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Country Reports
UGANDA, Landmine Monitor Report 2001
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Key developments since May 2000: Landmine Monitor has continued to receive disturbing reports that indicate a strong possibility of use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo in June 2000. Landmine Monitor believes that these serious and credible allegations merit the urgent attention of States Parties, who should consult with the Ugandan government and other relevant actors in order to seek clarification, establish the facts, and resolve these questions regarding compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty. The Ugandan government denies that it used antipersonnel mines in the DRC.

There continue to be new mine casualties in northern Uganda. The Mines Advisory Group completed the first assessment of the mine situation in Uganda in May 2001.

Related Reports:

Mine Ban Treaty

Uganda signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 25 February 1999. The treaty entered into force for Uganda on 1 August 1999. A Foreign Ministry official said that national legislation has not been enacted yet due to bureaucratic delays.[1] Apparently, an implementation law has been drafted and distributed to relevant departments.[2]

Uganda did not participate in the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Geneva in September 2000, nor the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in December 2000. It did, however, participate in the Standing Committee meetings in May 2001. It also attended both the Horn of Africa/Gulf of Aden conference on landmines in Djibouti in November 2000 and the Bamako, Mali Seminar on Universalization and Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa held in February 2001. Uganda voted in favor of the November 2000 UN General Assembly resolution in support of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Uganda has not submitted its initial Article 7 transparency report that was due on 28 January 2000 or the annual update due on 30 April 2001. A Ugandan representative said in May 2001 that the Article 7 report was in the last stages of preparation, and should be ready in two or three months.[3]

While Uganda is a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, it has not ratified Amended Protocol II. Uganda did not attend the Second Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 2000 in Geneva.


Landmine Monitor has received new allegations regarding on-going production of antipersonnel mines in Uganda at the government-owned National Enterprise Corporation (NEC) factory at Nakasongora. Four sources, including three Ugandan military personnel, independently told Landmine Monitor that production of antipersonnel mines continues.[4] However, Landmine Monitor is not in a position to confirm or deny these allegations. An independent inspection of the facility has not been made.

Last year’s Landmine Monitor Report 2000 noted a November 1999 report from the US State Department stating: “Uganda claims it stopped production of landmines in 1995, but reports persist that the factory still produces them and provides them to consumers in the Central Africa/Great Lakes region.”[5] A Ugandan official dismissed this US report as unsubstantiated.[6]

In the past, Ugandan officials told Landmine Monitor that Uganda stopped production of antipersonnel mines at the NEC in 1995, and converted the production line into production of dry cell batteries.[7] According to a UPDF Major, the factory had produced two types of antipersonnel mines, the PMD-6 and a plastic mine.[8]

When asked about the new allegations regarding production, Captain Kagoro A. Asingura of the UPDF (serving as the Ugandan representative at the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings in Geneva), said that the factory had never produced antipersonnel mines, noting that he had been to the factory himself. He said that plans to produce mines collapsed due to insufficient funding, and the plant can only produce bullets and refurbish guns.[9]

Stockpiling and Transfer

In the past, military officials told Landmine Monitor that a large quantity of antipersonnel mines and unexploded ordnance had been gathered from different army units around the country and transferred to Jinja Army Depot for storage pending destruction.[10] In January 2000, it was reported that an unidentified Ugandan official said that there are 50,000 antipersonnel mines stockpiled and that their destruction has begun.[11]

In May 2001, Captain Asingura of the UPDF told Landmine Monitor that stockpiles of antipersonnel mines were inherited from the governments in power prior to the National Resistance Army in 1986. He indicated that stocks were held in two locations, Gulu and Masindi barracks, and that all those kept at Gulu had been destroyed. He said some of the mines at Masindi were slated for destruction, but had to be done in an environmentally correct method. He said that the IGME (Inspector General of Military Equipment) had a small stockpile of antipersonnel mines for training purposes.[12]

Uganda’s Article 7 report, which was due on 28 January 2000, should have the first detailed information on Ugandan stockpiles and destruction plans.


