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Country Reports
SUDAN, Landmine Monitor Report 2002


Key developments since May 2001: After the signing a cease-fire agreement for the Nuba Mountains area, a series of new mine action projects were initiated. A number of assessments were carried out in both government- and rebel-controlled areas. The United States deployed part of its quick reaction demining force to clear mines from roads in the Nuba Mountains for a five-week period. The Sudan Landmine Information and Response Initiative was formed in 2001. Between April 2001 and March 2002, Operation Save Innocent Lives cleared a total of 329 miles of road and 263,093 square meters of land. Both the government and the SPLA have renewed pledges not to use antipersonnel mines, although there are still unconfirmed allegations of use by both sides.


A series of diplomatic missions resulted in the U.S./Swiss-brokered Burgenstock Ceasefire Agreement for the Nuba Mountains, signed on 19 January 2002. This agreement specifically calls for an end to the use of mines and for mine clearance in this northern Sudanese rebel enclave. It also allows humanitarian access and monitoring. A Joint Military Commission has been established to regulate and monitor the ceasefire and international monitors are also to be deployed.


Sudan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997, but has not ratified it. In June 2001, the Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), the Sudanese government focal point for mine issues, convened a workshop on the treaty and a technical committee was formed from ministries to advise on treaty ratification. Both the head of the Army’s engineering department, General Mohamed Abdelgadir, and the deputy commissioner of HAC, Abdel Ati Abdel Kheir, supported the workshop’s recommendation for the government to ratify the Mine Ban Treaty.[1] The Commissioner General of the HAC in May 2002 stated, “The Government of Sudan has not finalized the ratification of Ottawa Convention banning the use of Landmines yet because it is still facing several problems....” After citing continued use of mines by rebel groups, he said, “The Government of Sudan reaffirms its commitment for the ratification of Ottawa Convention for Banning the use of Landmines which will be effective soon as the above-mentioned violations are ceased.”[2]

Representatives of the Sudan government attended the Third Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in Managua, Nicaragua, in September 2001 and actively participated in the meetings of the intersessional Standing Committees in Geneva in January and May 2002. Sudan cosponsored and voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 56/24M in November 2001, calling for the universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

The President of Sudan has called for a regional mechanism to address the problem of landmines in the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD, an East African regional grouping) countries. Based on that call, HAC started contacts with Eritrea, Uganda, Ethiopia, and Kenya trying to implement the President’s call, which focuses on mine action, and not a ban. These contacts also included Chad, which is not an IGAD country.[3]

The main rebel army, the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA), has now twice signed the “Geneva Call Commitment to Non-Use,” first on 10 August 2001, in southern Sudan and again 4 October 2001, in Geneva.[4] In January 2002, the SPLA and the rival Sudan People’s Defense Forces (SPDF) signed an agreement to merge, drastically changing the military situation in south Sudan by ending most factional fighting in Upper Nile. According to an SPLM[5] official, “This agreement is binding on any party or faction that joins with the SPLA, past present or future.”[6] The same official said the SPLA’s agreement to the mine ban was “triggered by the simple fact that we are fighting for a peaceful homeland and not a turbulent minefield.”[7] A leader of the SPDF was more equivocal, believing his faction still had to negotiate these issues during the ongoing merger talks, but insisted his forces had renounced the use of antipersonnel mines since 1996, and had no stocks or intention to use them.[8]


Both civilian and military representatives of Sudan have stated that the country does not produce, export, import, or possess stockpiles of antipersonnel mines.[9] A July 2001 letter to Landmine Monitor claimed there were no stocks of antipersonnel mines.[10] These statements are at odds with the allegations and evidence of past use of antipersonnel mines reported in previous editions of Landmine Monitor Report. According to the government, all mines collected during demining and those taken from the rebel forces are destroyed.[11]

It appears that the Lord’s Resistance Army, a Ugandan separatist group, has stockpiled landmines inside Sudan. In February 2002, Uganda and Sudan signed a protocol to allow Ugandan army units to pursue LRA units within Sudanese territory. In late March 2002, the Ugandan Defense Minister claimed that the Ugandan army had overrun four LRA bases inside Sudan and seized weapons including “55 assault rifles, grenades, bombs, land mines and ammunition.” These were handed over to the Sudanese military intelligence chief at Lubang Tek in a videotaped ceremony.[12]


