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Country Reports
NICARAGUA, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Nicaragua on 1 May 1999. National implementing legislation was signed into law on 7 December 1999. Nicaragua began destruction of its AP mine stockpile in April 1999, and had destroyed 40,000 mines as of May 2000. As of January 2000, some $20.8 million had been committed of the estimated $27 million needed to complete mine clearance by 2004. By the end of 1999, 1.291 square kilometers of land had been cleared and 54,107 AP mines destroyed from 524 sites. The number of mine victims reportedly has declined.

Mine Ban Policy

Nicaragua signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997 and deposited its instrument of ratification at the UN on 30 November 1998. The treaty entered into force for Nicaragua on 1 May 1999. President Alemán Lacayo signed implementing legislation on 7 December 1999, with penal sanctions for violations of the law.[1]

Nicaragua participated at the First Meeting of State Parties (FMSP) held in Maputo in May 1999 and was represented by Ambassador Lester Mejía Solís. Since the FMSP, Nicaragua has served as co-chair of the Standing Committee of Experts on Victim Assistance. The government has participated actively in all the intersessional meetings of the five SCEs. Nicaragua made a presentation to the May 2000 meeting of the SCE on Stockpile Destruction. Nicaragua’s Article 7 transparency measures report dated 30 September 1999 was submitted to the UN on 18 May 2000.[2]

In December 1999, Nicaragua sponsored and voted in favor of UN General Assembly resolution 54/54B, as it had done with other pro-ban UNGA resolutions in 1996, 1997 and 1998.

Nicaragua is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, and is not a member of the Conference on Disarmament.

Production, Transfer, Use

Nicaragua no longer produces landmines. It reports having AP mines manufactured by the former Soviet Union, former Czechoslovakia, and Cuba in its inventory.[3]

According to its Article 7 Report, 286 landmines were transferred to the OAS/IADB MARMINCA program for canine training on 29 September 1998. This included 62 PMN, 65 POMZ, 66 PP-Mi-SrII, 20 PMD-6M, 48 PMN-2, 20 MON-50, and 5 PTMI-K.[4]

There have been no allegations of recent use of antipersonnel mines in Nicaragua. According to Nicaraguan Army sources, the Operational Division of the Army registered the emplacement of approximately 120,000 antipersonnel mines during conflicts in the 1980s.[5]

Stockpiling and Destruction

Nicaragua’s Article 7 report and subsequent information provided to Landmine Monitor by the Nicaraguan Army and Foreign Ministry indicate the following:

  • 136,813 antipersonnel mines were in stockpiles at the beginning of 1999.
  • A total of 40,000 AP mines have been destroyed: 5,000 on 12 April 1999; another 5,000 on 28 August 1999; another 10,000 on 3 December 1999; another 10,000 on 25 February 2000 in an event attended by the President; and, another 10,000 mines in April 2000.
  • As of the end of May 2000, there were 91,813 antipersonnel mines in Nicaragua’s stockpile.
  • The target date for completion of destruction is April 2002.[6]

All destruction events were conducted in the presence of observers, usually including representatives from the Ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs, Congress, NGOs and the media. OAS Secretary General César Gaviria attended the August 1999 event, and the President attended the February 2000 event.

Another 30,000 mines have been destroyed since the 30 September 1999 date of the Article 7 report, but at that time the Nicaraguan stockpile included the following mines: 38,818 PMN; 37,046 PMN-2; 5,250 PP-MiSr-11; 331 OZM-4; 3,023 POMZ-2; 38,862 POMZ-2M; 3,318 MON-50; 11 MON-100; 154 MON-200; PMFH (unspecified number); and TAP-4 (unspecified number).[7] The stockpile totals for the Cuban PMFH-1 and indigenously produced TAP-4 antipersonnel mines were not included in the Article 7 report and not reflected in the total stockpile aggregation. Nicaragua possessed 1,820 PMD-6M antipersonnel mines, but 1,800 were destroyed in April 1999 and 20 transferred to the OAS/IADB for training purposes in September 1998.

