+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
AFRICA, Key Developments - Landmine Monitor Report 2001
<Key Developments | Americas>

-Key Developments

States Parties

Benin. Benin has set up an interministerial commission to consider the measures needed nationally to implement the Mine Ban Treaty. With French support, Benin is establishing a regional demining training center open to other African countries, which should become operational in mid-2002.

Botswana. The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Botswana on 1 September 2000. As of July 2001, Botswana had not yet submitted its first Article 7 transparency report that was due on 28 February 2001.

Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso has proposed a draft decree, including penal sanctions for violation, to implement the Mine Ban Treaty at the national level. It submitted its first Article 7 transparency report on 4 December 2000.

Cape Verde. Cape Verde ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 14 May 2001.

Chad. A Landmine Impact Survey was completed in May 2001. Approximately 300 mine- and UXO-related casualties were recorded in the past two years. Chad has not submitted its Article 7 reports, due 29 April 2000 and 30 April 2001.

Congo-Brazzaville. Congo-Brazzaville acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 May 2001. A military official told Landmine Monitor that the country has a stockpile of some 700-900,000 antipersonnel mines, and that an inventory of all the stocks is being conducted throughout the country by the army. This is the first time Congo-Brazzaville revealed information about its mine stockpile.

Côte d’Ivoire. Côte d’Ivoire became a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty on 1 December 2000. The Article 7 transparency report, due at the end of May 2001, had not yet been submitted as of July. A Côte d’Ivoire Campaign to Ban Landmines was established in December 2000.

Djibouti. In February 2001, a National Mine Action Center was inaugurated in Djibouti. In November 2000, Djibouti hosted a conference on landmines for the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden states. Djibouti has not yet submitted its first Article 7 report, due in August 1999.

Gabon. Gabon ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 8 September 2000 and became a State Party on 1 March 2001.

Ghana. Ghana ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 30 June 2000 and it entered into force on 1 December 2000.

Guinea-Bissau. Guinea-Bissau ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 22 May 2001. The nongovernmental organization HUMAID began demining operations in January 2000, and through February 2001 had cleared some 44,392 square meters of land, removing 1,284 antipersonnel mines, 45 antitank mines, and 264 UXO, mostly in Bissau city. In mid-2000 the UNDP began support aimed at creation of an integrated mine action program in Guinea-Bissau. A national mine action coordination body, the National Center for Coordination of Anti-mines Actions (CAAMI), was established in late 2000, and a draft National Humanitarian Mine Action Program (PAAMI) was prepared in early 2001.

Kenya. Kenya ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 23 January 2001. UXO victims in Kenya are currently seeking legal redress from the British government, which undertakes joint military training exercises in northern Kenya. British Royal Engineers started clearing munitions early April 2001.

Liberia. The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for Liberia on 1 June 2000. An independent panel of experts is investigating UN allegations that weapons including antipersonnel mines have been imported by Liberia in violation of the UN embargo. Despite fighting in Lofa county in Liberia there are no reports of mine use.

Malawi. There was one mine incident in Malawi in 2000, resulting in five casualties. Malawi reports that it is in the process of enacting national implementing legislation, but it has still not submitted its required Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 report, due on 28 August 1999. In December 2000, the United States did not approve Malawi for US demining assistance.

Mali. Mali has adopted legislation to implement the Mine Ban Treaty at the national level. In February 2001, Mali hosted the Bamako Seminar on the Universalization and Implementation of the Ottawa Convention in Africa, attended by 45 African governments. Mali’s initial transparency report required by Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 was finally submitted on 17 May 2001.

Mauritania. On 1 January 2001, Mauritania became the 100th State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. A two-year US assistance program has helped create a long-term indigenous mine action program in Mauritania. By early 2001, 141 hectares and 202 kilometers of roads had been cleared, 27 minefields had been identified and some 3,200 antipersonnel mines and 2,300 unexploded shells destroyed. Mauritania has reported destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile (about 5,000 mines), and intends to keep 5,918 antipersonnel mines for training purposes.

Mauritius. Mauritius enacted the Anti-Personnel Mines (Prohibition) Act in April 2001. As of July 2001, Mauritius had still not submitted its first Article 7 report, due on 27 August 1999.