Landmine Monitor Report 2001 stated that there were “strong indications” that both government and SPLA forces continued to use antipersonnel mines.[13] On numerous occasions in the past year Sudanese military and civilian officials have denied that the army uses antipersonnel mines. At the Third Meeting of States Parties in September 2001, the head of the Sudanese delegation said that the government reiterates its commitment not to use antipersonnel mines.[14]

The government stated at the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in May 2002, “The rebels are still using antipersonnel landmines in many parts of the southern Sudan. Several incidents had occurred recently in Raga and Ganmet near Wau of Western Bahr El Gazal State.... In the Eastern Sudan the opposition based in a neighboring country also uses antipersonnel landmines with devastating effects on the civilians and their livestock.”[15] For a number of years there have been reports of various militias in the south using mines.[16]

The UN Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for Sudan, 2002, mentions a UN assessment report that claims both the government and opposition parties use landmines: “the former to protect its garrison towns, while the latter uses landmines to fix government forces in the towns and interdict their supply lines.” Furthermore, “both sides reportedly have used landmines to terrorize local populations in order to diminish their support for the opposing sides.”[17]

Both sides have accused each other of having mined the town of Raga in Western Baher el Ghazal area, recaptured in October 2001 by the government after being taken by the SPLA in June 2001. The SPLA allegedly warned a security official with UN Operation Lifeline Sudan that the SPLA had used antipersonnel mines in October 2001 to defend the nearby airstrips at Mangayat and Deim Zubeir.[18] An SPLM official stated, “If this incident took place I’m sure that it was from lack of local information by commanders on the ground. We hope that we will be able to resolve these local difficulties through a program of education and training in international humanitarian norms, as planned with Geneva Call.”[19]

Although a cease-fire has been in effect in the Nuba Mountains since January 2002, fighting continues in the nearby oil-producing areas of the south, particularly Western Upper Nile. The SPLA provided a Landmine Monitor researcher with sketch maps indicating some 49 known or suspected minefields in the Nuba Mountains. The SPLA alleges the Sudanese Army laid all but three. The SPLA also claims that government forces continued nuisance mining as late as January 2002.[20]


The landmine situation in Sudan has not been comprehensively surveyed. This includes rebel-controlled parts of south Sudan, and other locations such as the Nuba Mountains, southern Blue Nile, and the Red Sea Hills. Following the January 2002 cease-fire, several initial assessments were conducted in the Nuba Mountains (an area hitherto excluded from international humanitarian assistance).

The Sudan Landmine Information and Response Initiative (SLIRI), UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS), and the Joint Military Commission (JMC) undertook missions in government-controlled areas of the Nuba Mountains. Operation Save Innocent Lives (OSIL), Sudan Integrated Mine Action Service (SIMAS), and SLIRI assessed some SPLA-controlled areas of the Nuba Mountains in March 2002. SLIRI, advised by Landmine Action (UK), carried out an assessment on both sides, working with OSIL in the SPLA areas. The Mines Advisory Group (MAG) provided technical expertise for the assessment in the Nuba Mountains.

The Joint Military Commission and International Monitoring Unit began initial deployment in mid-April 2002 and called for immediate demining of key access routes. There are several plans to collect and collate data from mine-affected communities and regions. SLIRI and UNMAS are planning to establish in-country information centers.

The assessment reports of specific locations, as well as other information provided by a variety of sources, give a fragmentary picture at best of the mine situation in Sudan. Some findings include:

  • An emergency assessment of the Nuba Mountains area by SLIRI, funded by the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund, reports: “The use of [antipersonnel mines] in combat areas is clearly widespread based on the high incidence of injuries within the population which conform to those normally associated with an [antipersonnel mine] detonation.”[21]
  • World Food Program (WFP) food security calculations suggest up to a million people in southern Sudan could be affected directly and indirectly by mines - half the total estimated in need of food relief. Most affected are the populations inside towns who are prevented from grazing and cultivation by encircling minefields.[22]
  • The Nuba Relief, Rehabilitation and Development Organization (NRRDO) indicates that the southeastern Nuba counties of Heiban and Nugurban are most heavily contaminated, with three times the number of mine victims of the other five counties. NRRDO food security officer Mohamed Osman claims that 90 percent of fertile land is also unavailable due to the mine situation. He also believes that almost the entire population of the rebel enclave has been affected by the use of landmines, both due to the inability to cultivate in the fertile valleys and by the difficulty in accessing waterpoints. Osman believes the total number affected is around 400,000, over twice the WFP estimates of around 157,000.[23]
  • UNMAS notes that areas “worst affected” by mines include Bahr el Ghazal and Western Upper Nile.[24]
  • The southeastern region of Eastern Equatoria is reported to be mined and in the opinion of one senior cleric, Juba is the worst affected town in the region, having been mined in the first year of the war (1983) and besieged for almost two decades. Several hundred thousand displaced people have swollen its existing population and they have virtually no access to the countryside.[25] Another senior cleric claims that most of Eastern Equatoria is contaminated by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO).[26]
  • Referring to the mine situation in Upper Nile, former U.S. State Department Sudan advisor John Prendergast, said “Landmines as a perimeter defense of the oilfield infrastructure will have an adverse impact on the people of that area for the next century, as unexploded ordnance will remain a serious threat to southern Sudanese civilians....”[27] Another source states that the Upper Nile areas of Malakal and Bentiu are very seriously affected.[28]
  • The western portion of southern Sudan is thought to be less heavily contaminated, although all contested areas and besieged government towns are believed to be mined. According to SIMAS, OSIL and the SPLA, every town captured by the SPLA or government has been defensively mined.
  • Some of the traditional fishing areas around Yirol in Lakes Province have been deserted because of the widespread deployment of mines around the lakes.[29]


A number of mine action programs were initiated in Sudan during the reporting period. While none of these programs has the immediate objective of establishing a national mine action program, many are focused on establishing and developing local capacities to eliminate landmines. Programs have increasingly concentrated on the Nuba Mountains since the January cease-fire.

In August 2001, representatives of civil society from both sides of the Sudan conflict met in London at a meeting hosted by Landmine Action (a UK-based NGO) to discuss the potential for a coordinated cross-conflict mine action response, with the full approval of the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A. This “Crosslines” meeting developed the Sudan Landmine Information and Response Network concept. SLIRI is now a consortium of over 70 Sudanese and international NGOs with the Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines (SCBL), Operation Save Innocent Lives, and Landmine Action being the main partners. SLIRI intends to serve as a nationwide “crosslines” information network in both government- and rebel-controlled areas of Sudan, including the Nuba Mountains. The European Commission funds the initiative and OXFAM (Great Britain) serves as the contractor.[30] The EC is providing €1.5 million (US$1.35 million) for an initial period of one year.[31]

UNMAS has established a presence in Sudan and visited both government and SPLA controlled areas in March 2002. An UNMAS representative has been stationed in Khartoum since March 2002. The Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) pledged $250,000 for UNMAS to start its emergency mine action in Sudan. The German Embassy in Khartoum announced that it has pledged €115,000 for emergency mine action in Sudan via the UN system.[32] The German Fund is supporting UNMAS in its effort to gather information on mines in Sudan.[33]

To lay the groundwork for post-conflict mine action, UNMAS, within the confines of an ongoing conflict, “will focus on the development and capacity building of an appropriate, national, mine action co-ordination body (National Mine Action Office), the professional development of an emergency national, mine clearance capability and the development and draft of National Mine Action Standards coupled with the establishment and implementation of a recognized and workable Quality Assurance monitoring system. It will also seek to establish proven mine awareness/mine risk reduction routines and to strengthen existing mine victim assistance and reintegration systems.”[34]


There has been a reluctance to engage in or fund mine clearance while conflict has been ongoing in Sudan. Until recently, OSIL had been the only agency involved in demining. OSIL has projects in parts of Eastern Equatoria accessed via Uganda. OSIL has bases in Yei and Nimule for operations west and east of the Nile. Between April 2001 and March 2002, OSIL cleared a total of 329 miles of road and 263,093 square meters of land, disposing of 125 antivehicle mines, 439 antipersonnel mines, and 21,531 UXO.