The Article 7 report gives details on the 10,000 mines destroyed in public ceremonies during 1999, which included 4,463 PMN; 1,200 PMN-2; 1,015 PMFH-1; 1,800 PMD-6M; and 1,522 POMZ-2. Stockpile destruction was carried out at the Polígono de Tiro de Unidad Militar, at the National Sergeant School Andrés Castro in Managua. The method of destruction was open-burning/open-detonation (OB/OD).[8]

At a meeting of the SCE on Stockpile Destruction, Nicaragua said that it costs approximately US$5 to destroy each mine, and about $30,000 per explosion.[9]

According to the Article 7 Report, Nicaragua is planning to retain 1,971 landmines for training purposes. This includes: 500 PMN; 500 PMN-2; 100 PP-Mi-Sr11; 50 OZM-4; 50 PMFH; 100 POMZ-2; 500 POMZ-2M; 100 MON-50; 11 MON-100; and 10 MON-200.[10]

Landmine Problem

Nicaragua’s Article 7 report states that 135,643 mines were laid in the country during the conflict, including both antipersonnel and antitank mines. UNICEF notes that in addition to the mines, “a large quantity of explosive devices such as bombs, fragmentation grenades, mortars, and ammunition were also left in areas where combat took place.”[11]

Nicaragua reports that landmines laid between 1982-1989 are still in the ground in 465 fields or “groups” of mines along approximately 380 kilometers of the border, and in thirty-nine sites inside Nicaragua. The locating of suspected minefields was ongoing, taking into account the effects of Hurricane Mitch.[12] Nicaraguan civilians have informed authorities of the presence of landmines in the Departments of Matagalpa, Madriz, Jinotega, Nueva Segovia, Estelí, Chontales, Boaco, Río San Juan, Chinandega, Zelaya Norte, and Zelaya Sur.[13] Thirty-five of Nicaragua’s 143 municipalities are mine-affected, which represents approximately 37% of the national population.[14]

In January 2000, the Army noted that currently there is one mine on the ground for every 55 Nicaraguans, down from one for every 32 in 1993; 26.9% of Nicaragua’s northern border with Honduras is mined, down from 34% in 1993; 0.9% of Nicaragua’s southern border with Costa Rica is mined, down from 29% in 1993; and there is one mine in the ground for every 34 Nicaraguan children, down from one for every 20 children in 1993.[15]

The Centro de Estudios Estratégicos de Nicaragua (CEEN), and the Centro de Estudios Internacionales (CEI), two of the principal NGOs dealing with the landmine problem and mine awareness in Nicaragua, note that there can only be estimates of the number of mines planted in Nicaraguan territory. The Army’s records of mines it laid do not account for the mines planted by the “Contras” or, in all likelihood, those by all Army tactical units during the conflict. Joel Zamora, Director of CEEN, said, “To be realistic, neither the Army nor the Contras know where they planted many of their mines.”[16] Maps will have limited value, after nearly 15 years have passed and Hurricane Mitch affected the location of minefields.

With the passage of time and population growth, previously sparsely inhabited areas are being settled. Indeed according to reports from mine awareness volunteers, communities continue to expand into areas known to be mined-affected. The old warning signs and fences have been destroyed over time, especially on account of the 1998 Hurricane Mitch, but also through vandalism and the “recycling” of barbed wire and signs for economic purposes.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has recently announced that during the period May-July 2000 it will carry out a landmine assessment mission to Nicaragua, in cooperation with the OAS.[17]

Mine Action Funding

The OAS Assistance Program for Demining in Central America (PADCA) involves mine and UXO clearance programs in Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, and Costa Rica. In 1999 the annual budget for the whole OAS regional demining program was $6 million and in 2000 it was $7.6 million, financed by Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the U.S. and the U.K.[18] Nicaragua currently contributes personnel to PADCA. Since July 1999, in addition to Nicaragua, other countries including Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Venezuela have contributed personnel.[19]

According to the Article 7 Report, Nicaragua needs $27 million in international assistance to complete demining and stockpile destruction. Lt. Col. Cesar Delgadillo, head of the Demining Units, calculates that the Army will require some $30 million to carry out its work over the period 1999-2004. Virtually of all of this must come from foreign donations.[20]

According to the Nicaraguan Army’s update of January 2000, so far, a total of $20.8 million has been committed by various countries to the demining effort, including: Denmark - $6.8 million for the period 2000-2004; Sweden - $5 million also for 2000-2004; Canada - $2 million for 2000-2001; Norway - $2 million for 2000-2001; the U.S. - $2.5 million for 2000-2002; and the UK - $2.5 million for 2003-2004.[21]

The OAS notes that U.S. and UK funds will be used to establish a new operations front composed of 100 deminers in the North Atlantic Autonomous Region. Deminers for the new platoons were in the process of being trained. The OAS emphasized that these deminers would supplement the other two fronts that are supported by the international community, through the OAS, in the areas of Ocotal and Juigalpa.[22]

Mine Clearance

Mine clearance is the responsibility of the Pequeñas Unidades de Desminado, PUD (Small Demining Units) of the Engineer Corps of the Nicaraguan Army. The Nicaraguan Army, with support from the OAS/IADB is currently undertaking mine clearance and training operations in Nicaragua.

