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Country Reports
Angola, Landmine Monitor Report 2003


Key developments since May 2002: Angola ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 5 July 2002. Mine action funding for Angola in 2002 totaled approximately $21.2 million, a very significant increase from 2001. The National Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance is taking over coordination of mine action activities. INAROEE is being restructured as the National Institute for Demining. During 2002 and the first quarter of 2003, mine action NGOs reported clearing more than 2.8 million square meters of land, surveying more than 7.8 million square meters of land, and destroying more than 5,000 mines and 13,000 UXO. INAROEE reported that 543,713 people received mine risk education in 2002 and 287 new landmine/UXO casualties were recorded in 2002, compared to 673 casualties in 2001. However, non-governmental and UN sources insisted that the number of landmine incidents increased dramatically during 2002 and early 2003.

Mine Ban Policy

Angola signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997. It was not until after the end of hostilities in early 2002 that speedy ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty was set in motion. In April 2002, the Angolan Parliament formed a special commission to address the issue of treaty ratification.[1] On 5 July 2002, Angola officially deposited its instrument of ratification with the United Nations. The treaty formally entered into force for Angola on 1 January 2003. Angola’s initial transparency report, as required under Article 7 of the Mine Ban Treaty, was due on 29 June 2003. There have apparently been no steps toward developing domestic legislation or other measures to implement the treaty, such as penal sanctions for violators.[2]

Angola attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002. In its statement to the meeting, the delegation said that the delay in ratifying the Mine Ban Treaty was “in most linked to the war situation that our country was living. Once the war ended, our Government judged that there were no more reasons impeding the ratification of the Convention.”[3] Angola sent representatives to intersessional Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003.

The seventh meeting of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Acting Committee on Landmines was held on 27-28 June 2002 in Luanda, Angola. The meeting was held simultaneously with the first SADC Conference of Demining Operators.[4]

On 22 November 2002, Angola voted in favor of the UN General Assembly Resolution 54/74, promoting universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Production, Transfer, and Stockpiling

Angola is not a known producer or exporter of landmines. Seventy-six different types of antipersonnel mines from 22 countries have been found or reported in Angola. In October 2002, in Côte d'Ivoire, rebels accused Army forces of having laid antipersonnel mines, imported from Angola.[5] Officials from both Côte d'Ivoire and Angola denied the charges.[6] Landmine Monitor is unaware of any evidence to corroborate the allegation.

Little is known about the size or composition of Angola’s current landmine stockpile, or that held by former UNITA military forces. The treaty-mandated deadline for destruction of all Angola’s stockpiled antipersonnel mines is 1 January 2007.

During the SADC conference in Luanda in June 2002, 100 antipersonnel mines and ten antivehicle mines were destroyed in a ceremony.[7] A government representative said, “To prove the deep engagement of the Government of Angola in the fight against landmines, on the 28th of June 2002, we organized a ceremony of destruction of existing antipersonnel landmines and other tons of unexploded ordnance. Several Ambassadors, the UN Angola representative, national and international NGOs and other entities took part in this ceremony.”[8]


There have been unconfirmed reports of sporadic and isolated incidents of use of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in Angola in this reporting period (since May 2002). One UN staff member cited five incidents that appear to have been the result of newly laid antivehicle mines.[9] In October 2002, three NGOs traveled the road from Chipindo to Galangue, Huíla province; on the return trip they found an antivehicle mine lying in the middle of the road. Clearance was requested, and the delivery of humanitarian assistance to some 30,000 beneficiaries in the area was temporarily suspended. It appears that a dispute over local administration and the contracting of truckers to deliver aid led to the incident.[10]

In another case, the only access road to Cucumbi commune, Lunda Sul province, was cut due to the presence of antivehicle mines that were apparently newly laid.[11] Some believe that the mines were laid by government soldiers in retribution for recent accusations by traditional leaders in the commune that the armed forces had been abusing the population. General Santana André Pitra Petroff, Director of the National Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining (CNIDAH), said the mines were more likely to have been planted by bandits attempting to keep State security forces out of the diamond mines in the area, in order to continue exploiting them illegally.[12]

One observer noted, “Some are also speculating that new landmines are being laid, either by disgruntled ex-UNITA angry at government’s lack of [support] to the quartering areas or by Angolan military who don’t want aid agencies cutting into their monopoly of commercial transport to quartering areas.”[13]

Landmine Problem

Angola is considered to be one of the countries most affected by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). In 2001, the national institute for demining, INAROEE, reported that a total of 2,232 known minefields and UXO locations had been registered in the national database, and that some 660 minefields and sites had been cleared since 1995.[14] In 2002, INAROEE reported that 72 new suspected areas were surveyed and recorded by various mine action organizations.[15]

Virtually every non-governmental source interviewed for this report indicated that the number of mine accidents and incidents increased dramatically during 2002 and early 2003, particularly accidents involving antivehicle mines.[16] However, in its 2002 report, INAROEE stated, “Today, there are fewer accidents registered, greater opening for the flow of information from areas that were previously inaccessible, as well as greater attention paid to mine victims.”[17]

A representative of the UN Development Programme (UNDP) in Angola cited a number of reasons for the increase in mine incidents: the dramatic increase in the number of people moving by road, given the consolidation of peace in the country; the trucks being used now are wider and heavier than those used during wartime; there are many new, inexperienced drivers circulating in rural areas; due to the road conditions, new shortcuts are being created and utilized; the rainy season and the consequent shifting of mines has an even greater impact on new roads and new shortcuts; when roads are cleared, the exact width of clearance is not marked, leading to accidents on road shoulders; and road repair work, particularly when associated with water drainage, has not been sufficiently linked to mine clearance.[18]

There is concern that the situation could worsen, as more people try to return to their homes in the post-conflict period. According to the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (UNOCHA), “Between June and September 2002, hundreds of thousands of displaced persons returned to areas of origin. Of the approximately 750,000 internally displaced persons (IDP) who had returned by the end of September, only 15 percent had moved under an organized plan.”[19]

