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CANADA, Landmine Monitor Report 2001
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Key developments since May 2000: Canada has continued to play its leadership role in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It coordinated the Universalization Contact Group, and co-organized regional conferences in Mali, Mongolia and Poland. It took responsibility for work related to operationalizing Article 8 on compliance. It promoted stockpile destruction, including co-organizing seminars in Buenos Aires and Budapest. It has served as co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance. The government contributed US$14.6 million to mine action programs.

Mine Ban Policy

Canada signed and ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997. National implementation legislation was enacted in November 1997.[1] The treaty entered into force for Canada on 1 March 1999. [2]

Canada submitted its third Article 7 transparency report on 30 April 2001, covering the period from 15 March 2000 to 15 February 2001. The report included information submitted in the new optional Form J, listing Canadian contributions, both governmental and non-governmental, to the care, rehabilitation, and social and economic reintegration of mine-affected regions and peoples between 1998 and 2001.[3]

Canada played an active role in helping to organize the Second Meeting of States Parties in September 2000 in Geneva. Its delegation was led by Ambassador for Mine Action, Daniel Livermore. In its statements to the meeting, Canada was the only country to condemn new use of antipersonnel mines by signatories to the Mine Ban Treaty and urged “these states to clarify these matters quickly and in a manner consistent with the political and moral obligations they undertook when they signed this Convention.”[4] Canada’s condemnation of mine use was not restricted to treaty signatories: “Beyond the immediate community bound by this Convention, mines are still being used by governments and non-state actors to an extent that merits our collective condemnation.... We call upon all states, signatory and non-signatory alike, to work cooperatively to clarify compliance issues in a manner that will build greater respect for the norms we have worked so long and hard to create.”[5]

Canada was one of ten states elected as vice-presidents of the Second Meeting of States Parties and it has actively worked to ensure that the location of the annual meetings of States Parties rotates among mine-affected countries. To this end Canada provides logistical and financial support to offset the costs incurred by hosting these meetings.[6]

At the Second Meeting of States Parties, Canada supported the amendment of the Article 7 reporting format to include “Form J,” an additional form for State Parties to voluntarily report on other measures, especially those taken to provide assistance for the care, rehabilitation, and social and economic reintegration of mine victims.

Carole and Brian Isfeld, the parents of a Canadian peacekeeper killed by a landmine while conducting mine clearance in Croatia, took part in the Second Meeting’s opening ceremony and other activities organized to raise awareness of the needs of victims and survivors. Mines Action Canada (MAC), the coalition of Canadian NGOs active in the landmines issue, was represented on the official Canadian delegation.

Canada has condemned new use of antipersonnel mines on several occasions and has raised the issue in bilateral and multilateral discussions. As past co-chair of the Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Canada emphasized the issue of clarification of compliance with Mine Ban Treaty obligations. Canada hosted a meeting of interested parties in November 2000 and subsequently took the lead in coordinating and preparing recommendations aimed at operationalizing Article 8 on compliance. At the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2001 Canada presented a report with a series of recommendations related to operationalization of Article 8 and other means available to States Parties to clarify matters related to compliance.[7] Canada recommended that the Standing Committee consider further work on the issue.

Canada has continued to play a leadership role in the development and execution of the intersessional work program. It was a very active participant in all of the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in December 2000 and May 2001. It is currently co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, Socio-Economic Reintegration and Mine Awareness. It established the Universalization Contact Group, which was officially recognized at the Second Meeting of States Parties. In its capacity as coordinator of the Universalization Contact Group and facilitator of efforts to further articulate the operationalization of Article 8 of the Convention, and at the invitation of the President of the Meeting of States Parties, Canada has participated in the work of the Coordinating Committee of Co-Chairs, established at the Second Meeting of States Parties.

Lack of participation by some in the intersessional Standing Committee meetings has been an ongoing concern. In response, a group of donors led by Canada established a sponsorship fund to support the participation in meetings related to the Convention of delegates from mine-affected and other states in need. The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) administers this fund. The GICHD also receives project-oriented funding from Canada.

Canada sponsored and voted in support of UN General Assembly Resolution 55/33V, as it had done on similar pro-ban resolutions in previous years.

In October 2000, following Lloyd Axworthy’s decision to retire from politics, John Manley, formerly the Minister of Industry, was appointed Canada’s new Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. In his first major address abroad, in March 2001, Manley praised the Mine Ban Treaty while noting the need for continued international commitment in this area. In reference to both the ban treaty and the lack of consensus surrounding the establishment of an international criminal court he stated, “We can, we must pursue these agendas in a coherent and coordinated manner.”[8] In April 2001, Manley stated that human security issues, including measures to curb the trade in small arms, to stop the use of child soldiers and efforts to remove landmines remained priorities for the government.[9]

In late May 2001, Minister Manley re-appointed[10] Senator Sheila Finestone as Special Advisor on Landmines to “provide advice to [the minister] on landmines in the foreign policy context, to personally represent the Minister at international meetings relating to landmines and to meet with members of Canadian civil society in order to learn of their concerns regarding the issue.”[11] The Senator will work with legislators, under the auspices of the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), to build awareness on the mine ban treaty, build support for its ratification, and stress the need for financial support for mine action programs.[12]

The Canadian government continues to provide support and funding to international NGOs that raise awareness of the global landmine problem, including the ICBL and its Landmine Monitor initiative. Landmine Monitor Report 2000 as well as the initiative itself were referred to by government officials in numerous press releases, speeches, reports, internal and international meetings and media interviews, as a key resource for mine action.