According to the Article 7 Report, the approximately 650 Army personnel of the Programa De Desminado Nacional (PDN) destroyed 54,107 AP mines between 1993-1999 from 524 sites with 1.291 square kilometers cleared.[23] Still to be cleared were an estimated 81,536 mines in 476 sites. Priorities are the northern and southern border regions, where there are large peasant populations whose agricultural and herding activities are important for the economic development of Nicaragua. Clearance of the remaining mines will be completed by 2004 with a total cost of approximately $27 million, about $340 per mine.[24]

After a request for assistance by President Alemán Lacayo after the devastation of Hurricane Mitch, UNMAS assessed the situation in Nicaragua in November 1998 and proposed the implementation of a short-term mine action assistance project. The aim of the project was to increase the national detection and clearance capacity in order to guarantee that reconstruction sites around destroyed bridges were cleared of mines.

From May until the end of July 1999, this UNMAS project resulted in more than 527 square meters around four destroyed bridges, on the northern part of the main road leading North from Managua to Honduras, to be declared free of landmines.[25] Under the Hurricane Mitch emergency plan, between January and August 1999, thirty bridges were demined or certified free of landmines displaced by Mitch in different regions of the country. This includes 281 landmines destroyed and 748 square meters cleared.[26]

According to an Army update in April 2000, between January and April 2000 there were 1,076 mines destroyed, with a total of 124,187 square meters cleared. There were sixty-three high-tension towers cleared in the Guasaule-Villanueva corridor in Chinandega Department; and six bridges cleared, five on the El Rama highway (Ocongua, Quinama, La Concha, Presillitas, Estero Real) and one in Chinandega.[27]

Dogs are being used successfully in demining operations. However, questions have been raised in regard to costs: $35,000 for each dog and $1.5 million required for their upkeep annually.[28]

Disturbingly, a number of civilians have taken to hiring themselves out as mine clearers to landowners interested in incorporating previously mined areas for agriculture and ranching. According to CEEN and veteran’s associations, these freelancers are usually impoverished local peasants who are former Army or Contra combatants. They work lacking even the most minimal protection, utilizing rudimentary tools. Wooden sticks are used to detect mines, which are then removed using machetes.[29]

A media report stated that at the end of 1999, as the result of border tensions with Honduras, the Nicaraguan Army had withdrawn some demining units from sensitive points, stopping the demining effort along certain border areas. The OAS representative denied this was the case claiming the suspension was due to year-end holidays and programming.[30]

Nicaraguan NGO Concerns about Mine Action in Nicaragua

Nicaraguan NGOs continue to express concerns about implementation of victim assistance and humanitarian mine action more broadly defined. Civil society and survivor participation in the monitoring and design of humanitarian mine action remains limited, although the debate on mine action as more than mine clearing has now been taken to the communities by key NGOs.[31] An increasing concern is the Army becoming more involved in mine awareness education and victim assistance.[32] Some donors have also expressed concerns. An official at the Danish Embassy said, “The Army cannot be involved in all three components: demining, prevention and rehabilitation. The priorities of the local communities are not necessarily reflected in the priorities of the Army.”[33] The EU is exploring the possibility of sponsoring an exposure visit for Army officers to third countries where programs are defined and executed in collaboration with the local communities.[34]

The establishment of the National Demining Commission (CND) in November 1998 provided an opportunity to broaden participation in mine action by civil society in the country. However, more than a year later, the CND is barely in operation, and void of any decision-making capacity. The CND is presided over by the Minister of Defense, and in the past year there have been three different Ministers. Criticisms by the non-government members of the CND are similar to those made last year: continued emphasis of a mine clearance perspective; limited role for non-military government agencies and for civil society; absence of consultation with communities; an emphasis on the number of mines removed as criterion of progress as opposed to the enhancement of living conditions for mine-affected communities; and relative neglect of mine awareness and prevention. The membership of the CND includes the Army, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Health, Red Cross, Center for Strategic Studies, War Disabled Commission, and Foreign Ministry. The Minister of Defense chairs the CND.

