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Country Reports
Nicaragua, Landmine Monitor Report 2003


Key developments since May 2002: On 28 August 2002, Nicaragua completed the destruction of the last of its 133,435 stockpiled antipersonnel mines. In 2002, according to the OAS, 339,032 square meters of land were cleared and 5,479 antipersonnel mines were destroyed. In March 2003, Nicaragua reported the completion of mine clearance operations in the departments of Chinandega, Chontales, Boaco, and Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur.

Mine Ban Policy

Nicaragua signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997, ratified on 30 November 1998, and the treaty entered into force on 1 May 1999. National implementation legislation, Law 321, which includes penal sanctions for violations, was signed into law on 7 December 1999.[1] Nicaragua submitted its fourth annual Article 7 report on 31 March 2003, covering the period from 30 March 2002 until 31 March 2003. It did not include the voluntary Form J on victim assistance.

Nicaragua’s term as President of the Third Meeting of States Parties ended in September 2002 at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties. Numerous States Parties and the ICBL thanked Nicaragua for its leadership and guidance in helping to advance the core humanitarian objectives of the treaty, and for its key role in promoting the intersessional work program. Nicaragua attended intersessional Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003. Nicaragua is expected to be named co-rapporteur of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance at the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2003.

On 27-28 August 2002, Nicaragua hosted a mine action conference attended by the Vice Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Nicaragua, Costa Rica and El Salvador, and representatives from Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Perú.[2] The participants urged donor countries not to neglect funding to countries of the region that had not completed mine clearance or integrated mine action and called for governments to join the region in meeting the challenge of providing for the needs of survivors.[3]

In October 2002, Nicaragua’s Defense Minister, José Adán Guerra, spoke at the Organization of American States (OAS), urging continued support for the country’s mine clearance program and confirming his country’s commitment to “declare Nicaragua free of antipersonnel landmines by the year 2005.”[4]

In November 2002, Nicaragua voted in support of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74, promoting universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Nicaragua is a State Party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), but did not attend the Fourth Annual Conference of States Parties in December 2002 or submit an annual Article 13 report.

The non-governmental Nicaraguan Coalition of Action Against Mines [Coalición Nicaragüense de Acción Contra Minas], formed in August 2001, reported limited success in achieving its primary objective of promoting effective participation of civil society and NGOs in implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty in the country.[5]

Nicaragua has stated that it has never produced antipersonnel mines,[6] and it is not known to have ever exported mines. There were no reports of antipersonnel mine use in 2002. According to a media report, in May 2003, a Panamanian court sentenced four Panamanians and three Colombians to 20 and 60 months imprisonment for attempting to import into Colombia weapons acquired in Nicaragua, which included thirteen Russian antipersonnel mines.[7]

Stockpile Destruction

From April 1999 to August 2002, Nicaragua destroyed its 133,435 stockpiled antipersonnel mines in eleven separate events.[8] On 28 August 2002, Nicaragua completed its stockpile destruction when 18,435 stockpiled mines were destroyed at the close of the regional mine action conference.[9] Two other stockpile destruction events took place in 2002 in which 25,000 mines were destroyed.[10] The destruction was completed well in advance of Nicaragua’s treaty-mandated deadline of 1 May 2003.

In its March 2003 Article 7 report, Nicaragua stated that it was retaining 1,971 antipersonnel mines for training purposes, as permitted under Article 3 of the Mine Ban Treaty.[11] This is the same number as in previous years, indicating that no mines have yet been consumed in the training process. Nicaragua reported transferring 124 mines for canine training on 29 June 2002.[12]

Landmine Problem

Nicaragua’s landmine problem is a result of the 1979-1990 internal conflict. In addition to landmines, a large quantity of unexploded ordnance (UXO) such as bombs, fragmentation grenades, mortars, and ammunition also remain in former combat areas, including urban areas.[13] In its 2003 Article 7 Report, Nicaragua stated that there were an estimated 46,452 mines still in the ground, and 135.5 kilometers of mine-affected northern border.[14] The landmine/UXO problem is concentrated along the northern border with Honduras and also in the departments of Nueva Segovia, Madriz, Jinotega, and the Northern Atlantic Autonomous Region (RAAN, Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte).[15]

