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Country Reports
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Landmine Monitor Report 2003

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Key developments since May 2002: A national Landmine Impact Survey began in October 2002 and is due to be completed in December 2003. In May 2003, the area suspected to be contaminated by mines and unexploded ordnance was estimated at more than 2,000 square kilometers. The Council of Ministers in April 2003 approved a demining strategy for BiH for 2002 to 2010, which has the objective of freeing BiH from the threat of mines and UXO by 2010. Six million square meters of land was cleared in 2002. Weapons caches containing landmines continue to be uncovered in BiH. In 2002, landmine/UXO incidents killed 26 civilians and injured 46 others, a decrease from the 87 casualties in 2001.

Mine Ban Policy

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)[1] signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 8 September 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. Since then, national implementation legislation has been under development, but delayed by political changes. No target completion date has been given.[2] Activities prohibited by the Mine Ban Treaty are purportedly already subject to penal sanction under the existing criminal code at the Entity level, but not at the State level.[3]

BiH attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002. A Ministry of Foreign Affairs representative reaffirmed the commitment of BiH “to the total eradication of anti-personnel mines” and “to effectively implement the Convention and to comply fully with its provisions.”[4]

BiH attended the Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003. On 5 February 2003, the BiH delegation gave an update on progress in mine clearance and reported that “significant progress” had been made during 2002 through the adoption of new legislation that formally established the Demining Commission and made the BiH Mine Action Center (BHMAC) centrally responsible for mine action.[5] In April 2003, BiH submitted its Article 7 transparency report for calendar year 2002.[6]

BiH voted in favor of the November 2002 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 57/74 calling for universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

BiH is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II, and attended the Fourth Annual Conference of States Parties to the Protocol in December 2002.

In April 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that BiH “neither participates nor supports participation, and will not participate in joint military operations with any forces planning, exercising or using antipersonnel mines.”[7] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs also stated that BiH will not allow the storage or transit of antipersonnel mines belonging to another country in or through the territory of BiH.[8]

Production, Transfer and Use

About half of the former Yugoslavia’s defense production was located in BiH, with substantial mine production in Gorazde, Vogosca, and Bugojno. Production of antipersonnel mines ceased by 1995.[9] In 2002, the Landmine Monitor reported incomplete government information on the status of antipersonnel mine production facilities in BiH. BHMAC sent a letter of inquiry to the factories in 2002, but received no replies.[10] The most recent Article 7 report states, in answer to the question if previous production facilities have been converted or decommissioned, “reorganization and reorientation–complete.”[11] In January 2003, the Bugojno factory director stated that antipersonnel mine production capacity was destroyed two years previously. He affirmed that antivehicle mine production capacity remained, but is not in use.[12] Also in January 2003, the Gorazde factory director clarified that the factory works at pre-war capacity producing caps for rifle and artillery ammunition, but not antipersonnel mines.[13]

On 30 October 2002, following violations of UN weapons embargoes for Iraq and Myanmar (Burma), the Republika Srpska (RS) government announced a total ban on arms trade until state-level control of arms exports is established.[14] No shipments involving antipersonnel mines were reported. On 7 March 2003, the Council of Ministers approved a new law regulating arms-trading companies and imposing sanctions for violations, and forwarded it to parliament for urgent adoption.[15]

In October 2002, a weapons cache near Han Pijesak (RS) was found to be surrounded by antipersonnel mines, which SFOR had to remove before dealing with the cache.[16] In December 2002, explosive devices damaged the Donja Mosque in Doboj (RS); it was not apparent if this incident involved mines.[17] In March 2003, a booby-trap killed one elderly man and injured another as they repaired their home in Croat-controlled west Mostar.[18]

Stockpile and Destruction

Destruction of antipersonnel mine stockpiles was completed by November 1999, with a total of 460,727 mines destroyed.[19]

Collection of mines from the population by the Entity Armies, civil protection teams and the international Stabilization Force’s (SFOR) Operation Harvest is ongoing. As part of Operation Harvest, SFOR reported collecting a total of 4,156 mines in 2002.[20] Since 1998, Operation Harvest has collected nearly 28,000 mines and large quantities of other munitions. Destruction is carried out by SFOR.[21] Caches of munitions, often including antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, continue to be discovered every month.[22]

The 2003 Article 7 report notes 2,525 antipersonnel mines retained under Article 3 for permitted purposes, including 293 fuzeless mines; however, this excludes the Federation armed forces for which there was “No data available at the time of reporting.” The previous Article 7 report, submitted in May 2002, recorded 2,405 mines retained, including fuzes and fuzeless mines. No explanations have been given of how retained mines are used, or why the number has increased.[23] SFOR commented in February 2003 that retained mines are located in military compounds with SFOR oversight through regular inspection, and that the numbers are not decreasing, as live mines are not used for training due to the cost.[24]

Landmine Problem

At the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002, the BiH government representative described BiH as “still the most heavily mine affected country in the region of South-Eastern Europe,” with approximately 10,000 contaminated sites with 670,000 mines and 650,000 pieces of unexploded ordnance (UXO).[25] In May 2003, the suspected area contaminated by mines and UXO was estimated as 2,089.9 square kilometers, which is about four percent of the total area of BiH.[26]

Mine and UXO-suspected area estimated as of April 2003 (square kilometers)[27]

Total suspected risk area
Priority 1
Priority 2
Priority 3
Republika Srpska
Total BiH

Priority 1: land in regular civilian use, required for refugees or infrastructure renewal

Priority 2: areas close to priority 1 land, and agricultural & forestry land

Priority 3: all remaining areas

As of 26 February 2003, BHMAC had recorded 18,280 minefields. However, BHMAC pointed out that about 40 percent of minefields remain unknown, and new minefields are discovered each year. The 2003 Article 7 report notes 18,283 minefields containing 257,258 antipersonnel mines and 50,857 antivehicle mines.[28]

