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Country Reports
ANGOLA, Landmine Monitor Report 2002


Key developments since May 2001: Angola ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 5 July 2002. There have been no reports of new use of antipersonnel mines since the April 2002 peace agreement. The government created a new Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance to be responsible for policy-making, coordination of mine action and victim assistance, and the design of a new National Mine Action Plan. According to the mine action NGOs operating in Angola, 6.8 million square meters of land were cleared during 2001. A total of 339 mine and UXO accidents, resulting in 660 casualties, were reported in 2001, a significant decline from the year 2000.


On 22 February 2002, UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi was killed by government forces in Moxico Province. A cease-fire took affect almost immediately, followed by the signing, on 4 April 2002, of a Memorandum of Understanding effectively reactivating the Lusaka Protocol.[1] Regarding mine action, that agreement states that “the Government and UNITA agree to provide all available information relating to mines and other explosives, to help implement mine survey programs, mine awareness and demining programs for the benefit of all Angolans.”[2]

The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Luanda reported that over 98,000 persons were displaced between 1 January 2002 and 28 February 2002.[3] According to the government, 4.28 million people are now displaced inside Angola.[4] These figures are significant since up to 75 percent of all mine accidents in Angola involve internally displaced persons (IDPs) stepping on mines as they traverse unfamiliar areas.[5] If the peace agreement holds, a definitive peace after some 27 years of civil war would likely result in many tens of thousands of IDPs returning to their homes, and Angolan officials acknowledge the risk of mine accidents will be great.[6]


Angola signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997. On 25 July 2000, the Angolan Parliament approved ratification of the treaty, with 147 votes in favor, one against, and one abstention. According to the Angolan Constitution, the next step will be the ratification act of the President of the Republic followed by the depositing of the instrument of ratification with the United Nations in New York.[7] With the collapse of the Lusaka Peace Process at the end of 1998, however, government and UNITA forces both resorted to planting landmines in the renewed conflict. Government representatives have openly admitted to the use of mines by their forces during this period.[8]

With the end of hostilities in April 2002, the Angolan Armed Forces Chief of Staff officially informed the new National Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance (CNIDAH)[9] that the army had stopped laying mines.[10] A chain of events leading toward ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty was set in motion. According to Balbina Silva, a government advisor working with CNIDAH, in April 2002 the Angolan Parliament formed a special commission to address the issue of treaty ratification and CNIDAH began working with this commission to advance the ratification process.[11] Soon thereafter, President dos Santos apparently asked the commission to provide him with the original document that had been approved by Parliament in July 2000. During the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Conference of Demining and Mine Action Operators held in Luanda on 26-28 June 2002, a copy of the instrument of ratification was symbolically handed over to the senior landmine official of the SADC Secretariat, João Ndlovu.[12]

According to an Angolan government statement, the ratification document was handed over to the UN on 28 June 2002.[13] On 5 July 2002, the UN officially registered Angola’s deposit of its instrument of ratification, making it the 125th State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty. The treaty will formally enter into force for Angola on 1 January 2003.

The Angolan government announcement of the ratification concludes that, “The decision to ratify the Ottawa Treaty demonstrates to the international community that the Angolan Government is firmly committed to eliminate antipersonnel mines and other explosive devices,” and that “the ratification of the Treaty is a further step in the process of consolidating peace and national reconciliation.”[14]

Angola’s initial transparency report required under Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty is due on 29 June 2003.

Angola attended the Third Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Managua, Nicaragua, in September 2001. Angola cosponsored and voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 56/24M on 29 November 2001 calling for universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It sent representatives to the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in January and May 2002. The seventh meeting of the SADC’s Acting Committee on Landmines was held on 27-28 June 2002 in Luanda, Angola. The meeting was held simultaneously with the first SADC Conference of Demining Operators.[15]

Angola is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). It did not attend the third annual meeting of States Parties to Amended Protocol II, or the Second CCW Review Conference, both of which took place in December 2001.


Angola is not a known producer or exporter of landmines. Seventy-six different types of antipersonnel mines from 22 countries have been found or reported in Angola. Little is known about the size or composition of Angola’s current landmine stockpile, or that held by UNITA military forces.[16] During the SADC conference in Luanda in June 2002, 100 antipersonnel mines and ten antivehicle mines were destroyed in a ceremony.[17] The treaty-mandated deadline for destruction of all Angola’s stockpiled antipersonnel mines is 1 January 2007.


In October 2000, the Ministry of Defense circulated to all its commanders a decree stating that following the ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty by Parliament in July 2000, the military should refrain from using antipersonnel mines during their operations.[18] This was apparently done in response to international criticism of the incongruous policy of moving towards ratification while at the same time continuing to plant antipersonnel mines. Nonetheless, the use of mines by both sides continued until April 2002, when the war came to an end as a result of the death of Jonas Savimbi.[19] According to General Petroff, former Minister of Interior and now Director of CNIDAH, “In this regard we have been pragmatic. While the war with UNITA continued, it was not possible for us to say that we would not use mines. Where we did not have the physical capacity to defend our strategic objectives without using defensive mines, we were forced to use them. So there was no use in sending to parliament a treaty to ratify when we were at the same time planting mines.”[20]

Prior to April 2002, Angolan government officials had admitted to the continued planting of mines by their military forces on many occasions, and previous field research by the Landmine Monitor has documented specific instances of this.[21] Throughout 2001 and early 2002, the new use of antipersonnel mines appears to have declined as the zones of military operations became smaller and more focused on specific areas. It is worthwhile noting that, during this period, there were no reports of planting mines in areas that had been previously cleared.[22]

Since the April 2002 peace agreement, there have not been any reports of new use of antipersonnel mines by government or UNITA forces.


