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Country Reports
CHAD, Landmine Monitor Report 2001
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Key developments since May 2000: A Landmine Impact Survey was completed in May 2001. Approximately 300 mine- and UXO-related casualties were recorded in the past two years. Chad has not submitted its Article 7 reports, due 29 April 2000 and 30 April 2001.

Mine Ban Policy

Chad signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 6 July 1998 and ratified it on 6 May 1999. The treaty entered into force for Chad on 1 November 1999. Chad has not enacted domestic implementation legislation.

Chad has not submitted its initial transparency report required under Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty, which was due 29 April 2000. An annual updated report was also due on 30 April 2001. Responding to a letter from the Canadian Embassy regarding the report, the government declared that the preparatory work for drafting the report revealed the need for technical, financial and material support estimated at US$55,000.[1] Chad indicated it would need to postpone submission of the report until six months after receiving the necessary resources.[2]

Chad did not attend the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in September 2000. According to a government official, “We were not present because we got the information only three days before the meeting.”[3] Chad has not participated in any of the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees. It was absent from the vote on the November 2000 UN General Assembly resolution supporting the Mine Ban Treaty.

Two representatives from Chad attended the Seminar on the Universalization and Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa, held in Bamako, Mali, on 15-16 February 2001. It actively participated in the workshop on victim assistance chaired by Handicap International, presenting the national situation and stressing “the importance of local capacities...and the necessity to place the victims in the center of political, medical and social processes.”[4]

Chad is not party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling and Use

Chad is not known to have produced or exported antipersonnel mines. It is believed that Chad has a sizable stockpile of antipersonnel mines, but no details are available to date.[5]

An article in the Economist in January 2001 stated that “the government was accused of relaying in other places the handful of mines it had cleared in the far north—and of signing a contract to buy new mines.”[6] Landmine Monitor has been unable to get clarification on the allegations, and has seen no evidence of government armed forces using antipersonnel mines. Mahamoud Adam Bechir, the Coordinator of the High Committee for National Demining (HCND), stated that Chad as party to the Mine Ban Treaty cannot use landmines, and that no transfer and no transit are allowed on the territory.[7]

Landmine Problem

According to Handicap International-Chad, approximately 200-250 localities are mine-affected and 1,200 localities are verified not to be mine-affected.[8] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000 for a general description of mined areas and mine types found.[9] More detail will be available when the results of a Level One Impact Survey are published around August 2001.[10]

While the exact number of mines buried in the ground remains unknown, existing records and reports indicate that hundreds of thousands of mines, perhaps as many as one million by official estimates, are planted in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti (BET) area in the northern part of the country.[11] The mines represent a threat on roads, on trails used by nomadic tribes, and at water points; they contribute to the isolation of the local population and reduce access of many villages to some important social services.

An undetermined number of mines (most likely a few thousand) are to be found in the eastern provinces of Biltine and Ouaddai, as well as in the southeast, in Salamat, Guera and Moyen-Chari. In those regions, the risk posed by minefields is higher as the density of the population is greater than in the north.[12]

There are also a large number of items of unexploded ordnance (UXO), by some estimates one million; this reportedly includes grenades, artillery shells, rockets, and clusters bombs from years of armed conflicts.[13]

Mine Action Funding

A number of donor meetings have been held in Chad as well as internationally, including four consultative meetings held with donors in N’djamena from April 1988 to September 2000.[14]

Chad’s Mine Action Program has benefited from support as follows: United States of America ($5.4 million), United Nations Development Program ($2.3 million) Government of Chad ($1.22 million), Japan ($389,000), United Kingdom ($480,000), Italy ($427,000), Canada ($166,000), Switzerland ($133,000), and France (logistical support). Other donors such as Russia, Sweden, Libya, UNICEF and the International Committee of the Red Cross have expressed an interest in supporting the mine action program in Chad.[15]

The US Department of State, ($964,000), the UK Department for International Development ($347,000) and the United Nations Foundation ($227,000) are funding the Chad Level One Survey.[16]

The US provided $1.78 million in assistance in its fiscal year 2000. This included training 78 deminers, provision of equipment, vehicles, and radios and support for air medivac.[17]

