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Country Reports
THAILAND, Landmine Monitor Report 2000
LM Report 2000 Full Report   Executive Summary   Key Findings   Key Developments   Translated Country Reports


Key developments since March 1999: The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Thailand on 1 May 1999. Thailand created a National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action in February 2000. Thailand has prepared a Master Plan for Humanitarian Mine Action for 2000-2004, and has commissioned a Level One Survey. In May 1999 Thailand destroyed 10,000 antipersonnel mines; it has developed a plan for destruction of all stockpiled AP mines.

Mine Ban Treaty

On 3 December 1997 Thailand signed the Mine Ban Treaty. It deposited its instrument of ratification at the UN on 27 November 1998, making Thailand the first in Southeast Asia to ratify. The treaty entered into force for Thailand on 1 May 1999.

The formal, national proclamation on entry into force of the ban treaty for Thailand, required to begin implementation, was approved by the Cabinet, received Royal signature, and became official when published in the Government Gazette on 6 July 1999.[1] Thailand has not enacted a specific implementation law for the ban treaty, but it had domestic laws, even prior to the treaty, making it illegal for civilians to possess landmines.[2]

Thailand has been active in the international arena in support of a mine ban. Thailand participated in the First Meeting of State Parties in Maputo in May 1999 where the Deputy Foreign Minister, M.R. Sukhumbhand Paribatra, led the Thai delegation. The Minister stated that Thailand would “endeavor to rid all Thailand’s border areas of landmines in three years.... We will seek to address the problems of landmines in a comprehensive manner, as it should be, which means mine clearance, the promotion of mine awareness, the rehabilitation of victims and the rehabilitation of previously mined areas. We will engage in bilateral efforts with neighboring countries to demine common border areas... We are faced with the challenge of persuading non-signatory states to sign the Ottawa Convention or at the very least, to abide by the spirit thereof.”[3]

Thailand has participated extensively in the Mine Ban Treaty Intersessional Standing Committee of Experts meetings in Geneva, with high level representation from Bangkok in many instances.

Thailand proposed the inclusion of language on antipersonnel mines in the ASEAN Statement on Disarmament in the October 1999 meeting of the First Committee of the UN General Assembly and referred to the ban treaty in its Opening Statement at that meeting.[4]

During the UN General Assembly session in November 1999, Thailand’s Ambassador stated that Thailand “strongly supports the goal of ‘zero victims’, and all international efforts to resolve the landmine threat once and for all.”[5]

Thailand voted in favor of the UN General Assembly resolution supporting the Mine Ban Treaty in December 1999, as it had in past years.

On 10 November 1999, Thailand submitted its first transparency report to the United Nations as required under Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty, covering the period 1 May 1999 to 31 October 1999. It subsequently submitted its second report on 2 May 2000, covering the period 1 November 1999 to 31 January 2000.

On 8 February 2000, Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai signed Order 15/2543 appointing a new “National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action,” chaired by the Prime Minister. (See below for more detail).

Three NGO members of the Thailand Campaign to Ban Landmines have been appointed as Advisors to the Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC), which was established 18 January 1999 to serve as the focal point of contact to deal with all matters concerning antipersonnel landmines.

Thailand is not a state party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Landmine Protocol II. The government’s position is that since they have already joined the ban treaty, it shows that Thailand is serious about coping with the landmine problem.[6]

Thailand has applied for membership to the Conference on Disarmament, but now participates as an observer.[7] Thailand has not made a statement on its position on negotiating a ban on mine transfers in the CD.

Production and Transfer

The Royal Thai Government states that it has never produced antipersonnel landmines, although a number of different sources have identified Thailand as a past producer.[8] Some armed rebel groups residing along the Thai-Burma border continue to produce, stockpile and use antipersonnel mines.[9]

It is not believed that Thailand has ever exported antipersonnel landmines. In the past, Thailand imported antipersonnel mines from the United States, China, apparently the former Yugoslavia, and perhaps other nations.[10]

Stockpiling and Destruction

Thailand has reported to the UN that as of 31 January 2000, it had a stockpile of antipersonnel mines numbering 411,625.[11] The primary types are U.S. M14 (197,126), U.S. M16 (77,868), U.S. M18/M18A1 Claymore (39,761), and U.S. M26 (35,554). Thailand is one of the few ban treaty States Parties to include Claymore mines in its reporting.