Landmine Monitor Report 2000 cited serious allegations that Ugandan forces had used antipersonnel mines during the fighting around Kisangani in the Democratic Republic of Congo in June 2000.[13] Since that time, aid workers in Kisangani and a UN assessment mission have confirmed the presence of large numbers of mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). In July 2000, a United Nations official in Kisangani told Landmine Monitor that Uganda and Rwanda had both used mines in the fighting over Kisangani.[14] The RCD rebels claimed that Ugandan and Rwandan troops left more than 4,000 landmines in the town, and stated that they found most of the mines close to a former Ugandan army base on the road to Bangoka airport.[15]

Uganda denied these allegations at the time of the release of the report. Uganda People’s Defense Forces Army Commander, Major-General Jeje Odongo, said, “That report [Landmine Monitor Report 2000] is not substantial. How can you make such statements without doing sufficient research? The army has never used antipersonnel mines in the Congo war.”[16]

More recently, on 8 May 2001, Captain Asingura, the Ugandan representative at the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional meetings in Geneva, told Landmine Monitor that the UPDF had not used antipersonnel mines in the DRC at any time. He indicated that mine use was not part of Army doctrine or training, that Army engineers only knew how to clear mines, and that UPDF forces in the DRC did not have any stocks of antipersonnel mines.[17]

However, Captain Asingura also said that very few in the military, even high ranking officers, were aware of the Mine Ban Treaty or Uganda’s obligations. He said that given the shifting relations between formerly allied forces from Uganda, Rwanda, and the rebel RCD, it was very difficult to determine who had used mines in Kisangani. When asked by Landmine Monitor if it were possible that Ugandan troops in Kisangani, unaware of the prohibition on use of antipersonnel mines, could have helped to lay mines (provided perhaps by rebels or Rwanda), he acknowledged that such a thing could occur, but stressed that it would be contrary to government policy.

Captain Asingura said that no specific investigation or inquiry into possible use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces had been carried out, although a general investigation of the battle had been conducted, which resulted in the commander being withdrawn for mismanagement of the situation.[18]

Since publication of last year’s report, Landmine Monitor has continued to receive disturbing information regarding Ugandan use of antipersonnel mines in the DRC in mid-2000. A United Nations assessment mission in August 2000 tasked with assessing the damage to the civilian population of the fighting between Uganda and Rwanda in Kisangani in June 2000 reported that: “Landmines and unexploded ordnance are still a major impediment to the return of displaced people to their homes and to the resumption of daily life in the city. Mines were laid in strategic locations to prevent the advance of troops and to protect retreating forces. Around 18 mines were placed on the Tshopo bridge, the major link in the city. Reports indicated that some mines were laid after the ceasefire.”[19]

Many different sources reported to Landmine Monitor use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces around military camps and airports, in particular in Kisangani, Beni, and Buta in June 2000.[20] These sources include demobilized Ugandan soldiers, non-governmental humanitarian aid workers, medical professionals caring for mine victims, World Food Program staff, RCD rebel officers, and people in local communities.

Notably, the area surrounding a former Ugandan military camp located 13 kilometers from Kisangani in an area called “La Forestière” was extensively mined. At least seven mine accidents have been reported in the area surrounding the camp. Landmine Monitor has been told the mines were laid in a classic defensive pattern by Ugandan forces.[21]

In its February 2001 human rights report on Uganda for the year 2000, the US State Department said, “There were allegations of human rights violations during fighting between UPDF and Rwandan army troops in Kisangani, DRC, in May and June, which resulted in hundreds of civilian deaths....  There were reports that both Ugandan and Rwandan forces used landmines during the fighting in Kisangani.... Verification of these reports was extremely difficult, particularly those emanating from remote areas and those affected by active combat, primarily in eastern DRC.” [22]

The International Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency information campaign on local radio in Kisangani following the fighting between Ugandan and Rwandan forces to inform civilians returning home of the dangers posed by mines and UXO laid by parties to the conflict. The national army cleared mines and UXO with the logistical support of the ICRC.

While Landmine Monitor has not received any eyewitness accounts or direct admissions by those who actually used the mines, the testimony of a significant number and range of knowledgeable sources, coupled with practical evidence such as the location of the mines around defensive Ugandan positions, indicates a strong possibility of use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces, or their allies.

Landmine Monitor believes that these credible allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo in mid-2000 must be taken seriously. These allegations merit the urgent attention of States Parties, who should consult with the Ugandan government and other relevant actors in order to seek clarification, establish the facts, and resolve these questions regarding compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty.

