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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Landmine Monitor Report 2001
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Key developments since May 2000: A White House-directed landmine policy review began in June 2001. Decisions are pending on the continued development and production of two key alternatives to antipersonnel mines, RADAM and NSD-A, both of which may be inconsistent with the Mine Ban Treaty. The total budget for the landmine alternatives program was nearly $50 million in fiscal year 2000; spending estimates for fiscal years 2001 and 2002 are $100 million for each year. The United States contributed $97 million to mine action programs in 37 countries is fiscal year 2000 and plans to spend a comparable amount in fiscal year 2001. The U.S. Campaign to Ban Landmines hosted the ICBL’s General Meeting and held a “Ban Landmines Week” in Washington, DC in March 2001. There were two mine incidents that injured U.S. military personnel during the reporting period, in Kosovo and South Korea.

Mine Ban Policy

The United States has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. President Clinton committed the United States in 1998 to cease using antipersonnel mines, except those contained in “mixed systems” with antivehicle mines, everywhere in the world except for Korea by 2003. By 2006, if alternatives have been identified and fielded, the United States will cease use of all antipersonnel mines and will join the Mine Ban Treaty.

In early June 2001, the Bush Administration began a review of landmine policy, which is being coordinated by the National Security Council. It is unclear whether this policy review will build upon, alter or replace current policy set forth in Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 64 issued on 23 June 1998.

Ambassador Donald Steinberg, the Special Representative of the President and Secretary of State for Global Humanitarian Demining, attended the opening ceremony of the Second Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in September 2000 and attended the intersessional Standing Committee meeting on General Status and Operation of the Convention in May 2001.

The United States was a co-sponsor of the seminar on landmines in the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden held in Djibouti in November 2000, and participated in the Bamako Seminar on Universalization and Implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in Africa, held in Mali in February 2001. A technical expert on munitions destruction from the Environmental Protection Agency made a presentation at the seminar on the destruction of PFM mines held in Budapest in February 2001.

In November 2000, the United States abstained on UN General Assembly Resolution 55/33V, calling for universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. During the debate in the UNGA, the U.S. representative stated, “The United States welcomes the international commitment to protect civilians around the world from landmines embodied in the Ottawa Treaty and the Convention on Conventional Weapons.” He went on to state, “I know that many around the United States and around the world would have us take a different course on the Ottawa Treaty. Still, this disagreement must not deter us from our common vision of eliminating the threat of landmines around the world by the year 2010.”[1]

The United States is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), Protocol II, and Amended Protocol II. It attended the annual conference of states party to Amended Protocol II in December 2000. The United States submitted its annual report under Article 13 of Amended Protocol II on 4 December 2000. The head of the U.S. delegation noted, “All of us, whether party to the Ottawa Convention or not, have a strong interest in the observance of the most rigorous restrictions that can be accepted by those states which find it necessary to retain [antipersonnel mines] for the time being.”[2]

The United States introduced several proposals in December 2000 at the first preparatory meeting for the Review Conference of the CCW to be held in December 2001. These proposals include: a compliance mechanism; a requirement that antivehicle mines be detectable to common mine detection equipment; a requirement that all remotely delivered antivehicle mines are equipped with a reliable self-destruct or self-neutralization mechanism; and, expanding the scope of CCW to apply during times of internal armed conflict.

On 8 March 2001, the “Landmine Elimination and Victim Assistance Act” was introduced in the Senate by Senator Patrick Leahy and has attracted 29 cosponsors as of July 2001; it was introduced in the House of Representatives by Representative Lane Evans and has attracted 82 cosponsors.[3]

In conjunction with the General Meeting of the ICBL, the USCBL held “Ban Landmines Week” in Washington DC, in early March 2001. Secretary of State Colin Powell met with HM Queen Noor, Cambodian youth survivor Song Kosal and the co-chair of USCBL, Jerry White of the Landmine Survivors Network. Two hundred campaigners from 46 states of the US came to Washington DC for “Ban Landmines Week,” and participated in a national conference, conducted lobbying, and held a petition handover in Lafayette Park opposite the White House, among many other activities.