The identification of suspected mine-affected areas is an ongoing effort, but according to the OAS the majority of mined areas in Nicaragua have been registered.[16] In late 2002, the OAS reported that 624 mined areas had been registered in 14 of the country’s 17 departments, and that 332 of the mined areas had been cleared.[17] As of July 2003, the OAS reported that 677 mined areas had been registered, of which 398 had been cleared.[18]

Although mine clearance is advancing, the development of many rural communities continues to be limited by the presence of mines and UXO. The communities of Zacatera, Las Pampas and Linda Vista in Nueva Segovia department reported in October 2002 that schools and health centers could not be established, as the best sites for those projects were mine-affected. According to the United Nations, “Residents of these areas are often forced to engage in mine clearance activities, in order to use the land.”[19]

In April 2001, Nicaragua declared the southern border with Costa Rica Nicaragua’s first mine-free region.[20] In March 2003, Nicaragua reported the completion of mine clearance operations in the departments of Chinandega, Chontales, Boaco, and RAAS (Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur).[21]

Mine Action Coordination

The Organization of American States Unit for the Promotion of Democracy, through the Program for Integral Action against Antipersonnel Mines (AICMA, Acción Integral Contra las Minas Antipersonal), is responsible for coordinating and supervising the Assistance Program for Demining in Central America (PADCA, Programa de Asistencia al Desminado en Centroamérica), with the technical support of the Inter-American Defense Board (IADB). The IADB is responsible for organizing an international supervisory team in charge of training and certification, the Assistance Mission for Mine Clearance in Central America (MARMINCA, Misión de Asistencia para la Remoción de Minas en Centro América).[22] OAS PADCA and MARMINCA have ongoing mine action programs in Nicaragua.[23]

Nicaragua’s Comisión Nacional de Desminado (CND), established in November 1998, is the government body responsible for mine action in Nicaragua.[24] The CND does not have its own budget, but relies on the financial support of the Ministry of Defense. CND has three full-time staff.[25]

Mine Action Funding

In October 2002, Nicaragua’s Minister of Defense said the country needed more than $15 million in the next three years to complete mine clearance and implement mine risk education and related social programs.[26] In March 2003, Nicaragua reported that about $8.2 million was needed to complete the National Humanitarian Demining Program.[27]

In May 2003, the OAS presented a projection of financial requirements for their total mine action program activities for the period 2003-2007. For Nicaragua, the total was $9.5 million, by far the highest level for the region.[28]

The OAS PADCA program has continued to suffer financial difficulties. In September 2002, the OAS said that if additional funds were not secured, the fourth operations front in Nicaragua would have to halt activities.[29] The disruption was avoided. In May 2003, the OAS stated that as a result of a shortfall in donor funding, it was unable to support the rehabilitation of an additional medical evacuation helicopter as planned, “which could affect programmed operations for 2003.”[30]

Nicaragua’s National Demining Plan is funded with the support of the international community, both through the OAS and bilaterally.[31] According to the OAS/PADCA National Coordinator, approximately 75 percent of funding is dedicated to mine clearance, while the remainder is spent on mine risk education and victim assistance.[32] Other activities, such as those carried out by UNICEF, are funded from other sources.

Mine clearance in Nicaragua is conducted along five operational fronts. In 2002, operational front one and front two were funded by Denmark. Front three was funded by Sweden. Front four was funded by Norway, Canada and the EU. Front five was funded by the United Kingdom and United States.[33] The OAS reports that in 2002, contributions included $1.7 million from the United States, $332,986 from Sweden, $276,601 from the United Kingdom, $158,790 from Canada, $75,255 from France, and $19,847 from UNICEF.[34]

Reports directly from donors differ from the above numbers, in part because some donors report for their fiscal year, not a calendar year, and in part because grants may not have gone to the OAS. Reports from donors on mine action funding for Nicaragua in 2002 include: Austria $81,251; Canada $84,375; Denmark $1.77 million; European Union $1.2 million; France $147,657; Sweden $329,000; and United Kingdom $567,000.[35] During its fiscal year 2002, the US contributed $1.85 million to the OAS/IADB for its mine action activities throughout Central America.[36]