Landmine Monitor is not aware of specific allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by Uganda in the DRC since mid-2001. As part of the emerging peace process, in February 2001, Uganda announced its intention to withdraw two battalions from the DRC.[23] By June, it had withdrawn almost five battalions and the withdrawal was continuing.

There have been reports and allegations that landmines continued to be used by unspecified forces, even into this disengagement phase. Congolese diplomats have alleged that foreign forces and rebels have laid mines in Orientale Province following the cessation of hostilities, in order to mark off areas of occupation.[24]

The UN Secretary General’s April 2001 report on the DRC stated, “During the disengagement phase, MONUC [United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo] received information indicating the presence of minefields laid by the belligerent forces to protect their front-line positions.... In view of both the increased number of new defensive positions and the danger of mines, MONUC has also confirmed the need to create additional small coordination centres....”[25] The UN report language is not clear about when the mines were laid. Landmine Monitor has not been able to confirm recent use, and does not know which “belligerent forces” the United Nations report refers to, be it FAC, rebels, Uganda, Rwanda, or others.

Assisting Mine Use

Even if allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by Ugandan forces involved in the conflict in the DRC proved to be false, Landmine Monitor is concerned that Uganda could be at risk of violating the Mine Ban Treaty by virtue of close military cooperation, including joint combat operations, with rebel armed forces that do use antipersonnel mines. Under Article 1 of the Mine Ban Treaty, a State Party may not “under any circumstance...assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engage in any activity that is prohibited to a State Party under this Convention.”

Use by Non-State Actors

In this reporting period, Landmine Monitor has continued to receive reports of mine use by Ugandan rebels, though less frequently than in the past. The US State Department reported: “The LRA [Lord’s Resistance Army] and the ADF [Allied Democratic Forces] reportedly used landmines.  There were several incidents during the year in which civilians were killed by landmines placed by rebels.  For example, on January 21, a landmine explosion killed a man at Opidi, Koch, west of Gulu Town; the LRA allegedly planted the landmine.  Several children also were killed or injured after stepping on landmines.”[26]

Northern Uganda, the area generally affected by armed non-state actors, was inaccessible to Landmine Monitor due to the outbreak of the deadly Ebola disease in the last quarter of 2000. The epidemic was wiped out by February 2001. Landmine Monitor visited the area in March. UPDF field commanders captured six antipersonnel mines, 18 rifles and mortar bombs from fleeing LRA rebels in Gulu and Kitgum districts.[27]

Mine Action Funding

There has been little international support for mine action in Uganda during this reporting period. The Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade allocated US$16,333 to Mines Advisory Group for an assessment mission to Uganda. UNICEF has provided some $10-15,000 for mine awareness activities. The International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War provided $12,500 to AMHEC (IPPNW-Uganda) for advocacy work, victim assistance (emergency care training) and documentation of landmine casualties.

Survey and Assessment

The UK-based NGO Mines Advisory Group (MAG) completed the first assessment mission to Uganda in May 2001. According to the MAG report, “Areas of northern and western Uganda suffer from landmine and limited UXO contamination as a result of recent and continuing conflicts. The problem is not acute but is causing deaths and injuries in these areas.... There is little or no information on the location of landmines or suspected areas and mines have been used only in very small minefields or in isolation. At this stage, the priority for mine action is the extension and implementation of the mine awareness program that has been developed by the Ministry of Health and a partnership of local and international NGOs.”[28]

Mine Clearance

The UPDF conducts all landmine clearance activities. Clearance operations are only initiated “in response to reports of suspicious items that have been found. They cannot undertake significant pro-active clearance because of the small-scale, sporadic nature of landmine use and the lack of information on where mines have been laid.”[29]

The UPDF have recovered the following antitank mines: PRB-M3, TM-46 and Type 72, and antipersonnel mines: No. 4 (copy with booster), Type 69 and T-79. Between June 2000 and April 2001 in Gulu and Kitgum Districts, the UPDF found 10 antitank mines, 141 antipersonnel mines and 117 anti-personnel fuses. Included within these totals are 99 antipersonnel mines and 109 antipersonnel fuses found as a stockpile in December 2000.[30]