Germany donated 42 metal detectors to the demining operation of the German NGO HELP in Faya Largeau.[18] Switzerland provided funding for a Quality Assurance Advisor for eight months to the HCND Regional Mine Office in Faya Largeau.[19]

The US started supporting mine action in Chad in 1997 with demining training for Chadian military by US Army trainers. In July 1998, a “four-year, four-phase” bilateral program of support was initiated, composed of training for deminers and administrators, upgrade of infrastructure, and provision of equipment for HCND’s operations.[20]

France trained one Chadian demining company and the French Army then demined roads and major minefields in the region of Faya Largeau. France is also providing logistical support to the operations of HCND’s Regional Mine Office.[21]

UNDP’s contribution has allowed the strengthening of HCND’s planning capacities through the provision of a team of six technical advisors, and the launching of a mine/UXO clearance operation in Faya Largeau.[22] For 2001, UNDP had requested $4.02 million for the mine action program and as of 28 March, had received $1.44 million (36%); of $200,000 requested for the “Chad Survey Utilization Project,” it had received $50,000 (26%). UNICEF had requested $200,000 for mine awareness education and had not received any funds as of that date.[23]


There are three levels of coordination for mine action in Chad. The Inter-Ministerial High Committee, chaired by the Prime Minister, includes all the ministries, and ensures the coordination and integration of the national mine action strategy into the broader national development plan. It is unclear if this committee has ever met.

The High Committee for National Demining is responsible for the implementation of the national mine action plan. It operates under the responsibility of the Ministry of Economic Promotion and Development. Its includes the headquarters headed by a coordinator, and at the regional level, an office in Faya-Largeau and a national training school based in N’Djamena.

The Donors’ Committee consists of the local representatives of the donor countries and organizations which are actively financing the national mine action program. Its role is to provide advice and guidelines for the national mine action program, and guarantee transparency in resources management.[24]

Mine Action

A new national mine action plan for year 2001 has been formulated. Its main objectives include the reduction of human suffering caused by mines and UXO and the implementation of development plans in mine- and UXO-affected regions.[25] This plan was subject to revision and the final document was to be presented to the government by 1 April 2001.[26]

The Survey Action Center contracted Handicap International (HI) to conduct a Landmine Impact Survey in Chad. Sixty local staff divided into six teams were trained from mid-March through early May 2000. A pilot survey and data collection was carried out in mid-2000 in N’Djamena and in the western region (Kanem, Lac). Community level data collection was completed in mid-March 2001. Work was completed in May 2001; the final report is expected to be released by the Third Meeting of States Parties in September 2001.[27] The survey was faced with two main difficulties: the immensity of the country with little infrastructure and the multi-linguistic context of Chad.[28]

Mine clearance operations are underway in Faya Largeau by the German NGO HELP.[29] Faya Largeau and Borkou have been identified as national priority areas in the national mine action plan; the cleared areas will be returned to local population and activities to support mine victims will be set up.[30]

According to the National Mine Action Plan 2001, demining and UXO destruction will free land for productive use and allow development projects in affected areas. The plan calls for clearance of the town of Faya Largeau and its surrounding areas by 31 March 2001, with extension of clearance to a 40-kilometer radius; and clearance of Oweneille, Amoul, Zéguérdé, and Kémé minefields by 31 December 2001.

In November 2000, the International Secretariat of the World Organization Against Torture (OMCT) charged that Chadian armed forces in the north of the country were allegedly put on the front line in order to detect mines.[31] These allegations have not been confirmed by OMCT or other sources. Landmine Monitor has not been able to investigate these allegations, and is unaware of a response from the government of Chad.

Landmine Casualties

Reliable and comprehensive information on mine victims is hard to come by in Chad. Accidents taking place at great distance from medical facilities are unlikely to be officially recorded.[32] According to Handicap International, approximately 300 mine- and UXO-related casualties have been recorded during the last 24 months.[33] Approximately one-third resulted in death and another one-third in amputation.[34] Teenagers and goat and sheep herdsmen are particularly at risk. Chad has a considerable nomadic population and an unknown number of nomads have been killed or injured by mines or UXO. A large number of domestic animals upon which local economy depends are killed by mines and UXO.[35]