The Korea Exception

President Clinton in his decision not to join the Mine Ban Treaty cited two reasons: the need for antipersonnel mines to defend South Korea and the need to retain “mixed systems,” antipersonnel mines packaged with antivehicle mines.[4] Accepting the advice of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the president declared that antipersonnel mines were critical to the defense of South Korea and its capital, Seoul.[5]

New facts regarding the manner and methods by which the United States plans to use antipersonnel mines in the event of a conflict on the Korean Peninsula have emerged because of research and interviews conducted by Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF).[6] The U.S. has acknowledged retaining more than 1 million non-self-destructing antipersonnel mines for use in a future Korean conflict. It was revealed in briefings provided to VVAF by officers of U.S. Forces Korea that, upon threat of attack, the United States plans to transfer approximately 500,000 U.S. stockpiled non-self-destructing antipersonnel mines to South Korea forces. South Korean forces would use the mines to create a set of barriers and obstacles to help slow a North Korean invasion. The remainder of the U.S. stockpile is destined for use by U.S. forces arriving to reinforce and counterattack, days, if not weeks after the invasion. VVAF also notes that U.S. military officers stated that self-destruct mines and mixed systems are of limited value in Korea because of the mountainous and wooded terrain. VVAF concludes, because the South Koreans are responsible for both the mines already in the ground and those to be used in the initial defense of South Korea, that antipersonnel mines are not critical to U.S. war fighting needs in Korea.

All of the mines currently in the ground in South Korea are under the jurisdiction and control of South Korea.[7] The United States stockpiles some 50,000 self-destruct mines in South Korea, and another 115,000 self-destruct mines in Japan for use in Korea. The U.S. also has 1.2 million non-self-destruct mines for use in South Korea. It is not known how many of the 1.2 million non-self-destruct mines are physically located in Korea, or stored in the immediate theater of operations, or stored in the United States. Department of Defense officials have not commented on this point citing a policy of not discussing the location of U.S. stockpiles. If the mines are not located in Korea, it could take from 30-45 days to arrive there.

A 19 May 2001 letter to President Bush from six retired US generals and two admirals said, “Several of us are former commanders of elements of I-Corps (USA/ROK group), and believe that APM [antipersonnel mines] are not in any way critical or decisive in maintaining the peninsula’s security.... It is our understanding that the standing response plan to a North Korean attack does not call for these weapons to be used to counter an initial attack.”[8]


The United States has not banned or placed a moratorium on the production of antipersonnel mines, but has apparently not manufactured any type of antipersonnel mine since 1996.[9] The military has no known production plans for antipersonnel mines. The stockpile cap announced on 17 January 1997 does not preclude the production of new antipersonnel mines to replace those used in future combat operations.[10]

The United States initiated contracts to produce 628,200 antipersonnel mines of nine different types between fiscal years[11] 1983 and 1992, at a total cost of $1.7 billion.[12]

The United States is currently producing M87A1 Volcano mine canisters containing antivehicle mines at the Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant Texarkana, Texas. This is a government-owned facility operated by the Day and Zimmerman Company. The production of these mines will end in November 2002.[13] In the past, Volcano canisters were produced with a mix of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines.

Alternatives to Antipersonnel Mines

The Pentagon was directed by the President and the Secretary of Defense on 16 May 1996 to begin to “undertake a program of research, development and other measures needed to eliminate the requirement [for exceptions in Korea and mixed systems] and to permit both the United States and our allies to end reliance on [antipersonnel mines] as soon as possible.”[14] A target date of 2006 was established in 1998 by linking the success in identifying and fielding alternatives to antipersonnel mines with the United States joining the Mine Ban Treaty.[15]

The Pentagon, however, is pursuing some alternatives that are not compliant with the Mine Ban Treaty. This was apparently allowed to continue because of a certification to Congress made by President Clinton as a condition of the ratification of the Amended Mines Protocol that excluded compliance with the Mine Ban Treaty as a criterion guiding the alternatives program.[16] The contradiction between President Clinton’s policy objectives and subsequent interpretation of his instructions is jeopardizing the overall success of the alternatives program and threatens the 2006 target date.