Angola is regarded as one of the countries most affected by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Through the end of 2001, a total of 2,232 minefields and UXO locations had been registered in the database of the national mine action office, INAROEE (Instituto Nacional de Remoção de Obstáculos e Engenhos Explosivos). In addition, some 660 minefields and UXO locations have been cleared since 1995; 73 of these were cleared in 2001.[23]

Since late 1998, the deteriorating security situation and, in some cases, declining donor resources forced demining operators to restrict their areas of operations and, in many cases, pull back to provincial capitals where they worked in support of IDP camps. With the end of the conflict, most of these organizations are once again beginning to conduct survey activities and to assess the possibility of moving out into rural areas.

Recent assessments have been undertaken by Menschen gegen Minen (MgM) along the Benguela railway near Ca’ala, Huambo Province, and by Santa Barbara, another German NGO, along the Matala–Menongue railway in southern Angola. The HALO Trust reassessed 505 sites in Benguela, Huambo, and Bie Provinces during the first half of 2002.[24] Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) mine survey teams are engaged full-time in an inter-agency “Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs” (RACN) process, coordinated by OCHA. This process links recently passed Angolan legislation regarding standards for IDP resettlement with humanitarian operations in the field.[25] As part of the RACN, the Mines Advisory Group (MAG) has contributed surveys in previously inaccessible areas of Moxico and Cuando Cubango provinces. As security has improved, MAG has also conducted further survey and assessment work in Cunene and Moxico.[26]

According to the Survey Action Center (SAC), the donor community has shown interest in funding a Landmine Impact Survey for Angola. An impact survey is community-focused rather than minefield-focused, and in this case would include a retrofit of the current INAROEE database into the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) system. An advance survey mission is scheduled to visit Angola in September 2002.[27]


The annual budgets for 2001 for the principle mine action NGOs came to a total of more than US$13.5 million. In addition, UNICEF spent about $1.5 million on its mine risk education programs and the ICRC spent an unknown amount on mine risk education and victim assistance programs.

Nine donors reported contributions to mine action in Angola in 2001 totaling about $9.6 million. The United States reported $3,188,000 in funding, including $2 million to NPA and $800,000 to HALO Trust.[28] Norway reported $2,259,999 for NPA ($2.1 million) and the Trauma Care Foundation. The Netherlands reported $1,143,170 for NPA and HALO Trust. Germany reported $1,022,052 to MAG, St. Barbara, MgM, and GTZ (victim assistance). Sweden reported $1 million for NPA. Finland reported $422,000 for the Finnish Red Cross and ICRC for victim assistance and mine risk education. Ireland reported $276,219 for HALO Trust and UNICEF. Japan reported $130,000 for UNICEF for mine risk education. Canada reported $129,164 for the UNDP database.[29] As can be seen from the information provided below by the mine action operators, there have been other donors as well.

HALO Trust receives funding from the United States, Netherlands, Ireland, and the European Community (EC). In 2001, it received roughly $2.6 million in funding, and as of 1 July 2002 had received $3.7 million for 2002, with prospects to receive an additional $1.6 million before the end of the year.[30]

Intersos was funded by the EC and the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in the amount of €1.7 million ($1.53 million) from 1999 through end September 2001, as well as by UN OCHA with $208,000. In 2002, Intersos submitted a $500,000 proposal to clear an agricultural area in Matala Municipality in support of the resettlement of 24,000 IDPs from the eastern and northern parts of Huíla Province.[31]

The Mines Advisory Group’s total budget for July 2001-June 2002 was $2.5 million. MAG plans to at least double its capacity in 2002-2003. MAG receives funding from the German Foreign Ministry (through Medico International), UNOCHA (Consolidated Appeal), US Department of State, Finnish Foreign Ministry, Bread for the World, Misereor and LWF/FinnChurchAid.[32]

MgM received $100,000 in 2001 from the German government and €600,000 ($538,800) from the EC, leaving it with an estimated annual budget shortfall of $1.7 million. MgM expects to receive $560,000 in May 2002 from the US Department of Defense, and has requested roughly $1.5 million in funds for 2002 through the UN Consolidated Appeal Process.[33]

Santa Barbara operations in 2001 were funded by $111,000 from the German Business Donor Circle. In addition, the German government provided $25,000 in basic support to maintain the Santa Barbara camp and to perform equipment maintenance.[34]

Norwegian People’s Aid received about $5.14 million for its work in Angola in 2001 from the following sources: Netherlands, $615,000; Norway (NORAD), $2,083,750; Sweden, $952,500; and the US, $1,489,600.[35] As of June 2002, the following $5 million in funding had been committed for NPA’s 2002 budget of approximately $8.3 million:

Norway (NORAD) $1,667,000 (a reduction of 25 percent from last year)

Royal Norwegian MFA $1,111,000 (new)

Sweden (SIDA) $750,000 (a reduction of 27 percent)

Royal Dutch MFA $500,000 (a reduction of 23 percent, when confirmed)

US State Dept. $980,000 (for May 02-May 03, a 52 percent reduction)

Total funds committed: $5,008,000 (total 15 percent reduction from last year)

NPA reports that the shortfall in funding will force it to close down several of its operational groups during the second half of 2002, if additional resources are not received.[36]

Handicap International’s budget for its mine risk education activities in 2001 was about $400,000. Donors included ECHO ($101,430), UNDP ($69,940), and UNESCO ($9,188). The remaining funds came from HI.[37]

Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) carries out survivor assistance activities, and is funded by USAID, with an annual budget of almost US$1 million.[38]

UNICEF’s mine awareness project received roughly $1.5 million in 2001, and estimates its 2002 budget at $2 million. Key donors include Canada, Ireland, Germany, Israel, Italy, UK, US, Japan, and Australia.[39]


In 2001, the Angolan government began restructuring the national mine action sector. On 28 July 2001, the National Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance for Mine Victims (CNIDAH) was established in response to the lack of overall coordination in the mine action sector and the lack of donor confidence in national mine action institutions. According to one assessment, collaboration between the international community and the Angolan national demining institute, INAROEE, “showed clear signs of a lack of proper mandates, poor overall planning, lack of co-operation between key organizations, contradictory messages to donors, and a gradually increasing international distrust in the work of INAROEE.”[40] With CNIDAH, Angola hopes to restore donor confidence by creating a clear separation between policy, coordination, and fundraising on the one hand, and the implementation of mine action activities on the other.