Mozambique. According to the National Demining Institute, in 2000 a total of 4.98 million square meters of land was cleared, including over 317 kilometers of road. Landmine casualties continued to decline dramatically, from 133 casualties in 1998, to 60 in 1999, to 25 in 2000. The initial findings of the Mozambique Landmine Impact Survey were released in June 2001. It found that all ten provinces and 123 out of 128 districts in Mozambique are mine-affected. The survey identified 1,374 suspected mined areas, covering an estimated 562 square kilometers. Mozambique submitted its first Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report, which provided the first public details on Mozambique’s stockpile of 37,818 antipersonnel mines.

Namibia. It appears that both Angolan UNITA rebel forces and Angolan government forces have used antipersonnel mines inside Namibia. The number of mine incidents has risen dramatically since 1999. Police statistics show that in 2000, 14 people were killed and 125 injured in mine incidents. The US-sponsored mine clearance program came to end on 8 February 2001. Namibia has still failed to submit its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report due on 27 August 1999.

Rwanda. There are serious allegations of antipersonnel mine use by Rwandan troops in the Democratic Republic of Congo, particularly in June 2000. Rwanda denies the allegations. Mine clearance operations resumed in Rwanda in June 2000. As a result by January 2001, 2,966 mines and UXO were removed and 11,337 square meters of land were cleared for resettlement.

Senegal. There continue to be allegations of use of mines by the MFDC rebels. The number of new mine casualties decreased slightly to fifty-seven in 2000.

Seychelles. Seychelles ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 2 June 2000 and became a State Party on 1 December 2000.

Sierra Leone. Sierra Leone ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 25 April 2001. Sierra Leone has acknowledged that it has a small stockpile of 900 antipersonnel mines.

South Africa. South Africa has continued to play a leading role in the intersessional work program of the Mine Ban Treaty. South African companies continued to carry out mine clearance operations and extensive research and development on demining technology and mine clearance equipment.
Tanzania. Tanzania ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 13 November 2000. The treaty came into force for Tanzania on 1 May 2001. Tanzania is the only State Party that has not revealed whether or not it currently maintains a stockpile of antipersonnel mines. Field visits by Landmine Monitor to the border area between Tanzania and Burundi showed that there continue to be landmine victims arriving from Burundi in northwest refugee camps.

Togo: Togo became a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty on 1 September 2000, but has not yet adopted national measures to implement the treaty or submitted its first Article 7 transparency report. In December 2000, four local NGOs established the Togolese Campaign to Ban Antipersonnel Mines

Uganda: Landmine Monitor has continued to receive disturbing reports that indicate a strong possibility of use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo in June 2000. Landmine Monitor believes that these serious and credible allegations merit the urgent attention of States Parties, who should consult with the Ugandan government and other relevant actors in order to seek clarification, establish the facts, and resolve these questions regarding compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty. The Ugandan government denies that it used antipersonnel mines in the DRC.
There continue to be new mine casualties in northern Uganda. The Mines Advisory Group completed the first assessment of the mine situation in Uganda in May 2001.

Zambia. Zambia ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 23 February 2001; the treaty entered into force for Zambia on 1 August 2001. UNMAS carried out an assessment mission in May-June 2000, and the US State Department conducted an assessment mission in October 2000.

Zimbabwe. In January 2001, Zimbabwe enacted The Anti-Personnel Mines (Prohibition) Act, 2000. In November 2000, Zimbabwe destroyed its stockpile of 4,092 antipersonnel mines. It has decided to retain 700 mines for permitted training purposes. European Union-funded mine clearance was terminated in December 2000. Zimbabwean officials strongly denied allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by Zimbabwean forces deployed in the DR Congo, as reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2000. Zimbabwe became co-chair of the Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention in September 2000.


Angola. Both government and UNITA forces have continued to use antipersonnel mines, even though the Angolan Parliament approved ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty in July 2000. Major mine action NGOs report clearing some 5.8 million square meters of land in 2000. INAROEE reported that 1,335 antipersonnel mines, 51 antivehicle mines, and 75,017 UXO were destroyed through clearance operations. UNICEF reports that mine awareness campaigns reached more than 237,000 people in 2000. During 2000, there were 840 landmine and UXO casualties recorded.

Burundi. It seems certain that antipersonnel mines have continued to be used in the ongoing conflict in Burundi. There have been allegations of use by both government and rebel forces. Landmine Monitor has not been able to obtain conclusive evidence regarding which belligerents are responsible for mine use. The government appointed an interministerial commission to oversee and facilitate the Mine Ban Treaty ratification process.