In December 2000 Lieutenant-General (Retired) Gordon Reay, a key advisor to the Canadian government on landmines, died in Croatia as a result of injuries sustained in a car accident.[13] He was in Croatia to assist with the establishment of a mine action coordination mechanism in South East Europe under the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe. In March 2001, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade announced a Can$100,000 contribution to the “Reay Group” of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe to support mine action in the Balkans.[14]

International Promotion of the Mine Ban Treaty

Canada continues to work for full universalization and effective implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty and on numerous occasions in a variety of venues senior government officials mentioned the landmines issue in their statements and remarks in 2000 and 2001.

In June 2001, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien said, “We realize that our seriousness in addressing the global landmine problem will be measured by our commitment over the long term to implement the Ottawa Convention. Personally, I am committed to ensuring the Convention’s success because I am convinced it is making a difference in the lives of countless individuals and communities around the world.”[15]

In a joint statement issued by Prime Minister Chrétien and Russian President Vladimir Putin on 12 December 2000, Russia confirmed “its positive approach towards the [Mine Ban Treaty] and its intent to join it in due course.” Canada reiterated its willingness to collaborate with the Russian Federation in “joint endeavors” on humanitarian demining and destruction of landmine stockpiles.[16] In June 2001 Canada’s Minister of Defence, Art Eggleton, discussed the Mine Ban Treaty with Russian officials in Moscow, but Canadian Defence officials reportedly said that they did not believe there would be any changes in Russian policy.[17]

In April 2001 prior to the opening of the Summit of the Americas in Québec City, Pierre Pettigrew, Minister for International Trade, said he believed that one of Canada’s key roles during the FTAA negotiations was the promotion of Canadian values and cited the Mine Ban Treaty as an example of “Canadian values influencing global governance.”[18]

In April 2001 Manley mentioned contentious issues between Canada and the US on the human security agenda and said, “Nonetheless, the previous administration stated that it would join the Convention by 2006 if suitable alternatives to anti-personnel mines could be found. We hope that President Bush and his Cabinet will apply political will – and the unparalleled technological capacity of the United States to moving this deadline forward.”[19]

In May 2001, Manley visited Kosovo and Bosnia where he met Canadian troops serving with SFOR. During the visit he stated that Yugoslavia’s announcement that it intended to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty was a cause for optimism.[20]

Through the Mine Action Team (ILX) at the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), the government continues its strategic work on key areas of the Mine Ban Treaty.[21]

In September 2000, the landmine issue was one of eight conference caucus issues included in the Conference on War-Affected Children in Winnipeg, Canada.[22]

In February 2001, Canada and France provided funding for the Seminar on Universalization and Implementation of the Ottawa Convention in Africa, hosted by the government of Mali in Bamako, and attended by more than 200 delegates from the region.[23] In cooperation with African governments, Canada offered to establish a program to promote the adoption of national legislation measures, taking into account the programs already established by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in this area. It co-chaired a session on military doctrine and alternatives. Canada also expressed an interest in contributing to a voluntary fund to assist with stockpile destruction efforts in Africa and offered to provide planning assistance and experts to countries requesting assistance.

In June 2001, Canada and the Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in cooperation with the Landmine Monitor researchers for Mongolia, organized the “Sharing Our Future in a Mine Free World” Conference in Ulan Bator, the first meeting on landmines to be held in Mongolia. At the meeting Canada presented a paper on landmine alternatives, supporting changes in military doctrine.

Canada actively supports stockpile destruction efforts abroad, by providing funds as well as organizational and logistical support for stockpile destruction initiatives. Canada provided funding and technical support to the UN Mine Action Service to establish a Stockpile Destruction Database, housed at the UN.[24]

In November 2000, Canada and Argentina, with the support of the OAS, hosted a regional seminar on stockpile destruction in the Americas, held in Buenos Aires. At the end of this meeting, the “Managua Challenge” was issued, which includes a challenge to States Parties of the region to complete stockpile destruction by the time of Third Meeting of State Parties, as well as a call for States Parties to meet their obligation to submit Article 7 reports and a call for treaty signatories to ratify.[25]

In February 2001, Canada and Hungary organized a technical conference to examine safe methods of destroying the PFM “butterfly” antipersonnel mine, which is stockpiled mainly by former Warsaw Pact countries.[26]

Following discussions first started in 1998, Canada signed a framework agreement with Ukraine in March 2001 for the destruction of Ukraine’s antipersonnel mine stockpile, which primarily consists of Soviet-era PFM and PMN mines.[27] Ukraine’s Minister of Foreign Affairs, Anatoly Zlenko, signed the agreement during an official visit to Ottawa on 26 March 2001.[28] Under the basic provisions of the framework agreement Canada will provide financial assistance, subject to contribution limits, while Ukraine will provide all available technical data, designate destruction sites and transport the mines to those sites. Both governments, in coordination with other donor governments, will select project managers to oversee the destruction process and establish a Coordinating Committee comprised of representatives designated by Canada, Ukraine, the project managers and donor countries. The agreement requires that the destruction is carried out in compliance with environmental laws in the Ukraine.

Canada was active in the December 2000 establishment of the Partnership for Peace (PfP) “Trust Fund for Anti-Personnel Landmine Stockpile Destruction in Europe.”[29] The fund operates under NATO’s Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (NATO/EAPC).[30] Each stockpile destruction project under the PfP requires a sponsor country, which is responsible for the project’s execution, particularly with regard to funds.