The Royal Thai Army (RTA) stockpiles mines at Fort Bhanurangsri in Ratchaburi province and other RTA Centers. The Royal Thai Navy (RTN) and the Royal Thai Air Force (RTAF) also hold stockpiles of mines.[12]

The list of detailed types of mines held in stockpiles as reported to the UN includes:

M14 (K121)
M14 (K221)
APM 14
M16 (K092)
M18A1 (K143)
APM 18A1
M26 (K090)
(Bouncing Fragmentation Mines)
Type 66 (China)
Type 69 (China)
Type 72 (China)
Type PMN (China)
Unidentified (China)
APERS PAM2 (Yugo?)
M2 (K090)

[13] The estimated cost of destruction is $90,000 over the three-year period 2000-2002.[14]

Mine Demolition Ranges designated as destruction sites are: (1) Mount Puka Artillery Center, Ratchaburi province; (2) 6th Division Ordnance Department, RTA in Ubon Ratchathani province; (3) Third Division Ordnance Department in Nakhorn Ratchasima province; and, (4) RTA and the Special Combat-Training Camp at Park Chong, Nakhorn Ratchasima province.[15] Safety and environmental considerations have been included in the proposed Methods for Proceeding with Demolition of AP mines.[16]

Ten thousand landmines were destroyed on 1 May 1999 at the RTA camp in Lop Buri province on the occasion of the entering-into-force of the ban treaty in Thailand. Mines destroyed were M14 (7,334), M16 (1,000), M26 (1,260), and M18A1Claymore mines (406).[17] A large group of landmine victims, Thailand ban campaigners, Landmine Monitor researchers and the diplomatic corps were invited to witness this first destruction of stockpiled mines.

An additional 113 mines were destroyed in the period from 1 November 1999 to 31 January 2000, including PMD 6M (56), PMN (49), TM 46 (6), and Type 72 (2) mines.[18]

Thailand, at the request of the co-chairs, made a formal presentation at the meeting of the SCE on Stockpile Destruction in Geneva on 23 May 2000. Col. Talerngpan Chiewvej of TMAC described Thailand’s initial destruction and methodology. He indicated financial assistance was needed, as well as technical assistance on environmental aspects. With such assistance, he said Thailand hoped to destroy its stockpile within two years.[19]

Thailand has reported that it intends to retain 15,604 mines for training and research, under Article 3 of the Mine Ban Treaty.[20] This is one of the largest number of mines to be retained by any State Party. It must be noted, however, that the total includes 6,117 M18A1 Claymore mines, which most countries are not including in Article 7 reporting. Claymore mines are not banned by the treaty as long as they are used in a command-detonated mode (without a tripwire). Other mines to be retained include 7,972 M14, 601 M16, 391 M26, 120 each of Type 66, 69, 72, and MA5A, 19 PMN, 9 M2, and 15 unidentified Chinese mines.

At the 30 May 2000 SCE Meeting on General Status of the Convention, the Thai representative stated that there are ongoing consultations between TMAC and the armed forces branches on the possibility of reducing the number of mines retained, and that Thailand hoped in the near future to report a decreased number.[21]


The Thai military no longer uses antipersonnel mines. For information on past use by Thailand and other armed forces inside Thailand, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999.[22] Along the northwestern Thai-Burma border it appears new mines are being laid, apparently by Myanmar troops and perhaps by refugees from Burma seeking shelter in Thailand.[23] TMAC sources have noted that the border with Burma is “vulnerable to the risk of more mines being laid, some of which could spill into Thai territory since the border remains unclear.”[24]

Landmine Problem

According to the government, about 400,000 people in at least 148 Thai villages in 48 districts are affected by antipersonnel mines.[25] Mine-affected land includes mainly agricultural lands, village lands, and parts of national forests.

As noted in Landmine Monitor Report 1999, a survey conducted by the RTA and the RTN in 1998 concluded that in all border areas 796 square kilometers are mined.[26] Of these mined areas, 532 square kilometers are on the Thai-Cambodian border, 124 square kilometers are on the Thai-Lao border, 53 square kilometers on the Thai-Burma border, and 87 square kilometers on the Thai-Malaysian border. The nineteen provinces in the northern, northeastern, southern and western parts of Thailand affected by landmines are Sa Kaew, Buriram, Surin, Sisaket, Ubon Ratchathani, Chanthaburi, Trat, Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Rai, Phayao, Nan, Uttraradit, Phitsanulok, Narathiwat, Songkla, Nakorn Srithammarat, Yala, and Chumphon.[27]

A 1998 report by the U.S. State Department estimates the number of mines in Thailand at 100,000,[28] but the Thai government has not made an estimate.