In 2002, INAROEE remains in crisis and has reduced its activities to a minimum. A severe lack of confidence in the institution on the part of donors, mine action NGOs, and others[41] led the UN to suspend its technical assistance in August 2000.[42] Its minimal government funding covers salaries, but very little in the way of mine action operations. With the creation of CNIDAH, a major restructuring of INAROEE will take place, but its future role has yet to be defined.

INAROEE maintains the mine action database, however the NPA database advisor left Angola in June 2002 and it appears unlikely that NPA will continue to support the database in its current form.[43] A change in the management structure of the database, and its possible transfer from INAROEE to CNIDAH, could be part of the restructuring process.

One of the first tasks of CNIDAH is to establish basic coordination and reporting processes to demonstrate an ability to coordinate the mine action sector. CNIDAH is responsible for policy-making, coordination of demining activities and mine victim assistance, and the design of a National Mine Action Plan. It reports to the Council of Ministers and includes representatives from the Ministries of Social Welfare, Health, Agriculture and Rural Development, Territorial Administration, External Relations, Defense, Interior, and the Angolan Armed Forces. Representatives from national and international NGOs will also participate in the Commission.[44]

CNIDAH has already identified three broad priority areas for mine action in Angola: increased mine risk education given the number of IDPs in the country; demining in all areas of IDP resettlement; and demining of the Benguela railway corridor for future reconstruction of the line.[45]

As of July 2002, CNIDAH had not produced an approved work plan and had received no funding from the government. While General Santana Andre Pitra (General “Petroff”) has been appointed to head CNIDAH, there are no permanent staff members, no office space, and CNIDAH has not yet issued formal policy statements.[46] CNIDAH was attempting to address these basic, yet urgent, issues during the mid-year review of the national budget.

According to a June 2002 UN document, a new provincial plan of action has been agreed upon due to the critical IDP situation in the country. It includes the deployment of 12-13 qualified personnel to the provinces to assist in provincial level mine action coordination. Their first priority will be based on the Provincial Emergency Plans of Action for Resettlement and Return (PEPARR). These staff members will work closely with INAROEE, mine action NGOs, UN agencies, and local administrations to implement mine action priorities. Specific attention will be given to: 1) alerting returning populations to mine infested areas; 2) conducting mine clearance activities in priority locations; 3) strengthening coordination at the provincial level, and 4) information sharing between key partners. The new personnel will also concentrate on preparing the groundwork for the Landmine Impact Survey.[47]


Great disparities in the information provided to Landmine Monitor by INAROEE underscore its weakness in coordinating mine action. It could not provide clear statistics for mine clearance in 2001, nor could it provide data for the first quarter of 2002. The following table illustrates disparities in data provided regarding the number of square meters of land cleared during the 2001. The first three columns show data from three different INAROEE documents.[48] The final column is from individual NGO mine action organizations directly.

Square Meters of Land Cleared in 2001

Doc. 1
Doc. 2
INAROEE 2001 Annual Report
NGO Reports
HALO Trust
Santa Barbara

[56] Similar discrepancies exist in regard to the number of mines and UXO cleared during the year.[57]

HALO Trust. The British NGO HALO Trust maintains 26 manual demining teams, four combined EOD/survey/mine awareness teams, two armored loaders, one tracked dozer, two Wer’Wolf mine-protected area reduction vehicles, and one armored vegetation cutter. There is also a seasonal attachment of mine detection dog teams. HALO has a staff of 385 (339 in operations and 46 support staff) managed by one expatriate program manager.

As of 23 May 2002, its operations included 19 mine clearance tasks across Bie, Huambo, and Benguela Provinces. Throughout 2001 and into early 2002, as a result of the continued poor security situation and the increased numbers of IDPs in the provincial capitals, HALO teams focused on clearance tasks adjacent to the growing IDP camps. With the ceasefire and improvement of security in spring 2002, HALO survey teams were able to begin a comprehensive re-survey of the three provinces and have identified the following priority sites: 223 sites in Bie, 205 sites in Huambo, and 77 sites in Benguela. In the near future HALO plans to expand to 800+ national staff, import additional mechanical resources (with US State Department funding) and to spread its deployment into newly accessible areas in outlying municipalities.[58]

In 2001, HALO cleared 1,359,877 square meters of land (78 percent of this area was battle area clearance), destroying 1,084 mines, 1,070 UXO, and 7,048 items of stray ammunition. In 2002, HALO has cleared 145,763 square meters of land, destroying 735 mines, 189 UXO, and 11,451 items of stray ammunition. During this 18-month period, 107,657 people in mine-affected communities received mine risk education briefings from HALO.[59]

Intersos. In 2001, Intersos continued its activities in the provinces of Huíla and Kuando Kubango. In accordance with agreements reached at the local and provincial level, and with OCHA (acting as donor), Intersos carried out mine surveys, and EOD and battle area clearance. Clearance statistics over the 23-month period ending September 2001 include 525,417 square meters of land cleared, with 77 mines and 47,019 UXO destroyed. Intersos collected and destroyed 262,225 pieces of ammunition in their battle area clearance project, and they estimate the immediate beneficiaries of their mine action activities at 16,000.[60]

Mines Advisory Group (MAG).[61] As of July 2002, MAG maintained five Mine Action Teams (MAT) in Angola, from operations bases in Moxico and Cunene provinces. In Cunene, in February 2002, MAG began surveying the previously inaccessible eastern areas of the province. During 2001, in Cunene, MAG destroyed 131 mines and 9,106 items of UXO, and cleared 139,477 square meters of land. The MATs also responded to 258 community reports of mines and UXO.

