+   *    +     +     
About Us 
The Issues 
Our Research Products 
Order Publications 
Press Room 
Resources for Monitor Researchers 
Table of Contents
Country Reports
NAMIBIA, Landmine Monitor Report 2001
<Previous | Next>


Key developments since May 2000: It appears that both Angolan UNITA rebel forces and Angolan government forces have used antipersonnel mines inside Namibia. The number of mine incidents has risen dramatically since 1999. Police statistics show that in 2000, 14 people were killed and 125 injured in mine incidents. The US-sponsored mine clearance program came to end on 8 February 2001. Namibia has still failed to submit its initial Mine Ban Treaty Article 7 transparency report due on 27 August 1999.

Related Report:

Mine Ban Policy

Namibia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 21 September 1998. It entered into force on 1 March 1999. Although no formal national implementation legislation has been passed, the Mine Ban Treaty, like all other international treaties to which the country is a State Party, has become part of national law under the provisions of the Namibian Constitution.[1]

As of 25 May 2001, Namibia had not submitted its initial transparency report as required under Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty. The report was due by 27 August 1999, with annual updates due on 30 April 2000 and 20 April 2001. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) has failed to respond to concerns raised by the Namibian Campaign to Ban Landmines (NCBL) regarding the failure to meet this treaty obligation.[2]

Namibia did not participate in the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in September 2000. It did not attend the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in December 2000 and May 2001. However, Namibia did send a representative to the Bamako Seminar on the Universalization and Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa, held in Mali in February 2001. Namibia voted in favor of the November 2000 UN General Assembly Resolution 55/33V supporting the Mine Ban Treaty.

Namibia is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, Transfer and Stockpiling

Namibia denies that it has ever produced or exported antipersonnel mines.[3]

In January 2001, the Namibian Defence Force (NDF) undertook a military operation that targeted a number of UNITA (Angola rebel) bases and depots up to 100 kilometers inside Angola. A large assortment of South African, Russian and Chinese-made weaponry was seized, including more than 60 boxes containing over 600 antipersonnel mines of South African origin.[4] On 31 December 2000 and 21 February 2001 the Namibian Defence Force displayed an assortment of antipersonnel mines and antitank mines allegedly captured from UNITA forces in southern Angola.[5] When the NCBL argued that bringing mines into the country violated the Mine Ban Treaty prohibition on transfer, an NDF spokesman, Frans Nghitila, stated, "Antipersonnel mines brought into Namibia were not meant for any other purpose than just to display...that these are the weapons used to maim our people. This is not a transfer."[6]

Namibian officials have stated that all antipersonnel mines were destroyed by May 1998, and that only a small stockpile has been retained for training purposes.[7] In a letter to Landmine Monitor in July 2001, the government of Namibia said, “Subsequent to the ratification of the Convention in July 1998, the Namibian Government completed the destruction of all APMs except those retained for training purposes, as permitted by the Convention.” Additionally, it stated, “The commitment of the Namibian Government to the enforcement of, and compliance with the provisions of the Convention, in particular Article 1 thereof, is further illustrated by the fact that the Government has destroyed all APMs Namibian forces have captured from UNITA arms depots during military operations along Namibia’s border with Angola. The media were also invited to witness such destruction earlier this year.”[8] No details have been provided on either the number and types of mines retained for training purposes, or those destroyed.

In 1999, Namibia gave permission for its territory to be used by Angolan government troops as a base for attacks on UNITA positions in southeastern Angola.[9] Consequently, Angolan government forces, Forças Armadas Angolanas (FAA), have used Namibian military bases and other facilities to store and transfer weapons and ammunition to or from combat zones in the southern and southeastern regions of Angola bordering Namibia as well as in the northern and northeastern parts of the host country. There have been allegations that the weapons include antipersonnel mines and antitank mines.


In its report for 2000, Landmine Monitor reported on mine use in Namibia by UNITA forces, and allegations of Angolan government use as well.[10] In this reporting period, there is ongoing use by UNITA, more numerous reports of use by Angolan forces, and the first allegations, still unsubstantiated, of use by Namibian forces.