Canada and NATO delegates led discussion on stockpile destruction under the PfP Trust Fund for Stockpile Destruction at the 18-19 June 2001 regional meeting, “Understanding the Ottawa Convention,” in Warsaw, Poland. Canada helped to organize this meeting. The fund operates within the framework of NATO, while the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) acts “as a political roof” for dialogue among member countries.[31] A Canadian General engaged participants in discussion on military utility and alternatives to antipersonnel mines.[32]

In July 2001, the first project to be initiated under the PfP was announced, which will assist in the destruction of Albanian landmine stockpile over a 16-month period.[33] Canada is the lead sponsor country for this project, which has an overall estimated cost of US$790,000, and support from six other donors (Austria, Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom). Hungary will provide additional funds for an independent third party verification and quality assurance of the project.[34] A second project in Moldova will be sponsored by the Netherlands.

Domestic Promotion and Awareness of the Mine Ban Treaty

On 3 December 2000, activities were held marking the anniversary of Canada’s signature and ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty. In Ottawa, the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF), a US NGO and a co-founder of the ICBL, held a sold out Landmines Concert which featured six internationally known singer-songwriters.[35] Mines Action Canada and the Canadian Landmine Foundation organized a special “Gold Circle” reception with the musicians. At the concert, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lloyd Axworthy, received the first US Senator Patrick Leahy Humanitarian Award from VVAF for his role in the global campaign to ban landmines.

During March 2001, several events and activities took place to mark the anniversary of the entry into force of the ban treaty in Canadian Landmine Awareness Week (CLAW). MAC organized a breakfast for parliamentarians, and brought mine action workers and advocates from Bosnia, Cambodia, Lebanon, Mexico, Mongolia, Norway and the US to participate in events in 18 cities across Canada. The Youth Mine Action Ambassadors organized conferences, workshops, vigils and other activities.[36] The ICBL’s Youth Ambassador, Cambodian mine survivor Song Kosal, and Foreign Affairs Minister Manley launched a Virtual Classroom on Landmines for Canadian students, a cooperative initiative of DFAIT and Industry Canada.[37]

The Mines Action Canada coalition is the largest coordinated body working with Canadian NGOs on all aspects of mine action. Several Canadian NGOs that had not previously been active officially became MAC partners in the reporting period. Recent MAC activities include a capacity building workshop on support to landmine victims in February 2001, work on the issue of cluster bombs, the launch of an internal newsletter for coalition partners, a revamped website and a variety of efforts to support youth in Canada and abroad in mine action and related activities.

In April 2001, Song Kosal toured western Canada speaking out about the global landmine problem in several events, and during her visit MAC initiated a project to support youth initiatives in mine-affected countries. MAC continues to collaborate with DFAIT and the Canadian Red Cross in the Youth Mine Action Ambassadors Program (YMAAP).

MAC’s Technology Competition is now in its third year. Results from last year’s competition prompted interest from the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies, and winning entries garnered broad media attention and greater interest from Canadian universities.

Mines Action Canada is one of the most active members of the ICBL. It serves on the ICBL Coordinating Committee and the Landmine Monitor Core Group. MAC coordinates Landmine Monitor research activities in the Americas region and is responsible for the development and upkeep of the Landmine Monitor database.


Canada is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its landmine protocols and submitted its annual Article 13 report on 23 November 2000. In a statement to the Second Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 2000, Canada again emphasized the importance of the Mine Ban Treaty as the best method to advance a total ban on antipersonnel mines and to promote mine action. Canada proposed that the CCW examine the humanitarian impact of all explosive remnants of war.[38] Included in use of the term “explosive remnants of war” were cluster bomb submunitions and antivehicle mines.

In a statement to the plenary, Canada said, “While international best practices with respect to anti-personnel mines lie within another Convention that has been accepted by many more States than Amended Protocol II, Canada believes that the Amended Protocol II has an important place in international arms control. It is an instrument that Canada continues to support as a means for reducing the humanitarian impact of mines other than anti-personnel mines.”[39]

Canada urged States Parties to comply with CCW Protocol II, called on states to make known any questions they may have regarding compliance with the protocol, urged full and effective participation of NGOs and international organizations in the CCW meetings and called on states to make their annual reports submitted under Article 13 available to all interested organizations.[40] Although the CCW has no legal commitment to landmine survivors, Canada noted that States Party to it “have a moral obligation to assist in their care, rehabilitation and social and economic reintegration” and urged them to respect the memories of mine victims by “diligently working to ensure that further progress can be made” within the CCW.[41]

Production and Transfer

Production and transfer of antipersonnel mines in Canada is prohibited under national legislation.

There were no changes in government policy on the issue of transfer versus transit of antipersonnel mines in Canadian territory during the reporting period.[42] Government officials are preparing a response to detailed questions submitted by Human Rights Watch at the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in May 2001, which may address the issue of transit of antipersonnel mines in Canadian territory by other States as well as joint military operations.[43]

Stockpiling and Destruction

Canada completed destruction of all operational stockpiles of antipersonnel mines in 1997, with the exception of those retained for training purposes and the testing of clearance technologies.[44]

According to the third Article 7 report, submitted 30 April 2001 reporting for the period 15 March 2001 to 15 February 2001, Canada retained a total of 1,712 mines, including four Italian-made SB33; 962 Canadian-made C3A2; 480 US-made M16A1/2; 40 PMA-1, 27 PMA-2, and 25 PMA-3, all manufactured in the former Yugoslavia; 79 PP-M1-NA1 made in the former Czechoslovakia; 15 VS 50, ten VAL M69, and eight VS MK2, all made in Italy; and 62 PMN-2, transferred from Georgia.[45] According to the Article 7 report, Canadian forces also transferred four mines from UNMAC in Kosovo for training purposes, including two PROM-1, one MRUD, and one PMR-2A.