Brcko District is a demilitarized autonomous region of BiH, institutionally separate from the two Entities. During the 1991-1995 war, it formed the narrowest point of a supply corridor from Serbia to Republika Srpska, which made it the scene of heavy fighting and has left it as “one of the most heavily mine contaminated areas of the entire BiH.”[29] BHMAC reports that the mine/UXO suspected areas cover about 12 percent of Brcko, in comparison with 1.6 percent of Republika Srpska and 6 percent of the Federation.[30]

Brcko is an area from which there was substantial population displacement during the war and to which refugees are actively returning, despite the mines and UXO. Moreover, it is a fertile agricultural belt (the Posavina Corridor) in a country where arable land is scarce. Reportedly, the main reason for land abandonment in Brcko is the presence of mines.[31]

Survey and Marking

A “systematic survey” system began in the Federation in 2001; it has since reduced the areas suspected of contamination by 50 percent. A systematic survey was started in Republika Srpska in January 2003, and was expected to last four months. BHMAC explains that systematic survey establishes suspected areas, while general survey then establishes a “risk area” for which a demining task will be issued. Systematic survey is regarded as a precondition for the Landmine Impact Survey (see below).[32]

In 2002, general survey covered 73 square kilometers of land, a similar amount to the previous year. This brings the total area surveyed since 1998 to over 289 square kilometers (not including areas re-surveyed).[33]

Results of general survey in 2002[34]

Surveyed risk area
Re-surveyed risk area
Surveyed area without obvious risk
Total surveyed area
Square kilometers
No. of locations

The nationwide Landmine Impact Survey (LIS), implemented by the Survey Action Center (SAC) through Handicap International (HI), began in October 2002, and is expected to be completed in December 2003.[35] Its aim is to provide quantifiable, standardized data on the impact of landmines and UXO on communities based on socio-economic indicators. Results will be used to develop a strategy for minimizing the impact of mines on the communities, and will enable local authorities to plan and prioritize the use of limited resources. The budget for the 13-month project is $1.2 million, with funding from the US State Department and European Commission channeled through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF). After completion, SAC will subcontract Cranfield Mine Action and GeoSpatial International to assist in revision of the national mine action plan.[36]

SAC reports that as of 27 June 2003, 1,676 communities were surveyed, with the percentage of High, Medium and Low Impact communities running at 3 percent, 44 percent, and 53 percent, respectively.[37]

A “Task Assessment and Planning” mission in Sarajevo, commissioned by SAC and begun in December 2002, identifies high-risk situations that may require action before completion of the LIS.[38]

Due to increased refugee flows in 2002, BHMAC initiated the permanent marking and fencing of risk areas. In 2002, over 2.7 kilometers of fence were erected in five fencing projects.[39]

A criminal case was brought in August 2002 against the former director of the Federation Mine Action Center and the former Head of Civil Protection for Novo Sarajevo municipality, for allegedly failing to ensure adequate minefield marking which allegedly led to the death of three children in April 2000. The Board of Donors for Mine Action in BiH stated, “A possible consequence of this court case is that individuals would no longer be prepared to undertake or to continue to work in this dangerous and vital work for BiH’s future.”[40] Similar concerns were expressed by others, including the UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations.[41]

Coordination and Planning of Mine Action

The Council of Ministers approved, in April 2003, a demining strategy which has the objective of freeing BiH from the mine and UXO threat by 2010. BHMAC defines the objectives as the survey, clearance and release to the community of all priority 1 land, and marking of all priority 2 land.[42] The 10-year deadline stipulated by the Mine Ban Treaty for destruction of all emplaced mines in BiH is 1 March 2009.[43]

BHMAC planned to conduct general survey of 123.3 square kilometers of land in 2003, including 18.2 square kilometers of risk area reduction and 105.1 square kilometers of technical tasking. At the start of the year, five organizations planned to conduct technical survey during 2003 of a total of 1.6 square kilometers. BHMAC notes that more technical survey is necessary to reduce costs of humanitarian demining operations and make risk area reduction more efficient.[44]

In 2003, demining organizations were scheduled to demine 16.3 square kilometers, including 7.8 square kilometers of mechanical ground preparation. BHMAC reports that the demining companies have sufficient resources to achieve these targets, given adequate funding (see next section). Most of the work is to be carried out in the period March-November 2003.[45]

In its work, BHMAC uses the resources of more than 40 demining organizations (governmental, nongovernmental and commercial), 102 mine detection dogs and 17 demining machines. A total of 1,929 individuals are qualified deminers, of whom 62 percent (1,204) are currently employed as deminers. Available capacities could provide mine clearance of up to 30 square kilometers per year, given sufficient funding. In 2003, the BHMAC planned to employ, on average, 891 deminers per month. There are 86 accredited mine dog detection teams in BiH. The total number of accredited mine machines is 32.[46]

BHMAC employs 39 qualified surveyors in 19 teams, allowing general survey of about 100-120 square kilometers per year. BHMAC employs 25 senior quality control assistants in 13 teams, two inspectors and one chief inspector. Every inspection team visits two to three work sites per day to perform quality control. Total capacity is 5,500-6,000 inspections yearly monitoring 65 to 80 work sites.[47]

In October 2002, it was agreed to establish a Mine Detection Dog Center for Southeast Europe in Konjic, south of Sarajevo. For the first three years the Center will be financed by the US Department of State and, thereafter, responsibility will pass to the BiH Council of Ministers. BHMAC’s plan for demining in 2003 and later years foresees that the Center will make up the current 35 percent shortfall between present capacity and potential use of mine detection dogs.[48]

In mid-2001, a Demining Coordination Committee was set up by SFOR, to bring together engineering chiefs and experts from all BiH armies and demining organizations, and to integrate their operations. The committee meets every fifth week.[49]

BiH is in the process of preparing its "Development Strategy for BiH - PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Policy).” The strategy covers 12 sectors including demining, but most of the other sectors, such as education, health and social assistance, are linked with demining activities.[50]

Mine Action Funding and Assistance

BHMAC has estimated that achieving the strategic goal of freeing BiH from the effect of mines and UXO by 2010 will require funding of KM634 million (€324 million, US$308 million).[51]

In 2002, BiH provided national mine action funding of KM10,413,563 ($5.06 million).[52] However, it remained heavily dependent on international donors. Twelve donors reported contributions of about $15.8 million to mine action in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002. This is, however, an incomplete tally.

