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Country Reports
SLOVENIA, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Slovenia on 1 April 1999. The Slovenian International Trust Fund raised $24.3 million dollars in 1998-1999, which has supported the demining of 3.15 million square meters of mine-affected land in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The ITF had also supported the treatment of 172 mine victims in Slovenia in 1999-2000 and another fifty victims in Bosnia. Slovenia began stockpile destruction in April 1999 and had destroyed 8,104 mines by 30 September 1999.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of Slovenia signed the Mine Ban Treaty (MBT) on 3 December 1997 and deposited its instrument of ratification at the United Nations on 27 October 1998. The treaty entered into force for Slovenia on 1 April 1999. Slovenia has not enacted domestic implementation legislation.

Foreign Minister Dr. Boris Frlec headed Slovenia’s delegation to the First Meeting of States Parties to the MBT in May 1999, where he said, “There are also some cases in which the Ottawa Convention has not been fully respected and abided by. There should be a strong message from our First Meeting that State Parties should fully comply with all relevant provision of the Convention. We are also deeply concerned by the fact that we are witnessing the practice of planting new mine fields in some crises areas by certain countries, which are thus endangering the existing peace efforts and aggravating the overall humanitarian situation.”[1]

Slovenia participated in the intersessional work of the MBT, attending one each of the meetings of the Standing Committees of Experts on Mine Clearance, Stockpile Destruction and Technology and both meetings of the SCE on General Status and Operation of the Convention. It submitted its initial Article 7 report on 7 September 1999, covering the period 1 April to 30 September 1999.[2]

Slovenia participated in the second regional conference on landmines in Zagreb, Croatia, in June 1999. It hosted the third regional conference in Ljubljana on 21-22 June 2000. Foreign Minister Peterle, who opened the conference, made the recommendation that the Slovenian International Trust Fund (ITF, discussed below) “acquire the status of an agency for demining in southeastern Europe within the framework of the Stability Pact.”[3]

Slovenia has been active in promoting the universalization of the MBT, via organizations such as the UN and Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe.[4] In December 1999 it voted for UN General Assembly Resolution 54/54B calling for universalization and full implementation of the MBT, as it had with previous pro-ban UNGA resolutions.

Slovenia is a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), but has not yet ratified Amended Protocol II. In December 1999 Slovenia took part as an observer in the First Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II, and at the landmine conference in Ljubljana in June 2000 a representative of the Foreign Ministry stated that Slovenia “is preparing to ratify the Protocol II....”[5]

Slovenia supports efforts to deal with the issue of landmines in the Conference on Disarmament, which it believes “should serve as an instrument for furthering of political momentum of the international community which could contribute in a great deal towards the universalisation of the Convention.”[6]

Production, Transfer and Use

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that the country has never manufactured AP mines, including Claymore-type mines.[7] Slovenia has no AP mine production facilities but does manufacture components for practice mines intended exclusively for non-combatant educational and training purposes; the number and nature of these components is not known.[8] It does not take part in the research, development or production of alternatives to AP mines. The country has never exported or imported AP mines. Its mines were inherited from the stockpiles of the former Yugoslav People’s Army.[9]

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs knows of no data indicating recent usage of AP mines in Slovenia.[10]

Stockpiling and Destruction

On 1 December 1998, not long after the ratification of the MBT, the Defense Minister reported on an implementation plan for the destruction of antipersonnel mines, and the Slovenian Army Chief of Staff issued the order for destruction of its AP mine stocks to the Slovenian Army on 14 April 1999.[11]

At the FMSP in May 1999, Foreign Minister Frlec said, “[W]e consider the destruction of stockpiled mines to be an important aspect of the implementation of the Convention. Destruction of mines is in our view in particular an act of improved confidence among neighboring states...”[12]

From April 1999 through September 1999, Slovenia destroyed 8,104 of its initial stockpile of 171,898 antipersonnel mines. The total mines stockpiled, those destroyed and the quantity retained for training purposes permitted by the MBT are shown in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Quantities of mines stockpiled, retained, destroyed and to be destroyed,

as reported 7 September 1999[13]

