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Country Reports
Canada, Landmine Monitor Report 2003


Key developments since May 2002: Canada continued to play a key leadership role in promoting universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. On 29 November 2002, the Canadian Landmine Fund was renewed, with C$72 million to be spent over the next five years. Canada provided C$24.3 million (US$16.4 million) to mine action activities during its 2002/2003 fiscal year. Canada sponsored regional meetings to promote the Mine Ban Treaty in Afghanistan, Armenia, Croatia, and Ukraine. Canada supported stockpile destruction in Chad, Mozambique, Romania, Ukraine and Yemen.

Mine Ban Policy

Canada signed and ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997. National implementation legislation was enacted in November 1997 and the treaty entered into force for Canada on 1 March 1999.[1] Production and transfer of antipersonnel mines in Canada is prohibited under national legislation. Canada has not exported antipersonnel mines since 1987 and has not produced them since 1992. Canada destroyed its antipersonnel mine stockpile in November 1997, with the exception of mines retained under the provisions of Article 3 for research and training.[2]

Canada actively participated in the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002, where Canada’s newly appointed Ambassador for Mine Action, Ross Hynes, said, “I consider it a great personal pleasure and privilege to be here today, joining the outstanding community of governments, organizations and individuals who have made the campaign against anti-personnel landmines one of the great international success stories of our times.”[3]

Canada continued to play a leadership role in the intersessional work program, including at the Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003. It has remained an active contributor to the Coordinating Committee of States Parties. It has chaired the Universalization Contact Group, participated in the Article 7/Article 9 Contact Group, and contributed extensively to the new Resource Mobilization Contact Group. Canada continued to provide financial support to the Sponsorship Program administered by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), which enables mine-affected states and others to participate in the Mine Ban Treaty meetings; it served as chair of the fund from its inception in 2000 until September 2002. Canada was also an active contributor to the President’s consultations in January and May on the preparations for the 2004 Review Conference. Canada was one of five countries that offered to host the 2004 Review Conference.

There was no change in government policy on the issue of transfer versus transit of antipersonnel mines in Canadian territory,[4] and no change in government policy on antivehicle mines with antihandling devices or sensitive fuzes.[5] Canada did not make any new statements on these matters during Mine Ban Treaty meetings, nor on the issue of joint military operations.[6] Canada spoke on antivehicle mines during meetings related to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

On 22 April 2003, Canada submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report, for the period 2 March 2002 to 7 April 2003. This was the country’s fourth Article 7 report.[7]

On 22 November 2002, Canada voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74, which urged universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Canada is member of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II on landmines and participated in the Fourth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 2002. Canada submitted its annual Article 13 report on 6 November 2002. On 22 July 2002, Canada accepted an amendment to expand the scope of the CCW, the first country to so. Canada has actively participated in the work of the Group of Governmental Experts dealing with “explosive remnants of war” and “mines other than antipersonnel mines.”

Promotion and Awareness of the Mine Ban Treaty

Canada cosponsored and/or funded a number of regional meetings to familiarize states with the Mine Ban Treaty’s aims and obligations in 2002 and 2003 including the first conference to be held on landmines in Afghanistan in Kabul in July 2002, as well as regional meetings held in Yerevan, Armenia in October 2002, in Dubrovnik, Croatia in October 2002, and Kiev, Ukraine in February 2003. Canadian officials worked to ensure the inclusion of pro-landmine ban language in the final declaration of the Fifth Meeting of Ministers of Defense of the Americas, held in Santiago, Chile in November 2002.

In the reporting period, Canadian officials visited Brunei, Indonesia, Laos, Sudan, and Serbia and Montenegro to urge ratification of or accession to the Mine Ban Treaty.