Cameroon. Although Cameroon has passed national legislation to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty, as of July 2001 it had not deposited its instrument of ratification with the United Nations. Despite not being a State Party, on 14 March 2001 it submitted a transparency report as required by Mine Ban Treaty Article 7; it declared a stockpile of 500 antipersonnel mines.

Ethiopia. The border war between Ethiopia and Eritrea came to an end in June 2000. A variety of mine action activities are underway. A Mine Action Coordination Center has been established within the United Nations Mission on Eritrea and Ethiopia, and the government has created an Ethiopian Mine Action Office. The NGO HALO Trust conducted a rapid assessment survey. Mine awareness activities and survivor assistance programs expanded. Still, there were 170 new mine casualties in just the Tigray region in 2000.
There have continued to be reports of mine use by Ethiopia as well as Eritrea during their border war from May 1998 to June 2000. While Landmine Monitor does not have conclusive evidence, there are strong indications that Ethiopian forces used antipersonnel mines during the conflict. In June and July 2001 letters to Landmine Monitor, the Minister of Foreign Affairs denied any use of antipersonnel mines by Ethiopia.

Sudan. There are strong indications that both government and rebel forces in Sudan continued to use antipersonnel mines. The government continues to deny use. The first meeting of the Sudan Mine Network, established to coordinate mine action, was held in April 2001. Between September 1997 and March 2001 clearance teams have removed 2,816 antipersonnel mines, 411 antitank mines, and 88,019 UXO. Sudan has recovered 2,972,024 square meters of land, along with 676 miles of road.


Central African Republic. The Central African Republic, a non-signatory, attended the Bamako Seminar on the Universalization and Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa, in February 2001, and also attended the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in May 2001. The Central African Republic had never before participated in international diplomatic landmine meetings.

Democratic Republic of Congo. The government of President Joseph Kabila has expressed its intention to join the Mine Ban Treaty. The DRC reportedly completed the domestic procedures necessary to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty on 28 March 2001. However, as of July the instrument of accession had not yet been formally deposited at the United Nations. Since May 2000, there has been continued use of antipersonnel mines in the DRC, even as the fragile peace takes hold. An April 2001 UN report stated, “During the disengagement phase, [UN observers] received information indicating the presence of minefields laid by the belligerent forces to protect their front-line positions,” and remarked on “both the increased number of new defensive positions and the danger of mines.” Landmine Monitor has been unable to confirm definitively which of the fighting parties have used antipersonnel mines. In light of continued serious allegations regarding use by Mine Ban Treaty States Parties, Landmine Monitor strongly urges States Parties as a matter of priority to consult, seek clarifications, and cooperate with each other to establish the facts and resolve questions regarding antipersonnel mine use in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Eritrea. Since the border war between Eritrea and Ethiopia came to an end in June 2000, Eritrea has acknowledged use of antipersonnel mines during the conflict. A variety of mine action activities are underway. A Mine Action Coordination Center has been set up within the United Nations Mission on Eritrea and Ethiopia (UNMEE). The Eritrean Mine Action Center has been established as the coordinator of all mine action in Eritrea. The HALO Trust has conducted a rapid assessment survey of danger areas. Training of deminers is underway. Eritrea has submitted to UNMEE a detailed map and 313 comprehensive minefield records.

Nigeria: On 10 May 2000, the Federal Executive Council resolved that Nigeria should join the Mine Ban Treaty. The decision of the Council is in the process of being implemented.

Somalia. According to UNDP Somalia, as of July 2001, a Puntland Mine Action Center was being established and a Mogadishu Mine Action Center will be established in September 2001. UNDP Somalia indicates demining in Somalia can begin in October 2001. The Survey Action Center carried out an Advance Survey Mission in March 2001. Agreement of government authorities has been obtained to conduct a Landmine Impact Survey. In 2000, in two regions of central Somalia, there were 147 mine casualties.


Somaliland. In March 2001, the Survey Action Center carried out an Advance Survey Mission in Somaliland and several regions of Somalia to plan for a comprehensive Landmine Impact Survey. The HALO Trust, the Danish Demining Group and others continued mine clearance activities. Following a mine ban advocacy workshop held 27-28 October 2000, the Somaliland authorities reportedly created a ministerial level commission to plan the destruction of landmine stocks. There were 107 landmine/UXO casualties recorded in Somaliland in 2000