awareness program in Colombia.[49] The program, which was to run for one year, has recently received an additional $50,000 from the Canadian Embassy in order to extend it for an additional six months.[50] Funds managed by the UNICEF Colombia Office have been invested in the production of material for the prevention of accidents and for advocacy. Three videos are being produced on the topic of landmines in Colombia, as well as a series of posters and a document about implementation of the treaty in Colombia. The Scouts of Colombia, Colombian Red Cross, and CCCM are in charge of designing, testing and fielding these prevention materials.[51]

Landmine Casualties

A statistical survey by CCCM has identified 736 mine victims since 1991.[52] Accidents involving landmines were reported in 23 departments in the country. The largest number of casualties, 151, were recorded in 1997. CCCM identified 63 victims in 1999, and 35 in the first half of 2000.

Approximately 95% of mine victims were men, 3% were women and gender was not specified for the remaining 2%. A total of 83% of the victims were adults, and 7% were children (for the remaining 10% of the victims their age was not specified). Fifty-nine percent of the victims belonged to the Armed Forces, 22% were civilians, 2% were members of guerrilla groups, and 1% were police officers (the status or occupation of the remaining 16% was not specified). Approximately 90% of incidents involving landmines occurred in rural areas of the country.

CCCM believes the figures reported here significantly underestimate the actual number of AP mine victims in the country, due to lack of systematic reporting.

The Information Department of the Ministry of Health is currently in the third year of a project which aims to generate needed statistical data on various aspects related to health and violence in Colombia, so as to arrive at a comprehensive view of violence in the country. [53] While results are not available, the project does not include indicators on AP mines in its methodology.[54]

There is no precise data available on the total number of victims among non-state actors. The data compiled by CCCM only shows that six members of guerrilla groups have been injured and two killed, as well as one member of paramilitary groups injured and six killed in the 1993-99 period.[55] This figure too is probably a significant underestimation of the real numbers of NSA mine victims in the country’s long internal armed conflict.

Landmines continue to claim victims in Colombia on a regular basis. On 21 December 1999, 11 people were injured and 3 were killed in a newly-laid minefield in La Jagua del Pilar, between the departments of Cesar and Guajira.[56] On 30 January 2000, in the Santa Rosa del Sur area, four peasants including an eight-month old infant girl were injured when a mina quiebrapatas (‘leg-breaker’ mine) exploded on a path they usually take between Buena Vista and their home.[57] A few days prior, and in the same municipality, a twenty-four-year-old peasant from Campo Llano was killed by a mine.[58] On 28 February 2000, General Euclides Sánchez Vargas, Commander of the Colombian Army’s Fifth Division reported the discovery of fifty-two AP mines laid in San José de Sumapaz, Cundinamarca Department near the village school.[59] Also in the Sumapaz area, two soldiers were injured by a mine in April 2000 while searching an abandoned guerrilla camp.[60]

Survivor Assistance

According to an Official at the Ministry of Health, Colombia’s health care system is structured into three levels, in keeping with World Health Organization guidelines.[61] The Colombia Campaign to Ban Landmines has examined information provided by the National Department of Statistics regarding the distribution of these health care systems by department. The Colombia Campaign concludes that Colombia’s health care facilities are insufficient for providing adequate coverage and are also unequally distributed.

Medical, surgical and rehabilitation services for victims are usually located in the main urban centers, whereas most victims live in rural areas. In rural areas, it is sometimes nearly impossible to get immediate medical help and can sometimes take hours or even days to reach the nearest hospital. The injured person is often presumed to be the enemy, making their transit extremely dangerous.

While some major hospitals can provide quality medical assistance to mine victims, costs are high. There are relatively few doctors expert in dealing with the complex surgical demands of landmine injuries. Most victims never receive mobility devices, apart from crutches or improvised prostheses.

In Colombia, there are four institutions that manufacture prostheses and provide services for landmine and other victims of violence. The Hospital Militar de Colombia (Colombia’s Military Hospital) in Bogotá is the only institution fully prepared and equipped to treat a landmine victim from the emergency room to rehabilitation, including psychological support. The hospital manufactures prostheses and has a rehabilitation center. It treats military but also provides services for civilians. The CIREC foundation in Bogotá has a prostheses factory which also manufactures orthopedic devices. The San Juan Bautista Orthopedic Center is located in Bucarmanga in Santander department. The Antioquia Rehabilitation Committeee is in Medellín in Antioquia department.

The Sueños Foundation, dedicated to caring for children that are victims of AP mines in Colombia, has received a donation of an undetermined number of prosthesis from a French donor.[62]

Disability Policy and Practice

Social and economic reintegration programs for landmine and war disabled remain virtually non-existent in Colombia. FOSYGA (Fund of Guarantees and Solidarity), of the Ministry of Health, is a governmental fund that provides some money to victims of political violence to cover their medical expenses. However, due to the complexity of the bureaucratic process and the documentation required to obtain funding, most landmine victims never request it.