Mine Action Funding

Thailand has called “on all donor countries and international organizations, as well as non-government organizations, to provide necessary support and assistance, as called for in Article 6 of the Convention, to translate our political commitments into concrete action.”[29] Both United Nations organizations and individual governments have been approached to provide financial assistance for mine action programs in Thailand.

Thailand does not have sufficient funds and resources to meet its mine action needs, which it has estimated to cost nearly $13.8 million from 2000-2004. The biggest expenditures would be survey and clearance operations ($7.2 million) and equipment ($3.9 million).[30]

Delayed availability of the government funding allocation to TMAC, requested as part of the Ministry of Defense budget, has held up progress on mine action.[31] The total domestic budget for year 2000 was determined by a working group of TMAC and approved by the Committee on Dealing with Anti-Personnel Mines. The TMAC request for Thai government resources in the fiscal year 2000 is approximately 60 million Baht (U.S.$1.5 million), of which 45 million Baht is to be used for survey and clearance operations.[32]

Supreme Command allocated 1.6 million Baht to start mine action operations in Sa Keaw province in March 2000.[33] In June 2000, the Royal Thai Government Cabinet decided to provide an additional special budget for TMAC operations in FY 2000 of 16.4 million Baht.[34]

Norwegian Foreign Minister Knut Vollebaek during a visit to Thailand in January 2000 announced that Norway would contribute U.S.$400,000 (16 million Baht) to the Thailand Mine Action Center for a Level One Survey.[35] An additional grant of U.S.$30,000 (equivalent to 1.11 million Baht a year for three years) was made to help destroy all stockpiled landmines.[36] The United Kingdom agreed to assist in funding the Level One Survey with a grant of 300,000 pounds (U.S.$400,000 or 16 million Baht).[37]

The United States has provided $3 million for the establishment of TMAC infrastructure, including three training centers: Humanitarian Demining Center at Ratchaburi, Mine Awareness Training Center at Lop Buri and Mine Detection Dog Center at Pak Chong.[38] On 18 January 2000, the U.S. provided 150 2½-ton trucks worth $6.2 million to TMAC.[39]

Japan provided $400,000 through the UN Voluntary Trust Fund For Mine Action in Thailand in April 1999.[40] The UN Development Program is preparing a proposal to assist TMAC’s Mine Action program.[41]

Coordination of Mine Action

Coordination of mine action was restructured in February 2000 with the Office of the Prime Minister’s Order No. 15/2543. The Committee on Dealing with Anti-Personnel Mines, established on 17 August 1998, was renamed as the National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action. It is chaired by the Prime Minister instead of the Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Defense. The 26 members of the Committee are all government officials serving in official capacity. The National Committee is authorized to stipulate policy, supervise operations, conduct public relations both national and international, give recommendations to the government, consider appointing subcommittees to work on relevant matters and to coordinate with government agencies concerned.[42] The TMAC serves as its operational core.

The Thailand Mine Action Center was established on 18 January 1999 with responsibility for the coordination of mine action operations. It is located in Thung Si Gun (Don Muang) area, north of Bangkok. TMAC reports to the Prime Minister through the Supreme Command Headquarters (Ministry of Defense) and the National Committee for Humanitarian Mine Action. TMAC is headed by Director, Lt. Gen. Dr. Vasu Chanarat. Three NGO members of the Thailand Campaign to Ban Landmines have been appointed as Advisors to TMAC. The U.S. government supports a Mine Action Technical Advisor to TMAC and instructional staff to the three training centers. Other civilian advisors are from concerned ministries: Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, and Public Health, as well as the Department of Technical and Economic Cooperation.