According to Joel Zamora of CEEN, “If in Nicaragua there was a public policy that stipulated, at least in the most-affected departments, that the Education Ministry included mine awareness as a subject over a two year period, we would have more impact. Of course we cannot compare what is spent on mine clearance with what it cost to carry out education, prevention and victim attention. We are not saying that it should be proportional. What we are suggesting is that there be more of a will in regard to these two forgotten components, which are prevention and victim assistance.”[35] Most donors have not manifested concern in regard to the heavy emphasis on Army demining in Nicaraguan mine action, thereby reinforcing the pattern.

Mine Awareness

While the bulk of emphasis on the part of the government and OAS is on the clearance side of mine action, NGOs and other international agencies focus on mine awareness.

UNICEF is carrying out the second year of a “Child to Child Prevention In Nicaragua” project in 2000. The project is being implemented in cooperation with the Nicaraguan Red Cross and has a budget of $99,651 for the year 2000.[36] Its goal is to enhance mine awareness education by using children to transmit prevention messages to other children. CEI has raised questions regarding the effectiveness of having urban children and youth teach their rural counterparts about the rural landmine problem, and the technical competency of the local leader or religious pastor that often accompanies the effort.[37]

Mine awareness materials produced by DC Comics and featuring Superman and Wonder Woman continue to be supplied by the U.S. Defense Attaché and distributed by the Ministry of Education. According to the Deputy Minister, some 169,325 comic books have been distributed and 3,735 teachers have been trained.[38] It seems that UNICEF and Education Ministry officials believe that the effectiveness of the material will depend on how it is used, and have made no substantive objections on cultural appropriateness or the technical flaws that the ICBL, among others, has raised concerns about.

UNICEF officials in Managua have insisted that this was not their choice, but that UNICEF headquarters in New York wanted them used. Two arguments that continue to be used are that there are no other materials available, and that existing stocks of comics should be used. Ana Lucía Silva, UNICEF Human Rights Officer in Managua admitted that in mine-affected rural areas “Superman and Wonder Woman are unknown and there is not much identification with them.” She insisted however that the comics should be used because of the abundant stock.[39] After using the DC comics for a time, the Nicaraguan Red Cross reportedly stopped using it. According to the Public Relations Officer of the Nicaraguan Red Cross, “We were handing it out, but it has been discarded. The messages got distorted which is why we decided to withdraw it. It is now history.”[40]

Landmine Casualties

There is no centralized source of information on landmine casualties in Nicaragua. The Nicaraguan Red Cross estimates that some fifty people are injured every year. Approximately 90% are civilians, and over half of these are children and adolescents.

The Army reports that there were thrity-one mine casualties in 1999, including eleven dead and twenty injured, and that from January-April 2000 there were four accidents involving five victims, including two deaths and the amputation of a leg and arm in another.[41] Three of the four accidents took place in the San Fernando area of Nueva Segovia, in north central Nicaragua; all involved rural laborers. The Army report concluded that the areas had not been marked, and that mine awareness was weak in the population.[42] With the support of the ICRC, the Nicaraguan Red Cross has ambulances in each of the demining “fronts” in order to provide emergency assistance for deminers.[43]

According to a newspaper article, the OAS is caring for 232 landmine accident survivors, of which 30% are children.[44] Over the course of the past year, the OAS undertook a survey that indicated a reduction in the number of mine-related accidents. The OAS data is corroborated by the Health Ministry’s Rehabilitation Unit. According to the Chief of the Rehabilitation Unit, admissions of landmine accident victims have decreased even though everyone expected them to go up, particularly after the mine displacements caused by Hurricane Mitch in October 1998.[45]

However, Uriel Carazo, a member of the CDN noted that there is no information on how many victims could afford to travel to Managua and remain there for extended treatment. Carazo believes that many seek treatment at local health centers or regional hospitals and then simply return to their communities and go unrecorded.[46]

Victim Assistance

The Nicaraguan Ministry of Health has two units providing rehabilitation programs in Managua, located in the Aldo Chavarría and Lenin Fonseca Hospitals. Their Prostheses Center has registered 617 landmine victims currently receiving care.[47] At present there is minimal capacity for providing coverage in rural areas, although in the course of the year 2000, the north central region of the country, where most victims live, is planned to have permanent rehabilitation units.[48] There are only seven physiotherapists from the Ministry of Health working in the entire country outside of Managua, and there is no budget provision for landmine victims.[49]