Survey and Assessment

In mid-2002, joint UN/NGO/government assessment teams conducted the first phase of a Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs (RACN) process, visiting 28 locations where IDPs had returned to previously inaccessible areas. Of the 28 locations, 26 had serious mine infestation, and ten had recently experienced mine accidents.[20]

During Phase II of the RACN process in late 2002, 31 newly accessible locations were visited. According to the report, “Mine contamination has been reported in most locations. Mines or unexploded ordnance have been reported near population centers, social infrastructure, water points and agricultural land and along access roads in at least 20 locations.”[21]

MINARS, the ministry responsible for the return of refugees and IDPs, in mid-2002 started maintaining a database on living conditions in all return and resettlement locations. Of the approximately 220 locations entered into the database as of May 2003, 55 were contaminated with landmines.[22]

The conclusion of the war has made possible the first systematic national assessment of the landmine problem. The initial set up for a Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) began in December 2002. According to the Survey Action Center (SAC), “Under the auspices and support of CNIDAH, HALO Trust, InterSOS, Santa Barbara Foundation, Norwegian People’s Aid and Mines Advisory Group will conduct the survey with oversight and monitoring from a SAC coordination team, based in Angola. Cranfield University and Geospatial will conduct the strategic planning exercise and Development Workshop will conduct Task Assessment and Planning (TAP) for the survey.”[23] SAC indicates that funding is being provided by Germany, Canada, and the United States, and that the European Commission (EC) has pledged to support the survey. The project has a proposed budget of close to US$6 million. Data gathering is expected to be underway in all 18 provinces by April 2004.[24]

CNIDAH is installing the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA), with the support of the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) and in cooperation with SAC. All information from the existing database, the new data collected in the survey, and all other sources of new information are to be consolidated into the IMSMA format.[25]

Mine Action Funding

In 2002, fourteen countries and the European Commission (EC) reported contributions to mine action in Angola totaling approximately US$21.2 million.[26] That total is a very significant increase over the estimated $9.6 to $13.5 million in mine action funding in 2001.[27] It is likely that some mine action funding information is missing for each year. The increase in funding for 2002 is probably the result of the end of the decades-long civil war, as well as Angola’s ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty.

The EC provided €7 million (US$6.65 million) for institutional support and mine action. The total included €1 million for a UNDP institutional capacity building project for CNIDAH, and €6 million for the HALO Trust, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), Intersos and Menschen gegen Minen (MgM) for emergency mine action.[28]

The United States reported $2.8 million in assistance for clearance operations in its fiscal year 2002, including funding to HALO ($980,000), Norwegian People’s Aid ($980,000), MgM ($560,000), and MAG ($280,000). In addition, the US provided $1.5 million to Angola through the Leahy War Victims Fund. Since 1995, the US has contributed $25.8 million to mine action in Angola.[29]

Italy gave $2.66 million, including $950,000 to the UNDP for structural support for the mine action plan and $1.71 million to UNICEF for mine risk education. Norway contributed $2.5 million for mine action by Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA). Germany donated $2.37 million, including funding for Handicap International (HI), MgM, the Santa Barbara Foundation, SAC, and Medico International.

Sweden provided $823,000 to NPA for mine clearance, mine risk education and capacity building. Finland contributed $791,587 including funding for Finnish Church Aid, MAG, Finnish Red Cross and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). Ireland donated $605,150, including $364,800 to HALO for mine clearance and $240,350 to HI for victim assistance.

The Netherlands gave $500,000 to HALO for demining. Switzerland provided $440,000 for mine clearance by HALO. Canada contributed $401,592, including $318,464 to SAC for the LIS and $67,500 to UNDP. France provided $239,400 to HI for mine clearance. Luxembourg contributed $226,100 for a victim assistance project run by HI. Austria contributed $158,180 to UNDP activities. South Africa provided $50,000 to the ICRC for mine action activities.

Additionally, the government of Angola allocates funds for mine action from its national budget. In addressing the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, the Angolan delegation said, “Angola has worked together with the UN to elaborate the National Demining Plan. To carry on with this work, the government of Angola has made available the amount of US$5.3 million to support mine action activities.”[30]

CNIDAH received 7.5 million Kwanzas (approximately $2 million) in 2002, and expects to receive a similar amount for the year 2003.[31] Immediately after the April 2002 peace accord, the Angolan Armed Forces received $7 million from the Angolan government for emergency mine action, but utilized much of it on the overall demobilization process, including some mine action in and around the quartering areas.[32]

Apparently, each provincial governor received $500,000 for emergency mine action activities. These funds, totaling $9 million, were reportedly provided by MINARS, the ministry responsible for the social reintegration of displaced persons.[33] Many mine action NGOs have expressed concerns about the way in which these funds have been utilized; not one international NGO reports receiving resources from the fund.

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

The National Inter-Sectoral Commission on Demining and Humanitarian Assistance was established on 28 June 2001, in a restructuring of the national mine action sector. The activities and role of CNIDAH gradually took shape during this reporting period.[34] CNIDAH opened its offices, and has created two sub-commissions that report to the inter-ministerial council. One deals with issues pertaining to demining and mine risk education, while the other deals with mine victim assistance. NGOs and other relevant actors participate in monthly coordination meetings of the sub-commissions.[35] According to one key actor, through CNIDAH, the international humanitarian partners are now in regular contact with the appropriate Angolan government focal points, and dialogue on key issues has begun; thus CNIDAH is evolving into a meaningful forum for mine action.[36]

CNIDAH plans to develop a detailed national mine action plan within two years, with technical assistance provided by the SAC, and using the results of the Landmine Impact Survey.[37] Implementation of the LIS is a top priority for CNIDAH in 2003.

As CNIDAH gradually takes on full responsibility for the coordination of mine action in Angola, the existing national institute for demining, INAROEE, is undergoing a thorough restructuring. The institute will be renamed the National Institute for Demining (INAD). It has a new director, who chairs the CNIDAH sub-commission for mine action.[38] INAD hopes to establish offices in ten of the most heavily mined provinces, with three demining groups, as well as mine risk education, explosive ordnance disposal and survey groups, in each office. INAD is working closely with the Angolan Armed Forces in an effort to get them to adopt humanitarian mine clearance standards and practices.