Retained for Training
To be Destroyed

[14] Methods used are disassembling, explosion and incineration, carried out by the Slovenian Army in compliance with its safety standards (SSNO 1976 and 1980) and in accordance with “Slovenian law about environment protection.”[15] To date, Slovenia has received no assistance from other countries in destroying its AP mine stockpile.[16]

The 7,000 mines retained are to be used for training deminers in Slovenia and, through ITF, in the region. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs also declares that there are no mine stockpiles on Slovenian territory that belong to other countries, and no non-state groups possess stocks of AP mines.[17]

Mine Action Funding

The Slovenian government has felt that a regional approach would be the most effective means of mine action and allocated US$ 1.3 million to establish the International Trust Fund (ITF), in March 1998.[18] The Foreign Minister said at the time that the government has “followed a regional approach and decided to assist the most mine affected country in the region of South Europe: Bosnia and Herzegovina.... We are glad to note that there is a growing support for the Trust Fund.... The key to the success of our endeavors is also the partnership co-operation that has been established with the mine afflicted country – with BH. Success in BH will enable the Trust Fund to act regionwide, thus assuming the role of a regional project.”[19]

The ITF has an implementation office in Sarajevo, which coordinates activities on the entire territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina and prepares monthly reports on demining activities.[20] The selection of demining projects depends on both entities (Republika Srpska and the BH Federation) in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The grantors themselves make decisions on the allotment of funds. If grantors are unwilling to do so, the ITF Director designs a costing plan in compliance with priorities obtained from the local structures and makes it available to the Advisory Board for adoption.[21]

In June 1999, at the Zagreb Regional Conference, the Slovenian delegation was headed by Roman Kirin, State Undersecretary at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and President of the Managing Board of the ITF,[22] who announced the expansion of the ITF to assist with mine action in the Republic of Croatia and in Kosovo. An agreement was reached with the Croatian Mine Action Center (CROMAC) on a Croatian donation to the ITF of $1 million, that would be doubled with matching funds from the United States.[23]

In the course of 1998 and 1999, ITF obtained grants from twenty-one countries, three non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and seven companies, as shown in Table 2 below.

Table 2. Donations to the International Trust Fund 1998-1999[24]

Amount (US$)
5 January 1999
Rehabilitation Institute of Slovenia
November 1998
23 March 1999
16 March 1999
12 April, 7 December 1999
23 April 1999
Republic of Slovenia
28 December 1998; 4 April, 7 July, 7 December, 9 December 1999
3 May, 19 July 1999
19 May 1999
Rotary Club Ljubljana
29 July 1999
Red Cross of Slovenia
9 Aug and 21 Oct 1999
12 December 1998; 3 September, 8 November, 9 November, 6 December 1999
Great Britain
19 October 1999
Czech Republic
28 December 1998, 19 Oct 1999
25 October 1999
Bosnia and Herzegovina
26 October 1999
27 October 1999
Acord 92
16 November 1999
Republic of Croatia
16 November 1999
17 November 1999
26 November 1999
Mrs. Lynn Montgomery
6 December 1999
CARE International
6 December 1999
Republic of Ireland
7 December 1999
8 December 1999
Otto Bock
8 December 1999
9 December 1999
9 December 1999
Adria Airways
8 December 1999
Subtotal 1998 and 1999

United States of America
(matching funding)


In February 2000 Sweden decided to contribute US$300,000 to the ITF; half is earmarked for national capacity building and half for demining projects in BiH primarily to facilitate the return of the displaced.[25]

Over a two-year period the U.S. donated $28 million, with a requirement for matching funds; this means that for every dollar of U.S. funds spent by the ITF it has to raise an equal amount in matching donations. The Trust Administrative Agreement between the Republic of Slovenia and the United States on U.S. matching donations was signed on 4 November 1998.[26]