In a response to donor enquiries regarding the unit cost of demining, OSIL figures indicate that in the three months between April and June 2001, it spent $190,000, and cleared 363 antipersonnel mines, 45 antitank mines and 3,496 UXO from 45 miles of roads and 238,649 square meters of land. In June 2001 OSIL conducted an emergency clearance of the recently SPLA-captured town of Gogrial, in Bahr el Ghazal, which perhaps accounts for the fact that OSIL claims to have cleared 226,000 square meters in that month alone.[35] This equals an average cost per mine of $49 and $0.15 per square meter.[36] While cautioning that averages are not really relevant and that it takes as much care and attention to demine an area with a low density of mines as an area with many, OSIL states that its costs are far lower than any international mine action organization because OSIL employs only local staff.[37]

OSIL began demining a heavily mined area around the hospital in Chukudum in September 2001. OSIL demined the hospital area, but claimed that the local population refused to allow it to remove the perimeter mines due to security fears.[38] In 2002, OSIL has been working in the Aswa Valley, north of Nimule, which it describes as “the most heavily contaminated area in all Sudan.”[39]

The Mines Advisory Group has provided capacity development and support to OSIL staff, deploying one technical advisor and one community liaison advisor, each for six months. MAG also provided funding for two OSIL mine clearance teams on behalf of the government of Switzerland.[40]

As part of the cease-fire agreement and humanitarian relief plans in the Nuba Mountains, in late April 2002, the U.S. deployed specialist mine clearance teams with mine detecting dogs from its quick reaction demining force (QRDF), which is based in Mozambique. The RONCO Consulting Corporation, a Washington, D.C.-based commercial demining firm will implement the mission in Sudan.[41] A U.S. demining official described the effort as “opening up roads for humanitarian aid,” and said that the mission is “very finite, very specific, with specific tasks assigned by the JMC.” He indicated the key task would be to clear the main road network before the onset of the heavy rains, probably in June or July.[42] The QRDF began work on 18 May,[43] and as of June 2002, the force was demining a route between the villages of Um Sirdeba and Kauda and some 37,000 square meters had been cleared.[44]


Mine risk education activities in Kassala, eastern Sudan and Malakal, Upper Nile of southern Sudan are being conducted by Save the Children Sweden, Oxfam and the Sudanese Red Crescent. Childrens’ groups, drama, songs, sports, posters, booklets, billboards and other promotional material are intensively used together with a mine risk education training package for children, teachers, and NGO workers.[45]

In an emergency revision of the UN interagency consolidated appeal for Sudan for 2002, issued in March, numerous new projects are proposed for the Nuba area. UNICEF has budgeted $40,000 for mine risk education in the Nuba Mountains on the rebel side, to be conducted by SIMAS, and a further $40,000 for similar work on the government side. Save the Children Fund USA has also planned to expand into mine risk education.[46]

OSIL conducted mine awareness in Yei and Nimule, supported by a MAG Community Liaison Adviser. OSIL as targeted primary and secondary school children, adults and working children in market places, church and mosque attendees, and returned refugees. OSI uses a variety of mine risk education materials, including role play, songs and games, posters, story books, and videos.[47]


At a seminar on landmines in June 2001, the former commissioner of the Humanitarian Aid Commission, Hussein el Obaid, reported that there had been 123 landmine casualties already in 2001.[48]

There is presently no nationwide mechanism to collect data on landmine casualties in Sudan, although the SLIRI network aims to do so. Limited data on landmine casualties in the Nuba Mountains has been reported, which gives an indication of the magnitude of the problem. It is believed that many casualties are not reported, as an unknown number of landmine victims die before reaching medical assistance. The true casualty figures are likely to be much higher than reported.

The government of Sudan reportedly states that between 1989 and 2001, landmines incidents caused 1,135 casualties in the Nuba Mountains,[49] which is similar to the Nuba Relief, Rehabilitation and Development Organization records of 1,129 mine casualties for the same period. The NRRDO acknowledges that the data does not include all those killed in an incident.[50] An SPLA Commander provided information on 1,137 casualties from 35 villages, including both government and SPLA-controlled areas.[51] It is not known to what extent the casualty data overlaps.