Canada condemned antipersonnel mine use on a number of occasions, including at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002, where Ambassador Hynes said that “it is also incumbent upon this meeting to take due note of some significant, disturbing developments. I want to highlight Canada’s particular concern about reports over the past year of the use of anti-personnel mines by countries such as India, Pakistan, the Russian Federation, and Burma.”[8]

Support for stockpile destruction remained a priority. In 2002/2003, Canada contributed C$849,736 (US$573,572) to support five other countries to destroy their stockpiled antipersonnel mines. This included financial assistance to Chad and Yemen, provision of equipment to Romania, and project development and major financial support to Ukraine to destroy its PMN mines. Canada also provided full financial support and technical assistance to Mozambique to complete its stockpile destruction on time. In February 2003, Canada urged other countries to provide financial assistance to Ukraine to help destroy its stockpile of PFM mines.[9]

Canada continued to work closely with and provided financial support to the ICBL, and its Landmine Monitor initiative. At the launch of the Landmine Monitor Report 2002 held at NATO headquarters in Brussels, Canada’s Ambassador to NATO stated that, “It is this desire to cooperate in an open and transparent manner with new partners that led NATO to respond positively to the suggestion that the Brussels launch of the Landmine Monitor report take place here in NATO’s headquarters.”[10] At the Canadian launch of the Landmine Monitor Report 2002, Ambassador Hynes noted that the Landmine Monitor’s global network of researchers “provides leadership and a crucial service to the global mine action community.”[11]

Mines Action Canada (MAC), the national NGO coalition, celebrated the fifth anniversary of the Mine Ban Treaty signing in Ottawa with a series of events throughout the country. On 29 November 2002, during a ceremony to unveil a plaque in honor of the treaty anniversary, Canada’s Foreign Minister and Minister for International Cooperation announced the government’s intent to provide an additional C$72 million to the Canadian Landmine Fund over the next five years, starting in April 2003. From 24-25 November 2002, MAC and the Association for Aid and Relief Japan (AAR) hosted “Not Mines, But Flowers,” Ikebana exhibition, which also featured a photo exhibit by Giovanni Diffidenti. ICBL ambassadors Song Kosal and Tun Channareth and campaigns representatives from Cambodia, India, Pakistan and Uganda participated in a Youth Against War speaking tour from 26 November to 8 December, which focused on the landmine problem in their countries, with a particular emphasis on in India and Pakistan. On 29 November, MAC launched a traveling photo exhibition on landmines in Afghanistan by photographer John Rodsted. MAC hosted a symposium on challenges of achieving a mine-free world, “Without Reservation,” from 30 November-1 December, with participants from 23 countries. In February 2003, MAC organized Canadian Landmine Awareness Week (CLAW), which included over 100 events in 19 cities to commemorate the anniversary of the Entry into Force of the Mine Ban Treaty. Eleven mine action practitioners participated in a countrywide speaking tour.

In 2003, the Youth Mine Action Ambassadors Program (YMAAP) entered its fifth year of operations, with continued support provided by DFAIT, the Canadian Red Cross and MAC.[12] MAC’s Student Technology Competition is now in its fifth year.

Mines Retained Under Article 3

In April 2003, Canada reported that it retained 1,935 antipersonnel mines. During this reporting period a dozen mines were consumed “in countermine and humanitarian demining procedures and equipment and for the training of Canadian Forces personnel” preparing for peace support operations.”[13]

Canada has reported that it “retains live anti-personnel mines to study the effect of blast on equipment, to train soldiers on procedures to defuse live anti-personnel mines and to demonstrate the effect of landmines,” and has provided additional details about the use of its retained mines.[14]


The Canadian Forces (CF) are prohibited from using antipersonnel mines under the Mine Ban Treaty and Canada’s national implementation legislation. Canadian Forces personnel participating in the war in Afghanistan possessed Claymore-type mines. Claymore-type directional fragmentation devices are not prohibited under the Mine Ban Treaty when used in a command-detonated mode. The government stated that Canadian Forces were deployed to Afghanistan with the “C19 Command Detonated Defensive Weapon” and explained that “the C19 inventory...is designed to be placed on the ground, aimed and controlled by a soldier who assesses the situation and makes a deliberate decision as to detonation. The Canadian Forces does not have, nor would be permitted to have, trip-wire or victim-activating accessories for the C19 Command Detonated Defensive Weapons. All Canadian Forces in Afghanistan are instructed to act in accordance with the provisions of the Ottawa Convention.”[15]

Canada’s position on joint military operations with a non-State Party who may use antipersonnel mines was presented in great detail in Landmine Monitor Report 2001.[16] As was reported last year, Canada reiterated this position in response to various media reports surrounding Canadian Forces operating in cooperation with the US in Afghanistan.[17]

Mine Action Funding

Almost all of Canada’s mine action funding comes from the Canadian Landmine Fund (CLF), established in 1997 to disburse a total of C$100 million over a five-year period.[18] In the five years ending with Canada’s fiscal year 2002/2003, mine action funding totaled nearly C$128 million.[19]

Canada provided C$24,272,170 (US$16.4 million) to mine action activities during its 2002/2003 fiscal year.[20] This represents a decrease C$3.59 million from the previous year. When created, the CLF was expected to peak in the third year, and decline in years four and five.