The ITF reports that in 1999 it supported the demining of 3,156,003 square meters, which is approximately two-thirds of the mine-affected area in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In these operations, 1,001 mines and 815 UXO were found. 80% of the demining operations were carried out by commercial companies and 20% by NGOs (for details on mine clearance, see report on Bosnia and Herzegovina).[27]

Research and Development

A new R&D project involving nuclear quadropole resonance technology for mine detection was launched in 1999, undertaken by an international consortium of academic institutions, which have applied to the European Union and Stability Pact for financial support of the project.[28] The project anticipates field testing of NQR devices in the mine-polluted areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina, but is in the preparatory stage at present. [29]

Landmine Problem

Slovenia’s Article 7 report in September 1999 stated that there are no areas in Slovenia “that contain anti-personnel mines.”[30] The ITF Bulletin stated: “There are no mine-polluted areas in Slovenia, nor are there areas suspected to be mine-polluted. The mines laid by the Yugoslav People’s Army and many UXOs [unexploded ordnance] left behind after the brief War of Independence in 1991, were removed in 1992....Over 18 different battle locations, covering the area of 1,500 hectares were thoroughly surveyed. They found 600 AP mines.”[31] However, the same issue of the ITF Bulletin stated, “In the areas where the fighting had taken place, unexploded grenades, mines, bombs and other explosive devices remained, and they still occasionally inflict accidental death or physical disablement on children, construction workers or collectors”.[32] It has not been possible to get further information of the extent of the mine/UXO problem remaining in Slovenia today.

Mine Victim Assistance

In addition to removing landmines from affected areas, one of the main tasks of the ITF is rehabilitation of landmine victims. In talking about the ITF, Dr. Jadranko Prlic, Foreign Minister of BH, said, “The provision of the Memorandum of Understanding [for the IFF], by which at least 50 % of the Program of mine victim rehabilitation will be carried out in Bosnia and Herzegovina, is also significant. The competent authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina will take part in the selection of the patients - mine victims, as well as in providing special trainings for physicians, engineers and technicians and in designing educational program for mine victim rehabilitation.”[33]

Through special programs and therapies, mine victims are assisted in their reintegration into society. In order to provide rehabilitation, the Center for Rehabilitation of Mine Victims has been set up within the Slovenian Institute for Rehabilitation (founded in 1954 in Ljubljana) and provides medical rehabilitation, prosthetics, orthopedics and speech rehabilitation. The Institute overall has 450 employees and treats about 10,000 patients a year, treating a wide array of problems, including: amputations, spinal and head injuries, bruises, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders and cerebral paralysis.[34]

The Rehabilitation Center began operation in May 1998, and its program has two components: the rehabilitation of twenty patients per month who come from the BH Federation and Republika Srpska, and training for physicians and technicians from both entities so they can carry out rehabilitation programs independently. The rehabilitation procedure itself involves cooperation between the Center and the two political entities, as the programs are also carried out in medical institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The first patients from Republika Srpska joined the rehabilitation program on 3 November 1998. By the end of May 1999, the Center for Rehabilitation of Mine Victims treated ninety-three patients.[35]

Two NGOs took part in the program, Landmine Survivors Network and the International Rescue Committee.[36] In addition to therapy, once a week patients participate in seated volleyball matches and swimming, as well as other activities during their stay. The staff of the Center have permanent close contact with the Ministries of Health of the BH Federation and Republika Srpska. As a result, three orthopedic technicians and one therapist from Republika Srpska went through training at the Center from 24 January to 30 April 1999.[37] The Boston-based Center for International Rehabilitation has applied for funding to provide computer-based distance-learning on prosthetics and orthotics to Slovenia’s Institute for Rehabilitation.[38]

By the end of February 2000 a total of 205 mine victims had been treated in Slovenia altogether (33 in 1998, 151 in 1999, and 21 in 2000 by the end of February), and another 50 were treated in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[39]