Save the Children-USA reported 16 landmine casualties in south Kordofan States, and another 12 antitank mine incidents involving six commercial vehicles, three military trucks, and three tractors between December 2000 and December 2001.[52] In 2001, NRRDO evacuated 25 mine casualties to Lokichokio for medical treatment; 29 were evacuated in 2000.[53] An Oxfam GB/Save the Children Sweden mine risk education project annual report from Malakal, Upper Nile, provided information on mine casualties that reached the local hospital: two women and six children were killed and four others were seriously injured.[54] The Sudanese Red Crescent reported on landmines/UXO casualties in the Kassala area during the period March 2001 - March 2002: one shepherd killed and one child injured by antipersonnel mines; three people killed and 24 injured in UXO explosions; 15 people injured by antivehicle mines.[55]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2002. In February, two people were killed in Kadugli province, and in March another person was killed in the Talodi area by antipersonnel mines.[56] In May, eleven people were killed and fifteen others injured when the vehicle in which they were traveling hit a landmine. The casualties were local officials from Warap State on their way to visit a food security program.[57] 


In general, the assistance available to landmine survivors, from both the government and the international community, is irregular and not sufficient to address the size of the problem.[58] Years of war seriously damaged the healthcare system, and for many people living in remote areas, the nearest medical facilities are days of travel away. According to a recent report, in the Nuba Mountains there was only one doctor for every 300,000 people and health workers are often insufficiently trained or equipped to treat patients.[59]

The ICRC’s medical assistance activities in Sudan include first aid training and providing comprehensive medical and surgical care to the war-wounded and other surgical emergencies, including landmine casualties, at its two referral hospitals. These are the ICRC Lopiding surgical hospital in Lokichokio in northern Kenya and, as support to existing local structures, the government-run Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). The ICRC airlift emergency cases from Sudan to the hospital in Lokichokio; 300 were transferred between July and September alone. In 2001, the two hospitals treated 45 mine/UXO casualties. Limited surgical assistance and medical supplies were provided to Wau's two hospitals, one for military and one for civilians. Support is also given to approximately 15 primary health care facilities in southern Sudan.[60]

Inside the rebel controlled Nuba area, Save the Children USA and MSF Holland established new health clinics, in Como and Limoon, prior to the cease-fire in addition to the existing German Emergency Doctors hospital in Luweri. However, all suffer shortages of doctors and medical supplies.[61]

In July 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) started a training program for medical assistants to treat landmine casualties in the Nuba Mountains. Initially the health workers will provide emergency assistance to the demining operations. WHO will also train 50 medical assistants, 150 nurses and 50 first aid staff of Kadugli-based NGOs with the intention of building the health capacity in the area. The training course was organized in collaboration with the South Kordofan State government, and the Federal Ministry of Health.[62]

The ICRC supports the National Corporation for Prosthetics and Orthotics (NAPCO). In 2001, NAPCO assisted 991 amputees, including 158 landmine survivors. Both the ICRC and WHO provide training for local staff, who are provided by the government of Sudan, through Ministry of Social Planning & Development and Ministry of Defense. NAPCO provides free services to military personnel and charges 50 percent to civilians.[63] In 2001, ICRC activities included: on-the-job training for Khartoum staff in prosthetics, orthotics, and physiotherapy; intensive training courses for technicians from Nyala and Juba; equipment was provided to start local production of crutches using recycled polypropylene; transport was provided for 15 patients from Wau and two from Malakal for treatment in Khartoum; and prosthetic manufacturing equipment was provided to the Norwegian Association for the Disabled (NAD) center in Juba.[64]

The ICRC’s Lopiding Hospital, with its annexed prosthetic-orthotic center in Lokichokio, has continued to provide physical rehabilitation to amputees and other disabled people from across the border in rebel-held areas of Southern Sudan since 1992. In 2001, 365 prostheses were fitted, of which 91 were for mine survivors. In addition, 1,299 crutches and walking sticks were produced using recycled polypropylene, and 23 tricycles, produced by the Physically Disabled of Kenya, were also distributed.[65]

The Sudanese Association for the Care and Rehabilitation of War Victims (ABRAR) provides support to 650 war victims, including 153 landmine survivors. ABRAR works with very limited resources to provide medical assistance as well as psychosocial and economic support. ABRAR is advocating for a disability policy and legislation that supports the victims of war, including landmine survivors.[66]


According to a government report, landmine survivors have access to free medical treatment in the public and NGO hospitals, and a Presidential decision protects the jobs of government employees who are disabled by landmines.[67]