TMAC serves as a focal point of contact to deal with all matters concerning antipersonnel landmines, including demining training, area demining, mine awareness, victim assistance, stockpile destruction, and coordination of domestic and international assistance on landmine management.[43]

TMAC is responsible for preparing and coordinating implementation of a national mine clearance plan. Thailand has completed an initial “Master Plan on Humanitarian Mine Action of Thailand” for the five-year period 2000-2004. Seven “Humanitarian Mine Action Units” (HMAUs) of ninety-nine persons each will be established, with each unit responsible for a designated geographic area. Their duties will include public relations, mine awareness, gathering of information, technical survey, and searching for and eliminating mines.[44]

Surveys and Assessment

The Thailand Mine Action Center has commissioned a Level One Survey of mine affected areas in 19 provinces. It began on 1 June 2000 with initial set up of the program (procurement of equipment, recruitment, training, testing, etc.). The actual survey is expected to begin in September 2000.[45] The UN Mine Action Service, the Global Landmine Survey, Norwegian People’s Aid, and TMAC are responsible for the survey.[46]

Initial Level One Survey operations have been conducted by HMAU #1 Mine Awareness Teams in Sa Keaw province. Level Two Technical Survey operations are underway on the first minefield in Sa Keaw.[47]

Mine Clearance

Previously the Royal Thai Army cleared about 2,500-3,000 mines per year along the border. RTA units engaged in civil support and border security missions along the all four borders conducted these operations. Landmine Monitor researchers have no access to information on these operations or on the total area cleared.

U.S. technical support for the Humanitarian Mine Action “train the trainer” program has been initiated in Thailand for RTA staff to develop a Thai capacity to support humanitarian mine action operations. U.S. and Thai instructors have trained humanitarian demining trainers and other demining personnel during four sessions in September 1999 through June 2000 at Ratchaburi. Three Mine Awareness courses have been conducted in Lop Buri between September 1999 and May 2000. The first Mine Detection Dog Handlers course started June 2000 at Pak Chong Military Dog Center.[48]

The first HMAU has become operational in Sa Keaw province, where it has been responding to local requests to remove mines and unexploded ordnance from villages in Sa Keaw province. These rapid response humanitarian actions operations have removed dangerous ordnance from high population areas, totaling 63 mines, 83 UXO and one booby-trap.[49]

The HMAU started mine awareness operations on 1 April 2000, followed by Level Two Technical Survey Operations 1 May, and mine/UXO clearance operations 6 July 2000 at Ban Ya Khao village.[50]

Mine Awareness Education

The Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), an international training center located on the campus of the Asian Institute of Technology, is working in partnership with TMAC specifically on Mine Awareness education for the public sector and communities in mined areas.[51] A National Seminar on “Mine Action in Thailand” was held on 17 December 1999 in Bangkok with H.R.H. Princess Galayani receiving reports from working groups on Mine Awareness Strategies. Senior public officials and invited NGOs participated. The ADPC has held meetings with governmental organizations and NGOs on mine awareness education to be included in the curriculum of primary schools along the border areas.

Handicap International Thailand has a program of Mine Risk Education in select villages and refugee camps along the Thai-Burma border, conducted in coordination with its activities of assistance, through orthopedic fitting and physical and social rehabilitation, to people with disabilities, particularly landmine victims. In addition HI has a community based Mine Risk Education program in six mine-affected villages of Chanthaburi Province, along the Thai-Cambodia border.[52]

The Thailand Campaign to Ban Landmines (TCBL), a coalition of NGOs, continued to organize programs of Mine Awareness Education in the heavily mined province of Sa Keaw and among schools and universities. In April 1999, to celebrate the Entry-into-Force of the Mine Ban Treaty in Thailand (1 May 1999), TCBL organized a five-day Bicycle Rally in which sixteen landmine survivors, several TCBL members and other friends cycled the 250-kilometer distance from Sa Keaw, a Thai-Cambodian border province, to TMAC, located in northern Bangkok. The program was funded by the Canada Fund for Local Initiatives in Thailand and was well covered by the local and international media.[53] A second Ban Landmines Bicycle Rally from Sa Keaw to Surin, a northeastern border province, was organized by the “Network of Landmine Victims 1999, Sa Keaw,” TCBL and the Bicycle for Health Club from 26 April-1 May 2000.

Landmine Casualties

TMAC has published a list of mine victims, including fifty-six fatalities, covering the period 1969-1999. Only recently have efforts been made to compile records across the country for the total number of landmine casualties, both military and civilian. TMAC reports in twenty-two provinces, over a thirty-year period, a total of 1,849 mine deaths and injuries, including 502 injured in the area occupied by the Third Army.[54] TMAC has also requested official reports from the Ministry of Health. The initial reports available of military and civilian casualties appear to be incomplete.