Mine Awareness

A wide array of organizations and government agencies came together in March 2000 for a workshop on mine action planning in Gulu. The participants included “district leaders, UPDF, police, health workers, the district mobilization officer, a range of NGOs and facilitators from Injury Control Centre-Uganda, IPPNW-UCBL, AVSI, Ministry of Health Disability Desk and the Institute of Public Health.”[31]

A Training of Trainers workshop was held in May 2000. Since then, aspects of the mine awareness program have been halted due to a lack of funds. However, the following mine action projects have occurred for the Kitgum and Gulu Districts: a workshop for District leaders on the mine program and the proposed mine awareness program; a Training of Trainers workshop with 13 participants from Kitgum and 17 participants from Gulu; a survey of landmine victims and healthcare; production and partial distribution of 5,000 mine awareness posters; and production of 1,000 mine awareness booklets in English for District leaders and authorities.[32]

A handbook for mine awareness educators and a handbook for school children, funded by the UNICEF country office, have been produced.[33] Unfortunately, mine awareness programs in Gulu and the neighboring districts were suspended in October 2000 due to the Ebola outbreak in the area. Mine awareness activities covering northern and western Uganda were resumed in April after the area was declared free of the disease. In early June 2001, the handbooks were officially launched in Kitgum and Gulu, Northern Uganda.

The mine awareness education continues to be run by IPPNW-Uganda, Injury Control Center-Uganda, the Ministry of Health, AVSI and UNACOH. In Western Uganda, the activities are mainly being carried out by IPPNW-Uganda and UNACOH, with the support of local NGOs such as Anti-Mine Network Rwenzori (AMNET) and others.

A mine awareness program has been initiated in Western Uganda for Kasese, Kabarole and Bundibugyo. AMNET, which operates in Kasese, has been working to address the landmine problem. Despite a lack of funding, the group has been organizing community groups and delivers a weekly radio program that highlights the dangers of landmines.[34]

Landmine Casualties

From 1991 to March 2001, there were 602 mine victims, including injuries from antitank mines, in Uganda. This figure, taken from a UCBL report on the findings of a survey of health personnel, contains both military and civilian casualties.[35] A recent survey by Landmine Monitor in northern Uganda revealed that for the period December 2000 to April 2001: 18 landmine casualties were admitted in St. Mary's Lacor Hospital, Gulu district; one landmine casualty was admitted in Kitgum Hospital, Kitgum district in January 2001; and one (a child from Sudan) in St. Joseph's Hospital, also in Kitgum District in April 2001. One person died of a landmine blast in January 2001 in Kasese District, Western Uganda.[36]

A review of hospital records and interviews with health care workers from the mine-affected areas of Kabalore and Bundibugyo, as well as West Nile districts of Arua, Nebi and Adjumani revealed no new landmine casualties during the period May 2000-February 2001. Records in northern Uganda, however, showed that fourteen landmine casualties were admitted in St. Mary’s hospital in Lacor, between May and 5 December 2000, and three landmine casualties were admitted to Gulu military hospital between May and 5 October 2000.[37]

According to Joshua Mugenyi, the chairperson of Kasese District Union of Persons with Disabilities, about 40,000 people (10% of Kasese population) are disabled and up to 128 (0.32%) of these were disabled by landmines planted by the ADF since the war started in the district in 1996. He reported that disability has increased in Kasese due to injuries caused by landmines, bullets and also malnutrition caused by poor incomes.[38]

Survivor Assistance

The Italian NGO AVSI (Associazione Volontari per il Servizio Internazionale) is carrying out a three-year program which started in July 1998, providing medical rehabilitation for war victims in northern Uganda, covering the districts of Gulu, Kitgum, Apac, Lira, Adjumani, Arua, Moyo and Nebbi. Partners of AVSI are the Ministry of Health’s rehabilitation section, Lacor Hospital, district and missionary hospitals, the District Director of Health Services, and the Persons With Disability Association. Lacor Hospital, located a few kilometers outside of Gulu, has the surgery facilities to provide a high level of care immediately following a landmine accident; as a result, it takes the majority of landmine victims for initial surgery and treatment.[39]