On 29 November 2002, Canada announced a C$72 million renewal of the Canadian Landmine Fund for another five years, noting, “The funding underscored Canada’s long-term commitment to efforts to implement the Ottawa Convention.”[21] Industry Canada, a government department involved in the administration of Fund from 1997-2002, will not be part of the 2003-2008 funding cycle.

The Mine Action Team at the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), and the Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies are the government departments and agencies involved in mine action activities and projects supported by the Canadian Landmine Fund. DFAIT reports to Parliament annually on behalf of these departments and agencies. The 2001-2002 annual report, Making A Difference was presented to Parliament on 29 November 2002.[22]

Canadian Mine Action Recipients (FY 2002/2003)[23]

Bosnia & H.
Congo, DR
Sri Lanka
Lao, PDR

In FY 2002/2003, Canada supported mine action activities in 29 countries. The main recipient was Afghanistan (C$8.8 million), which accounted for half of the country-specific mine action funding. Other major recipients were Mozambique (C$1.95 million), Bosnia and Herzegovina (C$1.45 million), and Cambodia (C$1 million).

In FY 2002/2003, Canada provided the following to various mine action activities:[24]

  • C$7,259,560 ($4,899,528) to integrated mine action in Afghanistan, Mozambique, Nicaragua, and Israel (Palestine), including demining and Mine Risk Education (MRE).
  • C$4,687,971 (US$3,164,380) to support mine clearance efforts in Afghanistan (demining equipment), Bosnia and Herzegovina (Mine Detection Dogs, insurance for deminers and demining at Srebrenica), Central America (through the OAS program), Croatia (MDD and a flail), Jordan (ambulance and computers), Lebanon (technical advisor), Mozambique (demining), and Tajikistan (demining equipment), as well as landmine impact surveys in Angola and Cambodia.
  • C$3,250,464 ($2,194,063) to victim assistance activities in countries including Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Laos, Lebanon, Uganda, and Yemen.
  • C$3,028,092 ($2,043,970) to support advocacy and prevention activities, including mine action seminars in Armenia, Cambodia, DR Congo, Guyana, India, Pakistan, southern Africa, Sri Lanka, Syria, Thailand, and Ukraine, as well as Canada; stockpile destruction in Chad, Mozambique, Romania, Ukraine and Yemen; general core support to Canadian Landmine Foundation, ICBL, Landmine Monitor, MAC, YMAAP; the Raising the Voices initiative; the Sponsorship program; and a conference on explosive remnants of war.
  • C$2,904,019 ($1,960,214) for coordination activities by UNDP, UNMAS and others in Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Ethiopia, Laos, Mozambique and Sri Lanka.
  • C$1,928,250 ($1,301,568) for research and development initiatives, including CCMAT.
  • C$541,024 ($365,191) for mine risk education programs in countries including Cambodia, DR Congo, Lebanon, and Sudan.
  • C$532,253 ($359,272) to support information activities such as: assessment missions to Angola, Mauritania, Mozambique, and Tunisia; database support in Cambodia and an evaluation of the Global Landmine Impact Survey initiative.

On 12 April 2003, Minister for International Cooperation Susan Whelan announced a contribution of C$5 million for mine action activities under UN auspices in Iraq.[25]

NGO Mine Action and Funding

A number of Canadian NGOs implement humanitarian mine action or provide support to mine action efforts. Details on the mine action programs can be found in the country studies contained in this edition of Landmine Monitor Report. Funding from Canadian non-governmental sources exceeded C$1.1 million in 2002, including monies from the Canadian Landmine Foundation, Canadian Red Cross, Grapes for Humanity and other NGOs.