According to the US State Department’s human rights report for Namibia for 2000, “UNITA used landmines, which resulted in dozens of deaths and numerous injuries of civilians and security force officers.... There also was some evidence that FAA members used landmines in villages.”[11]

Namibian authorities state that all mine explosions in the volatile Kavango and Caprivi regions are to be blamed on UNITA.[12] A police report on mine incidents in those areas reads, "It is critically important, in order to prevent wrong perceptions, that every explosion/mine incident is thoroughly investigated with the prime objective to find physical and accurate forensic evidence to link UNITA to the scene of crime. This will help to expose those criminals publicly in respect of the inhumane use of anti-personnel mines against innocent civilians."[13]

In April 2000, IRIN reported that two villagers in the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia were injured when a truck they were travelling in detonated explosives along the Namibian-Angolan border road. According to Warrant Officer Johannes Nangutuwala of the Namibian police explosives unit, the explosive was a 120mm mortar connected to an antipersonnel landmine. It was speculated that the landmine could have been planted by UNITA soldiers as it was a new mine.[14]

On the 23 May 2001, it was reported that two Special Field Force members and one soldier were seriously wounded when they detonated an antipersonnel landmine at Mutc’iku.[15]

In June 2001, a UNITA representative responded to allegations of UNITA use by stating, “There needs to be positive proof of Unita’s involvement in planting mines and killing Namibian villagers, not just propaganda!”[16]


A number of reported incidents suggest that members of the Angolan Armed Forces were also responsible for planting antipersonnel mines.[17] On 24 May 2000, media reports citing human rights groups and other sources in the Kavango region said five FAA members were arrested and faced terrorist charges, including the possession of antipersonnel mines.[18] Those arrested were “deported” to Angola before trial could be held in Namibian courts.[19]

On 19 December 2000, National Society for Human Rights (NSHR) field monitors reported that FAA troops hacked to death several civilians at a Namibian village and, as they withdrew, planted antipersonnel mines injuring or killing at least two people.[20] On 12 February 2001, FAA members reportedly planted several antipersonnel mines in a Namibian village and a man lost a leg in a mine explosion.[21] On 17 February 2001, some 200 residents of Tjeje villages in the Kavango region accused both FAA and UNITA of being responsible for several attacks, including the planting of antipersonnel mines, at the village.[22] On 20 February 2001 FAA forces reportedly planted several antipersonnel mines at another Namibian village in which at least two people lost their legs.[23]


There are some allegations of mine use by the Namibian Defence Force. On 22 January 2001, a Herero-speaking NDF member informed NSHR monitors at Grootfontein that both NDF and FAA forces were "planting mines" against UNITA forces in southern Angola. A Rukwangali-speaking NDF soldier told NSHR human rights monitors at Rundu on 23 February 2001 that both NDF and FAA troops have used antipersonnel mines against UNITA forces at Katwitwi in southern Angola. Landmine Monitor could find no evidence to substantiate these allegations, and the allegations were strongly denied by the NDF.[24]

On 18 January 2001, a local newspaper reported that members of the Namibian police force transported "light and heavy ammunitions, as well as anti-personnel mines," from the central to the northeastern areas of the country, in order to protect bases of Namibian security forces against UNITA rebel attacks.[25]

Assisting in Mine Use

Landmine Monitor has expressed concern that Namibia could be in violation of the Mine Ban Treaty, Article 1, if it was “assisting” Angolan forces that might be using antipersonnel mines in joint operations.[26] Moreover, Namibia could be in violation if it were to permit the transfer, stockpiling or use of antipersonnel mines on its territory by Angolan forces.

In response to a Landmine Monitor letter of 25 May 2001, expressing concern about Namibia’s possible violation of Article 1 regarding assistance, the Namibian government responded, “Since the ratification of the [Mine Ban Treaty], the Namibian Defence Force has never used anti-personnel mines or assisted any other forces in the use thereof, both in its internal and international military operations.... The Government of the Republic of Namibia...denies any use or assistance to use anti-personnel mines by its forces. Such an allegation would thus lack any factual basis.”[27]

The government has also stated that the Angolan army is “prohibited from transiting weapons like mines through Namibia.”[28]