In its fiscal year 2001 budget, the Department of Defense proposed a multi-year, $820 million program for pursuing three “Tracks” of alternatives.[17] This plan has apparently not changed in the President’s fiscal year 2002 amended budget request.[18] The Bush Administration’s budget request for the antipersonnel landmine alternative program is presented in the table below (all values in millions of dollars).[19]

Funding for U.S. Antipersonnel Landmine Alternatives Programs

FY 00 (actual)
FY 01 (estimate)
FY 02 (request)
Track 1
Track 1
Track 2
Self Healing Minefield, Tags
-- [20]
Track 3
Mixed Systems Alternative
Track 3
Component Technologies

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) released a study of alternative technologies to replace antipersonnel mines on 21 March 2001. This study was mandated by Congress and sponsored by the Department of Defense. According to the NAS, “New technologies under development could offer similar or greater tactical advantages to antipersonnel landmines and reduce the risk to civilians.” [21] The chairman of the committee that wrote the report stated, “After carefully evaluating many possibilities, we have concluded that alternative technologies could one day effectively replace antipersonnel landmines without unnecessarily endangering U.S. troops and non-combatants. With focused and consistent funding, some alternatives could be ready by the 2006 deadline. However, in certain situations, alternatives will not be available until later, and antipersonnel landmines will need to be retained.”[22] The study finds that “the emergence of new technologies after 2006 will create opportunities for the development of systems that outperform today’s [antipersonnel mines].”[23]

Because of the change in administrations and the on-going landmine policy review, critical decisions on the development of two projects under Track 1 (RADAM and NSD-A) of the alternatives program are delayed.[24] RADAM would be a new artillery-delivered mixed mine system combining existing ADAM antipersonnel mines and existing RAAMS antivehicle mines. NSD-A (Non-Self-Destructing antipersonnel mine Alternative) aims at replacement for so-called dumb mines.

As originally planned, the total cost for RADAM is estimated to be $150 million for the procurement of 337,000 munitions through fiscal year 2004.[25] Congress reduced the amount for RADAM by $20 million from $47.7 million to $27.7 million in making appropriations for fiscal year 2001.[26] President Clinton left the decision whether or not to produce RADAM for the Bush Administration. The existing budget for fiscal year 2002 requests $83.8 million for producing 163,000 munitions.[27] The Army plans to begin producing the initial 3,000 RADAM projectiles in January 2002 at the Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant in Texarkana, Texas.[28] This is a government-owned facility operated by the Day and Zimmerman Company. The policy review that is underway will likely determine if these plans for 2002 move forward.

A decision to proceed with the engineering and manufacturing development of NSD-A was also deferred by President Clinton. The development of NSD-A has stalled largely because of concerns about the “battlefield override” feature, which allows the NSD-A to function as an antipersonnel mine, raised by members of the USCBL, legislators, and in the media. According to a Department of Defense report to Congress, “The Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the Service Chiefs, using best military judgment, feel that the man-in-the-loop system without [the battlefield override] would be insufficient to meet tactical operational conditions and electronic countermeasures.”[29] The Pentagon directed a study be conducted about the effectiveness of NSD-A with or without the battlefield override feature be completed in April 2001, but this study has not been made public. Once the new phase of development begins, the Department of Defense General Counsel will conduct a legal review of NSD-A.[30] In making appropriations for fiscal year 2001, Congress provided an additional $25 million for NSD-A. An additional $14.6 million and $3 million beyond what was requested by in the President’s budget request were also provided for NSD-A in fiscal years 2002 and 2003 respectively.[31] The Pentagon plans to eventually procure 523,000 NSD-A.[32]

The two other tracks of the longer-term search for innovative maneuver denial technologies and alternatives to self-destructing antipersonnel mines in mixed systems are still in the early stages of identifying and exploring concepts and component technologies. In late September 2000, the Army awarded $13 million in contracts for concept exploration efforts under Track 3 (mixed system alternatives) of the alternatives program. Contracts went to Textron (Wilmington, MA), Raytheon (El Segundo, CA), Alliant Techsystems (Hopkins, MN), Sanders [a Lockheed Martin Company] (Nashua, NH), and BAE Systems, (Austin, TX).[33] The Army also awarded eight contracts for components and component technologies for Track 3.[34]


The United States has the third largest stockpile of antipersonnel mines in the world. It consists of more than 11.2 million antipersonnel mines, including about 10 million self-destructing mines and more than one million long-lasting mines. The U.S. stockpiles nine different types of antipersonnel mines: ADAM, 9,516,744; Gator (Air Force), 237,556; Gator (Navy), 49,845; M87 Volcano, 107,160; MOPMS, 9,184; PDM, 16,148; GEMSS, 76,071; M14, 670,000; M16, 553,537.[35] In addition, over 970,000 Claymore mines are stockpiled.