Some of CNIDAH’s humanitarian partners expressed concern that it was difficult to see the impact of considerable funding on mine action coordination. Some said it was unclear how CNIDAH was managing the increased flow of mine action information and utilizing it for planning purposes. Some said it was also unclear how CNIDAH was represented at the provincial level, and how provincial decisions related to central level planning.[39]

During the reporting period, UNDP developed a mine action coordination project.[40] The project calls for a UNDP mine action coordination unit in Luanda to support four international mine action coordination officers in the field. Each of the field officers will be responsible for providing technical assistance to the provincial governors in the areas of coordination and priority setting. UNDP envisions administrative, logistic, and database support for each of the four field offices. The Angolan government will contribute information officers, mine action technicians and victim assistance delegates in all 18 provinces to work alongside the UNDP officers. Through this project UNDP hopes to assist CNIDAH in addressing the linkage between provincial planning and national level coordination as well as instilling consistency in information management. The $1.3 million project is fully funded through contributions from Japan, Canada, UNDP, and the UK.

Mine Clearance

During 2002 and the first quarter of 2003, mine action NGOs reported clearing more than 2.8 million square meters of land, surveying more than 7.8 million square meters of land, and destroying more than 5,000 mines and 13,000 UXO.

BTS – Brigadas Técnicas de Sapadores (Technical Demining Brigades): BTS is the acronym utilized by the mine action brigades of INAROEE. In 2002, the brigades operated in the provinces of Uíge, Moxico, Kuando Kubango, Bíe, Lunda Sul, Malange, and Huambo. According to the INAROEE 2002 annual report, the brigades were not highly productive in mine clearance and survey activities due to financial limitations and the deteriorated condition of much of their equipment.[41] Working in support of the provincial governors at the local level, BTS units performed many spot tasks such as EOD, minefield marking, and emergency mine risk education. In Uíge province, an area of 17,340 square meters was cleared around a dam in Luquixi, 25 kilometers from the capital city. In Kuando Kubango and Moxico provinces, BTS worked with the governors’ offices identifying priority tasks for mine action. In Malange province, which saw particularly deadly antivehicle accidents in September and December 2002, BTS participated in the accident investigations and in mine marking along other roadways. These brigades are expected to undergo significant restructuring as the transition from INAROEE to INAD advances.

HALO Trust: This British-registered mine action NGO has been in Angola since 1994, and now has operational bases in Bíe, Huambo, Benguela, and in Kuando Kubango province.[42] HALO expanded its Angola operations significantly during the year 2002, increasing national staff numbers from 385 to 620 and increasing the number of manual demining teams from 26 to 40. HALO has five international staff members in country, managing the 40 manual teams, five mechanical teams and six combined teams (consisting of EOD, survey and minefield marking, and mine risk education). In addition, HALO has responded to the increase in antivehicle mine accidents during this reporting period by bringing in a Chubby road verification system. The system has been operational in Huambo province, where it has been used to open access to seven aid distribution points, including the main Huambo-Bíe access road and the Huambo-Sambo road south of Huambo city. From February to May 2003, 123 kilometers of road have been verified and 1.6 kilometers cleared.

During 2002, HALO cleared 324,238 square meters of land (18 tasks), destroying 2,411 antipersonnel mines, 165 antivehicle mines, and 1,087 UXO. In addition, area reduction took place on 6,290 square meters immediately adjacent to minefields that were cleared. Seven battle area clearance tasks were also completed, with over 218,000 rounds of ammunition destroyed and an additional 87,379 square meters of land cleared.

During the same year, HALO’s combined teams marked 67 minefields and surveyed 4,955,560 square meters of land, and were called out on 156 EOD spot tasks. The teams provided mine risk education briefings to 41,564 individuals on the ground (52 percent children, 26 percent women).

Between January and April 2003, HALO completed 14 tasks covering 168,669 square meters of land and destroying 1,268 antipersonnel mines, 115 antivehicle mines, 269 UXO and 1,232 rounds of ammunition. The combined teams were called out on 41 EOD tasks, surveyed 2,864,837 square meters of land and marked 16 minefields. Over 2,000 individuals received MRE briefings from the teams during this time period.

The HALO receives financial support from the US (Department of State), the Netherlands, Ireland, Switzerland, France (linked to work with MSF France), Belgium, the EC, Japan, and Finland.

Intersos: In 2002 and the first quarter of 2003, Intersos continued its activities in the provinces of Huíla and Kuando Kubango, where it carried out mine surveys, and EOD and battle area clearance, particularly in support of IDP and refugee return and resettlement. In one battle area clearance task near Menongue, Kuando Kubango province, Intersos cleared 140,000 square meters of land and destroyed some 100,000 UXO and rounds of ammunition. This project received $227,650 in funding from UNOCHA and Intersos. Intersos has received an additional €1.97 million (US$1.87 million) for clearance tasks from the EC, Italy, and UNDP; the tasks include survey and mine marking, EOD, and road clearance from Matala to Cutenda and from Chipindo to Bambi in Huíla province.[43]

Mines Advisory Group (MAG): During 2002 and the first quarter of 2003, MAG cleared 148,529 square meters of land, destroying 337 mines and 8,331 UXO in two provinces.[44] In addition, over 18,000 individuals received MRE briefings from MAG, 400 spot tasks were addressed, and several hundred kilometers of road in Moxico province were surveyed, making access possible for the first time in many years.

MAG maintains an operations center in Moxico and one in Cunene. Each has three mine action teams consisting of 15 individuals who conduct survey, demarcation, EOD, and mine clearance activities. The teams focus on small, community-oriented tasks, but can be brought together to address larger tasks when required. Each provincial base also has one community liaison team, and there is a small specialist survey and demarcation team operating in Moxico. The community liaison teams conduct mine risk education activities as well as gathering data for the prioritization of tasks and the identification of follow-up development activities in cleared areas.