In Kuvelai in Cunene, MAG is working around an IDP camp and has cleared areas around a WFP food distribution point. In Cakulavale in Cunene, MAG has destroyed several thousand items of ordnance from an old ammunition dump. MAG’s Community Liaison Officers (CLO) visited 119 communities in Cunene in 2001 to conduct mine risk education, information gathering, and impact surveys. Following clearance, the CLOs carried out post-clearance assessments. MAG bases its “National Training Team” in Cunene province.

In Moxico province in 2001, MAG cleared and destroyed 146 mines and 3,201 items of UXO, clearing 30,748 square meters of land. MAG was limited to the area within and immediately surrounding Luena by the ongoing conflict during 2001, and focused on responding to emergency requests from communities and local government. In late 2001, MAG cleared land and roads to help establish the new Muachimbo IDP camp. In December 2001, MAG cleared areas around Luena’s water pumping and filtration station, enabling repairs to be carried out by local government, and running water to flow for the city’s 250,000 inhabitants for the first time since 1993. During this project, 7,000 square meters was cleared and 17 antipersonnel mines were removed and destroyed.

In Moxico, MAG’s participatory mine risk education is targeted at non-school attending children and newly arrived IDPs. A total of 17,175 people attended sessions in 2001. MATs also responded to reports from the local population about UXO and mines. With improved security in early 2002, MAG conducted technical appraisals and opened safe access along the main roads from Luena to Lucusse, Luau and Congombe, to make possible the road-delivery of food and medical aid by local agencies and by WFP and MSF.

Menschen gegen Minen (MgM).[62] During the first half of 2001, MgM continued its operations in Ambriz, Bengo Province, an area that has been MgM’s main base of operations for over five years. On 5 June 2001, Ambriz was attacked by UNITA forces and MgM halted operations and relocated the bulk of its human and technical resources to its southern base in Ondjiva, Cunene Province, where a test bed facility was constructed for analyzing the capabilities of new demining technologies.[63]

A small portion of MgM’s staff and equipment remained in Luanda, and throughout the year carried out a number of small tasks in Luanda and Bengo Provinces. Eighteen power pylons were demined inside an IDP camp near Caxito (roughly 35 kilometers from Luanda), an old ordnance dump at the airport in Luanda was surveyed, and an MgM EOD team partially cleared and marked another mined area near Caxito. MgM also operates a vehicle maintenance facility in Luanda that services NGO, UN, and embassy vehicles; any profits generated by the workshop are used to support MgM demining activities.

MgM received a request for assistance from the provincial government of Cunene after the governor, Sr. Mutinde, was seriously injured in a mine accident when he drove over an antivehicle mine on his family’s private property. MgM and MAG collaborated on a thorough reassessment of the area, which had reportedly been cleared by Angolan Army engineers in 1982. MgM also carried out a reassessment of all areas adjacent to the Ondjiva airport, to facilitate runway extension and repair work. Utilizing armored graders, vapor detection dogs teams, and one section of deminers, MgM verified over 1 million square meters on this one task.[64]

Throughout 2001, MgM opened 13.4 kilometers of roadway and cleared/verified 1,036,533 square meters of land. MgM destroyed 160 antipersonnel mines, 16 antivehicle mines, and destroyed 1,293 UXO. MgM maintains an operational capacity of two armored graders and one armored Caterpillar 916 with ROTAR attachment, plus two dog teams and 40 manual deminers.[65]

Norwegian People’s Aid. NPA remains the NGO with the most extensive mine clearance operations in Angola, operating in the provinces of Malange, Kwanza Norte, Huíla, Cunene, and Moxico with a staff of roughly 500 Angolans and seven expatriates. Throughout 2001, NPA cleared 3,640,470 square meters of land and opened 3,392 kilometers of road. In 2001, 748 antipersonnel mines, 78 antivehicle mines, and 1,071 UXO were removed. Between 1 January and 31 March 2002, NPA cleared a total of 651,472 square meters of land, removing 438 antipersonnel and 17 antivehicle mines and 473 UXO.[66]

NPA has now fully developed a “Task Impact Assessment” (TIA) procedure. TIA is an analytical and planning process to assesses the needs and capacities of local communities, as well as the current operational and managerial capacities of the demining teams themselves, in an effort to more closely link mine action with post-demining development work. TIA is, in essence, a task prioritization process that links mine action directly to the improvement of the socio-economic conditions of the target population.[67]

Throughout 2001 and the first quarter of 2002, NPA’s operational capacity remained virtually unchanged from that reported last year.[68] There are four manual demining groups consisting of roughly 350 deminers. The mechanical group operates three Aardvark and two Hydrema flail machines, while the mine dog teams consist of 14 free-running dogs and 11 REST dogs (Remote Explosive Scent Tracing). The REST dogs work from a stationary location with air samples that are collected in the field by manual teams traveling in three armored Casspir vehicles. NPA also maintains a fully nationalized mine survey group; in 2001 its teams surveyed and documented 129 mine sites. The information collected by these teams is consolidated in the INAROEE national landmine database with the technical assistance of one NPA expatriate.[69] In addition, there are two mobile EOD teams that focus on finding and destroying UXO.