The United States announced a cap on its stockpile of antipersonnel mines on 17 January 1997. This cap, which includes antipersonnel mines contained in mixed systems, is still in effect even though the precise cap figure has never been publicly disclosed. The United States has declared possessing 11 million antipersonnel mines to the Organization of American States mine register, not including Claymore mines.[36]

The number of antipersonnel mines destroyed annually as part of routine ammunition stockpile operations is not known. The Department of Defense has not provided such information to Landmine Monitor despite repeated requests. The U.S. announced completion of the destruction of over 3.3 million non-self-destructing M14 and M16 antipersonnel mines in 1998.[37] However, in its 4 December 2000 CCW annual national report, the United States claims that these 3.3 million non-self-destructing mines were M14 antipersonnel mines destroyed to comply with Amended Protocol II. The office of the legal advisor of the Department of State has not responded to Landmine Monitor’s request for clarification for this discrepancy.

The United States has antipersonnel mines stored in at least twelve foreign countries: Norway, 123,000; Japan, 115,000; Germany, 112,000; Saudi Arabia, 50,000; Qatar, 11,000; United Kingdom (at Diego Garcia), 10,000; Kuwait, 8,900; Oman, 6,200; Bahrain, 3,200; Greece, 1,100; Turkey, 1,100, and South Korea.[38] As noted above, the U.S. has about 50,000 remotely-delivered self-destructing mines stored in South Korea, and also has more than 1.2 million non-self-destructing mines reserved for conflict in Korea, but, it is uncertain where these mines are stored.

Of those countries with US stocks, five are States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty (Germany, Japan, Norway, Qatar, and United Kingdom), and Greece is a signatory. Germany, Japan, and the UK have stated that the U.S. mines are not under their jurisdiction or control, and therefore are not subject to the Mine Ban Treaty requirement for destruction of stockpiled mines within four years of entry into force.


U.S. law has banned the export of antipersonnel mines since 23 October 1992.[39] Claymore mines were exempted from this ban in 1996. The export ban has been extended several times, most recently until 2003.[40] The Clinton Administration announced in January 1997 that the U.S. “will observe a permanent ban on the export and transfer of APL.”[41] This ban also includes the export and transfer of antipersonnel mine components and technology.[42] Congress has not codified this into a permanent export ban law.

The United States exported over 5.5 million antipersonnel mines to 38 countries between 1969 and 1992. Of this total, 4.14 million were non-self-destructing mines and approximately 80,000 were self-destructing mines. The remaining 1.36 million were Claymore mines. These figures do not include direct commercial sales. A total of 16 of these countries are now considered mine-affected.[43]

Mine Action Funding

In fiscal year 2000,[44] the United States provided approximately $97.6 million in mine action funding, which it calls humanitarian demining. This aggregate amount consisted of $40 million for Department of State programs, $25.6 million in Department of Defense programs, $18 million in Department of Defense demining technology research and development, and a contribution of $14 million to the Slovenian International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victim Assistance.[45] This does not include funding for survivor assistance programs because the U.S. government does not identify mine victim-specific funding, as opposed to more general war victim funding, but the latter totaled $11 million in fiscal year 2000.

The total for fiscal year 2000 is the highest amount contributed by the United States for mine action since it began providing assistance in fiscal year 1993. The total for fiscal year 1999 was $81 million. The United States has provided approximately $387 million in mine action assistance between fiscal years 1993 and 2000.

Recipient Countries

The number of countries receiving U.S. mine action funding has risen from seven in 1993 to 37 in 2000. The most dramatic rise occurred in fiscal years 1998 and 1999 when 19 countries were accepted into the U.S. mine action assistance program. During 2000, Azerbaijan, Djibouti, Oman, Vietnam, and Zambia were added to the program.[46] The interagency demining working group made a decision not to approve Algeria and Burundi for inclusion in September 2000 due to the ongoing conflicts in those countries. They noted that this decision would be revisited once peace agreements are in place.[47] The working group decided not to approve Malawi for inclusion in December 2000, “since there is no evidence of landmines within its national borders.”[48]

The ten countries/regions that received the most U.S. demining assistance between 1993 and 2000 are Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Kosovo, Laos, Mozambique, Namibia, Central America,[49] and Rwanda.

The countries/regions that received U.S. mine action funding and the amount of assistance provided in fiscal year 2000 are presented in the following table.[50] The top recipients were Kosovo ($9.9 million), Angola ($4.1 million), Mozambique ($3.9 million), Central America ($3.9 million), Thailand ($3 million) and Afghanistan ($3 million). For detailed information on U.S. demining assistance, see the Landmine Monitor reports for the individual recipient countries.