The Canadian International Demining Corps (CIDC) undertook a number of mine action activities in 2002, including training for mine detection dog teams, technical support for stockpile destruction, and survey and assessment activities.[26] CIDC was active in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Jordan, FYR Macedonia, Mozambique, Romania, and Thailand. In 2002, CIDC joined the Survey Working Group.

In 2002, the Canadian Landmine Foundation (CLF) provided C$434,961 through a variety of programs, including Canine Demine (in partnership with CIDC), Adopt-A-Minefield, and the Peacekeepers Demining Fund, as well as C$827,000 provided by CIDA as matching funds.[27] On 5 December 2002, CLF organized a “Night of a Thousand Dinners” fundraising event and another fundraising event on 11 June 2003 featuring leading Canadian entertainment figures. The CLF supported mine action projects in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Mozambique. It supported Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) for “Raising The Voices” and CIDC for a mine detection dog.[28]

The Canadian Association for Mine and Explosive Ordnance Security (CAMEO) provided support in 2002 to mine action activities in southern Sudan by Operation Save Innocent Lives Sudan (OSIL), for the third year in a row. In 2002, the Episcopal Relief and Development and the Ottawa Diocese of the Anglican Church of Canada also provided funds to CAMEO’s work in Sudan.

The Canadian Auto Workers Union (CAW) continued to support a mine action program executed by Handicap International in Mozambique in 2002.

The Canadian Physicians for Aid and Relief (CPAR) supported MRE and landmine survivor training and rehabilitation activities in Uganda in 2002, with the support of the CLF.

Grapes for Humanity, a Canadian charitable organization established in October 2000, disbursed C$195,345 to the Kien Khleang Rehabilitation Center in Cambodia and to the Vida Nueva project in Choluteca, Honduras in 2002.[29]

The Canadian Red Cross provided C$499,035 in 2002 for its victim assistance program in Tajikistan, which was extended to 30 June 2003. They also implemented a Southern Africa Regional Mine Awareness and Victim/Survivor Program in Mozambique and Namibia. [30]

The Falls Brook Center continues to work on survivor assistance projects in northern Nicaragua. World Vision Canada continued its Vocational Rehabilitation project in Battambang, Cambodia. Its Mine Awareness Program in Battambang/Samlot, Cambodia ended on 31 March 2003. UNICEF Canada supported mine risk education in Gash Barka and Debub, Eritrea, as well as a victim assistance program in Lebanon.

Research and Development

The Canadian Centre for Mine Action Technologies (CCMAT) of National Defence and Industry Canada acts as Canada’s focal point for demining technologies. CCMAT has supported research and development of several new technologies currently used in mine clearance or undergoing testing and evaluation. CCMAT shares facilities with Defence Research and Development Canada – Suffield, formerly known as DRES.

Testing and evaluation (T&E) activities that have been undertaken by CCMAT in the past year include development of T&E standards for metal detectors and mechanical assistance equipment, development of improved surrogate mines and test methodologies for more realistic and effective testing of demining equipment and personal protective equipment. In addition, actual trials of a wide range of equipment including metal detectors, underwater sonar detectors, flails, rollers, and mine-resistant boots were conducted. CCMAT also supported or conducted trials in mine-affected countries such as the clinical trial of the NPO foot, an improved prosthetic foot design, and the field trial of segmented rollers to determine their effectiveness in demining operations. Both of these activities were done in Thailand.

Research and development activities sponsored by CCMAT included investigation of the effect of soil type on detection equipment performance, and the detailed investigation of the nature and shape of antipersonnel blast mine effects and how a deminer’s body position can reduce or increase the potential for injury or death from mine blast. R&D is ongoing for a number of projects associated with remote and close-in detection of mines and the application of robotics to demining tasks.[31]

Landmine Casualties

While Canada is mine-free, Canadian Forces personnel have been killed or injured by mines during their work overseas. On 28 April 2002, a Canadian soldier received minor injuries while on patrol in a US Humvee that hit a landmine near the Kandahar airfield in Afghanistan.[32] In another incident on 23 May 2002, an eight-wheel Bison light armored vehicle drove over a landmine near the military base in Kandahar; the six Canadian soldiers in the vehicle were not injured.[33]