[1] Speech of Dr. Boris Frlec, Minister of Foreign Affairs, at the First Meeting of States Parties (FMSP), Maputo, Mozambique, 3-7 May 1999.
[2] Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 Report, submitted 7 September 2000, covering 1 April 1999-30 September 1999.
[3] Researcher notes from “Ljubljana Regional Conference on Landmines,” Ljubljana, Slovenia, 21-22 June 2000.
[4] Letter from Janez Lenarcic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ljubljana, 13 January 2000.
[5] Researcher notes, “Ljubljana Regional Conference on Landmines,” 21-22 June 2000. However, in May 2000 an official said the government does not regard ratification to be a high priority since the MBT covers the same area of prohibition. Letter from Primoz Seligo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ljubljana, 5 May 2000.
[6] Letter from Janez Lenarcic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 January 2000; Report of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Slovenia to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), 15 February 1999, p. 3.
[7] Ibid.; Report to the OSCE, 15 February 1999, p. 3.
[8] Article 7 Report, Form E, 7 September 1999; Letter from Janez Lenarcic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 January 2000.
[9] Letter from Primoz Seligo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 May 2000.
[10] Letter from Janez Lenarcic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 January 2000.
[11] Ibid.
[12] Statement of Dr. Frlec, FMSP, Maputo, Mozambique, 3-7 May 1999.
[13] Article 7 Report, Form B, 7 September 1999.
[14] Researcher notes, “Ljubljana Regional Conference on Landmines,” 21-22 June 2000.
[15] Article 7 Report, Form F, 7 September 1999.
[16] Letter from Janez Lenarcic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 January 2000.
[17] Letter from Primoz Seligo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 May 2000.
[18] ITF Bulletin, April 1999, p. 1. The full name of the ITF is the “International Trust Fund of the Republic of Slovenia for Demining, Mine Clearance and Assistance to Mine Victims in Bosnia and Herzegovina.”
[19] Speech by Dr. Frlec, FMSP, Maputo, Mozambique, 3-7 May 1999.
[20] ITF Bulletin, July 1999, p.2.
[21] Interview with Jernej Cimpersek, Director of ITF, Zagreb, 17 January 2000.
[22] The ITF Managing Board is made up of four representatives from Slovenia and three from BH, and meets three to four times per year; its president is from the Foreign Ministry. The most important body is the Advisory Board, represented by all grantors and headed by the U.S. Ambassador to Slovenia. ITF operates in Bosnia and Herzegovina in accordance with the Memorandum of Understanding between the Republics of Slovenia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was signed on 11 December 1998.
[23] Letter from Primoz Seligo, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 March 2000.
[24] A Survey of Grants to ITF in 1998 and 1999, ITF Office, Ljubljana, 10 February 2000.
[25] Memorandum of Understanding between Republic of Slovenia (ITF) and Kingdom of Sweden (SIDA), 10 February 2000.
[26] ITF Bulletin, April 1999, p. 3.
[27] Letter from Eva Veble, Deputy Director for International Affairs, ITF, Ljubljana, 20 March 2000.
[28] The consortium is made up of the following institutions: Jozef Stefan Institute (Ljubljana), King’s College (London), Rudjer Boskovic Institute (Zagreb), Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (Zagreb), Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology (Ljubljana) and Quantum Magnetics company (U.S.).
[29] Letter from Janez Lenarcic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 January 2000.
[30] Article 7 Report, Form C, 7 September 1999.
[31] ITF Bulletin, July 1999, p. 4.
[32] Ibid; see also: “Slovenia,” Journal of Mine Action, 1, 4.1 (Spring issue) 2000, p. 82; Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 31 and 647, which described Slovenia as a mine-affected country, drawing on the UN Demining Database for this information.
[33] See ITF website www.sigov.si/itffund.
[34] ITF Bulletin, July 1999, p. 7.
[35] Ibid
[36] Letter from Eva Veble, ITF, Ljubljana, 20 March 2000.
[37] ITF Bulletin, July 1999, p. 7.
[38] See http://www.worldrehab.org/partners/slovenia.htm.
[39] Letter from Eva Veble, ITF, Ljubljana, 20 March 2000.