Recipients of U.S. Mine Action Funding, FY 2000
















Guinea Bissau



Department of Defense Programs ($25.6 million in FY 2000)

Department of Defense demining assistance programs are funded annually from the Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA) appropriation. U.S. military personnel are prohibited from entering minefields or removing mines as part of humanitarian demining missions.[51] Funds can only be used for U.S. forces participating in humanitarian demining training and activities like supporting the national mine action center. Purchase of equipment, supplies, and services is permitted as long as it directly supports U.S. military forces participating in humanitarian demining training and support missions. Donation of purchased equipment, supplies, and services can occur upon completion of the program. The Defense Security Cooperation Agency administers the funds while the regional military commanders execute the programs. The regional Commander-in-Chief determines the types and bears most of the cost of the measures taken to protect U.S. military forces deployed on demining assistance missions.[52]

The Department of Defense has provided training and assistance to 42 countries since 1993. In fiscal year 2000, U.S. military forces conducted training missions in the following areas:[53]

Southern Command (27 training weeks)

  • Central America– Conducted two training missions and trained 140 deminers
  • Ecuador – Conducted one training mission and trained 40 deminers
  • Peru – Conducted one training mission and trained 35 deminers

Central Command (15 training weeks)

  • Jordan – Conducted two training missions and trained 184 deminers

Pacific Command (28 training weeks)

  • Thailand – Conducted four training missions and trained 222 deminers

European Command (31 training weeks)

  • Armenia/Azerbaijan/Georgia – Conducted 1 training mission and trained 47 deminers
  • Chad – Conducted one training mission and trained 78 deminers
  • Estonia – Conducted one training mission and trained 27 deminers
  • Mauritania – Conducted one training mission and trained 44 deminers
  • Zimbabwe – Conducted one training mission and trained 51 deminers

In previous years, the Department of Defense conducted training in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova, Namibia, Rwanda Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. In fiscal year 2001 training missions are scheduled for Cambodia, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, Estonia, Mauritania, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Thailand, Vietnam, and Zambia.[54]

The demining research and development program of the Department of Defense provides funding and program management for testing and modifying existing technology and equipment for immediate use in demining assistance programs. Demining technologies and equipment in development under the program include improved protective gear for deminers, minefield marking and mapping systems and survey equipment, vegetation clearing devices, in-situ neutralization devices, mine awareness training materials, and mechanical clearance equipment for area clearance and quality assurance purposes.[55] The United States joined the International Test and Evaluation Program on 17 July 2000.[56]

Department of State Programs ($40 million in FY 2000)

Funding for the programs administered by the Department of State are provided annually by the Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) appropriation and can be used to support mine clearance programs of individual countries, international organizations and or can be transferred to other agencies.[57] State Department support to mine action frequently augments training and equipment programs conducted by the Department of Defense. In a number of countries, however, the State Department manages programs where the Department of Defense is not actively engaged in mine action assistance.[58]

The types of programs that can by funded by the Department of State’s Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs are more diverse. In fiscal year 2000 about 41% of NADR mine action funds was allocated for mine clearance projects. About 36% went to providing equipment and support to national demining organizations or mine action centers. “Cross-cutting” initiatives accounted for 19% of the allocation. Miscellaneous projects and administrative costs account for the rest. Direct grants, purchases through the local U.S. Embassy, and transfers to other U.S. government agencies have all been used in the past in NADR mine action projects. A total of 43% of the $40 million fiscal year 2000 NADR appropriation is channeled through the Integrated Mine Action Support (IMAS) contract to a team of companies led by the RONCO Consulting Corporation.[59] These findings are presented in the following chart.[60]

Mine Clearance. A total of $16.2 million of the $40 million in FY 2000 NADR mine action funds was allocated to mine clearance activities.[61] A total of 49% of the funds allocated in this category was directly granted to foreign nongovernmental or charitable mine clearance organizations including NPA, MAG, the HALO Trust, and MgM. Funds allocated through the IMAS contract for mine clearance services, primarily mine detecting dogs from RONCO, account for another 40% in this category. Finally, grants to UN mine clearance programs in places like Afghanistan make up the remaining 12%.