The numbers of Claymore mines stockpiled by Canada is unknown and this information has not been reported in any of the Article 7 reports submitted to date. Canada does not report on Claymore munitions in its Article 7 report because it views reporting on command detonated Claymore munitions or other weapons not banned by the treaty as not required for reporting under Article 7. Canadian officials told Landmine Monitor, “While Canada possesses Claymore munitions, it holds only the equipment possible for deploying these weapons in command detonated mode.”[46]

Antivehicle Mines and Antihandling Devices

At a technical meeting on antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices sponsored by the ICRC in March 2001, Canadian officials re-stated Canada’s position that “anti-handling devices, other than those which activate when an attempt is made to tamper with or otherwise intentionally disturb an anti-vehicle mine, and anti-vehicle mines with fusing devices which cause mines to function as anti-personnel mines, fall under Article 2 of the Ottawa Convention and are thus prohibited by the Convention.”[47]

At the meeting of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention in May 2001, Canada stated, “Conceivably there are both antihandling devices that would function in such a way as to make them prohibited under the Convention and those that are permitted. Therefore, while all antihandling devices might be considered “dangerous,” Canada does not accept the argument that all antihandling devices could be activated by unintentional disturbance. Canada is currently undertaking work to better explain what we consider to be antihandling devices that would conceivably be banned by the Convention and those that we would consider not banned by the Convention.”[48]

Government officials reiterated that Canada has destroyed its stock of tilt rod equipped antivehicle mines. “In addition, because they could be inadvertently detonated by a person, the Canadian Forces considers tilt rod activated anti-tank mines to be anti-personnel mines and thus banned by the Ottawa Convention.”[49]

The government also supported the position, expressed by other countries, that pressure-activated antivehicle mines should have a minimal activation threshold of no less than 150 kilograms. According to government officials, “Canada does stock a pressure-activated anti-tank mine that functions at a pressure greater than 150 kilograms. Canada also possesses a magnetically fused anti-tank mine with a factory set self-neutralizing capability. After the factory set number of days the mine self-neutralizes and deploys a flag for detection and removal purposes.”[50]


The Canadian Forces are prohibited from using antipersonnel mines under the Mine Ban Treaty and Canada’s national implementation legislation.

Joint military operations

ICBL and MAC concerns regarding the issue of joint military operations involving states not party to the treaty, and the Canadian government’s position on the issue, were discussed in Landmine Monitor Report 2000.[51] At the May 2001 intersessional Standing Committee meeting Canada provided extensive details:[52]

“For Canada, this subject is relevant in addressing matters related to interoperability as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. With this in mind, in 1998 - even before the Convention entered in to force - the Chief of the Defence Staff communicated the following to all Canadian Forces personnel:

  • Participation in Combined Operations: Canada may participate in combined operations with a state that is not Party to the Convention. Canadian contingents may not, however, use anti-personnel mines and the Canadian Forces may not request, even indirectly, the use of anti-personnel mines by others.
  • Rules of Engagement: When participating in combined operations with foreign forces, Canada will not agree to Rules of Engagement which authorize the use by the combined force of anti-personnel mines. This would not, however, prevent States that are not parties to the Convention from using anti-personnel mines for their own national purposes.
  • Operational Plans: When engaged in combined operations with foreign forces, Canada will not agree to operational plans which authorize the use by the combined force of anti-personnel mines. While Canadians may participate in operations planning as members of a multinational staff, they may not participate in planning for the use of anti-personnel mines. This would not prevent a state that is not a Signatory to the Convention from planning for the use of anti-personnel mines by its own forces.
  • Command and Control: The use of anti-personnel mines by the combined force will not be permitted in cases where Canada is in command of a combined Force. Likewise, if Canadian Forces personnel are being commanded by other nationalities, they will not be allowed to participate in the use of, or planning for the use of anti-personnel mines. Were Canadian Forces personnel to engage in such activities they would be liable to criminal prosecution under Canadian law.

“Canada takes its obligations under the Convention seriously and will continue to engage in a dialogue with interested parties in order to better clarify how Canada’s understanding of the term ‘assist’ relates to the operations of the Canadian Forces.

“To this end we look forward to reviewing the list of questions about joint operations prepared by Human Rights Watch to determine how in the future it may be possible for Canada to provide further information on this matter.”

Research and Development

The January 2001 meeting minutes of the Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT) note that a recommendation was made to the Minister of Defence that further work on alternatives be removed from CCMAT’s mandate.[53]

Canadian officials have actively pursued military-to-military discussions outlining the questionable military utility of antipersonnel mines, advocating for the adaptation of military procedures and changes in doctrine combined with improved surveillance, monitoring and data transmission as viable alternatives to antipersonnel mines.[54]

Technological Developments in Mine Action

CCMAT supports research and development of mine action technologies and current activities focus on a few promising technologies developed with the Centre’s support, for example, surrogate mines[55] and testing and evaluation of mechanical mine clearance methods and equipment.[56]

A PMN version of the surrogate mine has been developed. The reproduction mines were displayed at the UXO Countermine Forum in New Orleans in April 2001 and copies have since been sold to the US and to the UK. The PROMAC BDM-48 Brush deminer, developed by Pro-Mac with the assistance of CCMAT, was field tested in Thailand’s Sa-Kaeo province in June 2001 by the Thailand Mine Action Center (TMAC).[57] CCMAT is supporting the development of test and evaluation facilities in the Balkans.[58]

Canada is conducting a limited market study that focuses on five to eight products developed with the assistance of CCMAT.[59] The study will attempt to identify market access, viability to field users, development and purchase costs and other factors. The CCMAT Executive Committee agreed that if the study results show there are no commercial markets for successful products there could be a recommendation made for direct procurement of those products.