[1] Statutes of Canada, Chapter 33, An Act to Implement the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Mines and on their Destruction; Bill C-22, Assented to 27 November 1997.
[2] Although not codified by Canadian law, current policy is to maintain no more than 2,000 mines for training purposes and the testing of clearance technologies. This policy has been stated several times by the Ministers of National Defence and Foreign Affairs and is noted in the government’s Article 7 reports.
[3] Statement by Ross Hynes, Ambassador for Mine Action, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 17 September 2002.
[4] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 241.
[5] For detailed information see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, page 293.
[6] Canada’s position on joint military operations was elaborated in detail in Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 294-295.
[7] See Article 7 Report, 24 April 2002 (for the period 16 February 2001-1 March 2002); Article 7 Report, 30 April 2001 (for the period 15 March 2000-15 February 2001); Article 7 Report, 27 April 2000 (for the period 1 August 1999-14 March 2000).
[8] Statement by Amb. Hynes, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 17 September 2002.
[9] Email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from Shannon Smith, DFAIT, 29 July 2003; “Canadian official urges countries to help Ukraine destroy millions of landmines,” Associated Press, 10 February 2003.
[10] “Notes for remarks at the launch of the 2002 Landmine Monitor,” provided to Stan Brabant, Handicap International Belgium and emailed to Landmine Monitor (MAC), 11 September 2002.
[11] Notes provided to Landmine Monitor (MAC) of remarks by Amb. Hynes, Ottawa, 12 September 2002.
[12] In 2002/2003, YMAAP had youth ambassadors in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Quebec City, Saskatoon, St. John’s, Toronto, Vancouver, and Winnipeg.
[13] Article 7 Report, Form D, 22 April 2003.
[14] Ibid.
[15] Email from Shannon Smith, DFAIT/ILX, 2 May 2002. A document posted to the Canadian Forces website stated that they “currently have about 20,000 C19s in stock, with no plans to purchase any more.” See, “The Canadian Forces and Anti-Personnel Landmine,” DND document BG-02.007, 13 February 2002.
[16] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 294-295. See previous editions also for discussion of Canada’s position on joint operations and its interpretation of “assist” in Article 1. Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 244; Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 221-223.
[17] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 155.
[18] For more details, see the 49-page annual report of the Canadian Landmine Fund, Making A Difference, 2001-2002 report on the Canadian Landmine Fund, available online at www.mines.gc.ca.
[19] Funding total provided to Landmine Monitor by DFAIT and CIDA. This amount is higher than reported in previous editions of Landmine Monitor Report because it includes CIDA funding of bilateral programs not previously included by Landmine Monitor.
[20] The fiscal year period was: 1 April 2002-31 March 2003.
[21] “Government of Canada Announces Renewal of Canadian Landmine Fund,” DFAIT News Release #165, 29 November 2002.
[22] Making A Difference, 2001-2002 report on the Canadian Landmine Fund, available online at www.mines.gc.ca.
[23] C$1=US$0.675 as of 20 March 2003. Official exchange rate provided by email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) by Cory Anderson, DFAIT-ILX, 3 June 2003.
[24] All funding figures are taken from the UN Mine Action Investments database. DFAIT-ILX made the conversions from U.S. to Canadian dollar. Email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) by Cory Anderson, DFAIT-ILX, 3 June 2003.
[25] This contribution will be funded in FY 2003/2004. “Canada announces second round of aid funding for Iraqi people,” CIDA News Release (2003-36).
[26] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by CIDC, 18 July 2003.
[27] Emails from Scott Fairweather, Interim President and CEO, CLF, 8 April and 19 July 2003.
[28] CLF website.
[29] Email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from Arlene Willis, President and CEO, Grapes for Humanity, 18 July 2003.
[30] Canadian Red Cross, “Dusanbe Orthopaedic Centre, Annual Report 2002;” letter from Leah Feuer, Canadian Red Cross, 24 March 2003.
[31] Email to Landmine Monitor (MAC) from Al Carruthers, CCMAT, 22 July 2003.
[32] Mike Blanchfield, “Military mum on latest Afghan mission,” The Ottawa Citizen, 24 May 2002; “Canadian soldiers strike landmine on Afghan road,” CBC News, 23 May 2002.
[33] Ibid.