According to information donors provided to Landmine Monitor and to the UN Mine Action Investments database, contributions in 2002 to BiH included: Austria $115,544; Canada C$1,450,587 (US$979,146); European Commission €2.3 million ($2.185 million); Finland $709,000; Germany $1,692,937; Italy €$1,825,000 ($1.7 million); Japan $53,123; Norway NOK 15,650,000 ($1.96 million); Slovenia $171,168; Sweden SEK 4 million ($412,000), Switzerland $267,000, and the United States $5,529,000.[53]

Others who contributed to mine action in BiH in 2002 include the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom, as well as a number of non-governmental organizations (see below).

International funding is provided directly to demining organizations working in BiH, or through the UNDP, or through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (which deducts an administration fee but, in most cases, adds matching funding from the US).

The UNDP allocated total funds of $1,446,979 to BiH in 2002, with donations from Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US.[54] The largest share ($1,056,925) supported the mine action center structure; another $19,283 supported the Demining Commission; $370,771 was spent on the UNDP’s own mine action program which includes equipment, technical advisors, and other UNDP costs in BiH.[55] The UNDP two-year project of support to Mine Action Centers expired in June 2003.

UNDP reported that in 2002 financial support for the mine action centers was adequate, helped by early funding of staff salaries by the BiH government.[56] But in early 2003 the government asked the Board of Donors to cover MAC salaries for the first four months. This was agreed, on a loan basis.[57] A confidential source told Landmine Monitor that BHMAC salaries were reduced by more than one-half after May 2002.

In 2002, UNICEF received donations from UNICEF-Germany ($50,000), UNICEF-Netherlands ($200,000), and UNICEF-Ireland ($200,000) for its MRE and victim assistance program in BiH.[58]

In 2002, the ITF channeled $9,917,739 to mine action in BiH, representing 39 percent of its total funds for the year.[59] Of this, $6,818,650 was for mine clearance, $1,117,980 for BHMAC, and $661,627 for victim assistance. The remainder was devoted to the Landmine Impact Survey, MRE, training and regional activities in BiH.[60]

Donations to the ITF attract matching US funding. In 2002, donors whose funds were directed by the ITF to mine action in BiH included Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, the European Commission, France, Germany, Norway, Korea, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the US (both donations and matching funds for other donations). The BiH government made its first contribution (KM2,514,483, or $1,221,508) to mine action center funding in 2002 via a donation to the ITF, which attracted matching US funds. Donating organizations included Adopt-a-minefield, Community Hadžici, Elektroprivreda Mostar, Global Care Unlimited and Nova Ljubljanska Bank.[61]

In 2003, BHMAC’s survey and clearance targets required financing of KM64 million ($31 million), of which the BiH government and entities planned to provide KM6.4 million ($3.1 million). By the end of 2002, donors had pledged 35 percent of this amount.[62] In April 2003, SFOR reported an urgent need to renew Entities’ demining equipment, at an estimated cost of €1.7 million ($1.6 million).[63]

BiH is in the process of preparing its "Development Strategy for BiH – PRSP” (Poverty Reduction Strategy Policy). The strategy covers 12 sectors, including demining. Most of the other sectors, such as education, health and social assistance, are linked with demining activities.[64]

Mine Clearance

At the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee meetings in February 2003, BiH announced that 6,001,392 square meters of land was cleared of mines in 2002.[65] This is an increase from the 2001 total of 5,545,005 square meters. However, it is only about 41 percent of the planned clearance, and about half of BiH’s stated clearance capacity given sufficient funding. The BHMAC database records that 1,532 antipersonnel mines and 251 antivehicle mines were found (compared to 3,113 mines in 2001), and 1,575 items of UXO (2,675 in 2001).[66]

The types of land cleared in BiH changed in 2002. A greater proportion of the land cleared was categorized as “repatriation” (50 percent, up from 2 percent in 2001), and there was a new category of “infrastructure” (15 percent). There was less concentration on housing (13 percent, down from 51 percent), agriculture (7 percent, down from 15 percent), and electric power (4 percent, down from 7 percent).[67] Quality assurance in 2002 involved 3,746 inspections on 340 clearance sites.[68]

In the Federation entity, 4,164,052 square meters were cleared (45 percent of planned clearance). In Republika Srpska 846,408 square meters were cleared (21 percent of the plan), and in Brcko District 990,932 square were cleared (76 percent of the plan). Brcko does not have Entity armed forces to provide demining capacity, but has its own Civil Protection demining team, trained by the German NGO HELP, and its own demining coordinator.[69]

NGOs and Commercial Demining Companies

In 2002, NGOs cleared 2,162,787 square meters of land, including 120 buildings. They found and destroyed 309 antipersonnel mines and 489 items of UXO.[70] Seven ITF-funded NGOs—APM (Akcija Protiv Mina), Pro Vita, Stop Mines, BH Demining, UG ZOM, PROMAK and NPA—cleared 1,134,384 square meters of the total.[71]

Norwegian People's Aid (NPA) worked in Dobrinja and at four sites within Sarajevo, with manual, dog and mechanical resources, clearing 408,485 square meters and 13 houses, during which 83 antipersonnel mines and 146 UXO were found. In related explosive ordnance disposal, 6,717 mines and UXO were destroyed.[72]

The Italian NGO Intersos continued its operations in Sarajevo, clearing 18,092 square meters; 25 mines and 65 items of UXO were found. This allowed several businesses to restart, facilitating the employment of hundreds of local workers. The cost, €409,769 ($389,281) was co-financed by the Italian government and Intersos.[73]

Commercial companies cleared 1,817,736 square meters including 94 buildings, finding 766 antipersonnel mines, 109 antivehicle mines, and 372 items of UXO.[74]

Commercial companies were involved in ITF-funded clearance near the border of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. During 2002, four organizations surveyed and cleared 412,233 square meters in Bosnia and Herzegovina, uncovering more than 369 mines and 62 items of UXO.[75]