Victim assistance is the stated objective of a $4 million grant agreement with Canada, with support from Mexico, and to be administered by PAHO.[50] Although a policy framework and funding have been established there is no specific governmental agency in place that deals with landmine victims. According to CEI this is as much the product of inertia and centralization of services in the capital Managua, as of the overall shortage of resources.[51] Some argue against segregating landmine victims from other disabled individuals, although according to Handicap International’s representative in Managua, “War victims in general still require specific targeting.”[52]

State social security pensions for disabled soldiers (mostly mine victims) range from a $9 to $22 monthly.[53] There is also the problem of minimal coordination among the various entities that provide rehabilitation services. There are only two functioning orthopedic centers in the country, but even if there were more the fact that the services and devices must be purchased combine to make these inaccessible to most victims who are overwhelmingly poor.

According to the OAS, the “Program for Care to Victims of Mines and UXO,” which has existed in Nicaragua since 1997, was to be continued and strengthened in 2000, with the assistance of the Swedish government, in order to ensure monitoring of the rehabilitation services provided under the program.[54] A Framework Agreement was signed between the International Rehabilitation Center and the OAS, for the implementation of a Plan of Action to develop and prepare new technologies, educational material, and physical and labor-related employment programs for the Rehabilitation Program for Victims of AP Mines.[55]