On 3 July 2002, the OAS and Sweden announced an agreement on a $2.3 million contribution for the period from 2002-2005 to be spent on mine clearance in the north, in particular, the heavily mined-affected municipalities of Murra in the department of Nueva Segovia; and Wiwilí, in Jinotega department.[37]

On 6 June 2003, the European Union donated €1,300,000 (US$1,235,000) to the OAS AICMA program in Nicaragua, specifically for clearance in Nueva Segovia.[38]

Mine Clearance

Mine clearance in Nicaragua is the responsibility of the Pequeñas Unidades de Desminado (Small Demining Units) of the Engineer Corps of the Nicaraguan Army. As of May 2003, approximately 650 Army members were trained and equipped to engage in mine clearance.[39]

The five operational fronts for mine clearance in 2002 included: operational front one in the departments of Chinandega, Estelí, and Jinotega; operational front two in the department of Río San Juan, along the border with Costa Rica; operational front three in the departments of Boaco, Chontales, RAAS, and Matagalpa; operational front four in Nueva Segovia department; and operational front five in RAAN department.[40]

Each of the five operational fronts deploys a company-sized 100-person unit. In addition, there are three platoon-sized units, with approximately 50 persons per unit: the mechanized unit, a marking and quick reaction unit, and an independent unit that includes mine detecting dog teams.[41] The OAS PADCA Mine Detection Dogs project has nine mine detection dogs, and 20 deminers who are all members of the Nicaraguan Army.[42]

In 2002, according to the OAS MARMINCA Coordinator, 339,032 square meters of land was cleared and 5,479 antipersonnel mines were destroyed.[43] Nicaragua’s Article 7 report states that 273,500 square meters were cleared during the reporting period of March 2002-March 2003.[44]

The identification and clearance of emplaced mines is also ongoing in urban areas. For example, in February 2003, a civilian clearing undergrowth under an electricity line in the city of Estelí discovered and reported a PMN antipersonnel mine.[45]

As of March 2003, 89,191 of the 135,643 emplaced antipersonnel mines had been cleared.[46] An estimated 46,452 mines remain to be cleared in 135,500 square meters of the northern part of the country.[47]

According to the OAS MARMINCA Coordinator, priority areas for demining operations in 2003 are in front three (including Matagalpa, Wanito), front four (Jalapa), and front five (Puerto Cabezas).[48] CND’s 2003 work plan includes the start of demining activities in the RAAN border region.[49]

Nicaragua reports that mine clearance in the country will be completed in 2005, and not 2004 as previously estimated.[50] According to the 2003 Article 7 report, the principal challenges to mine clearance in Nicaragua are: a) the need for two helicopters for emergency medical evacuation; b) the topography of the terrain; c) the poor condition of roads, bridges, and highways; d) difficulties locating mined areas due to lost reference points; e) movement of mines from original position due to water runoff, contaminating extensive areas; and f) growth of dense vegetation around and in minefields.[51]

According to Ramón Zapeda, OAS Ocotal Victim Assistance and Mine Risk Education Coordinator, “amateur” demining has been reduced significantly in Nicaragua because of the visible presence of, and the advancements made by, Nicaragua’s demining fronts, and because of a belief that the military will demine these areas in the near future.[52]

In 2002, the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) established its first Regional Support Center (RSC) in Managua to support the regional operations of the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) there.[53] According to GICHD, the RSC will provide “first level user support, including on-site training, technical advice and maintenance, for IMSMA users in Latin America.”[54] It also organizes regional user focus group meetings and training courses, facilitates contacts between the relevant countries and the GICHD, and cooperates closely with the OAS.[55]

Nicaragua’s IMSMA database is housed in the Nicaraguan offices of OAS PADCA and is comprised of information provided by the Army’s demining units, the Ministries of Defense and Health, the National Center for Technical Assistance and Orthotics (CENAPRORTO), the IADB, OAS, ICRC, and NGOs.