Entity Armies and Civil Protection

Demining teams of the Entity armies in 2002 cleared 1,341,707 square meters (including five buildings) of 210 antipersonnel mines, 35 antivehicle mines, and 247 items of UXO. According to BHMAC the area was not larger due to a decrease in army numbers and non-delivery of expected donations (mine detection dogs and soil preparation machines).[76]

Entity Civil Protection demining teams cleared 679,162 square meters and 81 buildings, destroying 247 antipersonnel mines, 107 antivehicle mines and 467 UXO.[77] The European Commission previously contracted two commercial companies and the German NGO HELP to train and equip Entity Civilian Protection demining teams, under various programs from 1996 to February 2003. The latest phase of EC support, November 2002-October 2003, focuses on mine/UXO clearance related to the return of refugees.[78]

The Federation entity has 13 Civil Protection demining teams, and the RS has 6 teams plus one mechanical team.[79]

Mine Risk Education

In accordance with the Demining Law approved in February 2002, BHMAC reports that it will develop a national policy on mine risk education (MRE) for the period 2003-2010, with the help of UNICEF and in cooperation with the other agencies.[80] BHMAC is now responsible for the development of MRE standards and training programs, the accreditation of all organizations conducting MRE, and provision of information to other members of the international community.[81]

In October 2002, a coordination system for MRE was established which comprises a policy board, an implementation committee, and ad hoc technical working groups. BHMAC’s draft MRE plan for 2003 proposes development of technical guidelines based on UNICEF international guidelines, to be completed in 2003.[82]

In 2002, mine risk education in BiH was carried out by the entity/cantonal ministries of education, entity Civil Protection and Red Cross organizations, SFOR, BHMAC and its regional offices, the ICRC, UNDP, UNICEF, APM and Handicap International, Genesis, and PRONI. BHMAC has a coordinating role and is responsible for training and standards.

In September 2002, UNICEF recruited a specialized MRE Advisor who conducted an assessment of needs and resources available. Based on the findings, UNICEF and BHMAC developed a consolidated MRE plan. A three-year program started in 2002, targeting 600,000 children aged five to eight.[83]

Ministries of Education in the Federation and in Republika Srpska conducted MRE as part of regular education programs. MRE is part of the curriculum for grades 1, 3, 4, and 7 of primary school. For other grades of primary school, MRE is provided through extra-curricular activities. In 2002, 541,550 pupils received MRE.[84]

The international Stabilization Force in BiH contracts a traveling theatre to stage a play with MRE messages in schools across the country, and also supports others carrying out MRE.[85]

In 2002, in addition to its coordinating role, BHMAC also provided MRE directly through television and radio broadcasts, distribution of materials, and presentations by BHMAC staff. A total of 6,724 people received MRE directly from BHMAC. Technical support was provided by UNDP.[86]

The mine awareness program developed by ICRC and the Red Cross network in BiH includes national and local media campaigns, a community-based program, and support to institutions, such as the Ministry of Education.

The community-based MRE program is implemented through a country-wide network of trained BiH Red Cross mine awareness instructors working at grass roots level on projects targeting high-risk groups of local residents (such as farmers, hunters, fishermen and woodcutters), returnees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and children. Between January and December 2002, nearly 7,000 presentations or discussions, involving all 96 instructors, were organized for some 99,470 participants throughout the country. Other activities supported by the ICRC and the Red Cross Society of BiH led to thousands of presentations or discussions involving 35,960 residents, 52,560 children, and 10,950 returnees/IDPs.

In December 2002, the RS Ministry of Education completed an MRE curriculum for secondary schools. This follows ICRC/Red Cross collaboration in 2001 with the Federation Ministry of Education to produce extra-curricular activities for teachers to use with students. Lastavica, a bimonthly mine awareness newsletter, continues to circulate. Also in December 2002, the Ministries of Education in both BiH entities and the Red Cross network in BiH celebrated “Mine Awareness Week.” Increased media campaigns were conducted during this time as well as the traditional MRE quiz competition for schoolchildren, involving 55,000 children.

In 2002, APM (Akcija Protiv Mina) and Handicap International (HI) collaborated on APM’s project to train primary school teachers on both Bosnian and Croat sides of the Herzeg-Neretva (Mostar) Canton, reaching 95 percent of the teachers by the time of the program’s conclusion in October 2002.[87]

PRONI focused its work on the provision of MRE to returnees, women, youth centers, hunters, fishermen and disabled people. In 2002, PRONI provided MRE to 18,014 people.[88]

In 2002, Genesis provided MRE throughout RS, primarily in schools. Methods used included interactive puppet shows and educational workshops, discussions and distribution of MRE pamphlets. In 2002, 14,693 people received MRE, including 14,162 children and 531 adults.[89]

UNDP’s mass media campaign continued in 2002, based on the distribution in schools of T-shirts, badges, notebooks, posters and leaflets by BHMAC and MRE NGOs. The campaign was funded by a 1998 donation of the Ted Turner Foundation.[90]

Landmine/UXO Casualties

In 2002, landmine/UXO incidents killed 26 civilians and injured 46 others, including 19 children, representing a decrease from the 87 new casualties reported in 2001. Males accounted for 90 percent of reported casualties. Mines were the cause of 40 casualties, 28 were caused by UXO, two by improvised explosive devices and the cause of two casualties was unknown. Landmines and UXO continued to cause casualties in 2003, with 13 civilians killed and 14 injured up to 9 May 2003.[91] In an incident on 10 March 2003, five members of one family were killed in northern Bosnia after the son stepped on a landmine while clearing a field. The family had recently returned to their village after fleeing during the 1992-1995 war.[92]

The ICRC, working at the community level throughout the country, continues to collect data and provide up-to-date information on landmine and UXO incidents. The population is, in many cases, aware of the existence of mines and the danger they pose, but all do not practice safe behavior mainly due to the economic necessity of cultivating the land, although other factors also come into play.