[1] Statements made at the second national seminar on landmines organized by the government’s Humanitarian Aid Commission, Khartoum, 18 June 2001.
[2] “Statement of Sudan delegation to the Intersessional Meeting of Experts on Implementation of Ottawa Convention on Banning Anti personnel Landmines,” delivered by Dr. Sulafeldin Salih Mohamed, Commissioner General, Humanitarian Aid Commission, Geneva, May 2002.
[3] Interview with Hasabo Mohamed Abdolrahman, Head of Peace Administration, Humanitarian Aid Commission, Khartoum, 17 March 2002.
[4] Interview with Commander Nhial Deng Nhial, SPLM Foreign Minister, London, 2 March 2002. The SPLA first orally committed to the Geneva Call on 27 March 2000, in Geneva, though SPLA mine use apparently continued after that point.
[5] The Sudan People’s Liberation Movement is the largest opposition group. Its armed forces are the SPLA.
[6] Interview with Commander Nhial Deng Nhial, SPLM Foreign Minister, London, 2 March 2002.
[7] “Sudan: The scourge of landmines,” Africa News, Issue 68, November 2001.
[8] Interview with SPDF leader Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon, London, 2 March 2002.
[9] “Sudan Report to the Meeting of the Standing Committees of Experts on Mine Clearance, Victim Assistance, Socio-Economic Reintegration And Status, Operation of the Ottawa Convention on Banning Antipersonnel Land Mines,” Geneva, 7 May 2001, pp. 3-4, hereinafter cited as “Sudan Report Geneva, 7 May 2001;” Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 223-224.
[10] Letter from Abdellati Abdelkheir, Deputy Commissioner, Humanitarian Aid Commission-Sudan, to Mary Wareham, Coordinator, Landmine Monitor, 29 July 2001.
[11] Sudan Report Geneva, 7 May 2001, p. 3.
[12] “Ugandan army finds large rebel arms cache in Southern Sudan,” Agence France Presse (Kampala), 17 April 2002; Report by Osike Felix, New Vision, 30 March 2002, p. 1, referred to antipersonnel mines. Sudan has been accused in the past of supplying arms to the LRA.
[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 224-227 and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 183-186, for details about prior accusations and denials of mine use.
[14] Statement by Dr. Sulafeldein S. Mohamed, Humanitarian Aid Commissioner to the Third Meeting of States Parties, Managua, Nicaragua, 18-21 September 2001. Other officials making denials of mine use include: General Mohamed Abdelgadir, head of the army engineering corps, and Abdelkareem Abdelmoula, Minister of International Cooperation, in statements to the government organized second national seminar on landmines on 18 June 2001; General Abdelrahman Sirelkhatim in a statement addressing the opening of a workshop on landmine victims organized by the Abrar Organization, 26 October 2001; and, Siddig Mujtaba, State Minister of Culture and Tourism, in a statement to the forum on landmines organized by the UNESCO Clubs, 20 March 2002. Delegates from Sudan have also issued denials to Landmine Monitor representatives at the Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in January and May 2002.
[15] “Statement of Sudan delegation to the Intersessional Meeting of Experts on Implementation of Ottawa Convention on Banning Anti personnel Landmines,” delivered by Dr. Sulafeldin Salih Mohamed, Commissioner General, Humanitarian Aid Commission, Geneva, May 2002.
[16] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 227.
[17] UN Inter-Agency Consolidated Appeal for Sudan, 2002, Executive Summary.
[18] Interview with an OLS security official, Loki, 18 March 2002.
[19] Interview with Commander Nhial Deng, Nairobi, 10 April 2002.
[20] Interview with Lt. Maluk Roya, SPLA Nuba Engineering Officer, Moro Hills, Nugurban County, 24 March 2002.
[21] Sudan Landmine Information and Response Network, “Explosive Remnants of War in the Nuba Mountains: An Emergency Field Assessment,” March 2002, p. 12.
[22] Interview with a WFP liaison officer, Loki, 16 March 2002.
[23] Interview with Mohamed Osman, Kauda (Nuba Mountains), 30 March 2002.
[24] UNMAS, “Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects,” February 2002, p. 220.