The Thailand Campaign to Ban Landmines has recorded names, addresses, ages, types and dates of injury of about 700 landmine victims in a few provinces.[55] TCBL regularly receives reports of new casualties.

Recently the national press has begun reporting injuries and deaths due to landmines, leading to greater public awareness of the problems of mines and problems for victims.[56] Much publicity was given to an elephant working in a forest near the western border in Tak province that stepped on a landmine and required a prosthetic leg.[57]

Survivor Assistance

There has not been much progress in the implementation of landmine awareness and victim assistance programs. TMAC’s initial efforts have focused on planning for clearance, demining and destruction of landmines. An in-depth survey of survivors was conducted by the Royal Thai Navy on behalf of TMAC during June-July 1999 in Sa Keaw province. On the occasion of the Queen’s Birthday on 12 August 1999, some victims and their children were invited to Sa Keaw provincial hall to receive subsidies as well as scholarships. Funds were solicited by TMAC in this initial effort to start its Mine Victim Assistance project.[58]

Handicap International Thailand provide prosthetic and orthotic devices and community-based rehabilitation programs for disabled, including mine survivors, along the Thai-Burma border. Main target groups include amputees and disabled living in refugee camps and surrounding Thai villages. In addition, HI Thailand is about to start a community-based rehabilitation program in selected mine-affected villages of Tak province, in cooperation with the Provincial Public Health Office, which will provide a facilitator, and with the Royal Thai Government implementing agency, the Social Welfare Department.

The mobile unit of the Prosthetics Foundation under the Royal Patronage of the Princess Mother, while providing artificial limbs to the disabled all over the country, has collected and processed specific data on “landmine victims/survivors.” Previously, information was not collected from patients on how they were injured. Dr. Therdchai Jivacate, head of the Mobile Artificial Legs Production Unit, founder of the Prosthetics Foundation and lecturer in rehabilitation medicine at Chiang Mai University, was recognized as one of three Outstanding Thais in 1999.[59] Dr. Therdchai and his team were again honored with the award of Outstanding Inventors of Thailand BE 2543 for “Effective and Efficient Distribution of Prosthetic Limbs,” which emphasized the newly designed prosthetic legs for use in wet paddy fields, issued in pairs with a more cosmetic limb.[60]

Following the April 1999 Bicycle Rally, a “Network of Landmine Victims 1999, Sakaeo,” based in Taphraya, Khok Soong, Aranyaprathet, and Khlong Haad districts of Sakaeo province, was established to help the communities gain self-reliance through socio-economic projects. TCBL facilitated community formation. The first attempts focused on preparing proposals to obtain funds for small economic projects and scholarships for children of victims, under a program designed for the “less-fortunate” by the Social Investment Fund (SIF) of the Government Savings Bank. A total of seven proposals by the “Network of Landmine Victims 1999, Sakaeo,” covering 166 mine victims and their families from seven groups/communities were approved and implemented as of 16 December 1999 for an amount of 2,300,000 Baht, equivalent to $58,000.

TCBL also continues to conduct surveys of affected communities and individual mine victims along the Cambodian border in order to update and enlarge the information on mine victims. New projects are in progress in Chanthaburi, Trad, Surin, Sisaket, and Buriram provinces.

Medical and rehabilitation services in Thailand are available in both state and privately owned hospitals and health care units, functioning at the provincial, district, and community levels. While facilities offering first aid are located at all district and village levels, patients who have severe injuries and are in need of surgical care are referred to a higher level and to a better equipped institution. Psychological and social support are normally not provided.

Regarding rehabilitation facilities, mainly provincial hospitals with adequate equipment, personnel, and space provide this service since there are a number of patients with paralytic and/or diabetic problems having similar needs there. The Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Rehabilitation Center, Nonthaburi, offers courses for persons working with handicap individuals, families, and communities.

Several border provincial hospitals have prosthetic and assistance devices available. There are also some government provisions for vocational or skills training for landmine survivors but most of the interviewees, especially those with family members dependent on them, do not take up the training. Projects for financial support are under the responsibility of the Social Welfare Department, but most of the survivors have not been provided such assistance due to the budget constraints of the county.