Landmine Problem

Toward the end of 1999, an assessment mission from UNMAS visited the country and concluded, “The landmine situation in Namibia constitutes neither a humanitarian emergency nor a major obstacle for development.... The mine problem in Namibia is finite, well known and could be solved relatively quickly given the appropriate resources and co-ordination. Therefore, Namibia could become the first, or one of the first, mine-affected countries to declare itself mine free.” [29]

But, as noted above, there is a growing mine and UXO problem in the Ohangwena, Kavango and Caprivi regions of the country due to the low intensity armed conflict involving Namibian, Angolan, and UNITA forces. Mines and UXO are also still present in certain areas in the densely populated Kaokoland, Owambo, Kavango, and Caprivi Strip districts in the northwestern, northern, and northeastern regions of the country. [30]

Mine Action Funding

The US began funding a range of mine action programs in 1995. This included “train-the-trainer” programs for mine clearance, establishment of a national demining office, equipment and mine awareness programs. Total US mine action funding to the Namibian government through 1999 was $8.3 million. An additional $492,000 was contributed in fiscal year 2000, and an expected $100,000 in 2001, primarily for mine clearance along the power lines.[31]

The US-sponsored mine clearance program came to end on 8 February 2001.[32] At that time, the United States transferred to the NDF demining equipment worth more than US$2 million.[33] This equipment includes a prototype berm processor, front-end loaders and bulldozers as well as hand-held mine detectors, body armor, global positioning systems, computers and HF/UHF radio communication equipment.

The US has provided funding for logistical support and maintenance of demining equipment as well as the upgrading of NDF Werewolf demining vehicles. Vehicles, demining and communication equipment were also provided to the Explosives Unit of the Namibian police to respond to, and, investigate mine and UXO reports in civilian communities.[34]

For nearly two months, a US army civil affairs team helped the government establish a computerized demining tracking capacity. This included a basic computer course taught by a University of Namibia instructor and an advanced computer course given to NDF personnel to help them better manage and track demining operations.[35]

Apart from the US government and the Mine Advisory Group (MAG), a British NGO, neither the government nor any other organization in the country are known to have made financial or other in-kind contributions to humanitarian mine action in the country. On 16 June 1999, MAG donated $2,000 to the NCBL to monitor military mine clearance operations along the 409 power pylons in the northwestern parts of the country.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Information and Broadcasting and the MOD are responsible for receiving funding donated for mine clearance and mine awareness creation in the country. There appears to be coordination between the two institutions. Whereas the MOD is responsible for mine clearance, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Information and Broadcasting is responsible for mine awareness education. There is no apparent policy, criteria, or strategy governing the allocation and use of mine action funds in Namibia.

Mine Action

A multi-phase US-sponsored mine clearance and training program in Namibia started seven years ago was completed in February 2001. The “train-the-trainer” program for Namibians resulted in the training of more than 100 NDF military deminers, 20 police deminers and 20 medical personnel.[36] Phase 1 clearance was carried out around nine former SADF military bases between 1995-1998.[37]

The clearance of the berms and minefields around 409 power pylons during Phase 2 of the clearance program was declared a “success” by the MOD in 2001.[38] In February 2001, the MOD gave the latest figures of a total of 1,388 antipersonnel mines and 1,141 UXO destroyed during Phase 1 and 3,622 antipersonnel mines and 200 UXO during Phase 2.[39] At the same time NDF commander, Major General Martin Shalli, said that during six years since 1994, the “total number of mines and unexploded ordnance uncovered and destroyed from both the nine known minefields and the 409 power pylons amounted to 9,301.”[40] Defence Minister Erkki Nghimtina said that while the areas that were marked and identified as minefields have been cleared, “A number of isolated scattered landmines and unexploded ordnance could be found elsewhere and have not yet been detected”[41]

The German NGO MgM reports that it carried out emergency clearance in Caprivi, northern Namibia during June 2000. Namibia also serves as International Desk and home for MgM’s research and development and production facilities and for the US Department of Defense.[42]

Reconstruction and Development of Cleared Land

There are no procedures to ensure that land cleared of mines is transferred to those who are entitled to it. However, the primary beneficiaries of mine-cleared land would be the local communities. According to US Ambassador to Namibia, Jeffrey Bader, the demining project in Namibia has provided one million square meters of land for civilian use.[43]