In June 2003, the Minister of Defense announced that 840 soldiers from Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic would carry out mine clearance and humanitarian assistance in central and southern Iraq as part of an international force under Spanish command and paid for by the United States. An estimated 110 people from Nicaragua will contribute to the Iraq operation, including forty deminers. Nicaragua’s President Enrique Bolaños reportedly said that sending the contingent to Iraq was a way of “paying back for the humanitarian assistance that Nicaragua has received in its long history.”[56] The OAS cautioned that landmines in Iraq are quite different from those known in Central America and soldiers may face problems in clearance operations.[57] The Nicaraguan NGO Centro Estudios Internacionales (CEI) raised concern that the domestic mine clearance completion goal of 2005 would be set back or delayed by the absence of the deminers.[58]

Mine Risk Education

The government reports that in 2002, the Nicaraguan Army, OAS PADCA, the Nicaraguan Red Cross, UNICEF and Christian Medical Action carried out mine risk education (MRE) activities across the country.[59]

An OAS PADCA mine risk education campaign in the department of Nueva Segovia, especially in San Fernando and Jalapa municipalities, employs a team of three MRE educators, including landmine survivors, who visit mine-affected communities.[60] The team works in coordination with the demining fronts, and trains MRE student trainers, and makes follow-up visits.[61] In 2002, 17,171 individuals in five departments received mine awareness education.[62] According to the OAS PADCA National Coordinator, funding requirements for this program are between $40,000 and $60,000 per year.[63]

The Nicaraguan Red Cross, with the support of the ICRC, has been conducting an MRE campaign in rural schools in the RAAN using notebooks and graphic materials with MRE messages in both Spanish and the local Miskito language.[64] In May 2003, the OAS also started a new campaign in Waspán municipality in the RAAN, using MRE materials translated into Miskito to disseminate through community and school visits, and workshops with community leaders.[65]

Despite limited funding, in 2002 a local NGO, CCDPRM (Comisión Conjunta de Discapacitados para la Paz y la Reconstrucción de Madriz), provided MRE training in seventeen high-risk communities in the department of Madriz.[66] These activities were directed towards primary school children, rural farm workers, cattle ranchers, and mayors of high-risk communities located near the Honduras border.[67]

In 2002, the OAS MARMINCA program implemented a free telephone line directly connected to a special platoon funded by France and Spain. The platoon’s responsibilities include “a) destruction of mines in storage, b) marking of areas, and c) attending people’s calls.” [68]

According to the OAS, It has proven extremely difficult to provide effective MRE in the northern regions of Nicaragua. The region is characterized by rugged terrain with numerous dispersed communities, many of which can only be entered by foot or on horseback. Radio signals do not enter many communities. High levels of seasonal labor migration, and the limited number of full-time mine risk educators, make it difficult to provide coverage to all mine-affected areas.[69]

According to Handicap International-Nicaragua, there has been a lack of a “systematic and overarching strategy to harmonize mine risk education work methods” in Nicaragua.[70] At the beginning of 2003, CND initiated a process to analyze and present the efforts of various MRE actors in order to better assess the effectiveness of these programs in reducing mine-related casualties; in order to improve results the Certification Committee will review MRE materials prior to publication.[71] In addition, the National Guide for the Elaboration of Educational Materials was implemented.[72]

Nicaragua has a problem with civilians storing landmines and unexploded ordnance in their homes and/or handling the devices.[73] In April 2002, an item of UXO brought to school by a student exploded in a schoolyard, injuring bystanders.[74] In November 2002, the media reported that military officials had confiscated six live landmines from a man who had been using them since 1995 to keep his roof from blowing away.[75] In January 2003, the OAS office in Nueva Segovia responded on nine occasions to reports of civilians storing landmines and/or UXO in their homes.[76]

Landmine Casualties

In 2002, OAS PADCA registered three people killed and twelve injured in new landmine/UXO incidents in Nicaragua. Landmines were the cause of four casualties, and UXO accounted for eleven.[77] Many sources, including official OAS PADCA documents, acknowledge that it is difficult to determine the exact number of landmine and UXO casualties in Nicaragua, as many incidents in rural areas are still believed to go unrecorded.[78]

In 2001, OAS PADCA registered nineteen new landmine/UXO casualties (two killed and seventeen injured).[79]