Some of the important centers supporting medical rehabilitation service and specialized doctors include:

  • Mae Sot District Hospital, Tak province, 310 beds.
  • Aranyaprathet District Hospital, Sakaeo province, 120 beds.
  • Prasat District Hospital, Surin Province, 60 beds.
  • Surin Provincial Hospital, Surin Province, 652 beds.
  • Mae Hong Son/ Sri Sangwan Hospital, Mae Hong Son province, 120 beds.
  • Phra Pokklao Provincial Hospital, Muang, Chanthaburi province, 777 beds.
  • Khlong Yai Sub-district Health Care Office, Pong Namron District, Chanthaburi province.
  • Somdejprachataksin Provincial Hospital, Muang, Tak province, 330 beds.
  • The Prosthetics Foundation under the Royal Patronage of the Queen Mother, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Muang, Chiang Mai province.

Disability Policy and Practice

A national disability law, titled “Laws on Rehabilitation of Thai Disabled Persons, 1991,” has been implemented since 1994. Landmine survivors are considered for eligibility under the description of handicapped persons as given in this law. However, many victims are rejected as not fulfilling the strict Thai legal description of a “handicapped person.” The law states that handicapped and disabled “persons who register...are entitled to receive services pertaining to welfare, development and rehabilitation.”[61] Medical rehabilitation services and expenses to be covered are stipulated: “Vocational counseling and advice as well as vocational training suitable to their physical condition and existing ability to perform the occupation.” Due to the economic downturn and the tight national budget, many funding conditions of this law have not yet been realized. Implementation has been inconsistent among provinces, districts and tambons.

The 1997 People’s Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand prohibits unjust discrimination against a person on the grounds of physical or health condition.[62] It also states that “disabled or handicapped shall have the rights to receive public conveniences and other aids, as provided by law.”[63]

The National Education Act of B.E. 2542 (1999) includes sections pertaining to disabled persons’ rights and opportunities to receive basic education specially provided. Implementation of the Act is just beginning. It states, “Education for the disabled shall be free of charge at birth or at first diagnosis. These persons have the right to access the facilities, media, services, and other forms of educational aid in conformity with the criteria and procedures stipulated in the ministerial regulations.”[64] Several draft laws are under consideration and await approval, including sections on upgrading the living quality and rights of disabled persons.