As of 9 may 2003, the ICRC database contained information on 4,798 landmine/UXO casualties since 1992, of which 927 were killed and 3,871 injured.[93] Between 1996 and 2002 the mine incident rate fell from an average of 52 casualties per month to six casualties per month. An analysis of the type of injury sustained indicates that from 1992 to the end of 2002, there were 2,274 amputations, 411 eye injuries, and 2,691 cases of fragmentation wounds, with some individuals sustaining multiple types of injury.[94]

Survivor Assistance

The governments of FBiH and RS, the international community, and local NGOs continue to work towards alleviating the medical and socio-economic obstacles faced by landmine survivors; nevertheless, in 2002 no overall coordination mechanism existed. According to the UNDP, BiH continues to need international assistance and cooperation in health care.[95]

In 2003, BHMAC plans to establish a mine victim assistance coordination group, which will include the relevant government ministries from FBiH and RS, NGOs working with mine survivors, and international organizations including the ICRC and UNICEF. BHMAC plans to collect information and analyze the situation regarding mine survivors, and develop a plan of action by mid-2003.[96]

BiH has four university clinical centers, a network of general hospitals, and a public health center in every municipality. Community-based rehabilitation centers provide physical and psychological rehabilitation, while some hospitals and public health centers also provide physical therapy. State-run social welfare centers are located in each municipality and can assist landmine survivors at the local level.[97]

In FBiH, there are 38 CBR centers for physical rehabilitation and 38 for psychosocial rehabilitation, funded through the FBiH Medical Fund.[98] Victims of the war, including mine survivors, are treated free of charge.

In late August 2002, a joint Canadian/Japanese project commenced in RS, which will refurbish, supply with equipment, and train the staff of 16 CBR centers, and build and equip one new center. CIDA will contribute Can$1.5 million ($955,000) to the project, while the JICA contribution will be approximately US$8 million. Reconstruction of the CBR centers commenced in January 2003 and is due for completion by December 2004.[99] On completion of the project, there will be 22 CBR centers established in RS.[100]

In BiH, there are eight prosthetic centers: six in FBiH and two in RS;[101] however, the standards of facilities and quality of care is said to vary dramatically across BiH. The average distance between amputees and a limb-fitting center is 100-150 kilometers.[102] The high cost of prostheses and other assistive devices, reportedly limits the government’s ability to meet the needs of mine survivors and other amputees.[103]

The ITF provided US$661,627 for mine victim assistance in BiH in 2002. This represents about 6.6 percent of the total ITF funding for BiH in 2002. Funding was provided to Landmine Survivors Network, the International Children's Institute, the Slovenian Institute for Rehabilitation, the BiH Red Cross, and Elegant Designs and Solutions for the development of low-cost high quality prostheses.[104] Donors included Austria, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Slovenia, and the US. [105] During the year, 83 mine survivors from BiH were treated at the Slovenian Institute for Rehabilitation. In addition, one physician and two physiotherapists from BiH successfully completed their training and another four are currently enrolled in the prosthetics and orthotics technology course at the College of Health Studies at the University of Ljubljana. [106]

At least five international organizations provide assistance specifically to mine survivors in BiH: the ICRC, International Rescue Committee (IRC), Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS), Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) and Queen’s University ICACBR.

The ICRC, in partnership with the national Red Cross network in BiH, collects data on mine casualties and has worked with local communities to improve the standard of primary health care.[107]

In 2002, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) conducted programs for persons with disabilities, including mine survivors, in Konjic, Prozor, Banja Luka, Tuzla, and Sarajevo. In Konjic and Prozor, the IRC works with disability associations providing advice and training on agricultural production, and directly assisted 18 disabled persons, including four landmine survivors. In Banja Luka, Tuzla and Sarajevo, the IRC program focused on raising awareness of issues relating to disability by conducting a mass media campaign, organizing seminars, and encouraging mine survivors to participate in sports events. The IRC also organized two business management skills workshops for 18 mine survivors. Six other skills retraining courses were organized for 24 mine survivors, who, with assistance from LSN, are now self-employed. The program in Banja Luka closed in September 2002 due to lack of funding.[108]

The JRS in BiH runs an assistance program for children injured during and after the war, and another program for elderly mine survivors. Based in Sarajevo, the program for children provides medical assistance, rehabilitation, and material, psychosocial and legal support. In 2002, 186 children, 75 of whom were mine survivors, benefited from the program. The program for elderly mine survivors, covering the Sarajevo canton, Middle Bosnia, Una Sana and Banja Luka region, assisted 86 people in 2002, including 28 mine survivors, providing medicines, prostheses, and rehabilitation treatments. RENOVABIS (Germany), CORDAID and JRS funded the programs.[109]

In 2002, LSN continued its work in BiH with 12 community-based outreach workers based in twelve heavily mine-affected regions of the country: Sarajevo, Tuzla, Doboj, Doboj East, Banja Luka, Mostar, Bugojno, Trebinje, Bijeljina, Velika Kladusa, and Bihac, and Gorazde (started January 2003). The outreach workers, themselves amputees, visit mine survivors, and other disabled persons, assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate families about the effects of limb loss. Through December 2002, LSN had interviewed 1,203 survivors.[110] LSN links individual survivors and their families to existing services and tracks progress toward recovery and reintegration. LSN also provides direct material support to survivors through covering the cost of prostheses, vocational training, house repairs or emergency food aid, if necessary. In 2002, 242 people received direct assistance, of which about 90 percent were mine survivors.[111]

Queen’s University ICACBR’s project, which ended in October 2002, supported 12 peer counseling groups in BiH linked to existing CBR centers. The project focused on training group leaders and local health professionals on issues ranging from personal counseling and rehabilitation support services, community and family interactions, and self-employment, to the development of sustainable NGO initiatives and economic reintegration of landmine survivors, and other persons with disabilities, into society. In 2002, the program, funded by CIDA, benefited around 1,000 individuals, including some 300 mine survivors.[112]

In 2001/2002, the Rotary Club of Sarajevo sponsored a project, with the Rotary Foundation and the Rotary Club of Rottaler-Baderdreieck, Germany, to provide prostheses and trauma therapy to child landmine survivors. Over 15 months, the $60,900 project provided 23 children with artificial limbs, and 17 others with rehabilitation services. An additional 109 children were identified, medically assessed, and recommended for assistance.[113]