In 2003, three incidents were recorded in the IMSMA database as of May 2003, in which there was one death.[80] According to a media report, in January 2003, two peasants from Santo Tomas del Nance municipality were injured by a mine blast on the bank of the Gausaule River, in the department of Chinandega, an area that had been declared mine-free.[81] In April 2003, media reported that a nine-year-old child was killed and two others seriously injured after finding and playing with a landmine unearthed by a truck on a road in Huapi, on Nicaragua’s Caribbean coast.[82]

As of May 2003, the OAS PADCA had recorded 570 landmine/UXO casualties, in 488 incidents, with the first casualty reported in 1980;[83] 49 people were killed and 521 injured.[84] Landmines were responsible for 429 casualties, UXO for 83 casualties, and the cause of 58 casualties is unknown. The majority of casualties were male and at least 72 casualties were under 20 years of age, including 27 children under the age of 12.[85]

According to OAS PADCA, between 1989 and May 2003, five deminers were killed and 32 injured in 23 accidents.[86] These statistics do not include an incident on 3 June 2002 in which a mine clearance instructor was killed and four other injured during a training exercise.[87]

Survivor Assistance

Survivor assistance falls within the mandate of the CND.[88] However, landmine survivor assistance programs are reportedly not meeting the needs of survivors. According to CEI, a limited rehabilitation budget has been directed towards mine survivors medical needs, but little has been provided to strengthen outdated rehabilitation services. Problems include extremely limited medical facilities in or near communities in mine-affected regions, and limited technical capacity to deal with the severity of mine injuries.[89] There is also a lack of facilities to provide for the physical rehabilitation and socioeconomic reintegration of mine survivors.[90] The Regional Directory of Rehabilitation Resources listed 231 organizations in Nicaragua that provide services to persons with disabilities, but it is unclear how many of these organizations are able to adequately assist landmine survivors.[91]

The Centro Nacional de Ayudas Tecnicas y elementos Ortoprotésico (CENAPRORTO) in Managua, partly supported by the ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled, continues to provide physical rehabilitation, prosthetics and orthotics, and psychological support, for all persons with disabilities. In 2002, the center produced 473 prostheses, 935 orthoses, and distributed 523 crutches and 114 wheelchairs. The ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled (SFD) supports CENAPRORTO with orthopedic components and staff training. During 2002, seven prosthetists, the technical director and one physiotherapist took part in a training course. Two other students continued their studies at the Don Bosco University in San Salvador, funded by the SFD, and three out of five prosthetics taking the internet course organized by the Center for International Rehabiliation passed their final examinations. The cost of the SFD program in 2002 was CHF346,519 (approximately $250,000).[92]

The OAS reports that by the end of November 2002, the Landmine and Victim Assistance Program, in coordination with CENAPRORTO, had assisted over 468 landmine survivors with transportation to rehabilitation centers, lodging, food, prostheses, therapy, surgery and medications.[93] In 2002, at least 168 mine survivors received rehabilitative or specialized medical attention through this program.[94] In 2002, OAS funding for this program was $60,000 but it is estimated that an additional $10,000 per year is needed to meet program requirements.[95] In 2002, Handicap International (HI) continued to provide support through an orthopedic center and four physiotherapy centers in Trinidad, Estelí department.[96]

In 2002, the Polus Center for Social and Economic Development continues to assist persons with disabilities in León through its “Walking Unidos” Prosthetic Outreach Program. In 2002, the ICRC, through the Special Fund for the Disabled, imported orthopedic components for the center, worth Sfr 14,000.[97] The Polus Center’s Ben Linder Cyber Café employs some amputees from its prosthetic program, and offers computer training. Revenues from the café are used to support the Walking Unidos project.[98] The Center’s annual budget for all its projects in León is approximately $250,000; donors for the program include the US government’s Leahy War Victims Fund and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).[99]

In 2002, the Comisión Conjunta de Discapacitados para la Paz y la Reconstrucción de Madriz (CCDPRM) continued to act as both an advocate for, and provider of, rehabilitation services for landmine survivors in the department of Madriz, assisting 42 survivors with rehabilitation services, and referring 67 survivors to other providers.[100]