In Moxico, MAG cleared the water capitation plant in Luena, allowing for the rehabilitation of the plant and the provision of water to portions of the city. MAG clearance operations also opened a piece of agricultural land in Cassongo that is now being used by Save the Children (US) for agricultural development. During the reporting period, MAG responded to 250 spot tasks in the province, gathering data from seven of the municipalities and receiving information on 25 previously unrecorded minefields and numerous UXO. MAG’s survey team also assisted UN and NGO operators in reaching many of the newly opened areas in the province, as well as assisting UNHCR in establishing transit centers for the expected arrival of refugees from Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

In Cunene, MAG continued its work around the town of Cuvelai, which had been suspended in 2001 because of security concerns, and in Ondjiva. These are areas of large IDP concentrations and include several quartering areas. MAG also cleared several sites for the resettlement of former soldiers and enlarged safe road access across the north and east of the province. One example of MAG’s focus on water supply in this drought-affected area was the clearance of a water source, enabling safe access for 7,000 people. Over 150 spots tasks were addressed based on information gathered by the community liaison teams, and twelve communities received mine risk education training.

Menschen gegen Minen (MgM):[45] Operating from its base in Ondjiva, Cunene province, MgM used armored vehicles and armored earth-moving equipment to facilitate the movement of World Food Program and Angolan government food and other convoys to the quartering areas in the southern region of the country during 2002. MgM also expanded its demining base and workshop in Ondjiva to include a demining school in order to increase its workforce from some 80 national staff to over 150 during 2003. MgM’s test beds for experimental technology are located at the same site near Ondjiva, and are being utilized for testing of a Mine Clearance Cultivator (MCC), a remote-controlled bulldozer that incorporates a sifter and earth auger for safely removing live mines.

During 2002 MgM expanded its operations into Huíla province as well, from a base in Caconda. MgM is working to open up land for the resettlement of IDPs and demobilized ex-combatants of UNITA; by the end of 2002 some 10,000 individuals had reclaimed land in this area. In 2002 and early 2003, MgM estimates that a total of some 20,000 individuals in two provinces have returned to their areas of origin with the assistance of MgM mine action activities.[46]

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA): In 2002 and 2003, NPA continued its operations in Angola, working from three regional bases with a staff of 464 Angolans and 10 expatriates.[47] In 2002, NPA cleared 1,593,659 square meters of land, removing 686 antipersonnel mines, 139 antivehicle mines, and 3,445 UXO. NPA’s mine survey teams identified and documented 21 mined sites during the year and passed this information on to the national landmine database maintained by INAROEE. Between January and March 2003, NPA cleared a total of 233,601 square meters of land, removed 18 antipersonnel mines, 16 antivehicle mines and 1,849 UXO.

NPA states that the decrease in clearance statistics for 2002, compared to 2001, was the result of a temporary suspension of NPA’s dog programs during most of the year. In keeping with new International Mine Action Standards, all NPA dog teams have undergone lengthy testing and accreditation procedures.[48] This has had a dramatic impact on the dog teams used in road clearance procedures, as well as the free running dog teams, which form an integral part of the mechanical and manual demining teams. NPA is working closely with the GICHD on both testing and accreditation of its dog teams, as well as establishing standards for its REST vapor testing system.

In 2002, NPA entirely restructured its Angola mine action unit. As a result, each of its three regional bases now functions as a fully integrated mine action unit with a manual team, a survey team, a mechanical team, a dog team, an EOD team, and one REST/dog sampling team. This was done in response to the new, post-conflict environment in which each regional office is expected to cover a much greater area (including newly accessible, former UNITA areas). By decentralizing operations and moving more resources to the provinces, NPA hopes to achieve a more cost efficient and flexible organization.[49]

NPA received a total of US$5.25 million in 2002 for its Angola activities. The funds came from Norway’s NORAD, $900,000; Norwegian MFA, $1.25 million; Sweden’s SIDA, $700,000; Dutch MFA, $500,000; and the US State Department, $1.9 million. By the end of June 2003, funding committed for 2003 included NORAD, $2.8 million; SIDA, $1 million; Dutch MFA, $500,000; US State Department, $1 million; and Statoil (private), $240,000.[50]

Santa Barbara Foundation (SBF): During the first half of 2002, the German government provided €25,000 ($23,750) for repairs and maintenance of the SBF main camp in Xangongo, Cunene province. Staff members living in the camp continue to perform spot demining and EOD tasks in the surrounding communities, based on local information. The German government also provided €200,700 ($190,665) for SBF’s mine action activities in Cuvango, Huíla province, where water points and bridge heads were cleared between August and December 2002. Nine antipersonnel mines, 28 UXO, and 132 munitions were cleared in an area of 213,274 square meters. In Vicungo, a town 80 kilometers north of Cuvango that is still inaccessible due to road conditions and mines, SBF verified and cleaned the airstrip. Funding in the amount of $28,980 was provided by UNOCHA. One UXO and a small quantity of munitions were destroyed, thereby opening up an airfield of 132,300 square meters.

As of mid-2003, SBF had received €350,000 ($332,500) from the German government to demine roads in Benguela province linking Chingongo to Chila, Bocoio to Lumbo, and Monte Belo to Tola. The opening of these roads to facilitate the return of displaced persons, as well as the movement of NGOs in support of displaced populations, has been encouraged by UNOCHA.[51]

Angolan Armed Forces (FAA): The FAA received a budget of $7 million from the Angolan government for mine action in the period immediately following the signing of April 2002 Memorandum of Understanding between FAA and UNITA.[52] Given the heavy volume of spontaneous movement that began almost immediately, however, FAA was unable to develop a thorough plan of action and instead utilized a large portion of these resources on the quartering process and the return of demobilized troops to their areas of origin, to facilitate the return of refugees from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia, and to implement emergency MRE and mine marking projects in known mined areas. FAA deminers were active in clearing small areas in and around the quartering areas and facilitating overall movements related to the demobilization process.[53] While mine action operators have in general been satisfied with the clearance of the FAA units, they note a tendency to neglect to record and report what they have cleared.[54]

In the long term, FAA plans to develop a more comprehensive plan of action with three priority interventions: 1) demining along the Benguela railway, 2) demining in areas of heavy IDP and refugee return, and 3) demining in agricultural zones. Working in cooperation with the newly restructured INAD, the FAA hopes to present this mine action plan to future donor conferences on Angola. Those working with the FAA units have noted that they represent the greatest governmental mine action capacity in Angola and that, with ex-UNITA troops incorporated into the units, they have extensive knowledge about mined areas and the mine-laying tactics that were used during the conflict. The greatest challenge in working with the FAA units is in getting them to fully understand and adopt humanitarian mine clearance standards.[55]

Mine Risk Education

UNICEF continues to be the lead agency in the coordination of mine risk education (MRE) in Angola.[56] During 2002, 358 public school teachers from Huambo, Huíla, Uíge, Kwanza Sul, Kuando Kubango and Malange were trained in UNICEF-sponsored programs. An estimated 16,110 school children received MRE briefings during the year as a result of this project.