The NGO, Hope 87, in Sarajevo provides medical treatment, psycho-social support and vocational training in computer skills and languages for about 200 mine survivors and other victims of the war. In 2002, 15 mine survivors also received prostheses. The Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs is funding the program.[114]

Sport was recognized after the war in BiH as a means of assisting people with disabilities in their physical and psychological rehabilitation.[115] In FBiH, there are 18 sitting volleyball clubs, seven men’s wheelchair basketball clubs and one women’s club. FBiH also has three athletic clubs for the disabled and several small football clubs.[116] The Association for Sport and Recreation of Invalids in BiH provides facilities in Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde, Zenica, Una Sana, and Middle Bosnia. Around 10,000 people benefit from the programs, including many mine survivors.[117] In RS, there are around 20 sports associations and clubs for people with disabilities. In 2002, the RS government allocated KM75,000 (approx. US$36,000) to sports for the disabled; an allocation of KM70,000 (approx. US$41,000) is planned for 2003. The RS Secretariat for Sport and Youth has a focal person to promote the issue of sports for people with disabilities.[118]

No state-run programs for vocational training have been identified; such programs are implemented through NGOs working with persons with disabilities. High unemployment in BiH has exacerbated the problem of finding employment for mine survivors. It is acknowledged that more attention is needed in the area of vocational training.[119] LSN statistics reveal that 31 percent of mine survivors regard the lack of employment opportunities and economic reintegration as their main concern.[120]

Disability Policy and Practice

There is one State law and two Entity laws that regulate the rights of people with disabilities. In FBiH, once a law has been adopted at Entity level the cantons must then adopt their own laws; therefore the situation varies from canton to canton. In RS, which does not have the cantonal system, there reportedly are delays in the payment of disability pensions.[121]

Civilian mine survivors must pay for their own health care or insurance, and receive much lower, and more irregular, compensation for their injuries than military survivors. In RS, pensions for civilian victims of war, including mine survivors, range from KM78-233 (approx. $38-113) per month.[122] In FBiH, pensions range from KM30-300 (approx. US$15-145) per month.[123] In some cases, civilians must pay a part of their medical costs and a portion of the costs of their prosthesis, which can be between KM3,000 and KM5,000 (approx. $1,450-$2,430).[124] In RS, the Ministry of Labor and War Veterans provides social support to victims of the war; including both military and civilian mine survivors, though there are plans, due to budget constraints, to amend the laws to reduce the benefits available. In 2003, the budget for military and civilian victims of the war is KM112 million (approx. US$54 million). Support is provided to 64,556 individuals and families of those killed, including mine victims.[125]

In FBiH, through the Ministry of War Veterans, a military mine survivor has the right of a free prosthesis every third year, free health care and insurance, free treatment in special rehabilitation centers, and compensation for his disability. However, the government has difficulty balancing needs with available resources. In 2003, the budget for the FBiH Ministry of War Veterans is KM275 million (approx. $134 million), or 22 percent of the total Federation budget. Support is provided to 97,976 individuals and families of soldiers killed, including mine victims.[126]

In July 2002, the RS Ministry of Health adopted a new public health strategy with an emphasis on reintegration of persons with disabilities, and physical rehabilitation at the community level.[127]

In 2002, BiH commenced a series of roundtable consultations on an initiative called “Development Strategy for BiH: PRSP (poverty reduction strategy policy) and Social Protection of People with Disabilities.” A total of 100 meetings were convened involving about 5,000 participants, including representatives from FBiH and RS government ministries, disability groups, and NGOs. The strategy will incorporate 12 sectors including health, social assistance, and mine action. A draft policy has been developed and a final document was expected to be available for discussion by June 2003.[128] The draft policy includes a Plan of Action that addresses issues such as the establishment of a unique law on the protection of people with disabilities without question on the cause of disability, modification of the legal regulations for health protection, and the establishment of a database of users of social protection.