Santa Barbara. This German NGO has been in Angola since 1997. In 2001, its operations continued around Xangongo, Cunene Province, though at a greatly reduced level due to a shortage of funding. In total, 55,841 square meters of land were cleared, with 15 antivehicle mines, nine UXO, and 92 items of stray ammunition destroyed. During this “quiet period,” demining staff members performed ad hoc mine awareness and spot clearance activities in the greater Xangongo area. In May 2002, Santa Barbara participated in an assessment mission along the Matala–Menongue railway in southern Angola.[70]

Angolan Armed Forces. In January 2002, Spain announced it would hold a basic training course in demining for 12 members of the Angolan Armed Forces. The class would be held near Madrid between 11 February to 22 March and would train participants in the areas of recognition, identification and registration of mines, and would train them to become mine clearance instructors.[71]


UNICEF continues to be the lead agency in mine risk education (MRE). UNICEF works with state agencies and departments to develop a long-term capacity-building strategy within the government. Together with INAROEE, UNICEF has produced television and radio spots, and instituted a train-the-trainer program in primary schools throughout the country. Over 980 teachers have been trained to train other teachers in the school system in MRE. This year, MRE was formally accepted into the national curriculum by the Ministry of Education. Between August 2001 and February 2002, 142,200 children benefited from mine awareness education in the formal sector.[72]

UNICEF also funds local NGOs in seven of the most mine-affected provinces.[73] Their activities include theater skits, community awareness-raising events, and MRE classes in non-formal schools. Between August 2001 and February 2002, 262,726 people benefited from such activities. Additionally, these local NGOs and their community networks play an important role in advocating for the full ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty and other mine-related issues, such as survivor assistance and the rights of the disabled. Finally, UNICEF is the primary producer of mine awareness education materials such as posters, newsletters, caps, T-shirts, etc, which are used and distributed by all organizations in Angola, including government departments, national, and international NGOs.[74]

Handicap International also plays a significant role in mine risk education in Angola. Their educational activities are focused on the provinces of Bíe, Huambo, Benguela, Kwanza Norte, Kwanza Sul, Cunene, Bengo, and Kuando Kubango. From mid-2000 to mid-2001, HI’s activities reached 80,000 beneficiaries in the provinces of Bengo and Kuando Kubango; the project emphasizes direct support in those two provinces, while it focuses on institutional support to INAROEE and provincial coordination mechanisms in the other six provinces. HI cooperates with many organizations in the field, including UNICEF, Intersos, MAG, NPA, and MgM, as well as a large number of national NGOs operating in the area of mine risk education.[75] In addition to HI, the HALO Trust, Care, NPA, and World Vision are all active in the mine risk education sector.

MAG carries out mine risk education alongside its mine clearance and survey activities in Moxico and Cunene provinces. (See section above for details).[76]


In 2001, 660 new casualties were reported, from a total of 339 mine and UXO incidents.[77] Of the total casualties, 170 people were killed and 362 injured; the status of 128 casualties is unknown. This represents a decline in new casualties of 21 percent from the 840 casualties reported in 2000, of which 388 people were killed and 452 injured.[78] In 2001, 20 percent of casualties were female. Forty-nine percent of total casualties were traveling[79] at the time of the incident. In one incident, on 3 September 2001, 24 individuals were killed by an antivehicle mine near the village of Luarica, roughly 15 kilometers from Lucapa, Lunda Norte Province.[80] Civilians accounted for 56 percent of total casualties recorded in 2001, with 42 percent military personnel, and two percent unknown. The age group most affected by mines, is 19- to 35-year-olds with 53 percent of recorded casualties, followed by those over the age of 35 with 21 percent. Sixteen percent were under the age of 18. Of all casualties reported during the year 2001, 41 percent were the result of antivehicle mines, 40 percent resulted from antipersonnel mines, and almost 10 percent were the result of an exploding UXO. The provinces recording the highest number of incidents were Malange with 23 percent of reported incidents, Uíge 15 percent, Moxico 14 percent, Kuando Kubango 10 percent, and Huambo Province with 9 percent.

Casualties continue to be reported in 2002, although the numbers recorded do not appear to be comprehensive yet. On 2 February 2002, three civilians were killed by one antipersonnel mine in Cachimbago, 12 kilometers north of Ganda, Benguela Province.[81] INAROEE reports that between 1 January and 30 April 2002, a total of 27 mine/UXO incidents resulted in 44 people being killed or injured.[82] However, according to UNICEF there had been at least 200 incidents since the beginning of the year.[83]

In the period from 1998 to 2001, a total of 2,055 mine and UXO casualties, including 487 children, were recorded.[84]


Few facilities are available for the physically disabled. The provision of any type of assistance, particularly outside major cities, has been significantly affected by the conflict.[85] One in every 415 Angolans has a mine-related injury.[86] The challenges facing both local and international organizations working with Angolan mine survivors in 2001 and 2002 included ongoing military clashes, population displacements, as well as a decrease in resources from donors.

In general, 30-50 percent of mine casualties die before or after surgery for reasons including: distance to the nearest medical facility, lack of transport, and wrongly applied first aid.[87] The World Health Organization (WHO), together with the Norwegian NGO, Trauma Care Foundation (TCF), and Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) provide emergency care training to medical personnel in Luena Province. In 2001/2002, a total of twenty-eight people were trained. Ten of the participants have qualified as instructors for training villagers as first responders to provide first aid to mine casualties.[88] The ICRC works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health, providing assistance in government hospitals, including the surgical ward at the Central Hospital in Huambo. In the provinces of Huambo, Bié and Uíge, the ICRC also supports 12 Primary Health Care centers, in collaboration with the national Red Cross Society and the Ministry of Health.[89]

The Ministry of Health operates ten centers providing rehabilitation services for the disabled, including landmine survivors. Three of these centers are supported by the ICRC, three by Handicap International Belgium, two by German Technical Cooperation, one by Intersos, and one by Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation/Veterans International.[90]

The ICRC provides physical rehabilitation services in Luanda, Huambo and Kuito. In 2001, the centers provided 1,953 prostheses, of which 1,578 were for mine survivors. In addition 6,232 patients received crutches and 64 received wheelchairs.[91] Partial transport reimbursements were given to 756 patients while another 117 patients were transported to the centers in the ICRC plane. In addition, prosthetic components and crutch handles were provided free of charge until April 2002[92] to six other rehabilitation centers for the production of 1,500 prostheses. Two crutch-making units in Huambo and in Luanda are assisted by the ICRC, using recycled polypropylene from used prostheses, which aim to cover the national needs. Due to security problems, poverty, and a lack of information, one of the key issues addressed in 2001 was the dissemination of information regarding assistance available at the centers. The government input into the centers increased during the year; salaries of national staff were raised and also paid regularly.[93] In the first six months of 2002, support for nearly 3,000 disabled persons from seven different provinces continued in the three orthopedic centers directly supported by ICRC. All services were provided to patients free of charge until April 2002.[94]

