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AMERICAS, Key Developments - Landmine Monitor Report 2001
<Africa | Asia-Pacific>

-Key Developments

States Parties

Argentina. Argentina co-hosted a regional seminar on stockpile destruction in November 2000. Argentina submitted its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report, which made public for the first time details on its stockpile of 89,170 antipersonnel mines. An Office for Humanitarian Demining has been established in the Office of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Bolivia. For the first time, Bolivia provided detailed information to Landmine Monitor on Chilean minefields near its border. In January 2001 parliamentarians from Bolivia and Chile met and issued a joint declaration on demining their common border. Bolivia has not submitted its required Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report annual updates in 2000 and 2001.

Brazil. Domestic legislation to implement the Mine Ban Treaty is currently before the Senate. Brazil submitted its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report, which made public for the first time details about Brazil’s stockpile of 34,562 antipersonnel mines. Brazil intends to retain 16,550 mines for training, the most of any State Party.

Canada. Canada has continued to play its leadership role in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It coordinated the Universalization Contact Group, and co-organized regional conferences in Mali, Mongolia and Poland. It took responsibility for work related to operationalizing Article 8 on compliance. It promoted stockpile destruction, including co-organizing seminars in Buenos Aires and Budapest. It has served as co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance. The government contributed US$14.6 million to mine action programs.

Colombia. Colombia ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 6 September 2000. Guerrilla groups continued to use antipersonnel landmines. Landmine Monitor identified a growing number of mine-affected areas, including at least 168 municipalities in 27 departments in all five regions of Colombia. A new pilot project on mine awareness and victim assistance is being implemented in 16 municipalities. A total of 83 mine casualties were recorded in 2000, an increase from 63 in 1999. From January through July 2001, 138 mine casualties were recorded. Colombia has reported a stockpile of 18,294 antipersonnel landmines.

Costa Rica. Domestic implementation legislation has been introduced to the Legislative Assembly. Costa Rica has not yet submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report, due by 27 February 2000. According to current plans, mine clearance is due to be completed in July 2002.

Dominican Republic. The Dominican Republic ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 30 June 2000.

Ecuador. Ecuador and the Organization of American States signed a Framework Agreement for an Integrated Mine Action Program in Ecuador. Ecuador has reported that it is retaining 16,000 antipersonnel mines for training, the second highest number of any State Party.

El Salvador. For the first time, the Armed Forces has told Landmine Monitor that El Salvador has a stockpile of 5,657 antipersonnel mines. Although the government has declared itself “mine-free,” the International Demining Group, and its partner organization CORDES, identified 53 mine- and UXO-affected sites in Chalatenango, Cabañas, Cucatlán and Usulután departments. A mine action project, including demining, by IDG was scheduled to start in late 2001. El Salvador has not submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report, due 27 December 1999.

Guatemala. Clearance of unexploded ordnance in the northern areas of El Quiché department was completed in March 2001; clearance of all 13 departments considered high risk is scheduled for completion by 2004. There were no reported casualties in 2000 or 2001. Guatemala submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report on 2 March 2001.

Honduras. On 2 November 2000 Honduras destroyed its stockpile of 7,441 antipersonnel mines, except for an uncertain number retained for training purposes. Honduras is serving as co-rapporteur of the intersessional Standing Committee on Victim Assistance. The mine clearance operation along the border is scheduled for completion in September 2001.

Nicaragua. Nicaragua is the host of the Third Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, which takes place from 18 to 21 September 2001 in Managua. Since September 2000, Nicaragua has served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance. A total of 70,000 antipersonnel mines have been destroyed from stockpiles since 1999, and stockpile destruction is scheduled for completion by December 2002. As of April 2001, a total of 2.1 million square meters of land had been cleared, including 64,874 landmines. More than 70,000 mines were still in the ground at 369 mined areas along the border with Honduras and 39 sites in the interior. Mine clearance along Nicaragua’s border with Costa Rica was reported completed in April 2001. New mine victims including fatalities are reported in 2001.

Perú. Perú has served as co-chair of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Mine Clearance. Perú reduced the number of antipersonnel mines it intends to retain for training to 5,578. From March 2000 through July 2001, Peru destroyed 117,506 stockpiled antipersonnel mines. An interministerial Foreign Affairs and Defense Working Group was established in 2000 to coordinate mine action and develop a national plan. In May 2001, Perú and the Organization of American States signed an agreement to support integrated mine action in the country. New mine casualties were reported in 2000 and 2001, both civilian and military.

Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago became the first Caribbean state to adopt domestic implementing legislation in September 2000

Uruguay. Uruguay ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 7 June 2001. The Ministry of Defense provided Landmine Monitor with details on its stockpile and destruction. As of July 2001, Uruguay had a stockpile of 1,918 antipersonnel mines, and it had destroyed a total of 242 stockpiled antipersonnel mines since May 2000.

Venezuela. As of July 2001, Venezuela had not yet submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report, due 29 March 2000. Venezuelan military sources indicate that Venezuela holds a small number of antipersonnel mines in stock for training purposes.


Chile. In May 2001 the Chilean Senate passed ratification legislation. As of July 2001, the President had not signed the legislation into law. The Army has approximately 25,000 antipersonnel mines stockpiled. The Navy destroyed 2,000 M16 mines on 6 November 2000. There are no reports of significant mine clearance operations. Landmine Monitor fieldwork has produced new information on mined areas.


United States of America. A White House-directed landmine policy review began in June 2001. Decisions are pending on the continued development and production of two key alternatives to antipersonnel mines, RADAM and NSD-A, both of which may be inconsistent with the Mine Ban Treaty. The total budget for the landmine alternatives program was nearly $50 million in fiscal year 2000; spending estimates for fiscal years 2001 and 2002 are $100 million for each year. The United States contributed $97 million to mine action programs in 37 countries is fiscal year 2000 and plans to spend a comparable amount in fiscal year 2001. The U.S. Campaign to Ban Landmines hosted the ICBL’s General Meeting and held a “Ban Landmines Week” in Washington, DC in March 2001. There were two mine incidents that injured U.S. military personnel during the reporting period, in Kosovo and South Korea.