In the absence of a demographic survey it is very difficult to quantify the effect of mine clearance programs in the country. Moreover, some communities are not satisfied with the mine clearance as mine and UXO explosions have occurred in areas said to have been cleared. For example, on 11 January 2001, a nine-year-old Himba boy died in a mine or UXO explosion close to a former SADF base near Opuwo in the Kaokoland district.[44] Sporadic mine explosions have also occurred in the Ohangwena, Omusati and Caprivi regions, which were previously regarded as “mine free.”[45]

Mine Awareness

US-funded mine awareness education of varying intensity has continued in the country since the original launching of a mine awareness campaign by the Namibian police in 1990.[46] In particular, local NBC radio and/or television broadcasts in five local languages continued throughout the period under review. Also, as part of the US–Namibia Joint Demining Project, the US Government donated over N$1 million (about US$135,000) in computers, software and other items, including T-shirts and posters.[47]

Furthermore, on 31 January 2001, a local mine awareness initiative by several local and foreign entities, including Western embassies, government departments, local NGOs and financial institutions, was launched under the theme Namibia Against Landmines.[48] According to a spokesperson of the initiative, Chris Jacobie, the aim of the campaign is to distribute a total of 530,000 copies of mine education materials in the English language. Of these, 280,000 copies had already been printed and were being distributed in various schools in the country.[49] The total amount spent on the printing of the material was nearly N$110,000 (some US $15,000).

The next phase of this campaign envisages disseminating these materials in the indigenous languages spoken in the northern areas of Namibia, including Portuguese, which is widely spoken in southern Angola.

Landmine Casualties

It should be noted that there are no reliable statistics on the exact number of victims of mine and UXO explosions in the country, and official sources release contradictory information. But it is clear that the number of mine incidents in Namibia has increased dramatically since Angolan armed forces arrived in the country in November 1999. According to the Namibian Police's Explosives Division, antipersonnel landmines now account for 23.9% of all explosive incidents compared with 5.8% in the June 1989 to December 1999 period.[50]

Official statistics show that in 1999, four people were killed and 10 injured in mine/UXO incidents. In 2000, 14 people were killed and 126 injured in mine/UXO incidents. From January to May 2001, nine were killed and 31 injured by mines/UXO.[51]

According to the MOD, over the last ten years the NAMPOL Explosives Department has recorded 107 people killed and 225 injured by mines and UXO.[52] A January 2001 press report cited Namibia’s Chief Inspector of Explosions saying that 131 people were killed and 392 injured by mines and UXO since 1989.[53]

One media report states that more than 80 people have been killed and over 1,000 injured over the past 15 months in attacks by “both the Angolan government soldiers and rebels of Jonas Savimbi’s Union for the Total Independence of Angola (Unita).”[54] Another media report, citing the Namibian police, states that 70 to 80 amputations due to antipersonnel mines have been carried out in the Kavango alone, “costing the Namibian Government a lot of money.”[55] Still another media report said that 23 people died in landmine explosions in Kavango and Caprivi Regions between January 2001 and 26 February 2001; another 141 persons were injured in mine incidents in the two regions since the beginning of 2000. [56]

At the end of February 2001, Namibian police, cited by Die Republikein 2000 newspaper, stated that 164 people (129 civilians and 35 members of Namibian security forces) “were involved” in mine incidents nationwide. [57]

In June 2001, the Deputy Health Minister, Richard Kamwi, said that 105 Namibians had been maimed by landmines and UXO planted by UNITA since 1999 in the Kavango and western Caprivi regions.[58]

According to the NDF there was not a “single casualty” or injury on the part of the NDF deminers.[59] However, several soldiers lost their lives or limbs in mine explosions elsewhere in the country. [60]

Survivor Assistance

Victims of antipersonnel mines and UXO normally receive assistance, in the form of monthly pension payoffs, from the Ministry of Health and Social Services. In February 2000, Ms. Batseba Katjiuongua, Director of Social Services of the Ministry stated that no donor funding was received to care for the over 2,000 mine victims in the country. [61]

During an assessment mission carried out in Rundu (on the Angolan border), an International Committee of the Red Cross team found that 128 amputations were performed during the period from December 1999 to January 2001. From a sample of 167 casualties, amputations represented 39% of the cases. Landmines were the cause of injury in 40% of the cases.[62]