Countries receiving NADR funding for mine clearance projects in FY 2000 were: Afghanistan, Angola, Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Ecuador, Guinea Bissau, Lebanon, Mozambique, Namibia, OAS (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua), Peru, Somalia (Somaliland), and Thailand. Mine clearance programs funded by the United States that included the donation of mine detecting dogs are located in Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Lebanon, Mozambique, OAS (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua), and Thailand.[62]

Equipment and Support. A total of $14.1 million was allocated to fund equipment purchase and other diverse support activities. The largest allocation, nearly 72%, was directed through the IMAS contract for the procurement of equipment, supplies, and logistics services. Another 16% was used to provide equipment through channels other than the IMAS contract, like local procurements or funds provided to regional bodies like the OAS for the purchase of equipment. The final 13% was used for training and support to national demining organizations and mine action centers. Countries that received FY 2000 NADR funding for equipment and support are Angola, Cambodia, Chad, Djibouti, Ecuador, Estonia, Georgia, Jordan, Laos, Lebanon, Mauritania, Mozambique, Oman, OAS (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua), Peru, Rwanda, Thailand, Vietnam, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.[63]

Cross-Cutting Initiatives. A total of $7.5 million was allocated to projects with global application. Included in this category are funds for the global landmine impact surveys conducted under the auspices of the Survey Action Center, the establishment of a Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF), a contribution to UNICEF’s mine awareness program, the “Adopt-A-Minefield” program, and other programs. Some of these initiatives, such as the “Adopt-A-Minefield” and QRDF, fund mine clearance and mine awareness activities, but are not directly attributed to country mine action programs funded by the United States. The IMAS contractors received 27 percent of the cross-cutting funds for establishing and maintaining the QRDF and special studies.[64]

Public-Private Partnerships for Mine Action

Ambassador Donald Steinberg spearheads the “Demining 2010 Initiative” that was launched in November 1997 with the objective of identifying and clearing landmines posing threats to civilians by the year 2010. Part of the Demining 2010 initiative is the development of public-private initiatives for integrated mine action. The list of programs and initiatives and recipients is quite varied including the Survey Action Center, Adopt-A-Dog, Adopt-A-Minefield, Roots of Peace, DC Comics mine awareness comic books, Warner Brothers mine awareness initiative, Landmine Survivors Network, the Mine Action Information Center at James Madison University, and more.

Mine Casualties

There were two mine incidents involving U.S. military personnel during the reporting period, in Kosovo and South Korea.

On 25 June 2001, Sergeant Richard Casini stepped on a mine while on patrol near Basici in Kosovo, near the border with Macedonia. He was evacuated from the scene of the incident by helicopter within an hour and received medical treatment at U.S. military hospitals in Kosovo, Germany, and Washington, DC. He had his right foot amputated and will be fitted with a prosthetic device. He reportedly will be able to return to military service.[65] The area that he was patrolling was not a known mined area, but subsequent investigations by the MineTech Company found four other mines near the place of the incident. According to Major Randy Martin, a military spokesman for U.S. forces in Kosovo, “It’s very unfortunate what happened, and we must do whatever we can to keep it from happening again.”[66]

In mid-May 2001, while conducting a reconnaissance patrol along the demilitarized zone in South Korea, a U.S. Army soldier received injuries to his right foot after stepping on an M14 antipersonnel mine. The incident occurred in an area not previously known to have been mined and it took 2.5 hours for the injured soldier to reach a hospital, including “hopping” one-half mile to reach an emergency vehicle.[67]

Survivor Assistance

U.S. government funding for landmine survivor assistance is distributed through the Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund (WVF), administered by the U.S. Agency for International Development. The WVF provides prosthetic devices for victims who have lost limbs because of landmines and other war-related injuries. Since 1989, the WVF has provided $60 million in support to eighteen projects for victims of war in fifteen countries: Angola, Cambodia, OAS (El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua), Ethiopia, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, and Vietnam.[68] The WVF received $11 million in fiscal year 2000 and is expected to receive a similar appropriation in fiscal year 2001.

A small number of private organizations fund survivor assistance programs in mine-affected countries. For example, the Prosthetics Outreach Foundation conducts programs in Vietnam that are entirely funded from private sources. Another private organization, PeaceTrees Vietnam, a project of the Earthstewards Network, has funded mine clearance and mine awareness in Vietnam's Quang Tri province.

Most private organizations are using a mix of private and public funds in their programs. The biggest source of public funds is USAID through the WVF. Examples of such survivor assistance programs in Vietnam include Catholic Relief Services, Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation, Vietnam Assistance for the Handicapped, and World Vision. Some organizations in the U.S. raise funds and then pool resources at an international level to support programs that may or may not be administered from the original U.S. group. Jesuit Relief Services-USA and CARE are examples of organizations that provide this type of assistance.