[1] Royal Thai Government Gazette, dated 6 July 1999, on the Entry into Force of the Ottawa Convention.
[2] Act on the Export Control of Armaments and Materials of B.E. 2495 (1952); Act on Firearms, ammunition, explosive articles and fireworks of B.E. 2490 (1947); Decree on the Export Control of Armaments and Materials of B.E. 2535 (1992). Cited in Thailand’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, 10 November 1999.
[3] H.E. Deputy Minister M.R. Sukumbhand Paribatra, “Statement of the Head of Delegation of Thailand to the First Meeting of States Parties to the Ottawa Convention,” Maputo, Mozambique, 3 May 1999.
[4] Apirath Vienravi, Minister Counsellor, Permanent Mission of Thailand to the United Nations at the General Debate of the First Committee, 54th session of the UN General Assembly, New York, 20 October 1999.
[5] H.E. Asda Jayanama, Permanent Representative of Thailand to the UN, fifty-fourth Session of UNGA, 18 November 1999.
[6] Landmine Monitor email communication with Apirat Sugondhabhirom, First Secretary, Permanent Mission of Thailand to the UN Office in Geneva, 7 March 2000.
[7] Ibid.
[8] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 376.
[9] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000--Burma/Myanmar. Also, Landmine Monitor interviews with villagers, NGO workers and displaced migrants living in Thailand near the Burma border, January 1999 through March 2000.
[10] Based on types of mines listed in Thailand’s Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, Form B, Stockpiled anti-personnel mines, submitted 10 November 1999.
[11] Ibid. The report does not give an overall total, or totals for individual mine types. The Form B submission is 33 pages long, and apparently organized by various stock locations rather than mine type. Landmine Monitor has compiled the numbers from Form B.
[12] Telephone interview with Lt. Gen. Vasu Chanarat, Director General of TMAC, 16 February 1999 and Thailand’s Article 7 report, 10 November 1999.
[13] Landmine Monitor, communications from TMAC, 10 May 2000, and from a government official, Department of International Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 17 December 1999. Landmine Monitor researchers have had access to a Summary of the Plan.
[14] Thailand Mine Action Center/JOC 107, The Master Plan Summary on Humanitarian Mine Action of Thailand in 5-year Periods, No. 1 2000-2004, (TMAC, Bangkok, 2000), pp. 6-8.
[15] Thailand’s Article 7 report, Form F, 10 November 1999.
[16] Ibid.
[17] Ibid., Form G. Thailand is one of the few States Parties to have destroyed Claymore mines.
[18] Ibid.
[19] Notes taken at the meeting by Human Rights Watch.
[20] Thailand’s Article 7 reports, Form D, 10 November 1999 and 2 May 2000.
[21] Notes taken at the meeting by Human Rights Watch. At the 23 May 2000 Stockpile SCE, Thailand said it was unsure of the proper number to retain, and welcomed technical advice.
[22] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 377-378.
[23] Members of Thailand Campaign to Ban Landmines, discussions with NGO workers and displaced ethnic migrants housed in camps along the Thai-Burma border, Mae Sot, Tak province, January 1999 through January 2000. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2000-- Burma/Myanmar.
[24] Saritdet Marukatat, “Burma row leaves border vulnerable,” Bangkok Post, 19 January 2000.
[25] Thailand Mine Action Center/JOC 107, The Master Plan Summary on Humanitarian Mine Action of Thailand in 5-year Periods, No. 1 2000-2004, (TMAC, Bangkok, 2000), p. 20; telephone interview with Lt. Gen. Vasu Chanarath, Director of TMAC, 8 March 2000.
[26] Ministry of Foreign Affairs Document given to Humanitarian Demining Team Leaders on 18 August 1998, No. 1.3, p .1; Thailand Mine Action Center, “Summary of National Plan of Action for Humanitarian Demining of Anti-Personnel Landmines in Thailand, for the Five Year Period 1 May 1999 – May 2004,” [in Thai language] undated, p. 4-12. These statistics were also used in the Deputy Minister’s Statement to the First Meeting of States Parties, Maputo, 3 May 2000.
[27] Thailand Mine Action Center/JOC 107, The Master Plan Summary on Humanitarian Mine Action of Thailand in 5-year Periods, No. 1 2000-2004, (TMAC, Bangkok, 2000); Thailand’s Article 7 report, Form C, Location of mines areas, 10 November 1999 (which also lists Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, and Prachuabkirikan as affected by booby-traps).
[28] U.S. Department of State, Hidden Killers: The Global Landmine Crisis, September 1998, p. A-2.
[29] Apirath Vienravi, Statement at the General Debate of the First Committee, 54th session of the UN General Assembly, New York, 20 October 1999.
[30] Thailand Mine Action Center/JOC 107, The Master Plan Summary on Humanitarian Mine Action of Thailand in 5-year Periods, No. 1 2000-2004, (TMAC, Bangkok, 2000), p. 8.
[31] Saritdet Marukatat, “Funding hurts demining effort,” Bangkok Post, 18 January 2000, p. 10; “Mine clearing agency hit by lack of funds,” The Nation, 10 February 2000, p. 5.