In twelve provinces, UNICEF works with INAROEE and with Handicap International (HI) to fund and coordinate MRE activities. During 2002, 616 radio programs were produced in Portuguese and local languages. In 2002, HI initiated the creation of a three-party commission, including UNICEF, INAROEE and HI, to assess and follow up on MRE activities in Angola.[57] This three-party commission and the Angolan School of Survey conducted monitoring visits in 14 of Angola’s 18 provinces, resulting in a comprehensive report that assesses the impact of MRE initiatives as well as ways in which MRE can best complement other mine action activities.[58] The report notes that the coordination of national NGOs involved in MRE with other mine action organizations has been weak, and UNICEF is now increasing support to national NGOs to improve that coordination. The visits and the publication of the report represent ways in which UNICEF supports provincial mine action coordination, through its Program for the Prevention of Mine Accidents (PEPAM).

UNICEF supports six national NGOs in seven of the most mine-affected provinces in Angola.[59] The educational sessions they provide serve local residents, IDPs and refugees and use drama, dance, puppetry, and other traditional means to communicate the message of living safely with mines. In 2002, these activities reached a total of 230,492 beneficiaries (56 percent children, 26 percent women, and 18 percent men). This project incorporates a “mini-instructor” element, whereby children active in the educational activities become paid staff members of the local NGOs working in their areas upon turning 18 years of age. During 2002, 12 youth became local NGO staff members as a result of this initiative.

Both of the top government officials interviewed for this report said emergency MRE was of the highest priority, given the sudden consolidation of peace in the country and the large-scale spontaneous population movements that have taken place.[60] UNICEF and its partners have developed a number of new initiatives that address this need specifically. MRE training of truck and bus drivers and their passengers at truck stops is the best example of this.[61] But UNICEF’s total budget for 2002 was just $635,000, not sufficient to address the educational needs of hundreds of thousands of Angolans as they relocate to newly accessible areas and face the challenge of living safely in a mined environment. UNICEF has also noted that the lack of clarity over institutional responsibility within the government has led to a lack of coordination in the past. For 2003, however, UNICEF has received a pledge of US$1.8 million from the Italian Government, which should allow for greater MRE activities in the year 2003.

Handicap International (HI) provided MRE directly to people from Bengo and Kuando Kubango provinces until mid-2002. HI also supported INAROEE’s MRE work in six provinces (Bie, Benguela, Cunene, Huambo, Kwanza Sul and Kwanza Norte) until December 2002. Since late 2002, HI has reinforced its direct MRE activities. As of February 2003, HI had trained 460 MRE facilitators in Bie, Benguela, Bengo and Kuando Kubango, using theatre and radio, an MRE facilitator’s guide, posters and comics. HI reports 1,950,000 “beneficiaries” of its MRE activities in Bengo, Kuando Kubango and the Planalto region. Donors included UNOCHA, the US Embassy and France.[62]

In late 2002, the ICRC initiated a community-based MRE capacity-building project in four municipalities in Bíe province and three in Benguela province. The project works entirely with volunteers from the Angolan Red Cross, and seeks to disseminate MRE while at the same time gathering information on mine victims, victim assistance, and other community needs related to the local mine threat. The project is designed to dovetail with the traditional Red Cross activities of family reunification and support to the health care system. For 2003 the project is funded with 100,000 Swiss francs (US$64,103) provided by the ICRC.[63]

As noted above, HALO maintains combined mine action teams and during this reporting period provided MRE to over 43,500 individuals at the village level. MAG also places a strong emphasis on the MRE component of its program, and in 2002 reached over 16,000 individuals in Moxico province with MRE activities, including theater, poster campaigns, and community sessions. Special sessions have been designed for drivers and travelers who use the main roads outside of the capital, Luena.[64]

UNICEF reports a total of some 230,000 recipients of MRE in all UNICEF-related projects in 2002. INAROEE reports 543,713 recipients in all MRE projects in 2002.[65]

Landmine Casualties

According to the INAROEE annual report, 287 new landmine/UXO casualties were recorded in 2002, from 167 mine and UXO incidents.[66] Of the total casualties, 69 people were killed and 218 injured. This represents a decline in recorded new casualties of 57 percent from the 673 new casualties in 2001.[67] However, non-governmental sources interviewed for this report indicated that the number of incidents increased dramatically during 2002 and early 2003, particularly incidents involving antivehicle mines.[68] According to UNDP, there are several reasons for the increase including an increase in movement of the population following the cease-fire agreement, particularly of internally displaced people returning to their former homes.[69] According to UNICEF there had been at least 200 mine incidents up to April 2002.[70] INAROEE acknowledges that the real number of casualties is presumed to be higher than what has been reported, as many incidents are not recorded due to inaccessibility to casualties, and the lack of an organized system for reporting.[71] The US State Department estimates that there are 800 new mine casualties each year in Angola.[72]

Of the recorded casualties in 2002, 68 percent were civilians, 28 percent military personnel, and the status of four percent is unknown. Children under the age of 18 accounted for 26 percent of recorded casualties, 39 percent were aged between 19 and 35, 22 percent were over the age of 35, and the age of 13 percent is unknown. The majority of casualties--76 percent (218)--were male. Antipersonnel mines caused 45 percent of the casualties, antivehicle mines 25 percent, and UXO 22 percent; the cause of the remaining 8 percent was not determined.