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[1] Statement by Ambassador Donald K. Steinberg, Special Representative of the President and Secretary of State for Global Humanitarian Demining, United Nations General Assembly, New York, 28 November 2000.
[2] Statement of Edward Cummings, Head of U.S. Delegation, Second Annual Conference of States Party to Amended Protocol II, Geneva, 11 December 2000.
[3] Library of Congress, “Bill Summary & Status for the 107th Congress,” viewed on 6 July 2001.
[4] The White House, “Remarks by the President on Land Mines,” 17 September 1997.
[5] The White House, Fact Sheet: “U.S. Requirements for Landmines in Korea,” 17 September 1997.
[6] Briefing provided to Landmine Monitor by Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation, “Landmines and the Situation on the Korea Peninsula,” March 2001. This briefing summarized the findings of visits to military officers of U.S. Forces Korea and South Korean government and military officials by Lieutenant General (Retired) Robert Gard and Dr. Edwin Deagle, 11-14 December 2000.
[7] Interview with representatives of the Joint Staff and the Office of the Assistant Secretary Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, 1 February 2001.
[8] Letter to President George W. Bush, dated 19 May 2001, signed by Rear Adm-ret Eugene Carroll, Lt Gen-ret Henry Emerson, Lt Gen-ret James Hollingsworth, Lt Gen-ret Harold Moore, Lt Gen-ret Dave Palmer, Vice Adm-ret Jack Shanahan, Lt Gen-ret DeWitt Smith, Lt Gen-ret Walter Ulmer.
[9] In his next-to-last day in office, President Clinton claimed that antipersonnel mine production was halted in 1993, but this was an error. (The White House, Statement by the President, 19 January 2001.) At an April 2001 preparatory conference for the review of CCW, a presentation made by a U.S. Army official showed production of Volcano and Gator mixed mine systems as late as 1996. “US Technology for Self-Destruct and Self-Deactivating Landmines,” Presentation by Colonel Paul Hughes, Chief, National Security Policy Division, U.S. Army, Geneva, 4 April 2001.
[10] Interview with representatives of the Joint Staff and the Office of the Assistant Secretary Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, 10 May 2000.
[11] U.S. government fiscal years (FY) begin on the first day of October in the previous calendar year and end on the last day of September of the current calendar year.
[12] U.S. Army, SARD-ZCA, Enclosure titled “Historical Quantities and Value of AP Land Mine Procurements,” to “Information Paper, Subject: Mines,” 21 July 1992.
[13] Department of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2002 Amended Budget Submission, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” June 2001, pp. 291-293.
[14] The White House, “Fact Sheet: U.S. Announces Anti-Personnel Landmine Policy,” 16 May 1996.
[15] Letter from National Security Advisor Samuel Berger to Senator Patrick Leahy, 15 May 1998.
[16] The text of the certification reads, “I will not limit the types of alternatives to be considered on the basis of any criteria other than those specified in the sentence that follows. In pursuit of alternatives to United States anti-personnel mines, or mixed anti-tank systems, the United States shall seek to identify, adapt, modify, or otherwise develop only those technologies that (i) are intended to provide military effectiveness equivalent to that provided by the relevant anti-personnel mine, or mixed anti-tank system; and (ii) would be affordable.”
[17] For a detailed description of the technical aspects of the alternatives, see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 335-340.
[18] Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5,” July 2001, p. 724.
[19] Complied from the Amended Fiscal Year 2002 Defense Budget Materials and supporting descriptive summaries and justification materials released by the U.S. Army, July 2001.
[20] Fiscal Year 2002 budget request amounts from the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency were not available at time of publication.
[21] National Academy of Sciences, Press Release, “New Technologies Hold Promise for Eliminating Antipersonnel Landmines, But Not by Target Date,” 21 March 2001.
[22] Ibid.
[23] Statement by Dr. George Bugliarello, Chair of the Committee on Alternative Technologies to Replace Antipersonnel Landmines, 21 March 2001.
[24] Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, “Progress on Landmine Alternatives, Report to Congress,” 1 April 2001, p. 4.
[25] Assistant Secretary of the Army for Financial Management and Comptroller, “Appropriation: 2034 Procurement of Army Ammunition, FYDP Procurement Annex,” 14 February 2000, p. 26.
[26] U.S. House of Representatives Report 106-754, Conference Report for Fiscal Year 2001 Defense Appropriations, 17 July 2000, p. 154.
[27] Assistant Secretary of the Army for Financial Management and Comptroller, “FY 2002 Procurement Program, Appropriation: 2034A Procurement of Ammunition, Army” June 2001, p. A-15.
[28] Department of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2002 Amended Budget Submission, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” June 2001, pp. 246-247.