In 1981, the President’s Office decreed Law 2358, creating the National Rehabilitation System. In 1990, Law 10 reorganized the National Health System. In 1997, Law 418 established the obligation of the state to care for victims of armed political or ideological conflict. The Plan Nacional de Atención a Personas con Discapacidad, PNAPD (National Plan for People with Disabilities), coordinated by the Health Minister, has a budget of US$3.6 million for the year 2000.[63] People with disabilities are generally not aware of the Plan or its benefits.

There are no specific laws for landmine victims but the Vice-President’s Office, jointly with the National Planning Department and the Council Office for Social Policies, is developing a plan that could cover landmine victims, with an open view for other violence victims. Currently, the only disabled people in Colombia that receive a pension are either military personnel disabled while on duty, or insured workers that are disabled while on the job. Other victims of violence, including landmine victims, do not receive pensions.


[1] “Convención sobre la Prohibición del empleo, almacenamiento, producción y transferencia de minas antipersonal y sobre su destrucción,” Diario Oficial (Official Gazette of the Colombian Republic), 18 January 2000, p. 1-7.
[2] Interview with Graciela Uribe de Lozano, Head of the Disarmament Unit, Special Affairs Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bogotá, 14 January 2000.
[3] Statement by Ambassador Jaime Girón Duarte to the First Meeting of State Parties, Maputo, 3-7 May 1999.
[4] The nineteen governments were: Colombia, Uruguay, Bolivia, Guatemala, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Brazil, Honduras, Costa Rica, México, República Dominicana, El Salvador, Venezuela, Chile, Perú, Argentina, Guyana, Panamá and Paraguay.
[5] Grupo de Río, Declaración de Cartagena, paragraph 15, 16 June 2000, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia.
[6] Interview with Pedro Agustín Roa, Assistant, Disarmament Unit of the Special Affairs Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bogotá, 12 November 1999.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Interview with Pedro Agustín Roa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bogotá, 10 December 1999.
[9] Interview with Graciela Uribe de Lozano, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Bogotá, 14 January 2000.
[10] Interview with Rolin Wabre, ICRC Delegate for Colombia, Bogotá, 12 April 1999. Law Department of the ICRC Delegation to Colombia, “La Convención de Ottawa sobre Minas Antipersonales,” December 1998.
[11] Interview with Nidya Quiróz, Peace and Development Programme Officer, UNICEF Colombia, Bogotá, 25 February 2000.
[12] Letter to CCCM for Landmine Monitor from the General Command of the Military Forces, (No. 069087/CGFM-JADEC-DCCA-SJ-420), Ministry of National Defense, signed by General Fernando Tapias S., Commandant General of the Military Forces, received 21 January 2000.
[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 294, citing an INDUMIL production manager. Last year’s report indicated that INDUMIL produced MN-MAP-1 and MN-MAP-2 antipersonnel mines. The Colombian Campaign has since discovered INDUMIL also produced a Claymore-type mine, the CDD. Colombian Campaign Against Landmines, visit to School of Engineers, Colombian Army, Bogotá, 12 June 2000.
[14] Letter by the General Command of the Military Forces, 21 January 2000.
[15] Interview with Engineer Sergio Rodriguez, Production Manager, INDUMIL, 5 July 2000.
[16] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 294.
[17] Ibid., p. 294-5.
[18] Interview with Captain María del Rosario Vásquez, Human Rights Official, Press Agency of the Colombian Army, Bogotá, 25 January 2000.
[19] Interview with users of “pig mines” in Chocó Department, Bogotá, November 1998.
[20] Interview with Captain Javier Ayala, Director of Human Rights Office, Ministry of National Defense, Bogotá, 13 December 1999.
[21] Interview with Alvaro Arias, Director, International Issues, Ministry of National Defense, Bogotá, 20 January 2000.
[22] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 295-296.
[23] Interview with Pedro Agustín Roa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 24 January 2000.
[24] Interview with Captain María Vázquez, Human Rights Official, News Agency of the Colombian National Army, Bogotá, 25 January 2000.
[25] Letter from the General Command of the Military Forces to the Human Rights Unit of the Ministry of National Defense, numbered 2850-MDASE-DH-725, signed by Hugo Mauricio Ortiz Concha, in absence of Major General Mario Hugo Galán Rodriguez, General Inspector of the Military Forces of Colombia.
[26] Interview with Colonel José Manuel Castro, Consultant for Legal Affairs at the Ministry of Defense, Bogotá, 21 January 1999.
[27] Telephone interview with Graciela Uribe de Lozano, Head of the Disarmament Unit, Special Affairs Office, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 February 1999.