Handicap International Belgium (HIB) continued to support the physical rehabilitation workshops in Benguela, Lubango, and Negage as well as the prosthetic foot factory in Viana. In 2001, 856 patients were fitted with prostheses, 739 prostheses were repaired, and 1,858 pairs of crutches were distributed. The foot factory in Viana is capable of producing and distributing 700 prosthetic feet per month. In 2001, a total of 5,593 prosthetic feet were produced and 5,247 feet were distributed to all ten orthopedic centers in the country; these vulcanized rubber feet have been accepted as the national standard by the Angolan government. Training was provided to 14 local orthopedic technicians and seven physiotherapy assistants. A drastic shortage of funding forced HIB to suspend its support to the Negage center in April 2002 and to significantly decrease support to the Viana foot factory in June 2002. This situation is due to a two-year delay in launching the European Development Fund (EDF) project for physical rehabilitation. The estimated budget for 2002 is $1.3 million, and HIB’s main donors include the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Irish Aid, DGCI, Stichting Vluchteling, AUSTCARE, and the EU through the European Development Fund.[95]

The Italian NGO, Intersos, in cooperation with the local NGO Mbembwa, began construction of the Landmine Victims Orthopedic Center in Menongue, Kuando Kubango Province in October 1999. At the same time, training began for orthopedic technicians and physiotherapy staff. Currently, all rehabilitation activities and prostheses production are functioning fully. Fifteen qualified nurses have been trained, seven as orthopedic technicians and eight as physiotherapists. The center produces 20 below-knee prostheses, and 100 pairs of crutches per month. The center has 23 local staff and two expatriates (a physiotherapist and orthopedic technician specialist), and has facilities to temporarily house 50 patients and family members. The local NGO, Mbembwa, in cooperation with other organizations, organizes professional vocational training to reintegrate disabled individuals into productive activities. From July 2001 to May 2002, the center operated on €295,000 ($265,000) from the EU, and in June 2002 received bridging funds from OCHA’s Emergency Response Fund. Since the center is included in the Angolan Ministry of Health’s Five Year Rehabilitation Plan, which is supported by the EC, Intersos expects to receive further funding soon.[96] The center also received €300,000 ($269,000) from the Italian Cooperation.[97]

Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation/Veterans International (VVAF/VI) continues its support of the orthopedic center in Luena, Moxico Province, by providing physical rehabilitation, physical therapy, and psycho-social and socio-economic reintegration assistance to war-affected Angolans. The prosthetics and orthotics workshop provides artificial limbs, crutches, and wheelchairs to mine survivors as well as polio victims. In 2001, the center provided assistance to 485 people, of whom 271 received an orthopedic device produced by the workshop; 112 of these patients were landmine survivors. VVAF/VI also assists patients from Saurimo, Lunda Sul Province, and will soon begin a program with the Irish Government to fly mine survivors to the center from Dundo, Lunda Norte Province. Funding is provided by USAID and VVAF, with an annual budget of almost US$1 million.[98]

The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) socio-economic program for landmine survivors in Luena assisted 100 people in 2001 including: 15 carpenters received skills training; 12 women benefited from micro-credits; literacy classes were held; 95 survivors and their families received non-food items; hospital visits to survivors; twice weekly visits to new survivors; and pastoral care and counseling.[99]

Medico International (MI) shares the premises at the Regional Community Rehabilitation Center in Luena with VVAF/VI and JRS and continues its program of community development with the aim of full reintegration of mine survivors into the community.[100] MI works with a local NGO, Support Center for the Promotion and Development of Communities (CAPDC), to provide psychosocial support to landmine survivors, their families and other persons with disabilities. In 2001, activities included the development of sports and cultural activities, working with amputees in their homes, accompanying amputees to the prosthetic workshop for fittings and follow up rehabilitation, and organizing referrals for vocational or literacy training. The program also supports the opthalmology ward at the Central Hospital, community theater and a mobile clinic. About 300 landmine survivors benefited from the program in 2001, as well as many more members of the community. Funders of the program in 2001 include the German government, the U.S. War Victims Fund through VVAF, and the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund.

In September 2001, the Jaipur Limb Campaign UK began a program in Viana and Luanda with the Angolan NGO, League for the Reintegration of Disabled People (LARDEF), to promote the economic reintegration of disabled persons. The program has set up small cooperatives of appropriate low cost transport for goods and people, which are run by amputees – the majority of whom are landmine survivors. The cooperatives also provide transport to orthopedic centers in order to improve access to rehabilitation services. In 2001, the program was supported by the UK-based Heather Mills Health Trust and in 2002 by Comic Relief.[101]

The ICRC and other rehabilitation NGOs continue to work with the Orthopedic Coordination Group, established in 1995 by the Ministry of Health, and the new Victim Assistance Subcommission of the National Intersectoral Commission for Demining and Humanitarian Assistance, established in July 2001.