[29] Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, “Progress on Landmine Alternatives, Report to Congress,” 1 April 2001, p. 11.
[30] Interview with representatives of the Joint Staff and the Office of the Assistant Secretary Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, 1 February 2001.
[31] Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5,” July 2001, p. 725.
[32] U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC, Solicitation Notice DAAE30-99-R-0108, 29 February 2000.
[33] U.S. Army TACOM-ARDEC, Solicitation Award Notices, 27-28 September 2000.
[34] Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, “Progress on Landmine Alternatives, Report to Congress,” 1 April 2001, pp. 19-20.
[35] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 330. Please note that these are the number of individual antipersonnel mines, not the number of delivery systems like artillery projectiles or air-delivered munitions dispensers.
[36] Organization of American States, “OAS Register of Anti-Personnel Land-Mines: Summary Table of Information Submitted by Member States for the Period 1997-1999,” CP/CSH-168/99, rev. 1, 21 May 1999.
[37] Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affair, News Release 324-98, “Destruction of Last Non-Self-Destructing Anti-Personnel Landmines in U.S.-Based Stockpile,” 25 June 1998.
[38] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 344-345.
[39] Public Law 102-484, Section 1365; 22 United States Code, 2778 note.
[40] Conference Report on House Report 3194, Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2000, Sec. 553.
[41] The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Fact Sheet: “U.S. Initiatives on Anti-Personnel Landmines,” 17 January 1997.
[42] Response to the OSCE Questionnaire on Anti-Personnel Landmines, Question 4 (A), 15 December 2000.
[43] Human Rights Watch obtained this information in August 1994 through a Freedom of Information Act request to the Defense Security Assistance Agency and U.S. Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command concerning U.S. landmine deliveries under the Foreign Military Sales Program and Military Assistance Program.
[44] Note to reader: U.S. Government fiscal years (FY) begin on the first day of October in the previous calendar year and end on the last day of September of the current calendar year.
[45] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “Demining Program Financing History,” 24 October 2000.
[46] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 report, Form B, 4 December 2000. Zambia was approved by the interagency working group on demining on 7 December 2000, after submission of this report.
[47] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “Fact Sheet: Meeting of the Interagency Working Group on Demining, September 14, 2000.”
[48] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “Fact Sheet: Meeting of the Interagency Working Group on Demining, December 7, 2000.”
[49] OAS/IABD programs are conducted under the auspices of the Organization of American States and Inter-American Defense Board in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
[50] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “Demining Program Financing History,” 24 October 2000.
[51] 10 United States Code, Section 401.
[52] Interview with officers from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, 1 February 2001.
[53] Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low Intensity Conflict, “HD FY00 for Landmine Monitor,” 7 June 2001.
[54] Ibid.
[55] U.S. Department of Defense, “RDDS, PE 0603920D8Z: Humanitarian Demining,” February 2000, pp. 1-3.
[56] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 report, Form E, 4 December 2000.
[57] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “Nonproliferation, Anti-Terrorism, Demining, and Related Programs (NADR) Funds for Humanitarian Demining Programs,” 4 January 2001.
[58] Interview with Donald “Pat” Patierno, Director of the State Department’s Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, Geneva, 6 April 2001.
[59] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “FY00 NADR Project Status,” 27 December 2000.
[60] Ibid. Note that rounding may affect totals.
[61] There are other programs counted under the rubric of “cross-cutting initiatives” that also conduct mine clearance – the quick reaction demining force based in Mozambique and the Adopt-A-Minefield which are not included in this total.
[62] U.S. Department of State, Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, “FY00 NADR Project Status,” 27 December 2000.
[63] Ibid.
[64] Ibid.
[65] Specialist Marshall Thompson, “Fort Stewart soldier awarded Purple Heart after landmine accident,” Savannah Morning News, 1 July 2001.
[66] David Josar, “Team Finds Additional Mines Close to Site of Accident in Kosovo,” European Stars and Stripes, 8 July 2001.
[67] The Landmine Monitor coordinator, Mary Wareham, interviewed the soldier at Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC, 6 July 2001.
[68] United States Agency for International Development, “Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund, Portfolio Synopsis,” Spring 2000. For details of the country programs see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 365-367.