Survivor Assistance

Medical care and rehabilitation services for mine victims in Chad are generally rudimentary. Lack of medical infrastructure and evacuation results in an average of four to five days for victims to reach hospital care.[36] SECADEV, a Catholic development organization, supported by the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), is the only structure well equipped to deal with victim assistance services. ICRC is planning to help set up SECADEV in the northern, seriously-affected part of the country.[37]

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[1] Letter from Canadian High Commissioner, Ref. no. 076, Yaounde, Cameroon, 29 October 1999.
[2] Letter from the High Committee for National Demining, Ministry for Economic Promotion and Development, Ref. no. 310/MPD/ HCND/COORD/00, N’Djamena, 10 April 2000.
[3] Interview with Mahamoud Adam Bechir, Coordinator, High Committee for National Demining, N’Djamena, 1 February 2001.
[4] General report presented by Mali, Seminar on the Universalization and Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa, Bamako, Mali, 15-16 February 2001, par. 2.3.4. aide aux victimes.
[5] Interview with Lorne O’Brien, Chief Technical Advisor, HCND, N’Djamena, 31 January 2001.
[6] “Chad: Bleak December,” The Economist, 6 January 2001, pp. 42-43.
[7] Interview with Mahamoud Adam Bechir, HCND, N’Djamena, 1 February 2001.
[8] Interview with Marc Lucet, Coordinator, Handicap International–Chad, N’Djamena, 29 January 2001; email from HI, 31 July 2001.
[9] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 46-47.
[10] Survey Action Center, Global Landmine Survey, submission to Landmine Monitor, July 2001.
[11] Republic of Chad, “Follow-up to the Geneva IV Roundtable on Chad,” Geneva, 21-22 November 2000, p. 3.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Ibid.
[14] Ibid, p. 7.
[15] Ibid, p. 8.
[16] Global Landmine Survey, Chad Landmine Survey, January 2001 update.
[17] US Department of State, “Demining Program History,” 24 October 2000, and “FY00 NADR Project Status,” 27 December 2000.
[18] Republic of Chad, “Follow-up to the Geneva IV Roundtable on Chad,” Geneva, 21-22 November 2000, Annex 3, Matrix of Donors, p. 18.
[19] Ibid.
[20] Ibid.
[21] Ibid.
[22] Ibid.
[23] “Financial Overview of UN Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects,” as of 28 March 2001.
[24] Republic of Chad, “Follow-up to the Geneva IV Roundtable on Chad,” Geneva, 21-22 November 2000, Annex 1, Overview National Mine Action Strategy, 2000-2009, p. 12.
[25] Republic of Chad, “Follow-up to the Geneva IV Roundtable on Chad,” Geneva, 21-22 November 2000, Annex 2, National Mine Action 2001, p. 13.
[26] Interview with Mahamoud Adam Bechir and Lorne O’Brien, respectively Coordinator and Chief Technical Advisor of the High Committee for National Demining-HCND, N’Djamena, 31 January 2001.
[27] Interview with Marc Lucet, Handicap International, N’Djamena, 1 February 2001; email from Survey Action Center to Landmine Monitor (HRW), 23 July 2001; Survey Action Center, Global Landmine Survey, submission to Landmine Monitor, July 2001.
[28] Interview with Marc Lucet, Handicap International, N’Djamena, 1 February 2001.
[29] Interview with Mahamoud Adam Bechir and Lorne O’Brien, N’Djamena, 31 January 2001.
[30] Republic of Chad, “Follow-up to the Geneva IV Roundtable on Chad,” Geneva, 21-22 November 2000, Annex 2, National Mine Action 2001, p. 13.
[31] International Secretariat of OMCT, “Child Concern, Case TCD 201 100.CC,” 20 November 2000. See also, OMCT Press Release, “Chad: Government forces children to join the armed forces,” 20 April 2001.
[32] Interview with Alphonse Ngareyasse, Psychologist, mental health program, HI, University of N’Djamena, confirmed Landmine Monitor Report 2000 information, N’Djamena, 29 January 2001.
[33] Interview with Marc Lucet, Handicap International, N’Djamena, 1 February 2001; email from HI, 31 July 2001.
[34] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p 49.
[35] Ibid.
[36] Interview with Alphonse Ngareyasse, N’Djamena, 29 January 2001.
[37] Telephone interview with Paul Henry Arni, ICRC Representative in Chad, 30 January 2001.