The objective was medical rehabilitation assistance to 250 amputee war victims. The program’s achievements from July 1998 to December 2000 were: identification of 765 amputees; provision of artificial limbs and functional training for 252 amputees; follow-up and social reintegration of the patients fitted with prostheses; return to school of 15 child victims of war; strengthening of collaboration with local counterparts; organization of training for community health worker in Kitgum, Lira and Apac; sponsorship of one month training for three orthopedic technologists from Gulu orthopedic workshop; production and distribution of 5,000 posters on mine awareness in Gulu and Kitgum.[40]

In addition to what was reported in the previous Landmine Monitor reports, physiotherapy is also provided by orthopedic clinical officers, orthopedic assistants or nurses in some hospitals.[41] For psychosocial support, only the districts of Nebbi, Adjumani and to some extent Gulu have some support centers.[42] In Nebbi this is done by five trained psychiatric nurses for hospitals with outreach units assisted by CUAMM, an Italian NGO. In Adjumani, this is carried out by two NGOs, Trans-cultural Organization (TPO) also an Italian NGO and COMBRA, which does psychosocial counseling. In Kitgum district, community-based psychosocial support programs are being carried out by AVSI,[43] albeit in a smaller scale than in Gulu by the Canadian Physicians for Aid Relief (CPAR).

In addition, the Ministry of Health, in conjunction with Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Affairs, provides some counseling to patients while they are still in hospitals and also to their family members to have a positive attitude toward the survivors.[44]

Disability Policy and Practice

A disability policy was put in place in the year 2000. In this policy, there is a workman’s compensation act, with several provisions on disability issues; for example, it provides for a medical arbitration board, a member of which must have knowledge of disability issues.[45] An employment bill is due to be debated in Parliament and the National Union of Disabled Persons of Uganda (NUDIPU) has submitted proposals for inclusion in the bill.[46] The five-year National Health Sector Strategic Plan and Uganda National Health Policy has provisions for persons with disability; for example, the Ministry of Health is to put in place structures to address the needs of persons with disabilities and the kind of rehabilitative health personnel needed. Uganda also subscribes to Vision 2020 which is an international program spearheaded by the World Health Organization. Its mission is sight for all by the year 2020 and aims at eradicating all avoidable blindness.[47]

A workshop to draw up a five-year work plan on the prevention and control of injury in Uganda was organized by the Ministry of Health for relevant agencies and organizations on 30-31 October 2000. A draft report is under discussion.