In 2002, the provinces recording the highest number of casualties were Malange (58 casualties, or 20 percent), Huambo (49 casualties, or 17 percent), Benguela (43 casualties, or 15 percent), and Moxico (32 casualties, or 11 percent).[73]

Landmine incidents were also reported in the international media in 2002. In August, four people were reported killed and five injured in four recent incidents in Lunda Norte province.[74] In another incident in the same province in October, a bus detonated an antitank mine killing 12 of the 20 passengers.[75] In November, six members of an MSF vaccination team and one infant were killed and six others injured when their vehicle detonated an antivehicle mine in the southeastern province of Cuando Cubango.[76] In Malange province, in September and December, two antivehicle mine explosions killed 18 people and injured 11 others.[77]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2003. In April, two children were killed and another two injured after a UXO they were playing with exploded.[78] In March 2003, Refugees International reported that since November 2002, 50 civilians have been killed and numerous others injured by landmines in Angola.[79]

In the period from 1998 to 2001, a total of 2,055 mine and UXO casualties, including 487 children, were recorded.[80]

Survivor Assistance

Less than 30 percent of Angolans have access to health care and the public health situation in the country remains critical.[81] The provision of any type of assistance, particularly outside major cities, has been significantly affected by the conflict. Few facilities are available for mine survivors and other persons with disabilities. In general, 30 to 50 percent of mine casualties die before or after surgery for reasons including the distance to the nearest medical facility, lack of transport, and incorrectly applied first aid. The World Health Organization, together with the Norwegian NGO, Trauma Care Foundation and Advanced Trauma Life Support provided emergency care training to medical personnel in Luena province. In 2001 and 2002, a total of twenty-eight people were trained. Ten of the participants have qualified as instructors for training villagers as first responders to provide first aid to mine casualties.[82]

The ICRC works in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health, providing assistance in government hospitals, including the surgical ward at the Central Hospital in Huambo. In the provinces of Huambo, Bié and Uíge, the ICRC also supports 11 Primary Health Care centers, in collaboration with the national Red Cross Society and the Ministry of Health. The ICRC ended its support of the surgical ward in Huambo at the end of 2002 but left sufficient surgical materials to cover the period to the end of March 2003.[83]

The Ministry of Health operates ten centers providing rehabilitation services for all persons with disabilities. In addition to the government-run Center for Medical and Physical Rehabilitation (CMFR) in Luanda, three centers are supported by the ICRC, three by HIB, one by German Technical Cooperation (Viana), one by Intersos, and one by Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF).[84]

The ICRC continues to provide physical rehabilitation services, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, to three centers located in Luanda, Huambo, and Kuito. The ICRC has increased its efforts to facilitate access to its centers for patients from remote areas, and during 2002, 337 people were transported on ICRC flights or on organized road transport. In addition, the ICRC accommodated 1,461 during their period of treatment. Patients from Cabinda were flown to the center in Luanda on an ICRC airplane, while those from Menongue were flown to Huambo, free of charge. In 2002, the three centers assisted 2,033 people, produced 2,091 prostheses and 75 orthoses, and distributed 141 wheelchairs and 2,995 pairs of crutches; 1,670 prostheses and 18 orthoses were for mine survivors. In 2003, ICRC plans to implement a new patient management system that includes an IMSMA-compatible database on mine injuries.[85]

Handicap International Belgium (HIB) continued to support physical rehabilitation workshops in Benguela, Lubango, and Negage (until June 2002) as well as the prosthetic foot factory in Viana. In 2002, the centers assisted 2,364 people; produced 743 prostheses, of which almost all were for mine survivors; produced 229 orthoses; and distributed 1,179 pairs of crutches. The Viana foot factory produced 4,429 prosthetic feet, which were distributed to the other orthopedic centers in the country. Training was provided to 17 local orthopedic technicians and 9 physiotherapy assistants. A drastic shortage of funding forced HIB to significantly decrease support to the Viana foot factory in June 2002; however, support has returned to the required level. HIB is providing technical assistance to the Ministry of Health on the development of a national policy for physical rehabilitation. HIB’s main donors include the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Irish Aid, DGCI, Stichting Vluchteling, AUSTCARE, and the EU through the European Development Fund.[86]

The Italian NGO, Intersos, in cooperation with the local NGO Mbembwa, supports the Landmine Victims Orthopedic Center in Menongue, Kuando Kubango province.[87] The center provides physiotherapy and orthopedic devices. In 2002, the center provided 2,554 physiotherapy treatments, produced 147 below-knee prostheses, 23 above-knee prostheses, 2 orthoses and 738 crutches, and repaired 32 prostheses, 20 crutches and 7 wheelchairs. The center also provided accommodation for 347 people receiving treatment, and 141 accompanying family members. The number of mine survivors assisted is not known.[88] The local NGO, Mbembwa, in cooperation with other organizations, organizes psycho-social support and vocational training to assist the reintegration of persons with disabilities into their communities.[89]

Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation continues its support of the orthopedic center in Luena, Moxico province, providing physical rehabilitation, physiotherapy, psycho-social support, and socio-economic reintegration to war-affected Angolans. The center provides prostheses, orthoses, crutches and wheelchairs to mine survivors and other people with disabilities. In 2002, 938 orthopedic devices were distributed. The year 2002 was the most productive at the center since the inception of the program in 1997. VVAF has expanded its operation by bringing beneficiaries to Luena from the neighboring provinces of Lunda Sul and Lunda Norte by road and by air. By the end of 2002 over 140 people from Lunda Sul and 94 from Lunda Norte had received rehabilitation services. Follow-up activities are planned for 2003. The Irish government also provided approximately US$51,000 through the NGO Trocaire for the transport of patients from Lunda Norte.[90]

The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) socio-economic program for landmine survivors in Luena assisted 191 mine survivors in 2002 including 19 survivors enrolled in carpentry courses, 22 supported by income generating projects, 25 assisted in securing farming land and provided with seed and tools, 25 attended literacy classes, and 100 survivors and their families received material support.[91]