CCMAT is part of the European Commission International Testing and Evaluation Program[60] and the Demining Technology Information Forum (DTIF). CCMAT hosted a DTIF workshop to review mine action technologies, at the University of British Colombia in Vancouver in June 2001.[61] The CCMAT will host another DTIF workshop to develop a standard methodology for the testing and evaluation of mechanical assistance equipment. The workshop is tentatively scheduled for October 2001 in Alberta.[62]

Guigné International of St John’s, known for its underwater sonar technology, is testing a system for finding landmines underwater in Croatia. Testing is being undertaken with support from the Canadian government and the European Commission.[63]

Mine Action Funding

Canada’s contributions to mine clearance efforts are extensive and include: building local capacities; supporting survey and mapping work; providing protective gear and technical advice; providing mine detection dogs; providing other detection equipment; and engaging in research on, and testing and marketing of, new technologies for humanitarian mine clearance.[64] Canada also contributes to mine awareness and victim assistance programs in mine-affected countries: support for mine awareness education programs, building local capacity in health care and rehabilitation, and supporting socio-economic reintegration programs for mine victims, including vocational rehabilitation training.[65]

The Canadian Landmine Fund, established in 1997 with total funds of Can$100 million to be allocated over a period of five years,[66] is entering its fourth year.

Almost all of Canada’s mine action funding comes from this fund. Other Canadian government funding includes support by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in Afghanistan and Kosovo/Balkans.

In Canada’s most recent fiscal year (1 April 2000 to 31 March 2001), total Canadian funding from all sources for mine action assistance was Can$22.6 million or US$15.2 million.

This includes Can$21.8 million (US$14.6 million) in government funding:[67]

Mine Clearance $6.1 million (US$4.1 million)

Information $5.2 million (US$3.5 million)

Research & Development $4.1 million (US$2.7 million)

Advocacy & Prevention $2.3 million (US$1.5 million)

Victim Assistance $2 million (US$1.3 million)

Integrated Mine Action $1 million (US$707,000)

Coordination $507,000 (US$342,000)

Stockpile Destruction $365,000 (US$246,000)

Mine Awareness $300,000 (US$200,000)

Total $21.8 million (US$14.6 million)

It also includes $886,000 (US$597,000) in funding from non-governmental sources:

Victim Assistance $777,000 (US$523,000)

Mine Clearance $103,000 (US$69,500)

Mine Awareness $6,000 (US$4,000)

Total $886,000 (US$597,000)

Canadian Mine Action Funding (1 April 2000 to 31 March 2001)[68]

Canadian $
US $[69]
Mine Clearance
Protective suits for deminers
Bosnia & H
Mine clearance

Mine clearance

Mine detection dog program
Mine detection dog trainers
HALO Trust
Mine clearance in Abkhazia
Tents and clearance equipment

OAS mine clearance program
Protective gear and equipment
Mine clearance and surveying
Technical experts

and others

5-month program to create self-sufficient clearance capacity
Mine clearance and institutional support
Conference support

Mine Awareness
Programme for children in displaced communities
Program support

Integrated Mine Action
Instructors and experts for 4 months
Program integrating mine awareness, victim assistance, proximity demining and community development
Core functions and high-priority initiatives

To assess the effects of landmines on health
Level One Survey implementation

Level One quality assurance
Hardware and software for control and survey project
Capacity building for NDI Database[70]

Landmine Impact Survey implementation
Assessment mission
York Univ.
Canadian Mine Action Student Essay Competition

Integrated mine action development project

Field research and assistance to Mine-Affected Communities Project

Bosnia & H.
Institutional support for Entity Mine Action Centres
Creation of MACC for Eritrea/Ethiopia through UN Voluntary Trust Fund
Mine action workshop Greece

Stockpile Destruction
UXO/mine destruction

Explosives expert

Victim Assistance
Material and operational support for physiotherapy and prosthetics section

Ottawa Rehab. Centre
Orthopedic training for Guardian staff
Bosnia & H
Peer counselling, promotion of equal opportunities for persons with disabilities, reform of the rehabilitation education system
World Vision Canada
Vocational rehabilitation program

Oxfam Québec
Vocational/physical rehabilitation program
Central America
Development of programs in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua
El Salvador
Sierra Club of B.C.
Vocational and small loans program
Community-based rehabilitation project
Victim assistance program
Lao Republic
Garneau Int.
Physical and socio-economic rehabilitation program
ADRA Canada
Vocational assistance

Research & Development
Operating, research and development funding

Advocacy & Prevention
Horn of Africa publication

Canada, France, OAU
Bamako conference support
Buenos Aires conference support
Conference participation

Workshops in Jammu & Kashmir

Public awareness video
Field study
Forum for Cooperation on Mine Action in Zagreb
Core support

Landmine Monitor

Roots of Peace
Reception UN Secretary-General

SMSP survivors

MBT delegate sponsorship program
Core support

Club 2/3
Outreach materials

I Choose Me Productions
“Living Bombs” website

Concert Caritas
Fundraising concert

Core support

Development of landmine curriculum for use in Canadian schools, an Electronic Mine Action Workbook, and production of “Measured Steps: The Global Movement to Ban Landmines” video for domestic outreach activities. See Below.