The Windhoek Central State Hospital has a rehabilitation center that provides prostheses. Physiotherapy services and psychological support are available to patients. Three outreach posts in the northern areas of the country are connected to this hospital center.[63] The government has adopted Community Based Rehabilitation as the means to

implement programs of rehabilitation, and reintegration of people with disabilities.[64]

According to the Deputy Health Minister, Richard Kamwi, 48 artificial limbs, three wheelchairs, and 194 crutches have been provided to the disabled. Kamwi also said that a training workshop had been held for physiotherapists and orthopedic technicians, and that an orthopedic workshop began functioning in Rundu in February 2001. However, he stated that most victims had not been placed in rehabilitation centers.[65]

Disability Policy and Practice

The government has not yet adopted any national legislation regarding persons with disabilities. On 27 February 2001, the issue of the absence in the country of a national legislation or policy on disability was raised by the National Federation of People with Disabilities of Namibia (NFPDN) in a meeting with the Prime Minister. Representatives of the 43,823 strong NFPDN declared that the non-inclusion in Parliament of people with disabilities “makes it difficult for them to make a direct contribution to the political governance of this country.”[66] The Ministry of Lands, Resettlement, and Rehabilitation is primarily responsible for the coordination of disability matters.

According to the US State Department, “While discrimination on the basis of disability is not addressed in the Constitution, the 1992 Labor Act prohibits discrimination against disabled persons in employment; however, enforcement in this area is weak.  Although there was no legal discrimination against persons with disabilities, societal discrimination persists.... Disability issues received greater public attention than in previous years, with wider press coverage of the human rights problems that confront persons with disabilities.  In December 1998, the Government launched a campaign to expand economic opportunities for and change attitudes about persons with disabilities.”[67]