[1] Law for the Prohibition of Production, Purchase, Sale, Import, Export, Transit, Use and Possession of Antipersonnel Landmines, Law No. 321, published in the Official Gazette on 12 January 2000. Article I of this law adds “installation” to the prohibition on AP mines. Article III states that the Armed Forces must destroy its stockpiles in the “period determined by the relevant authorities.” Article VI states that persons who violate the Law will be charged with “exposing the public to danger,” and will be charged accordingly. See “Prisión para vendedores de minas,” Confidencial, No. 158, 5-11 September 1999, p. 5.
[2] The report contains information as of 30 September 1999, but does not indicate the starting date of the reporting period. The delay in submission was due to the fact that Nicaragua initially sent the report to the government of Austria, which had developed the Article 7 reporting format.
[3] Article 7 Report, Form B, 30 September 1999.
[4] Ibid., Form D. The PP-Mi-Sr-II is an AP mine of Czechoslovak origin and the PT-Mi-K is an antitank mine of Czechoslovakian origin.
[5] Interview with Major Sergio Ugarte, head of demining for the Nicaraguan Army, Managua, 15 January 1999.
[6] Remarks by Cecilia Sanchez Reyes, Minister Counsellor, Nicaragua’s Permanent Mission to the UN, Geneva, to the Standing Committee of Experts on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 10 December 1999 and 22 May 2000. An Army official has said the goal is to destroy some 34,000 mines per year, with completion by December 2002. Written reply to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Colonel Spiro Bassi Aguilar, Chief, Army Corps of Engineers, 16 February 2000.
[7] Article 7 Report, Form B. Updated by the Nicaraguan Army in January 2000. The TAP-4 is a Claymore-type directional fragmentation mine produced by Nicaragua.
[8] Ibid., Form F.
[9] Remarks by Cecilia Sanchez Reyes, Minister Counsellor, Nicaragua’s Permanent Mission to the UN, Geneva, to the Standing Committee of Experts on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 22 May 2000.
[10] Article 7 Report, Form D. The figures of mines retained add up to 1,921 mines, but the total recorded on Form D is 1,971. Nicaraguan officials have cited the 1,971 figure in SCE meetings.
[11] UNICEF, “Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects,” June 2000, p. 126.
[12] Article 7 Report, Form C.
[13] Article 7 Report, “El programa de desminado en Nicaragua,” 30 September 1999, p. 1.
[14] Nicaragua Army compilation based on regional command reports, provided to Landmine Monitor in April, 2000.
[15] Ibid.
[16] Interview with Joel Zamora, Director of CEEN and member of the CND, Managua, 18 January 2000.
[17] UNDP, Mine Action Bulletin, May 2000.
[18] Email from Jhosselin Bakhat, Organization of American States, 20 June 2000; “Demining” section of the Unit for the Promotion of Democracy, Organization of American States, at: http://www.oas.org/upd/demining/demining.html.
[19] Email from Jhosselin Bakhat, Organization of American States, 20 June 2000.
[20] “Síndrome de Estocolmo,” El Nuevo Diario, 5 November 1999, p. 11.
[21] Ministry of Defense figures provided to Landmine Monitor. See also Article 7 Report and Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Colonel Spiro Bassi Aguilar, Chief of the Army Engineer Corps, 16 February 2000.
[22] See OAS contribution to Landmine Monitor Report 2000.
[23] Article 7 Report, “El programa de desminado en Nicaragua,” 30 September 1999, p. 1.
[24] Ibid., p. 3.
[25] “Assistance in Mine Action: Report of the Secretary General to the General Assembly,” A/54/445, 6 October 1999.
[26] Article 7 Report, “El programa de desminado en Nicaragua,” 30 September 1999, p. 3. The OAS reports that joint work was conducted with the government of Nicaragua in the clearance and certification of major roadways, primarily the bridges of Paso Real, Jícaro, Montecristo, Naranjita, Tapacales, Inalí, Río Pire, Pueblo Nuevo, and El Tular, along the Juigalpa-El Rama highway. A total of twenty-six bridges were cleared and certified. See OAS contribution to Landmine Monitor Report 2000.
[27] Nicaraguan Army data based on a compilation regional command reports, provided to Landmine Monitor, April 2000.
[28] “Nicaragua se librará de 34,000 minas,” La Prensa, Managua, 12 January 12 2000, p. 14.
[29] Observation based on visits and interviews in affected areas by CEI and CEEN personnel.
[30] “Conflicto limítrofe con Honduras afecta el ritmo del desminado fronterizo,” Enfoque, La Prensa, Managua, 26 January 2000, pp. 4-5.
[31] For example, CEEN sponsored a forum in Ocotal on 3 November 1999, “Foro Departamental de Acción sobre Minas: En Busca de un Sistema Integral con Actividades Paralelas al Desminado.” See Landmine Monitor Report 1999 p. 272-3 on concerns about the militarized nature of the content and perception of mine action.
[32] Budget provisions for such action was presented by the Ministry of Defense delegation to the States Party Review Session: “Republic of Nicaragua National Humanitarian Demining Program,” Geneva, 15 September 1999 (mimeo).
[33] Interview with Jacob Brixe Tange, Danish Embassy, Managua, 28 March 2000.
[34] Interview with Tom Dodd, Counselor for Economic Affairs, EU delegation, Managua, 17 February 2000.
[35] Interview with Joel Zamora, 18 January 2000.
[36] UNICEF, “Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects,” June 2000, p. 126.
[37] Discussions with various officials and in forums and reports from CEI network of peace promoters who also carry out mine awareness education.
[38] Interview with Tulio Tablada, Vice Minister, Ministry of Education, 24 February 2000.
[39] Interview with Ana Lucía Silva, Human Rights Officer, UNICEF, Managua, 2 March 2000.
[40] Interview with René Baltodano, Public Relations Director, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Managua, 31 January 2000.
[41] Nicaragua Army internal report provided to Landmine Monitor, “Resultados Acumulados Del Programa De Desminado Humanitario,” 28 April 2000.
[42] Ibid.
[43] Interview with René Baltodano, Public Relations Director, Nicaraguan Red Cross, Managua, 31 January 2000.
[44] “Síndrome de Estocolmo,” El Nuevo Diario, 5 November 1999, p. 11.
[45] Interview with Dr. Norman Lanzas, Head of the Rehabilitation Unit, Ministry of Health, Managua, 10 February 2000.
[46] Interview with Uriel Carazo, 26 January 2000.
[47] Interview with Dr. Norman Lanzas, Head of the Rehabilitation Services Unit, Ministry of Health, 10 February 2000.
[48] Ibid.
[49] Ibid.
[50] “Supporting Landmine Survivors in Central America,” A Tripartite Initiative, Government of the United Mexican States, Pan-American Health Organization and World Health Organization, Government of Canada, January 1999.
[51] CEI, “El desminado en Nicaragua,” 1999.
[52] Interview with Philippe Dicquemare, HI representative, Managua, 4 February 2000.
[53] Interview with Uriel Carazo, 26 January 2000.
[54] See OAS contribution to Landmine Monitor Report 2000.
[55] Ibid.