See Above.

See Above.

Canadian Red Cross
“Survive the Peace” campaign[73]

Portable exhibits



The Canadian Landmine Foundation (CLF) actively promotes the United Nations Association “Adopt-A-Minefield” program in Canada. CLF utilizes funds made available by the Canadian International Development Agency to provide a three to one match to funds raised by community and student groups, churches, and service clubs.[74]

NGO Funded Mine Action

Mine Clearance
Bosnia & Herzeg.
CLF: Adopt-A-Minefield
Seventeen Rotary Clubs and two Interact Clubs adopted a 59,130 square meter minefield that includes power lines and the village of Vranici, in southeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Rotary Club of Toronto adopted a 16,325 square meter minefield located on an important access road connecting three villages with one another and with the closest market town. This road also provides access to the main road linking northwest Bosnia and Herzegovina with Croatia. The Rotary Clubs of Coburg, Port Hope, Brighton, Northumberland Sunrise, and the Interact Club of West High School in Coburg adopted a minefield adjacent to the field listed above.




CLF: Adopt-A-Minefield
A community-based campaign in the Quinte area of south-eastern Ontario adopted a 19,972 square meter minefield. Clearance of the field will allow the irrigation system to be rebuilt. Students at Niagara College adopted a 19,972 square meter minefield adjacent to the field adopted by the Quinte community. The Rotary Club of Brampton also provided funds.




CLF: Adopt-A-Minefield
CLF’s board members and public donations were used to adopt a 19,800 square meter agricultural field in Spike Hamlet. Demining of this area will enable the local population to return to their homes.
CLF: Adopt-A-Minefield
The Rotary Clubs of Coburg, Port Hope, Brighton, Northumberland Sunrise, and the Interact Club of West High School in Coburg adopted BiH-034-03. Once the clearance of these fields is complete, these Rotary clubs, in concert with the Rotary Club of Sarajevo, will implement an artificial foot program as a follow-on project.

Mine Awareness
Peacefund Canada
ADEILS community based MA[81]

Victim Assistance
Canadian Red Cross
ICRC Orthopedic Program
CLF: Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief (CPAR)
Mine awareness and victim assistance project.[82]



A project in Azerbaijan, reported in the Mine Action Investments database in 1999, but inadvertently omitted from Landmine Monitor Report 2000, tested the WHO's landmine victim survey and victim assistance tools and distributed instructional manuals. DFAIT provided Can$64,631 to Physicians for Human Rights for this initiative.[83]


Canada is thorough and transparent in reporting how mine action funds are allocated both domestically and internationally. Information is provided in annual reports to Parliament, through press releases, public events, regular progress reports and publications, on departmental websites, and through a detailed financial listing available on the UN Mine Action Investment Database.[84]

On behalf of the four government departments involved in mine action in Canada, DFAIT ILX reports to Parliament annually on activities and projects supported by the Canadian Landmine Fund. This year’s annual report, “Measured Steps: 1999-2000 Report on the Canadian Landmine Fund,” was presented to Parliament on 1 March 2001.[85] The report provides a good overview of the landmine issue and international efforts to implement the treaty, and a description of the numerous steps that the government of Canada is taking as part of its commitment to the ban treaty, including country-by-country reports where Canada contributes to mine action programs.

In recognition that coordination of mine action assistance could be furthered by the availability of reliable and up to date information, Canada provided funding and technical support for the Mine Action Investments Donor Database. It also provided funds for a study on the effectiveness of mine action programs, “A Study of Socio-Economic Approaches to Mine Action.”[86]


In March 2001, Canadian Forces personnel serving with the UN Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE) were involved in two landmine incidents.[87] The first occurred on 13 March when a vehicle drove over a landmine on a road that had just been cleared by a Canadian Armed Forces mine clearance team. The vehicle was carrying three Canadian soldiers assigned to protect the team from attack. There were no injuries. The next day and on the same road another Canadian vehicle set off a landmine, slightly injuring a soldier.[88] After the second incident the commander of the Canadian Forces contingent ordered the troops off the area roads and the Department of National Defense began investigating the circumstances surrounding the incidents.[89] The contingent was scheduled to return to Canada in June 2001.[90]