Medico International (MI) shares the premises at the Regional Community Rehabilitation Center in Luena with VVAF and JRS and continues its program of community development with the aim of full reintegration of mine survivors into the community. MI works with the local NGO Support Center for the Promotion and Development of Communities (CAPDC), to provide psycho-social support to landmine survivors, their families and other persons with disabilities.[92]

The Jaipur Limb Campaign UK runs a program in Viana and Luanda with the Angolan NGO League for the Reintegration of Disabled People (LARDEF), to promote the economic reintegration of persons with disabilities. The program in Viana, called Dignidade, commenced on 12 September 2002, and operates a small cooperative with nine three-wheel vehicles that provide a taxi service for people and goods within a 12-kilometer radius of Viana district. The project employs 12 drivers, one mechanic and an administrator, who are mostly landmine survivors or amputees from other war-related injuries. The members of the cooperative received driving lessons and training in running a small business from the National Institute for Vocational Training (INEFOP). The program is self-sustaining with profits shared between the members, with a small percentage set aside as a reserve fund.[93]

Handicap International runs a small program for the socio-economic reintegration of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities in collaboration with the Professional Training Center in Luanda.[94]

The ICRC and other rehabilitation NGOs continue to work with the Orthopedic Coordination Group, established in 1995 by the Ministry of Health, and the new Victim Assistance Subcommission of the CNIDAH. NGOs and other actors participate in monthly coordination meetings of CNIDAH.[95]