[1] BiH is made up of two Entities and an autonomous district: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FbiH), Republika Srpska (RS), and Brcko District.
[2] Interview with Mustafa Alikadic, Darko Vidovic, and Dragica Stankovic, members of the Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 30 January 2003.
[3] Email from Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, 23 May 2003. For previous claims by a member of the BiH Mine Action Center regarding the existing criminal law, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 113.
[4] Statement by Amira Arifovic, Counselor, Division for Peace and Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 16-20 September 2002.
[5] Statement by Amira Arifovic, Counselor, Division for Peace and Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 5 February 3003.
[6] Article 7 Report submitted in April 2003 for calendar year 2002. Previous Article 7 reports were submitted on: 20 May 2002 (for the period January 1996-30 April 2002), 1 September 2001 (for the period January 1996-1 September 2001) and 1 February 2000 (for the period 8 March 1999-1 February 2000).
[7] Fax to Landmine Monitor from Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 29 April 2003.
[8] Ibid.
[9] Interview with Mustafa Alikadic, Darko Vidovic, and Dragica Stankovic, 30 January 2003.
[10] Telephone interview with Zoran Grujic, Assistant Information Director, BHMAC, 20 March 2003.
[11] Article 7 Report, Form E, April 2003.
[12] Telephone interview with Gurbeta Muhamed, Director, Binas, Bugojno, 16 January 2003.
[13] Telephone interview with Jusuf Hubjer, Director, Unis Ginex, Goradze, 16 January 2003. Previously, it was reported that antipersonnel mine production facilities still existed. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 114.
[14] “Bosnia and Herzegovina: All Arms Exports Banned,” Seeurope.net, 30 October 2002, at www.seeurope.net; “Bosnia Bans All Arms Export,” Kathimerini, 30 October 2002; and “BiH Government Endorses New Bill on Arms Trade,” BalkanTimes, 9 December 2002, at www.balkantimes.com.
[15] Telephone interview with Amira Arifovic, Counselor, Division for Peace and Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sarajevo, 20 March 2003.
[16] “SFOR Discovers Another Weapons Cache in Republika Srpska,” BalkanTimes, 7 November 2002, www.balkantimes.com.
[17] Public Affairs, UN Mission in BiH, “Daily Media Monitoring Summary,” 6 and 7-9 December 2002.
[18] UN High Commissioner for Refugees, “UNHCR Briefing Notes: Bosnia and Herzegovina,” 14 March 2003.
[19] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 590-591.
[20] Interview with Richard Dickinson, Chief Countermines/EOD, SFOR, Sarajevo, 11 February 2003.
[21] Transcript of NATO/SFOR Press Briefing, 12 December 2002, at www.nato.int.
[22] Landmine Monitor has on record reported discoveries of caches of mines in June, October (two incidents) and November 2002, as well as January, February, March, and April 2003.
[23] Article 7 Report, Form G, April 2003; Article 7 Report, Form G, 20 May 2002.
[24] Interview with Richard Dickinson, SFOR, Sarajevo, 11 February 2003.
[25] Statement by Amira Arifovic, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 16-20 September 2002; see also, Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 116.
[26] Presentation by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education, and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 14 May 2003; BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year 2003,” 15 April 2003 (draft report approved by Council of Ministers), p. 4.
[27] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2002,” 15 April 2003 (draft report approved by Council of Ministers), p. 4.
[28] Article 7 Report, Form C, April 2003.
[29] Food and Agriculture Organization and UNDP, “Land Survey of the Former PD Posavina State Farm Project: Report of Findings and Recommendations,” Section 2.2.6, January 2002.
[30] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 4.
[31] FAO and UNDP, “Land Survey of the Former PD Posavina State Farm Project: Report of Findings and Recommendations,” Section 2.2.6, January 2002; International Committee of the Red Cross, “The Silent Menace: Landmines in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” February 1998.
[32] BHMAC, “Project presentation: Systematic Survey on Mine Impact in Fed BiH,” provided on 28 February 2003; interview with Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 28 February 2003.
[33] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 10; interview with Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 28 February 2003.
[34] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 10.
[35] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Alice Jardin, Handicap International, Lyon, 24 July 2003.
[36] Interview with Emmanuel Sauvage, Director, Handicap International, Sarajevo, 9 January 2003; “Bosnia and Herzegovina Landmine Impact Survey,” program brochure, pp. 15, 19.
[37] Survey Action Center, Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 6, June 2003.
[38] Email from Sara Sekkenes, Mine Policy Advisor, Norwegian People’s Aid, 10 March 2003.
[39] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 10.
[40] Statement by the Board of Donors for Mine Action in BiH, January 2003 (day not stated), interview with Robert Strazisar, Mine Action Adviser, OHR, Sarajevo, 7 February 2003.
[41] Letter to Paddy Ashdown, High Representative, from Jean Marie Guehenno, Under Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, 3 December 2002.
[42] BHMAC, “Demining Strategy for Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Year of 2010,” 15 April 2003, pp. 6-9.
[43] Article 5 allows States Parties to request an extension of the deadline for a period not exceeding 10 years.
[44] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the year 2003,” 15 April 2003, p. 12.
[45] Ibid.
[46] Ibid, pp. 5-8.
[47] Ibid, p. 7.
[48] “Mine Detection Dog Center for the Region of South-Eastern Europe, www.see-demining.org; interview with Nermin Hadzimujagic, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 13 February 2003; BHMAC, ”Mine Action Plan for 2003,” 15 April 2003, p. 8.
[49] Interview with Richard Dickinson, SFOR, Sarajevo, 11 February 2003.
[50] Interview with Haris Mesinovic, Consultant, Office of the BiH Coordinator for PRSP, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, Sarajevo, 4 April 2003.
[51] BHMAC, “Demining Strategy for 2010,” 15 April 2003, p. 12. The rate between the KM and the Euro was set at 1.95583, as the KM was fixed at parity with the German Mark. This rate is used throughout this report. Exchange rate €1 = US$0.95 used throughout this report. Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 6 January 2003.
[52] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 6. In February 2003, an official provided a much lower figure for the government’s contribution in 2002: KM2.59 million ($1.26 million). Statement by Amira Arifovic, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 5 February 3003.
[53] See individual country studies in this Landmine Monitor Report. The UN Mine Action Investments database, www.mineaction.org
[54] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 6. This includes funds allocated by donors in 2001.
[55] Emails from Seid Turkovic, Manager, Institutional Capacity Building Portfolio, UNDP, 22 and 24 April 2003.
[56] Ibid., 14 January 2003.
[57] Interview with Seid Turkovic, Manager, Institutional Capacity Building Portfolio, UNDP, Sarajevo, 18 March 2003.
[58] Email from Nathalie Prevost, Mine Risk Education Adviser, UNICEF BiH, 7 February 2003.
[59] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” pp. 19, 33; emails from Eva Veble, ITF, 3 March and 30 April 2003.
[60] Ibid.