[32] TMAC, Master Plan Summary, pp. 27-29. The fiscal year runs from October 1999-September 2000.
[33] Information provided by Dave McCracken, Mine Action Technical Advisor, TMAC, 20 July 2000.
[34] This was announced by the Director of TMAC at a meeting of advisers on 15 June 2000.
[35] TMAC, Master Plan Summary, p. 2. See also, Vorapun Srivoranart and Sa-nguan Khumrungroj, “Norway calls for better regional security ties,” The Nation, 7 January 2000.
[36] Ibid. See also, “Arms-destroying fund pledged,” Bangkok Post, 7 January 2000.
[37] Ibid., p. 2.
[38] Ibid., p. 2. Information provided by Dave McCracken, TMAC, 20 July 2000. See also, Vorapun Srivoranart, “US financial demining programme launched,” The Nation, 17 August 1999; CNN Web Board, 9 February 2000. www.cnn.com/2000/ASIANOW/ southeast/02/09/thailand.landmines.ap/index.html
[39] Ibid., p. 2. See also, Embassy of the United States in Thailand, “US Government donates $7 Million in Trucks for Demining Efforts in Thailand,” 18 January 2000; Landmine Monitor/Thailand interview with Dave McCracken, TMAC, Bangkok, 18 January 2000.
[40] Information provided by Dave McCracken, TMAC, 20 July 2000.
[41] TMAC, Master Plan Summary, p. 2.
[42] Thailand Mine Action Center, “Office of the Prime Minister’s Order No.151/2541 on the Appointment of the Committee on Dealing with Anti-Personnel Mines” in the Summary of National Plan, [in Thai language], p. 1-3, and Prime Minister’s Order 15/2543 on Establishing the National Committee on Humanitarian Mine Action.
[43] TMAC, “Scope of Responsibility of TMAC” in The First Year of TMAC-Establishment of TMAC, 18 January 1999, One Year of TMAC, 18 Jan 2000, p.10.
[44] Thailand Mine Action Center/JOC 107, The Master Plan Summary on Humanitarian Mine Action of Thailand in 5-year Periods, No. 1 2000-2004, (TMAC, Bangkok, 2000); TMAC, Summary of National Plan [in Thai language], pp. 2-3.
[45] Information provided by Guy Rhodes, Norwegian People’s Aid, to TCBL, received 26 June 2000.
[46] Interview with Survey Action Center team (Richard Kidd of Global Landmine Survey, James Prudhomme of UNMAS and Guy Rhodes from Norwegian People’s Aid) Bangkok, 27 January 2000.
[47] Information provided by Dave McCracken, TMAC, 20 July 2000.
[48] Ibid.
[49] Ibid.
[50] Ibid.
[51] Asian Disaster Preparedness Center, P.O. Box 4 Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Tel (662) 524 5354, Fax: (662) 5245360, E-mail: adpc@ait.ac.th.
[52] Landmine Monitor discussion with Duangkamol Wattanasuk, Country Director, Handicap International Thailand, Bangkok, 19 January 2000.
[53] Rita Patiyasevi, “Bicycle rally against landmines on Sunday,” The Nation, 22 April 1999; “Long ride seeks an end to maiming,” Bangkok Post, 28 April 1999; “Six days on a bicycle for peace and an end to landmines!,” Udomsarn Weekly, 29 April 1999.
[54] TMAC, Master Plan Summary, pp. 21-22.
[55] Mine survivor leaders, Mr. Ophas Thepnok from HI at Prasat Hospital in Surin and Mr. Supan Kota from Sakaeo province, organized the data and presented it to Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai at Parliament House on 18 December 1997.
[56] Reports covering two weeks in January-February: “Ranger loses leg to mine,” The Nation, 19 January 2000, p. A6; Chaiwat Pumpuang, “Landmine kills four Thai soldiers in Suan Phung,” The Nation, 21 January 2000, p. A6; “Landmine blast injuries Thai soldiers,” The Nation, 1 February 2000, p. A6; “Border patrol – Five soldiers hurt by landmine,” Bangkok Post, 2 February 2000, p. 3; “Landmine blast injures four soldiers,” The Nation, 4 February 2000, p. A2.
[57] “Elephant hurt in blast,” The Nation, 20 August 1999; “Hurt Elephant may need an artificial foot,” The Nation, 21 August 1999; “Elephantine Problem,” The Sunday Nation, 22 August 1999; “Motala's jumbo operation,” The Sunday Nation, 29 August 1999; “Motala-Waiting for death,” Matichon (Thai language paper), 30 August 1999; “Vets encouraged by Motala's initial recovery,” The Nation, 31 August 1999; “New limb offers for Motala,” Bangkok Post, 7 September 1999; “Setback for Motala,” Bangkok Post, 10 September 1999.
[58] TMAC, “Establishment and Operation Plan for Mine Victim Assistance Project in Thailand,” July 1999.
[59] “Recognizing Their Good Deeds,” The Nation, 27 February 1999; Vasana Chinvarakorn, “The ‘artificial leg’ doctor,” Bangkok Post, 2 March 1999.
[60] Committee on National Research, National Research Council of Thailand, “Announcement of Winners of the Award of Outstanding Inventors for B.E. 2543,” Bangkok, 21 November 1999.
[61] Laws on Rehabilitation of Thai Disabled Persons, 1991, Article 15 Sections 1 and 3, Article 17 Sections 1 and 2, Article 18.
[62] People’s Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand of B.E. 2541 (1997), Article 30, Clause 3.
[63] Ibid., Article 55.
[64] Section 2, Article 10, National Education Act of B.E. 2542 (1999).