<Previous | Next>

[1] Article 144 of the said Constitution states, “Unless otherwise provided by this Constitution or act of Parliament, the general rules of public international law and international agreements binding upon Namibia under this Constitution shall form part of the law of Namibia.” Whereas Article 1(6) provides, “This Constitution shall be the Supreme Law of Namibia.” The Namibian Campaign to Ban Landmines reports: “Procedurally, for a bill to become a law, it must be passed in Parliament, signed by the President and promulgated in the Government gazette. It is therefore legally disputable whether or not international treaties to which Namibia becomes a State Party automatically become law in the country. Hence, without domestic legislation put in place there could be no lawful penalties or jail sentences imposed in terms of the Mine Ban Treaty. Nonetheless, anyone found in unlawful possession of firearms and or ammunition may be prosecuted in terms of the relevant provisions of the Criminal Procedure Act of 1977.”
[2] “Suspected Killers of Principal Apprehended, Mines Transferred to Namibia,” For Immediate Release (Press Release), NCBL/National Society for Human Rights (NSHR), Windhoek, Namibia, 4 January 2001; "Nam 'not breaking landmine treaty,'" The Namibian online, 9 January 2001.
[3] Questions regarding PMD-6 mines either assembled or produced in Namibia have yet to be resolved. See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 81; Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 65-66.
[4] MgM Demining Network: Cavango - 600 AP mines of South African origin seized, 25 January 2001. The operation took place from 16-20 January 2001, according to Major Hidipo Haindongo, the NDF commander based at Divundu.
[5] Local NBC TV news bulletin at 20h00, 31 December 2000; “Namibia to Display Captured Unita Weapons,” Panafrica News Agency, 19 February 2001.
[6] “Nam 'not breaking landmine treaty,’” The Namibian online, Tuesday, 9 January 2001. Article 2(4) of the Mine Ban Treaty states transfer “involves, in addition to the physical movement of antipersonnel mines into or from national territory, the transfer of title to and control over the mines....” Article 3(2) states “The transfer of antipersonnel mines for the purpose of destruction is permitted.” The government asserts that it has destroyed all captured antipersonnel mines. Letter from Gerhard Theron, Charge d’Affaires, a.i., Permanent Mission of the Republic of Namibia to the United Nations, New York, to Mary Wareham, Coordinator, Landmine Monitor, 23 July 2001.
[7] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 65-66 and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 81. Landmine Monitor reported on a substantial stockpile of antipersonnel mines, including POMZ-2 and PMD-6 mines, at Grootfontein Military Base, at some point in the past.
[8] Letter from Gerhard Theron, Charge d’Affaires, a.i., Permanent Mission of the Republic of Namibia to the United Nations, New York, to Mary Wareham, Coordinator, Landmine Monitor, 23 July 2001.
[9] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 81-83.
[10] Ibid.
[11] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices 2000: Namibia, February 2001.
[12] “Suspected killers of principal apprehended, Mines transferred to Namibia,” Press Release, National Society for Human Rights, Windhoek, Namibia, 4 January 2001.
[13] Report on antipersonnel mine incidents: Kavango Region January–April, 2000, Chief Inspector of Explosives, 10 April 2000, p. 30.
[14] “Villagers injured in landmine explosion,” IRIN News Briefs, 25 April 2001.
[15] The Namibian, 23 May 2001. (See, www.namibian.com.na/update.html)
[16] “Unita Defends Its Position,” The Namibian, 29 June 2001.
[17] “Angolan forces accused of thefts, shootings,” IRIN, 19 February 2001; “More Landmine Explosions,” For Immediate Release (Press Release), National Society for Human Rights, Winkhoek, Namibia, 21 February 2001.
[18] “Angolans face terror charges,” IRIN, 24 May 2000.
[19] “Angolan soldiers deported,” IRIN, 8 August 2000; “Soldiers detained,” IRIN, 8 August 2000; “NDF Captain killed by villagers,” IRIN, 23 August 2000.
[20] “Eyewitness Source Dead in Mine Explosion,” Press Release, National Society for Human Rights, Windhoek, Namibia, 19 December 2000; “Two lose legs to landmines,” The Namibian online, 19 December 2000.
[21] “Abuses Continue in Border Areas,” Press Release, National Society for Human Rights, Windhoek, Namibia, 14 February 2001.
[22] “Two lose legs to landmines,” The Namibian online, 22 February 2001.
[23] “More Landmine Explosions,” Press Release, National Society for Human Rights, 21 February 2001; “Two lose legs to landmines,” The Namibian online, Windhoek, Namibia, 22 February 2001; “Two villagers injured by landmines,” Namibia Press Agency, Windhoek, Namibia, 22 February 2001; “FAA blamed for Halili attack,” Namibia Press Agency, Windhoek Namibia, 22 February 2001.
[24] Telephone interview with NDF Spokesperson Vincent, who stated that the NDF was “absolutely not” planting any landmines.
[25] “Unita verstarkt,” Allgemeine Zeitung, 18 January 2001, p. 1.
[26] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 83-84.