[61] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” pp. 19, 33; email from Eva Veble, ITF, 9 May 2003; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 119.
[62] BHMAC, “Demining Strategy for 2010,” 15 April 2003, p. 12; BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, pp. 8-9.
[63] Interview with Richard Dickinson, SFOR, Sarajevo, 11 February 2003; email from Richard Dickinson, 22 April 2003.
[64] Interview with Haris Mesinovic, Consultant, Office of the BiH Coordinator for PRSP, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, Sarajevo, 4 April 2003.
[65] Statement by Amira Arifovic, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 5 February 3003.
[66] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 7.
[67] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 25.
[68] Ibid, p. 9.
[69] Ibid, p. 7. Brcko district was not previously separated out from clearance and survey data reported for the two Entities.
[70] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 8.
[71] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 33; email from Eva Veble, Head of International Relations, ITF, 3 March 2003.
[72] Email from Damir Atikovic, Assistant Program Manager, NPA, Sarajevo, 25 April 2003; information provided by NPA (Oslo), 13 May 2003.
[73] Emails from Valentina Crini, MAU Assistant, Intersos, 23 January and 11 February 2003.
[74] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 8.
[75] Email from Eva Veble, Head of International Relations, ITF, 8 May 2003; ITF, “Annual Report 2001,” p. 11.
[76] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 8.
[77] Ibid, p. 8.
[78] Letter from Michael B. Humphreys, Ambassador, Delegation of the European Commission to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, March 2003 (no day stated); “Mine Clearance,” Kathimerini (Greek daily newspaper, English internet edition), 28 November 2002.
[79] Interview with Nihad Hadzic, translator, Federation Civil Protection, Sarajevo, 4 March 2003; email from Branko Grabez, Deputy Director for Demining, RS Civil Protection, 22 January 2003.
[80] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the year 2003,” 15 April 2003, p. 15.
[81] Ibid.
[82] BHMAC, “Draft MRE Plan for 2003,” pp. 5-8, provided by Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 28 February 2003.
[83] Email from Nathalie Prevost, Mine Risk Education Adviser, UNICEF BiH, 7 February 2003; UNICEF, “Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Things that Go Bang! (e-bulletin), 25 November 2002.
[84] Email from Miroslava Vidosavljevic, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 17 March 2003.
[85] Email from Richard Dickinson, SFOR, Sarajevo, 19 May 2003.
[86] Email from Miroslava Vidosavljevic, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 17 March 2003.
[87] Email from Melissa Sabatier, Administrator, HI, Sarajevo, 16 January 2003.
[88] Email from Miroslava Vidosavljevic, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 17 March 2003.
[89] Ibid.
[90] Ibid.
[91] “Mine Victim Statistics: Bosnia and Herzegovina,” fax from Michele Blatti, Cooperation Delegate, ICRC, Sarajevo, 9 May 2003.
[92] “Land mine kills five members of a Bosnian family,” Associated Press, 10 March 2003.
[93] Fax from Michele Blatti, ICRC, Sarajevo, 9 May 2003; and email from Mustafa Sarajlic, Mine Awareness Assistant, ICRC Sarajevo, 9 May 2003.
[94] “Mine Victims Statistics: Bosnia and Herzegovina,” email from Michele Blatti, Cooperation Delegate, ICRC, Sarajevo, 27 February 2003.
[95] UNDP, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: Human Development Report 2002,” Sarajevo, p. 60.
[96] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina – draft,” p. 15 (document provided by Dusan Gavran, Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 10 January 2003); BHMAC, “Draft MRE Plan for 2003,” p. 7.
[97] For more details see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 603-604.
[98] Letter from Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Minister of Health, 17 April 2003.
[99] Email from Michèle Monette, Information Officer, Communications Branch, Canadian International Development Agency, 13 January 2003.
[100] Letter from Dr. Martin Kvaternik, RS Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banja Luka, 20 February 2003.
[101] “Bosnia and Herzegovina: mine victims assistance,” Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Minister of Health, presentation at the ITF Workshop on Assistance to Landmine Survivors and Victims in South-Eastern Europe: Defining Strategies for Success, Ig, Slovenia, 1 July 2002.
[102] “Final Report on the MOPS Research Phase,” EdaS, 9 October 2001, p. 8.
[103] Letter from Dr. Goran Cerkez, Minister of Health, FbiH, 17 April 2003.
[104] Email to Landmine Monitor (HIB) from Sabina Beber, International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance, 18 June 2003.
[105] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 33.
[106] Ibid.
[107] Interview with from Michele Blatti, Cooperation Delegate, and Mustafa Sarajlic, Mine Awareness Assistant, ICRC, Sarajevo, 26 March, 2003.
[108] Interview with Dragan Tatic, Country Director, IRC, Sarajevo, 27 March 2003; Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from IRC, March 2003.
[109] Interview with Danijel Koraca, Program Manager, Jesuit Refugee Service, Sarajevo, 26 March 2003; Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from JRS, 30 January 2003; JRS, “Annual Report for Mine Victims Assistance Program 2002,” 23 December 2002.
[110] Email from Plamenko Priganica, Director, Landmine Survivors Network in BiH, 9 January 2003.
[111] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from Plamenko Priganica, Director, LSN BiH, 9 January 2003.
[112] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from Djenana Jalovcic, Senior Program and Administrative Officer, International Center for the Advancement of Community Based Rehabilitation, 8 January 2003.
[113] “Bosnian landmine victims receive prostheses and therapy,” 18 December 2002, available at www.reliefweb.int (accessed 15 January 2003).
[114] Interview with Fikret Karkin, Director, Hope 87, Sarajevo, 2 June 2003; Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from Hope 87, 8 July 2003.
[115] Council of Europe, Final Report on the Action Plan: “Rehabilitation through sport,” Strasbourg, 17 January 2001, p. 5.
[116] Email from Plamenko Priganica, Director, Landmine Survivors Network in BiH, 25 January 2002.
[117] Interview with Husein Odobasic, President, Association for Sport and Recreation of Invalids in BiH, Sarajevo, 27 March 2003.
[118] Letter from Novak Grbic, Focal Point for Sports for the Disabled, RS Secretariat for Sport and Youth, Banja Luka, 11 March 2003.
[119] Interview with Halil Plimac, Deputy Minister, FBiH Ministry of War Veterans, Sarajevo, 2 April 2003.
[120] Interview with Plamenko Priganica, Director, LSN BiH, Tuzla, 3 April 2003.
[121] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 604; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 128.
[122] Interview with Radomir Graonic, Assistant to RS Minister of Labor and War Veterans, Banja Luka, 1 April 2003.
[123] Interview with Mustafa Karabasic, President, Federal Union of Civilian Victims, Sarajevo, 27 March 2003.
[124] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 128.
[125] Interview with Radomir Graonic, Assistant to RS Minister of Labour and War Veterans, 1 April 2003.
[126] Interview with Halil Plimac, FBiH Ministry of War Veterans, 2 April 2003.
[127] Interview with Dr. Milan Latinovic, Assistant to RS Minister of Health, Banja Luka, 1 April 2003.
[128] Interview with Haris Mesinovic, Consultant, Office of the BiH Coordinator for PRSP, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, Sarajevo, 4 April 2003.