[1] The new agreement consists of a Memorandum of Understanding between the military leadership of the Angolan Armed Forces (FAA) and of UNITA's Armed Forces regarding the establishment of a general cease-fire and the implementation of the remaining military tasks under the Lusaka Protocol. See “Statement of the Government of Angola on the ceasefire settlement of the Government and UNITA general military staff,” UN Security Council Document, S/2002/346, 3 April 2002.
[2] The Lusaka Protocol, paragraph II.1) 1.34 of Annex 8, in relation to Military Issues (Agenda Item II.1).
[3] “Humanitarian Situation in Angola, Monthly Analysis February 2002,” UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, available on www.reliefweb.int.
[4] Out of the total number stated by the government, 1.4 million IDPs have been confirmed by humanitarian organizations and registered for assistance. See OCHA’s “Humanitarian Fact Sheet, April 2002.”
[5] UN Development Program Project Document, “Status and Prospects for Expanded National Mine Action Capacity in Angola,” 2 May 2002, p. 10. Hereinafter referred to as “UNDP Project Document.”
[6] Interview with General Santana Andre Pitra (aka, General Petroff), Luanda, 30 April 2002.
[7] Letter from the Angolan Ambassador to the UN, New York, to the ICBL, as cited in Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p.183.
[8] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 184.
[9] In Portuguese: Comissão Nacional Intersectorial de Desminagem e Assistência Humanitária às Vítimas das Minas (CNIDAH).
[10] Email from Stephen Kinloch, Assistant Resident Representative, UNDP Angola, 17 June 2002.
[11] Interview with Dra. Balbina Silva, Luanda, Angola, 30 April 2002.
[12] Landmine Monitor (South Africa) interview with Neuma Grobbelaar, South African Institute of
International Affairs, 1 July 2002; “Angola formally adheres to Ottawa Convention on landmines,” Xinhua (Luanda), 9 July 2002.
[13] “Angola: Ratificada Convenção de Ottawa sobre minas anti-pessoal,” LUSA press agency, 8 July 2002.
[14] Ibid. (unofficial translation)
[15] “SADC experts defend enlargement of campaign against landmines,” ANGOP (Luanda), 29 June 2002.
[16] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 184-185.
[17] Landmine Monitor (South Africa) interview with Neuma Grobbelaar, South African Institute of International Affairs, 1 July 2002; “Angola formally adheres to Ottawa Convention on landmines,” Xinhua (Luanda), 9 July 2002.
[18] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 183.
[19] In a notorious incident, on 10 August 2001, a train carrying approximately 500 passengers from Luanda inland to Dondo triggered a landmine and caught fire. UNITA rebels claimed responsibility for staging the attack, insisting the train was loaded with military supplies. The death toll ultimately reached 250, including those gunned down by UNITA forces as they fled the burning wreckage. See “Angola’s UNITA Rebels Claim Responsibility for Attack on Train,” Xinhua, 13 August 2001; “Death Toll in Angola Train Attack Reaches 250,” Reuters, 15 August 2001.
[20] Interview with General Petroff, Luanda, Angola, 30 April 2002.
[21] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 184-186.
[22] Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), “The Mine Action Sector in Angola: Mission Report,” February 2002, p. 43. Hereinafter referred to as “GICHD Mission Report.”
[23] INAROEE Annual Report, “Mine Accident and Survey Report – 2001.” Hereinafter referred to as “INAROEE 2001 Annual Report.” Available on www.inaroee@ebonet.net. This figure includes high-risk and low-risk locations, marked areas, and areas currently being demined.
[24] “The HALO Trust Angola – Briefing Notes as at 23 May 2002.”
[25] Promulgated on 5 January 2001, Article 4 of Decree Number 1/01 states, “a) All resettlement and return sites must be verified free of mines. b) For the purpose of the preceding paragraph, INAROEE and its partners will create mine awareness brigades and, when necessary, conduct demining.” This piece of legislation is based on the UN document entitled “Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons.”
[26] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director for Policy, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), 30 July 2002.
[27] SAC News Update, June 2002.
[28] US Department of State, “To Walk The Earth in Safety,” November 2001, p. 2.
[29] See individual country reports in this edition of Landmine Monitor, and also the UN Mine Action Investments Database at: http://webapps.dfait-maeci.gc.ca.
[30] Email from Guy Willoughby, Director of HALO Trust, 1 July 2002.
[31] OCHA’s 2002 Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal.
[32] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director for Policy, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), 30 July 2002.
[33] Statistical breakdowns were provided by Ken O’Connell, of MgM Angola, via email on 6, 7, and 26 May 2002. UN Consolidated Appeal figures taken from the 2002 CAP document on www.reliefweb.int.
[34] Email from Christfried Schoenherr, Santa Barbara representative in Luanda, 19 May 2002.
[35] Email from Janecke Wille, NPA, Oslo, 10 July 2002.
[36] Data supplied by Aksel Steen-Nilsen, Program Manager for Mine Action in Angola, NPA, May 2002.
[37] Emails from Corinne Henon, Program Director, Handicap International, Luanda, 15 July 2002, and Cathy Badonnel, MRE coordination, HI, Lyon, 3 July 2002.
[38] Mike Kendellen, VVAF, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire; and email from Tom Petocz, VVAF Country Representative in Angola, 4 May 2002. See Survivor Assistance section below for details on VVAF’s activities.
[39] Interview with Emanuel dos Santos Pinheiro, UNICEF Project Assistant for Mine Risk Education, Luanda, 29 April 2002.
[40] GICHD Mission Report, p. 4.
[41] See UNDP Project Document, which contains a lengthy analysis of the structural weaknesses of INAROEE.
[42] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 187.
[43] Interview with Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mine Policy Advisor, Oslo, Norway, 2 July 2002.
[44] UNDP Project Document, p. 12.
[45] Interview with General Petroff, Luanda, 30 April 2002.
[46] Ibid.
[47] UN OCHA Luanda, "Mine Action," a short briefing document, June 2002.