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[1] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 221-224. Statutes of Canada, Chapter 33, An Act to Implement the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on their Destruction; Bill C-22, Assented to 27 November 1997.
[2] For more details on Canada’s activities relating to the treaty before 2000 see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 219-220, and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 232-239.
[3] Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2001.
[4] Statement by HE Daniel Livermore, Canada’s Ambassador for Mine Action, to the Second Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 11 September 2000.
[5] Ibid.
[6] DFAIT, “Measured Steps, 1999-2000 Report on the Canadian Landmine Fund,” March 2001, p.15; Statement by HE Daniel Livermore, Canada’s Ambassador for Mine Action, to the Second Meeting of State Parties, Geneva, 11 September 2000.
[7] Government of Canada, “Article 8 and the Facilitation and Clarification of Compliance,” 2 May 2001.
[8] Notes for an address by the Hon. John Manley, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to the Royal Institute for International Affairs, London, England, 20 March 2001.
[9] John Ward, “Manley to focus on US relations,” Canadian Press, 9 April 2001.
[10] Senator Finestone was first appointed Special Ambassador on Landmines in 1996. Senator Finestone will retire from the Senate in 2002.
[11] DFAIT, press release No. 66, “Manley re-appoints special advisor on landmines,” Ottawa, 24 May 2001.
[12] Interview with Senator Sheila Finestone, 28 June 2000, Ottawa. Previous IPU Council resolutions and statements pertaining to landmines can be found at the IPU website http://www.ipu.org.
[13] DFAIT press release No. 274, “Manley expresses condolences over death of Lieutenant-General Gordon Reay,” Ottawa, 21 December 2000.
[14] DFAIT press release No. 28, “Manley announces new landmine initiatives on the Second Anniversary of the Ottawa Convention,” 1 March 2001, Ottawa.
[15] “Interview, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien of Canada,” Choices Magazine, June 2001.
[16] DFAIT, Joint Statement of the Prime Minister of Canada and the President of the Russian Federation on Cooperation in the Sphere of Strategic Stability, 12 December 2000, Ottawa.
[17] Geoffrey York, “Russia flouts landmine vow,” The Globe and Mail, 4 June 2001.
[18] Notes for an address by the Honourable Pierre Pettigrew, Minister for International Trade, to the Hemispheric Trade and Sustainability Forum, Quebec City, Canada, 17 April 2001.
[19] Notes for an address by the Hon. John Manley, Minister of Foreign Affairs, to the Canadian Institute for Strategic Studies, Toronto, 12 April 2001.
[20] “Yugoslav aid could depend on Milosevic fate – Canada,” ONASA (Sarajevo, Bosnia), 28 May 2001.
[21] ILX was created within DFAIT in 1998 as the focal point for the government’s mine action initiatives and programs.
[22] “The Agenda for War-Affected Children,” Winnipeg, Canada, 17 September 2000. http://www.waraffectedchildren.gc.ca/Final_Agenda-e.asp.
[23] DFAIT, “Seminar on Universalization and Implementation of the Ottawa Convention, General Report, 15-16 February 2001, Bamako, Mali.”
[24] See Anti-personnel Mine Stockpile Destruction Resource Site www.stockpiles.org.
[25] See also OAS, “Informe del Secretario General sobre la implentación de las Resoluciones 1745 (apoyo a la acción contra las minas en Ecuador y Perú) y 1751 (apoyo a la acción contra las minas en Centroamérica),” CP/doc.3422/01 rev.1, 7 May 2001.
[26] “Conference on Destruction of “Butterfly” Landmines,” MTI, Budapest, 2 February 2001; Anti-personnel Mine Stockpile Destruction Resource Site, http://www.stockpiles.org/index_1.html.
[27] “Framework Arrangement Between the Government of Canada and the Cabinet of Ministers of the Ukraine on the Destruction of Anti-personnel Landmines in Ukraine,” signed in Ottawa on 26 March 2001.
[28] Embassy of Ukraine press release No. 22, “Visit of Foreign Minister of Ukraine A. Zlenko to Canada,” Ottawa, 28 March 2001.
[29] NATO press release, “Chairman’s Summary, Ministerials,” 6 December 2000. http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2000/p00-16e.htm ; NATO press communiqué, “Report on options for Confidence and Security Building Measures (CSBMs),” 14 December 2000. http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/2000/p00-121e/rep-csbm.pdf.
[30] DFAIT press release No. 97, “Manley welcomes destruction of anti-personnel mines in Albania,” 6 July 2001; NATO. Press Release. “Partnership for Peace,” 23 April 1999. http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/1999/9904_wsh/pres-eng/08pfp.pdf.
[31] NATO Press Release, “Partnership for Peace,” 23 April 1999.
[32] Email, “Poland Seminar Report,” 19 July 2001.
[33] NATO, “NATO Update,” 25 January 2001.
[34] Ibid.
[35] The Concert for a Landmine Free World featured Bruce Cockburn, Nanci Griffith, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Steve Earle, John Prine and Emmy Lou Harris.
[36] In Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Regina, St. John’s, Sydney, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg and other cities.
[37] The Virtual Classroom networked classrooms in Ontario, Newfoundland and Quebec with a school in Ottawa where the Minister, Song Kosal, MAC representatives and international guests participated in a live video conference to discuss the global landmine situation and global mine action efforts. DFAIT press release No. 28, “Manley announces new landmine initiative on the second anniversary of the Ottawa Convention,” 1 March 2001, Ottawa.
[38] The Canadian representative also stated Canada’s support for US proposals for CCW States Parties to develop minimal detectability standards for antivehicle mines and for States Parties to extend the scope of the CCW to cover non-international armed conflicts and States party to the Amended Protocol II to consider development of a compliance mechanism for it.
[39] Statement of Canada to the Second Annual Conference of the States Parties to the Amended Protocol II to CCW, Geneva, 11 December 2000.
[40] Ibid.
[41] Ibid.
[42] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 241.
[43] Canadian delegation, “Intervention on Article 1,” Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 11 May 2001. The intervention was made orally, but the written text was provided to Landmine Monitor; Youth Mine Action Ambassador Programme, “Info/Note #005, Antipersonnel mines and joint operations,” draft, 20 June 2001.
