+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
ASIA-PACIFIC, Key Developments - Landmine Monitor Report 2001
<Americas | Europe/Central Asia>

- Key Developments

States Parties

Australia. The Australian government announced a collaborative program with the Australian Network of the ICBL to encourage universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty in the Southeast Asia region. Australia was named President of the Review Conference of the CCW. Australia became co-rapporteur of the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction. It destroyed another 6,460 previously unrecorded antipersonnel mines and revised downward the number of antipersonnel mines retained for training purposes to 7,845. Australia provided clarification that it is a former producer of antipersonnel mines. Approximately US$6.8 million was committed or spent on mine action programs in the 2000/2001 fiscal year.

Bangladesh. On 6 September 2000 Bangladesh ratified the Mine Ban Treaty, and it entered into force on 1 March 2001. According to Bangladesh officials, Myanmar government forces have continued to plant antipersonnel mines inside Bangladesh territory. From January 2000 to March 2001, at least nine people were killed and six injured by landmines.

Cambodia. A comprehensive Cambodian National Level One Survey is underway and is expected to be completed by the end of 2001. In the year 2000: a total of 32.2 million square meters of land was cleared, including 22,613 antipersonnel mines; mine awareness education was provided in 903 villages, reaching 627,244 people; and 802 people were injured or killed in mine incidents, a decrease of 24 percent from the previous year. An additional 328 people were injured or killed between January and April 2001. In September 2000, a new coordinating body, the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority, was established. The Cambodian Mine Action Center faced a funding crisis that resulted in the lay-off of most CMAC employees and the closure of the bulk of demining operations on 13 October 2000. Although Cambodia declared in 1999 that it destroyed all of its stockpiled antipersonnel mines, local communities have said that many military regions still have stores of antipersonnel mines.

Japan. Japan has served as the co-chair of the Mine Ban Treaty’s Standing Committee on Victim Assistance since September 2000. Japan destroyed more than 220,000 antipersonnel mines by the end of February 2001, and expects to destroy an additional 380,000 by the end of February 2002. After increasing significantly to $13.2 million in 1999, Japanese mine action funding decreased to $11.86 million in 2000. On 26 December 2000, Japan announced a new commitment to provide 500 million yen for research and development of new demining technology.

Kiribati. Kiribati acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 7 September 2000.

Malaysia. In January 2001, Malaysia completed the destruction of all 94,721 antipersonnel mines in its stockpile. Malaysia has served as the co-chair of the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction since September 2000. Domestic legislation, the Anti-Personnel Mines Convention Implementation Act 2000, took effect on 15 June 2000.

Maldives. Maldives ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 7 September 2000 and it entered into force for Maldives on 1 March 2001.

Nauru. Nauru acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 7 August 2000.

New Zealand. New Zealand has continued its international advocacy in support of the Mine Ban Treaty, and its financial and in-kind contributions to mine action programs. In March 2001, it co-hosted a United Nations Asia-Pacific Regional Disarmament Conference, which included discussion on landmines.

Philippines. The Mine Ban Treaty entered into force for the Philippines on 1 August 2000. Increased hostilities resulted in increased landmine use by three rebel groups: the Moro Islamic Liberation Front, the New People’s Army, and the Abu Sayyaf Group. The Armed Forces of the Philippines identified 40 landmine incidents in 2000, resulting in 64 casualties, including 19 civilians. Although the Philippines previously destroyed all of its Claymore mines, it is now pursuing the possibility of acquiring new Claymore mines.

Thailand. A Level One Landmine Impact Survey was carried out from September 2000-May 2001. The survey identified 530 mine-affected communities in 27 provinces, and recorded 3,472 mine victims, including 350 injured or killed during the last two years. Since August 2000, two new Humanitarian Mine Action Units have been organized, trained, and deployed. A total of 69,346 stockpiled antipersonnel mines were destroyed from January through June 2001. Thailand has decided to reduce the number of mines retained for training to 4,970. In September 2000, Thailand became co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention. Thailand has accused Myanmar forces of laying mines inside Thailand.