[25] Interview Archbishop Paulino Lukudu, President of the Sudan Catholic Bishops’ Conference, London, 2 March 2002.
[26] Interview with Bishop Parade Taban, head of the Catholic Diocese of Torit, London, 2 March 2002.
[27] Written statement to Landmine Monitor following a question raised at a book launch, Reform Club, London, 5 February 2002. Prendergast is currently co-director of the Africa Program of the International Crisis Group.
[28] Interview with Reverend Stephan Tut, South Sudan Post, Loki, 4 April 2002.
[29] Interview with official from SIMAS, Nairobi, 12 March 2002.
[30] For details see, Sudan Landmine Information and Response Network, “Explosive Remnants of War in the Nuba Mountains: An Emergency Field Assessment,” March 2002.
[31] Statement at a press conference by Xavier Marshal, Head of EC Delegation, Khartoum, 3 March 2002.
[32] Sahafa daily, 2 March 2002.
[33] Interview with Matthias Meyer, German Ambassador to Sudan, 24 March 2002.
[34] UNMAS statement to Landmine Monitor, 25 April 2002.
[35] OSIL Monthly reports. See also 2001 annual report.
[36] “What Can You Get for a Fiver?” OSIL donor update, August 2001.
[37] Interview with Pers Holmsgaard, Deputy Director of OSIL, Nairobi, 4 April 2002.
[38] Interview with Aleu A. Aleu, Director of OSIL, Nairobi, 5 April 2002.
[39] Ibid.
[40] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director of Policy, MAG, 25 July 2002.
[41] “U.S. Demining Assistance to Sudan,” U.S. State Department Media Note, Office of the Spokesman, Washington, DC, 23 April 2002.
[42] Telephone interview with Colonel Thomas Seal, Deputy Director of the Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs, U.S. State Department, 29 April 2002.
[43] U.S. Department of State, Fact Sheet, “Humanitarian Mine Action Subgroup Minutes of June 14, 2002 Meeting,” 10 July 2002.
[44] UNMAS, “Report of the UNMAS Emergency Mine Action Project in Sudan: May 2002,” 3 June 2002.
[45] Kassala Mine Awareness Project Evaluation, February 2002.
[46] UN Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Sudan 2002 (Revised), 3 April 2002.
[47] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director of Communications, MAG, 25 July 2002.
[48] Yahya el Hassan, “Landmines claim 70,000 victims in Sudan,” Pan African News Agency (PANA), 19 June 2001.
[49] “Sudan: Food deliveries vital for Nuba ceasefire,” UNOCHA Integrated Regional Information Network, 27 May 2002.
[50] Landmines in the Nuba Mountains, SLIRI Emergency Field Assessment – March 2002, 4 April 2002.
[51] Ibid.
[52] Save the Children USA reports from the Nuba Mountains.
[53] Yousif Ali, Mine Coordinator, NRRDO.
[54] Oxfam GB – annual report to Save the Children Sweden, September 2001.
[55] Information provided by SRC to Landmine Monitor March 2002.
[56] Save the Children-USA Updates, February and March 2002.
[57] “Landmine Kills Over 10 Officials Near Wau”, Khartoum Monitor, 4 May 2002, accessed at http://www.khartoummonitor.com/news44.htm (7 July 2002).
[58] Interview with Hasabo Mohamed Abdolrahman, Head of Peace Administration, HAC, 17 March 2002.
[59] “The Key to Peace: Unlocking the Human Potential of Sudan,” Interagency Paper, May 2002, p. 27, prepared by Save the Children, Christian Aid, Oxfam, CARE, IRC, and TEARFUND.
[60] ICRC (Geneva), Special Report, Mine Action 2001, July 2002, p. 21; and Sudan, Update on ICRC Activities, 30 November 2001, accessed at http://www.icrc.org.
[61] Landmine Monitor field work, March-April 2002; interview with SPLA Nuba Commander Abdelaziz Adam el Helu, 22 April 2002; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 232-233.
[62] “WHO trains health workers in Nuba Mountains,” Khartoum Monitor, 20 June 2002, accessed at http://www.khartoummonitor.com/news177.htm (7 July 2002).
[63] Interview with Abdeldaim Elmagbol, Administrative Manager, NAPCO, Khartoum, 10 March 2002.
[64] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programmes, Annual Report 2001, accessed at http://www.icrc.org.
[65] ICRC Special Report: Mine Action 2001, p. 21.
[66] Report from Najat Salih, Executive Director, ABRAR, to Landmine Monitor, March 2002.
[67] Sudan Report Geneva, 7 May 2001; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 232.