[44] Canada elected to keep a maximum of 2,000 AP mines under Article 3 of the treaty. Although this is not codified in Canadian law, the policy has been stated several times by ministers of National Defence and Foreign Affairs and is noted in the government’s Article 7 reports.
[45] Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2001.
[46] Email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from Kerry Brinkert, DFAIT/ILX, 25 July 2001.
[47] Statement by Canada, in ICRC, “Report on the Technical Expert Meeting on anti-vehicle mines with sensitive fuses or with sensitive anti-handling devices,” 13-14 March 2001, Geneva.
[48] Canadian delegation, “Intervention on Article 2,” Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 11 May 2001. The intervention was made orally, but the written text was provided to Landmine Monitor.
[49] Statement by Canada, in ICRC, “Report on the Technical Expert Meeting on anti-vehicle mines with sensitive fuses or with sensitive anti-handling devices,” 13-14 March 2001, Geneva.
[50] Ibid.
[51] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 244.
[52] Canadian delegation, “Intervention on Article 1,” Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 11 May 2001. The intervention was made orally, but the written text was provided to Landmine Monitor.
[53] Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies Executive Committee meeting minutes, 22 January 2001, Ottawa.
[54] Statement by His Excellency Daniel Livermore, Canada’s Ambassador for Mine Action, to the Second Meeting of State Parties, Geneva, 11 September 2000; DFAIT, “Measured Steps, 1999-2000 Report on the Canadian Landmine Fund,” March 2001, p.15; DFAIT, “Seminar on Universalization and Implementation of the Ottawa Convention, General Report, 15-16 February 2001, Bamako, Mali.”
[55] Known officially as “Hi-fidelity Reproduction Mines,” to conform with NATO terminology, these mines have been developed to react to the same pressure parameters of the PMA-1, PMA-2, PMA-3 and Type 72A mines and replicate these in shape, size, weight, fuze principle and trigger forces.
[56] Telephone interview with Major Al Carruthers, Manager CCMAT, 18 July 2001; See also http://www.ccmat.gc.ca.
[57] James East, “Meet the new air-con mine buster,” The Straits Times (Singapore), 9 June 2001.
[58] Telephone interview with Major Al Carruthers, Manager CCMAT, 18 July 2001.
[59] CCMAT Executive Committee meeting minutes, Ottawa, 22 January 2001.
[60] The government joined the European Commission, the United States, Belgium, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Sweden in signing a Memorandum of Understanding for the International Test and Evaluation Program (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining Equipment, Processes and Methods on 17 July 2000.
[61] Telephone interview with Major Al Carruthers, Manager CCMAT, 18 July 2001; See also Jonathan Manthorpe, “Elusive Killers,” Vancouver Sun, 14 June 2001.
[62] Telephone interview with Major Al Carruthers, Manager CCMAT, 18 July 2001.
[63] CBC News Online, “Newfoundland company works on new landmine detector,” webposted 29 December 2000.
[64] Canadian Delegation to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, Note Number 1550, Vienna, 18 December 2000.
[65] Ibid.
[66] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 245.
[67] Within the five-year Can$100 million commitment, government funding peaked last year at Can$26 million.
[68] The Canadian government’s fiscal year covers the period 1 April to 31 March, so there are two fiscal year reports in the Landmine Monitor reporting period.
[69] The Landmine Monitor researcher is responsible for conversion to US dollars using an exchange rate of 1US$ = 0.6733 Can$.
[70] National Demining Institute.
[71] Indian Institute for Peace, Disarmament and Environmental Protection.
[72] Non-Violence International.
[73] See http://www.redcross.ca/english/peace/.
[74] Email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from Scott Fairweather, Vice-President, Canadian Landmine Foundation, 16 July 2001.
[75] Funds raised by the Canadian Landmine Foundation are matched 3:1 by CIDA. The CIDA contribution to the Foundation was reported in the Canada report in Landmine Monitor Report 2000, page 255. The CIDA portion of this contribution has not been reported here to avoid double counting, but it should be noted the total contribution to this Adopt-A-Minefield by the Foundation is Can$156,085.
[76] Funds raised by the Canadian Landmine Foundation are matched 3:1 by CIDA. The total contribution to this Adopt-A-Minefield by the Foundation is Can$52,576.
[77] Funds raised by the Canadian Landmine Foundation are matched 3:1 by CIDA. The total contribution to this Adopt-A-Minefield by the Foundation is Can$32,860.
[78] Ibid.
[79] Funds raised by the Canadian Landmine Foundation are matched 3:1 by CIDA. The total contribution to this Adopt-A-Minefield by the Foundation is Can$85,374.
[80] Funds raised by the Canadian Landmine Foundation are matched 3:1 by CIDA. The total contribution to this Adopt-A-Minefield by the Foundation is Can$52,576.
[81] ADEILS is Asociaci\n para el Desarrollo de Iniciativas Locales Sostenibles/Association for the Development of Local Sustainable Initiatives.
[82] In April 2001 the CLF held a fundraising dinner in honor of former Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy for his contributions to the global landmine effort. The event raised Can$30,000, which will be used to support a mine awareness and victim assistance project in Gulu district in northern Uganda. Advisory Committee of the Canadian Landmine Foundation meeting minutes, 26 June 2001.
[83] DFAIT, “Measured Steps, 1999-2000 Report on the Canadian Landmine Fund,” March 2001; Mine Action Investments database, http://webapps.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/mai.
[84] See UN Mine Action Investment Database.
[85] The report is available at DFAIT’s “Safelane” website, www.mines.gc.ca.
[86] United Nations Development Programme, “A Study of Socio-Economic Approaches to Mine Action,” Geneva, March 2001. p. 2.
[87] Steven Edwards, “Landmine blasts hit Canadians, forces ordered off road after second explosion,” National Post, 15 March 2001; See Department of National Defense Archives at www.dnd.ca/eng/archive/2001/march01/14mine2_n_e.htm.
[88] Ibid.
[89] National Defence Media Liaison Office, NR-01.016, “A Canadian Armoured Vehicle Strikes a Mine,” 14 March 2001.
[90] DFAIT press release No. 62, “[Secretary of State for Africa] Kilgour to visit Canadian troops in Ethiopia and Eritrea,” Ottawa, 22 May 2001.