[27] Letter from Gerhard Theron, Charge d’Affaires, a.i., Permanent Mission of the Republic of Namibia to the United Nations, New York, to Mary Wareham, Coordinator, Landmine Monitor, 23 July 2001, in response to Landmine Monitor letter of 25 May 2001, to the Hon. Dr. Theo-Ben Gurirab, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Namibia.
[28] “Army not breaking landmine treaty,” IRIN, 9 January 2001, citing MOD spokesman Frans Nghitila.
[29] UNMAS, Joint Assessment Mission Report: Namibia, 6 April 2000, p. 3.
[30] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 84.
[31] US State Department, “Demining Program Financing History,” 24 October 2000 and “FY00 NADR Project Status,” 27 December 2000. See also, Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 85.
[32] “Joint US and Namibian Demining Project in Northern Namibia Completed,” Press Release, Embassy of the United States of America, Windhoek, 5 February 2001.
[33] “US-Namibia Joint Demining Project,” Background Text, Embassy of the United States of America, 5 February 2001.
[34] Ibid.
[35] Ibid.
[36] Ibid.
[37] “Mine Clearance,” Namibia: Landmine Report 2000, National Society or Human Rights (NSHR), Windhoek, Namibia, March 2000, p 12.
[38] “Namibia Lauds US Assistance at End of Northern Region Demining Program,” Namibia Press Agency, 9 February 2001.
[39] Press Release, Ministry of Defence, Windhoek, Namibia, 6 February 2001.
[40] Speech by Erkki Nghimtina, Minister of Defence, as read out in his behalf by Deputy Minister of Home Affairs, Ms. Loide Kasingo, Ruacana, 8 February 2001.
[41] “Namibia Lauds US Assistance at End of Northern Region Demining Program,” Namibia Press Agency, 9 February 2001.
[42] Email from Hendrik Ehlers, MgM, to Landmine Monitor (NPA), 20 April 2001.
[43] “US-Namibia Joint Demining Project,” Background Text, Embassy of the United States of America, 5 February 2001.
[44] “Boy killed by landmine,” For immediate Release, (Press Release), National Society for Human Rights (NSHR), Windhoek, Namibia, 17 January 2001.
[45] “Landmine Casualties,” Namibia: Landmine Report 2000, National Society for Human Rights (NSHR), March 2000, p. 17.
[46] “US-Namibia Joint Demining Project,” Background Text, United States Embassy, Windhoek, Namibia, 5 February 2001.
[47] Ibid.
[48] “Landmynterreur: Koerant plant uitklophou,” Die Republikein 2000, 1 February 2001; “Landmyn-bylae vind byval: Soveel in Namibie die jaar reeds so gedood, vermink,” Die Republikein 2000; “Kampagne gegen Landminen,” Allgemeine Zeitung 1 February 2001; “‘To know is to be and to be is to Live: Land Mine Awareness Campaign Launched,” New Era, 5-8 February 2001.
[49] Telephone interview with Phil ya Nangoloh, NCBL, Windhoek, Namibia, 28 February 2001.
[50] Fax to N.Stott, Landmine Monitor, from Chief Inspector of Explosives, Col. J.T. Theyse, Windhoek, Namibia, 29 May 2001; For a full list of incidents see, "Anti-Personnel and Anti-Tank Mine Cauaslties: Kavango and Caprivi Regions: Namibia since January 2000," Nambian Police, Explosives Division, 29 May 2001.
[51] Of the casualties from January 2000-May 2001, 138 were civilians. In 2000, 12 of the 14 killed and 117 of the 126 injured mine-related. In 2001, three of the nine killed and 21 of the 31 injured were mine-related. Communication with the Office of the Chief Inspector of Explosives, Windhoek, Namibia, 16 July 2001. See also, "Anti-Personnel and Anti-Tank Mine Cauaslties: Kavango and Caprivi Regions: Namibia since January 2000," Nambian Police, Explosives Division, 29 May 2001.
[52] Press Release, Ministry of Defence, Windhoek, Namibia, 6 February 2001.
[53] “Namibian Paper Joins Anti-landmine Crusade,” PANA, 31 January 2001.
[54] “Two lose legs to landmines,” The Namibian online, 22 February 2001.
[55] “‘To Know is to be and to be is to live’: Land Mine Awareness campaign Launched,” New Era, 5-8 February 2001, p. 8.
[56] “Landmyn-bylae vind byval: Soveel in Namibie die jaar reeds so gedood, vermink,” Die Republikein, 26 February 2001.
[57] “Landmyn-bylae vind byval: Soveel in Namibie die jaar reeds so gedood, vermink,” Die Republikein 2000, 26 February 2001.
[58] Max Hamata, “105 Maimed in North-East Since ’99,” The Namibian, Windhoek, 22 June 2001.
[59] “Namibia Lauds US Assistance at End of Northern Region De-Mining Program,” Namibia Press Agency, 9 February 2000.
[60] “Soldiers injured in mine blast,” IRIN, 5 September 2000; “Landmyn-bylae vind byval: Soveel in Namibie die jaar reeds so gedood, vermink,” Die Republikein, 26 February 2001.
[61] Interview with Phil ya Nangoloh during a reception at the residence of Counselor of Finland, 23 February 2000.
[62] Email from ICRC, Mines/Arms Unit, Geneva, to Landmine Monitor, 6 July 2001.
[63] Handicap International, “Victim Assistance: Thematic Report 2000,” September 2000, p. 32.
[64] Dimitris Michailakis, Government Action of Disability Policy, United Nations, New York, 1997, p. 183.
[65] “103 maimed, disabled to date by landmines in border region,” AFP, Windhoek, (Internet Version in English), 21 June 2001 [FBIS Transcribed Text].
[66] “Disabled want higher voice,” Namibia Press Agency, 1 March 2001.
[67] US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2000: Namibia, February 2001.