[48] During the last week of April 2002, the Landmine Monitor Angola Researcher met repeatedly with INAROEE technical director, Leonardo Sapalo, and with the staff of the database, though General Helder Cruz, INAROEE director, did not appear at a scheduled meeting. Over a period of four days, INAROEE database personnel printed out documents one and two, recorded in the chart above. During a meeting with the Technical Director of INAROEE, a copy of the Mine Action and Survey Report – 2001 was provided, from which the data in the third column is taken.
[49] Email from Tim Porter, HALO Trust Africa Desk Officer, 24 June 2002.
[50] INAROEE statistic includes INAROEE plus BTS Bie (Brigadas Técnicas de Sapadores).
[51] Email from Osvaldo Amato, Intersos Mine Action Operations Officer, 21 June 2002. This figure represents clearance during a 23-month time period, ending September 2001.
[52] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director for Policy, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), 30 July 2002.
[53] MgM Annual Report 2001, provided via email by Ken O’Connell, MgM Angola, 7 May 2002.
[54] Email from Aksel Steen-Nilsen, Mine Action Program Manager, NPA, 7 May 2002.
[55] Email from Christfried Schoenherr, Santa Barbara representative in Luanda, 19 May 2002.
[56] Email communications between Landmine Monitor and Christfried Schoenherr, 16, 19, and 27 June 2002.
[57] To give just one example, MgM reports destroying 1,293 UXO in 2001, while INAROEE reported that MgM destroyed 63,973 UXO during the same period.
[58] “The Halo Trust Angola–Briefing Notes as at 23 May 2002.” Additional statistical breakdowns were provided by Tim Porter, HALO Trust Africa Desk Officer, via email on 24 June 2002.
[59] “The HALO Trust Angola–Briefing Notes as at 23 May 2002.”
[60] Email from Osvaldo Amato, Intersos Mine Action Operations Officer, 21 June 2002.
[61] This section is drawn from: Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director for Policy, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), 30 July 2002.
[62] People Against Landmines.
[63] The test beds were designed by Andy Smith of AVS Consulting, for technologies developed in the EU’s Esprit Program. Ground penetrating radar and nuclear magnetic resonance are two of the newest technologies tested in Ondjiva. See MgM 2001 Annual Report, and the website www.mgm.org.
[64] MgM Annual Report 2001, provided via email by Ken O’Connell, MgM Angola, 7 May 2002.
[65] Email from Ken O’Connell, MgM Angola, 26 May 2002.
[66] Data supplied by Aksel Steen-Nilsen, Program Manager for Mine Action in Angola, Norwegian People’s Aid, May 2002.
[67] Email from Sara Sekkenes, Mine Policy Advisor, NPA Oslo, 23 May 2002.
[68] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 191.
[69] The NPA database advisor left Angola in June 2002 and it appears unlikely that NPA will continue to support the database in its current form. Interview with Sara Sekkenes, NPA Mine Policy Advisor, Oslo, Norway, 2 July 2002.
[70] Emails from Christfried Schoenherr, Santa Barbara representative in Luanda, 18, 20, and 24 May 2002.
[71] “Spain to Hold Demining Course for Angolan Army Officials 11 Feb-22 Mar,” ANGOP, 20 January 2002.
[72] UNICEF Progress Report, April 2002.
[73] UNICEF funds the following local mine awareness NGOs: Palancas Negras (Malange), Grupo de Apoio à Criança (Huambo and Bie), Trindade (Bengo), Club de Jovens (Huíla), Anxame de Abeila (Moxico), CDR and Tumbuanza (Uíge). Interview with UNICEF Luanda, 29 April 2002.
[74] UNICEF Progress Report, April 2002.
[75] Handicap International, “HI in Angola (mid 2000 – mid 2001),” provided via email from Cathy Badonnel, MRE Coordination, HI, Lyon, 3 June 2002.
[76] See MAG’s activities in the mine clearance section of this country report.
[77] All casualty data is taken from the INAROEE “Mine Accident and Survey Report – 2001.”
[78] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 193.
[79] “Traveling” as a category refers to those individuals who were involved in a mine incident while moving from one place to another rather than while living in one location. In reality, the vast majority of casualties are internally displaced and step on mines while fleeing zones of conflict or returning to their place of origin.
[80] OCHA Luanda security incident database. Information provided by OCHA Field Advisors.
[81] Ibid.
[82] Printout provided to Landmine Monitor by INAROEE, 29 April 2002.
[83] Interview with UNICEF, Luanda, 29 April 2002.
[84] These figures are cited by UNICEF in a map printed 19 January 2002, based on data provided by INAROEE. Published in: “Mine Awareness Education: Progress Report for the Canadian International Development Agency and the UNICEF National Committee of Canada,” April 2002.
[85] See also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 194.
[86] GICHD Mission Report, February 2002, p. 43.
[87] Sebastian Kasack, Medico International, “The Luena/Angola experience,” presentation to the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 28 January 2002.
[88] “Portfolio of Landmine Victim Assistance Programs 2002,” accessed at www.landminevap.org.
[89] “ICRC Activities in Angola–January to June 2002,” accessed at www.icrc.org.
[90] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 194.
[91] ICRC Special Report, Mine Action 2001, ICRC, Geneva, July 2002, p. 16.
[92] Email from Robert Burny, Angola Desk Officer, HIB, 18 July 2002.
[93] “ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programmes, Annual Report 2001,” accessed at www.icrc.org.
[94] “ICRC Activities in Angola–January to June 2002,” accessed at www.icrc.org.
[95] “Handicap International Belgium Activity Report 2001;” and Handicap International Belgium briefing document available at the Intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva, May 2002.
[96] “Intersos: Orthopedic Center for Amputated Landmine Victims, Menongue-Kuando Kubango Province–2002 Briefing Document,” via email from Stefano Calabretta, Mine Action Coordinator, Intersos Rome, 28 and 29 June 2002.
[97] Stefano Calabretta, Mine Action Coordinator, Intersos Rome, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire, 26 April 2002.
[98] Mike Kendellen, VVAF, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire; and email from Tom Petocz, VVAF Country Representative in Angola, 4 May 2002.
[99] Jesuit Refugee Service, “Annual Report 2001,” p. 23; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 196.
[100] Sebastian Kasack, Project Coordinator, Mine Action Focal Point, Medico International, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire, 11 July 2002.
[101] Isabel Silva, Projects Officer, Jaipur Foot Campaign, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire, 11 July 2002.