Afghanistan. In the year 2000, an average of about 88 mine and UXO casualties per month were recorded, a sharp decline from recorded casualties in 1999. In 2000, mine action organizations marked and mapped about 126 million square meters of mine and UXO contaminated land, and cleared about 104 million square meters of mine and UXO contaminated land. A total of 13,542 antipersonnel mines, 636 antitank mines and 298,828 UXO were destroyed during these clearance operations. Mine awareness organizations provided formal mine awareness training to more than one million people. MAPA experienced a severe shortage of funds in 2000 and as a result could not achieve its operational targets for the year and had to lay off five manual mine clearance teams, two technical survey teams and two international experts. Mine action operations were suspended in Badghais and Faryab provinces after seven mine awareness workers were killed in August 2000. The Taliban and their opposition, the Northern Alliance, have accused each other of laying new landmines. The Northern Alliance denied use to Landmine Monitor, but admitted to an EU mission that they continued to use antipersonnel mines.

Burma (Myanmar). Myanmar government forces and at least eleven ethnic armed groups continue to lay antipersonnel mines in significant numbers. The governments of Bangladesh and Thailand both protested use of mines by Myanmar forces inside their respective countries. In a disturbing new development, mine use is alleged to be taking place under the direction of loggers and narcotics traffickers, as well as by government and rebel forces.

India. India has for the first time designed a remotely-delivered antipersonnel mine system for trial evaluation and prototype production. It has also designed for production a detectable version of its hand-laid, non-metallic M14 mine. According to government sources, 129 civilians were killed and 715 were injured as a result of landmine and IED incidents in Jammu and Kashmir in 2000.

Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. The leaders of North Korea and South Korea discussed the landmine issue at their June 2000 summit meeting. North Korea agreed to build a transportation linkage across the Demilitarized Zone requiring a major mine clearance operation in the DMZ in 2001, but the project has been suspended.

Republic of Korea. In September 2000, South Korea began a transport linkage project across the DMZ that will require clearing thousands of landmines, but the project has been suspended. South Korea states it cleared 1,100 antipersonnel mines below the DMZ and 4,800 antipersonnel mines in the rear areas in 2000. There were six civilian and thirteen military mine casualties reported in 2000. South Korea produced about 7,000 KM18A1 Claymore mines in 2000. South Korea ratified CCW Amended Protocol II on 9 May 2001.

Lao P.D.R. In 2000, 7.42 million square meters of land were cleared and 80,538 UXO and mines were destroyed. In the half of 2001, 43,851 UXO and mines were destroyed. According to UXO LAO, in 2000, 39 people were killed and 63 injured by UXO.

Mongolia. Ministry of Defense officials acknowledge the existence of significant stockpiles of antipersonnel mines. A government-sponsored conference on landmines was held on 27-28 June 2001.
Nepal. Maoist rebels have used homemade landmines in ever-greater numbers as conflict expands. There are now serious indications that government police forces may be using mines as well. Parliamentarians have confirmed that the Army has a stockpile of antipersonnel mines. The government reported 2,456 mine incidents, killing 1,366 people, from February 1996 to June 2000. For the year 2000, the Nepal Campaign to Ban Landmines identified 182 casualties from landmines and improvised explosive devices.
Pakistan. It appears Pakistan is engaged in new production of both hand-emplaced detectable mines and remotely delivered mines. Pakistan is continuing to modify its stockpile of low metal content mines. From August to December 2000, the non-governmental organization Human Survival and Development (HSD) carried out an assessment mission in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and collected data on landmine victims in the Bajaur Agency. This household survey identified 599 landmine victims since 1980. In 2000, 31 people were killed or injured by landmines in Bajaur Agency. HSD launched the first mine awareness program in August 2000. As of December 2000 it had reached 24,076 people, in about 147 villages of the Bajaur Agency.

Singapore. The Ministry of Defense acknowledges that Singapore continues to produce antipersonnel mines, and asserts that it has a stockpile “for training and defensive purposes only.”

Sri Lanka. Increased fighting has resulted in increased use of antipersonnel mines by government and LTTE forces, and increased military and civilian mine casualties. UN mine action and mine awareness programs have been terminated. In March 2001, a Symposium on the Impact of Landmines in Sri Lanka was held in Colombo, and in May 2001, a Conference on the Use of Landmines by Non-State Actors was held in Colombo.

Vietnam. The government has carried out clearance activity related to construction of the new Ho Chi Minh national highway. Clearance by non-governmental organizations has expanded. The US and Vietnam signed their first mine action assistance agreement. An advance survey mission was conducted in May 2001 in preparation for a national Landmine/UXO Impact Survey.


Taiwan In March 2001, the Ministry of National Defense confirmed that Taiwan no longer uses, produces, or transfers antipersonnel mines. Clearance operations continue on Kinmen Island.