[1] “Angola: Ratificada Convenção de Ottawa sobre minas anti-pessoal,” LUSA (press agency), 8 July 2002.
[2] Article 9 of the treaty obligates States Parties to “take all appropriate legal, administrative and other measures, including the imposition of penal sanctions, to prevent and suppress any activity prohibited” by the treaty.
[3] Statement of General Petroff, Special Counselor to the President and Director of CNIDAH, to the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 17 September 2002.
[4] “SADC experts defend enlargement of campaign against landmines,” ANGOP (Luanda), 29 June 2002.
[5] “Les rebelles dénoncent la pose de mines antipersonnel apportées d'Angola” (The rebels accuse antipersonnel mines from Angola have been laid), Agence France Presse, 21 October 2002.
[6] Ibid.; interview with Théodore Koffi Fana, First Counselor of the Côte d'Ivoire Embassy, Paris, 21 November 2002; letter from HE Kessie Raymond Koudou, Ambassador of Côte d'Ivoire in France to Handicap International, 31 December 2002.
[7] Landmine Monitor (South Africa) interview with Neuma Grobbelaar, South African Institute of International Affairs, 1 July 2002; “Angola formally adheres to Ottawa Convention on landmines,” Xinhua (Luanda), 9 July 2002.
[8] Statement of General Santana André Pitra Petroff, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 17 September 2002.
[9] Interviews with UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (UNOCHA), Luanda, 3 March 2003.
[10] Ibid.
[11] Ibid; “Traditional Leaders Accuse FAA of Mistreating Populations in Lunda-Sul,” LUSO, undated.
[12] Interview with General Petroff, Director, CNIDAH, Luanda, 26 February 2003. In Portuguese, CNIDAH is Comissão Nacional Intersectorial de Desminagem e Assistência Humanitária às Vítimas.
[13] John Prendergast, International Crisis Group, speaking at the Angola Working Group Meeting, Washington, DC, 13 January 2003.
[14] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 66. INAROEE is the Portuguese acronym for Instituto Nacional de Remoção de Obstáculos e Engenhos Explosivos.
[15] INAROEE “Relatório de Acidentes e de Pesquisa de Minas Terrestres 2002,” (Survey and Mine Accident Report), p. 11. The report was provided to Landmine Monitor on 28 March 2003.
[16] The increase in incidents was cited in interviews with seven mine action NGOs, three UN agencies, and the ICRC, Luanda, 26 February-6 March 2003.
[17] INAROEE Survey and Mine Action Report 2002, p. 4.
[18] Interview with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 3 March 2003.
[19] UNOCHA, “Provincial Emergency Plans of Action for Resettlement and Return, Phase II,” December 2002.
[20] UNOCHA, “Report on the Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs,” April-May 2002.
[21] UNOCHA, “Rapid Assessment of Critical Needs (RACN) Phase II,” December 2002. UNOCHA provides technical assistance to the ministry for the database.
[22] “Presença de Minas nas Áreas de Regresso,” provided by UNOCHA from UTCAH Return and Resettlement Database, 5 March 2003.
[23] See the SAC contribution to the appendices in this Landmine Monitor Report 2003.
[24] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Mike Kendellen, Survey Action Center, 21 July 2003.
[25] Interviews with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 28 February and 3 March 2003.
[26] Except where otherwise indicated, the information for this section on funding comes from individual country reports in this edition of the Landmine Monitor Report and the UN Mine Action Investment Database at www.mineaction.org.
[27] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 67-68, provides the total of $9.6 million. Subsequent reporting from mine action NGOs indicates the total was more likely $13.5 million, and even that figure is likely incomplete.
[28] Email from Robert Steinlechner, Second Secretary of the EC Delegation, European Commission, 8 July 2003.
[29] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002.
[30] Statement of General Petroff, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 17 September 2002.
[31] Interview with General Petroff, CNIDAH, 26 February 2003.
[32] Ibid.
[33] These funds were referred to in several Landmine Monitor interviews, specifically with UNDP on 3 March 2003 and with UNICEF on 6 March 2003.
[34] Landmine Monitor 2002, pp. 68-69.
[35] Interviews with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 28 February and 3 March 2003.
[36] Interview with Max Deneu, ICRC, Luanda, Angola, 27 February 2003.
[37] Interviews with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 28 February and 3 March 2003.
[38] In Portuguese: Instituto Nacional de Desminagem. The new Director General is Eng. Leonardo Severino Sapalo, who was interviewed by Landmine Monitor in Luanda on 26 February 2003.
[39] Interviews with: UNOCHA, 3 March 2003; UNICEF, 6 March 2003; ICRC, 27 February 2003.
[40] All UNDP information provided in interviews with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 28 February and 3 March 2003.
[41] INAROEE Survey and Mine Accident Report 2002, pp. 12-13.
[42] All information in this section is taken from “HALO Angola Summary of Activities – 2002/2003,” provided to Landmine Monitor by José Pedro Agostinho, 10 June 2003.
[43] Intersos information provided by Gian Paolo Tongiorgi, Mine Action Program Manager, Intersos Angola, 24 June 2003.
[44] All MAG information taken from “MAG Angola Report for the Landmine Monitor 2003,” provided to the Landmine Monitor by Greg Crowther, Program Officer, MAG Angola, 17 June 2003; email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director of Policy, MAG, 29 July 2003.
[45] MgM translates to “People against Landmines.”
[46] All MgM information provided in an email from Ken O’Connell, MgM Angola, 18 June 2003.
[47] Information provided by Aksel Steen-Nilsen, Program Manager, NPA Angola, and Nelson Domingos, Mine Risk Education Officer, NPA Angola, 11 April 2003.
[48] In late 2001, the new IMAS standard for dog teams was finalized and NPA immediately set about testing and retraining its dog teams worldwide.
[49] Interview with Steinar Essen, Mine Action Advisor, NPA, Oslo (Norway), 16 June 2003.
[50] Financial information provided by Aksel Steen-Nilsen, NPA Angola, 20 June 2003.
[51] All information provided by Christfried Schoenherr, Santa Barbara Foundation representative for Angola, in emails dated 10 May 2003, and 15 and 16 June 2003.
[52] Interview with General Petroff, CNIDAH, 26 February 2003.
[53] For example, after NPA cleared the road Luena – Chicalla II – Kangumbe in Moxico Province, FAA deminers cleared the access roads and the areas adjacent to the quartering area. Interview with Sharon Ball, UNICEF Angola, 6 March 2003.
[54] Interview with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 3 March 2003.
[55] Ibid.
[56] Information in this section, except where otherwise indicated, was provided by Sharon Ball, Project Officer for Mine Awareness, UNICEF Angola, in an interview in Luanda on 6 March 2003, and through a written input provided to Landmine Monitor on 20 June 2003.
[57] Email from Sophie Bonichon, MRE Coordination, Handicap International, Lyon, 9 July 2003.
[58] This report was scheduled for release on 6 July 2003, at a UNICEF MRE conference held in Lubango, Angola.
[59] These NGOs are working in the provinces of Bíe, Huambo, Huíla, Kuando Kubango, Malange, Moxico, and Uíge.
[60] “Emergency MRE” was mentioned as a top priority by both General Petroff, CNIDAH, and by INAD General Director Leonardo Sapalo during in interviews in Luanda, 26 February 2003.
[61] UNICEF written input for Landmine Monitor, 20 June 2003. UNICEF estimates that thousands of travelers have received information and training on how to travel safely on rural routes, how to behave in questionable areas, and what to do in case of accident.
[62] Email from Sophie Bonichon, Handicap International, Lyon, 16 July 2003.
[63] Interview with Lena Eskeland, ICRC Delegate for Awareness Raising and Landmines, Luanda, 27 February 2002.
[64] MAG Angola Report for the Landmine Monitor 2003, provided by Greg Crowther, Program Officer, MAG Angola, 17 June 2003.
[65] INAROEE Survey and Mine Accident Report 2002, p. 9.
[66] All casualty data is taken from the INAROEE Survey and Mine Accident Report 2002.
[67] INAROEE Survey and Mine Accident Report 2002, pp. 3 and 5.
[68] Landmine Monitor interviewed at least seven mine action NGOs, three UN agencies, and the ICRC; all expressed concerns in the increase of mine incidents during 2002 and 2003.
[69] Interview with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 3 March 2003.
[70] Interview with UNICEF, Luanda, 29 April 2002.
[71] INAROEE Survey and Mine Accident Report 2002, p. 5.
[72] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002, p. 12.
[73] The provincial breakdown of the casualties in INAROEE Survey and Mine Accident Report 2002 adds to 293 new casualties, not the total of 287 reported. The reason for the discrepancy is unknown.
[74] “Four people killed, five injured in landmine explosion in Angola,” Xinhua, 9 August 2002.
[75] “Pockets of Extreme Need Remain,” IRIN, 15 October 2002.
[76] “Angola landmine blast kills 7 in medical convoy,” Reuters, 30 November 2002; MSF, “Tragic mine accident leaves 7 dead and 6 wounded in Angola,” information sheet published on MSF website, 30 November 2002.
[77] “Six killed, four injured in landmine blast in Angola,” Xinhua, 24 December 2002.
[78] “Two children killed by a landmine explosion in north,” Angolan Radio Ecclesia, 17 April 2003.
[79] Refugees International press release, “Urgent Mine Action Needed to Increase Humanitarian Access,” 21 March 2003.
[80] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 74.
[81] UNOCHA, “Consolidated Inter-Agency Appeal for Angola 2003,” 19 November 2002, available at www.reliefweb.int (accessed 1 July 2003).
[82] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 74-75.
[83] ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” Geneva, June 2003, p. 55.
[84] See also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 194.
[85] Interview with Lena Eskeland and Max Deneu, ICRC Angola, 27 February 2003; Red Cross newsletter, “CICV Boletim Informativo Nº 1-2003;” ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2002.”
[86] Information provided by Gilles Delecourt, Angola Program Director, Handicap International Belgium, Brussels, 9 July 2003.
[87] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp.75-76.
[88] Intersos report on activities dated 20 February 2003 provided to Landmine Monitor.
[89] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 76.
[90] Email from Tom Petozc, Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation, 4 May 2003.
[91] Jesuit Refugee Service, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 25.
[92] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 76.
[93] Paolo Varandas, Dignidale Coordinator, LARDEF, “Dignity for disabled people in Angola,” Jaipur Limb Campaign News, Issue 9, December 2002, pp. 1-2; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 76-77.
[94] Interview with Ema Macia, Head of PEPAM project, Handicap International, Luanda, 6 March 2003.
[95] Interviews with Rogério Neves e Castro, UNDP, 28 February and 3 March 2003.