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[1] Interviews with Kisenyi Irungu, Foreign Service Officer, Legal Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kampala, 27 December 2000 and 15 February 2001.
[2] Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch interview with Captain Kagoro A. Asingura, UPDF General Headquarters, at Mine Ban Treaty intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 8 May 2001. He said the draft law would have to be approved by the Army High Command and the Army Counsel, then pass through Parliament.
[3] Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch interview with Captain Kagoro A. Asingura, UPDF General Headquarters, at Mine Ban Treaty intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 8 May 2001.
[4] Interviews by Landmine Monitor researcher for the Democratic Republic of Congo, in Kampala, 30 March and 2 April 2001.
[5] “Arms Flows to Central Africa/Great Lakes,” Fact Sheet released by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, US Department of State, November 1999.
[6] Interview with Lt. Katsigazi, Director of Operations, Internal Security Organization (ISO), 12 October 2000. See, Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 114.
[7] Interview with Brig. Ivan Koreta, Director General, International Security Organization (ISO), and Lt. Katsigazi, Kampala, 23 December 1999. To date, the batteries have not been introduced into the market nor is their brand name known.
[8] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 91: interview with Major S. Muruli, UPDF, Kempton Park, South Africa, 20 May 1997. NEC’s Managing Director Major Fred Mwesigyi assured Landmine Monitor production of antipersonnel mines had stopped and “all the mines and grenades we produced have since been kept in stores.”
[9] Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch interview with Captain Kagoro A. Asingura, UPDF General Headquarters, at Mine Ban Treaty intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 8 May 2001.
[10] Interview with Brig. Ivan Koreta and Lt. Katsigazi, Kampala, 23 December 1999.
[11] The East African, 19 January 2000.
[12] Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch interview with Captain Kagoro A. Asingura, Geneva, 8 May 2001.
[13] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 115.
[14] Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch telephone interview with UN official in Kisangani, 28 July 2000. The official said that mines were planted around Bangoka International airport and on a section of the Kisangani-Buta road known as Km 31, and that a number of areas had been declared off-limits because of landmines. Another source indicated mines were laid at Simi Simi and Bunia airport and Ikela. Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch Interview with BRZ International Ltd., Johannesburg, June 2000. BRZ is a South African mine clearance firm which conducted a survey in DRC in 2000 and described it as “badly contaminated.”
[15] “Rebels say more than 4,000 Mines Left in Kisangani,” Agence France Presse (Kisangani), 21 July 2000, in FBIS.
[16] The New Vision (daily newspaper), Kampala, 14 September 2000, p. 2.
[17] Landmine Monitor/Human Rights Watch interview with Captain Kagoro A. Asingura, Geneva, 8 May 2001.
[18] Ibid.
[19] UN Security Council, S/2000/1153, “Letter dated 4 December 2000 from the Secretary-General addressed to the President of the Security Council,” and “Annex: Report of the inter-agency assessment mission to Kisangani,” 4 December 2000, p. 9.
[20] Interviews conducted by Landmine Monitor researchers for the DRC: interview with Ugandan demobilized soldiers in Kampala, Uganda. 30 March 2001; interview with Congolese rebels and displaced migrants in Kigali, Rwanda, 4 April 2001; telephone interviews with NGO workers and World Food Program staff in Kigoma, Tanzania and Kigali, Rwanda, 4 and 5 April 2001; interview with RCD officers; interviews with local people in Kisangani, DRC, March-April 2001.
[21] Interviews conducted by Landmine Monitor researchers for the DRC, Kisangani, DRC, March-April 2001.
[22] US Department of State, 2000 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Uganda, February 2001.
[23] Daily Nation (newspaper), Nairobi, Kenya, 23 February 2001, p. 6.
[24] Interviews conducted by Landmine Monitor researchers for the DRC: with DRC diplomats in Kampala, Uganda, 2 April 2001, and in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania, 9 April 2001.
[25] “Seventh report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,” UN Security Council, S/2001/373, 17 April 2001, p. 9.
[26] US Department of State, 2000 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Uganda, February 2001.
[27] New Vision (newspaper), 5 April 2001, p. 3, quoting Hon. Basoga Nsadhu, Minister of Information in the President’s office, who is also the government spokesman.
[28] Mines Advisory Group, “MAG Uganda Assessment,” June 2001, p. 2.
[29] Ibid, pp. 9-10.
[30] Ibid.
[31] Ibid, p. 12.
[32] Ibid, p. 5.
[33] The handbook was written by Dr. Alice Baingana Nganwa from the Ministry of Health, Disability and Rehabilitation Department; Mrs. Lilliane Luwaga from the Ministry of Health, Health Education Section; Mr. Gustavo Corti from the International Service Volunteers Association (AVSI); Miss Margaret Arach from AVSI; and Dr. Eddie Mworozi from IPPNW - Uganda/Uganda Campaign to Ban Landmines (UCBL).
[34] Mines Advisory Group, “MAG Uganda Assessment,” June 2001, p. 22.
[35] Ibid, p. 4.
[36] Hospital records of Lacor Hospital and Gulu Regional Hospital.
[37] Hospital records of St. Mary’s Hospital Lacor, 5 December 2000 and Gulu Military Hospital, 5 October 2000.
[38] Statement by Joshua Mugenyi at a function to mark the International day of the Disabled, Bwera Kasese, 3 December 2000.
[39] Mines Advisory Group, “MAG Uganda Assessment,” June 2001, p. 15.
[40] Email from Alberto Repossi, Program Officer for Africa, AVSI, Milano, 22 February 2001.
[41] Interview with DDHS and Medical Superintendents of Adjumani Hospital,  27 November 2000; Nebbi Hospital, 24 November 2000; DDHS Gulu, 4 October 2000. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 120 and Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 95-96.
[42] Interviews with DDHS and Medical Superintendents of Adjumani Hospital, 27 November 2000; Nebbi Hospital, 24 November 2000; DDHS, Gulu, October 2000.
[43] Interview with DDHS, Kitgum district, 4 January 2001.
[44] Interview with Peter Oyaro, Ministry of Labor and Social Development, Kampala, 7 December 2000.
[45] Interview with Benon Ndaziboneye, program officer, NUDIPU, 8 December 2000.
[46] Ibid.
[47] Ibid.