[28] Letter from the General Command of the Military Forces, 21 January 2000. Héctor Rodríguez, INDUMIL’s Production Manager, told Landmine Monitor in January 1999 that INDUMIL had already destroyed its stock of mines, numbering approximately 2,220. Interview with Engineer Héctor Rodríguez, Bogotá, 18 January 1999.
[29] Interview with Captain Miguel Torralvo, Bogotá, 19 January 1999; and interview with Major Juan Carlos Barrios, Director of the Human Rights Office, V Division, Colombian Armed Forces, Bogotá, 24 February 1999.
[30] Letter from the General Command of the Military Forces, 21 January 2000.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Field visit to La Calera, Bogotá.
[33] Interview with Captain Javier Ayala, Director of Human Rights Office, Ministry of National Defense, Bogotá, 13 December 1999.
[34] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 297-298. The July 1998 “Heaven’s Door Agreement” between the UC-ELN and representatives of Colombian civil society states, “Mines to deliberately kill or mutilate civilians will not be used,” and commits the parties to “no longer plant antipersonnel mines in high-risk areas for the civilian population.” It also commits the parties to promoting “ratification of the Ottawa Treaty for banning the use of antipersonnel landmines in the Colombian Congress.”
[35] “Joint Agenda Government-FARC,” El País (Cali), Colombia, 7 May 1999, p. 9A.
[36] “FARC siembran 52 Minas en San José de Sumapaz,” El Colombiano (Medellín), 29 February 2000, p. 7A.
[37] Interview with Nidya Quiróz, UNICEF Colombia, Bogotá, 25 February 2000.
[38] Statistical study by CCCM, on the basis of data provided by Fundación Sueños, National Army of Colombia, Office of the National Ombudsman of Colombia, Personería Municipal de San Vicente de Chucuri, and Personería Municipal de Santa Rosa del Sur.
[39] Field visit to communities in the Departments of Santander and Bolivar, 28 April to 12 May 2000.
[40] Lupe Mouthon Mejía, “Cuatro heridos al estallar minas en Santa Rosa del Sur,” Vanguardia Liberal (Bucaramanga), 1 February 2000, p. 1D.
[41] CCCM interviews with peasants in Buena Vista, Santa Rosa del Sur, Bolivar Department, 3 May 2000.
[42] Interview with Jorge Rojas, researcher on forced population displacement at CODHES, Bogotá, 8 May 2000.
[43] Interview with Luz Piedad Herrera, Assistant Officer of Information, UNICEF Colombia, Bogotá, 3 May 2000.
[44] CCCM interviews with members of mine-affected communities in Santander and Bolivar Departments, 28 April to 6 May 2000.
[45] Interview with Colonel José Manuel Castro, Ministry of National Defense, Bogotá, 21 January 1999.
[46] Interview with Captain María Vázquez, Human Rights Official, News Agency of the Colombian National Army, Bogotá, 25 January 2000.
[47] Interview with Major Anselmo Escobar, Human Rights Official, Fourth Brigade of the Colombian Armed Forces, Medellín, 5 January 2000.
[48] Interview with Carlos Francisco Rodriguez, Director, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Los Andes, project “Automata for mines detection,” Bogotá, 13 March 2000.
[49] Press release from Canadian Embassy in Bogotá, “Canadá, el Ministerio de Comunicaciones y UNICEF firman convenio de cooperación técnica en torno a minas antipersonales,” Bogotá, 4 October 1999.
[50] Interview with Nicholas Caughlan, First Political Secretary, Canadian Embassy, Bogotá, 21 April 2000.
[51] Interview with Clara Marcela Barona, Communications Officer, UNICEF Colombia, Bogotá, 10 May 2000.
[52] Statistical study by CCCM, on the basis of data provided by Fundación Sueños, National Army of Colombia, Office of the National Ombudsman of Colombia, Personería Municipal de San Vicente de Chucuri, and Personería Municipal de Santa Rosa del Sur. CCCM, “List of Victims of AP Mines in Colombia,” 1993-1999, Bogotá, April 2000.
[53] Interview with Aicardo Oliveros, “Communication and Violence” Project Officer, Information Department of the Ministry of Health, Bogotá, 2 April 2000.
[54] Ibid.
[55] CCCM, List of Victims of AP Mines in Colombia, 1993-1999, Bogotá, April 2000.
[56] Press release by the Press Agency of the Colombian Armed Forces, Bogotá, 22 December 1999.
[57] “Cuatro Heridos al Estallar Minas en Santa Rosa del Sur,” Vanguardia Liberal (Bucaramanga), 1 February 2000, p. 1D.
[58] “Pueblo cercado por minas antipersonal,” El Espectador (Colombian newspaper), Bogotá, 2 February 2000, p. 4A.
[59] “FARC siembran 52 minas en San José de Sumapaz," El Colombiano (Colombian Newspaper), Medellín, 29 February 2000, p. 7A.
[60] “Romaña se queda sin Víveres,” El Espectador (Colombian Newspaper), Bogotá, 1 April 2000, p. 4A.
[61] Interview with Aicardo Oliveros, “Communication and Violence” Project Officer, Information Department of the Ministry of Health, Bogotá, 2 April 2000.
[62] Interview with Wilson Ordoñez, Sueños Foundation, UNICEF Colombia, Bogotá, 27 April 2000.
[63] “Garantizada Atención a las Personas con Discapacidades,” Ministry of Health Bulletin, Bogotá, 24 April 2000.