The OAS AICMA, in 2002, began financing a training project in three northern departments, in coordination with National Technological Institute of Nicaragua (INATEC), which provided six vocational training courses for 86 landmine survivors, in carpentry, bread-making, organic agriculture, tailoring, and non- traditional products. Participants and organizers claimed the program did not allow sufficient time to create employment opportunities to utilize new skills.[101]

In April 2002, OAS AICMA, with INATEC, began a job-training project for landmine survivors, with 25 participating in the first eight-month course at the Technical Institute of Boaco, and over 30 starting in February 2003.[102] Courses were provided in carpentry, welding, auto mechanics, automobile electrics, and computers.[103] In 2002, the budget for this component of the OAS program was $70,000.[104]

In 2002, 34 people, including 25 landmine survivors, received micro-credit assistance for small business and home repairs through CCDPRM, with funding provided by Solidarite Union Cooperation, a Canadian organization.[105] The 2002 budget for the project was 103,803 Nicaraguan Cordobas (approximately $7,000) for the small business component, and 61,000 Cordobas ($4,000) for home repairs.[106]

Ten landmine survivors benefited from a solar energy-related employment project in Madriz department in 2002, run by Fénix Madriz, with funding from the Falls Brook Centre (FBC), a Canadian NGO.[107]

FBC, in coordination with Movimiento Communal Somoto (Somoto Community Movement), is also implementing a CIDA-funded “Kitchen Garden” project to assist subsistence-based rural farmers, including the families of landmine survivors suffering from high levels of malnutrition, illiteracy and poverty. In 2002, eight of the 44 project beneficiaries were landmine survivors. The Kitchen Garden project received C$198,000 (US$145,679) from CIDA, for the period 2001 to 2003, and in early 2003, FBC staff initiated a Canadian citizen-supported scholarship program that assists with the education costs of 26 impoverished rural children, including eight children of landmine survivors.[108]

Disability Policy and Practice

The 1995 Law 202 on the Prevention, Rehabilitation and Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities relates to the social reintegration of all persons with disabilities, including landmine survivors. The 1997 Executive Decree No.50-97 established the legal framework for improving the quality of life and assuring the full integration of persons with disabilities into society;[109] government support, however, has been constrained by a lack of resources. In July 2002, the Organization of Revolutionary Disabled Individuals (ORD) stated that the government was not achieving commitments made through Law 202 and also said the needs of many persons with disabilities living in poverty were not being met.[110] In February 2003, Nicaragua acknowledged that the laws have little impact on the lives of mine survivors and, in the context of increasing unemployment and decreasing funding, called for stronger socio-economic reintegration efforts.[111]

Civilian landmine survivors receive no social welfare entitlements under the existing provisions. Military deminers receive some compensation, which is graded according to the severity of injuries sustained. In June 2002, pensions increased for some persons with disabilities, including veterans who are landmine survivors.[112]

[1] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 281.
[2] The conference was called “Avances del Desminado en las Américas” [Advances in Mine Clearance in the Americas]. The conference goals were to share national experiences, successes, and challenges to their respective demining programs.
[3] “El Llamado de Managua,” 28 August 2002.
[4] OAS press release E-205/2, “Nicaraguan Defense Minister Calls For Continued Support For Clearing Landmines,” 17 October 2002.
[5] Coalición Nicaragüense de Acción contra Minas, “Informe de Actividades de la Secretaría Ejecutiva, Período Agosto 2001-Diciembre 2002,” February 2003, p. 1.
[6] Article 7 Report, Form H, Point 1, 31 March 2003.
[7] “Desmantelan en Panamá red de traficantes de armas para Colombianos,” Notimex (Panamá), 16 May 2003.
[8] Article 7 Report, Form D, 31 March 2003.
[9] See Luis Felipe Palacios, “Proponen zona libre de minas,” La Prensa, (Managua), 29 August 2002; OAS PADCA, “Voladuras,” at www.oeadesminado.org.ni.
[10] On 25 April, the Army destroyed 15,000 antipersonnel mines at a site in the department of Chinandega, and on 20 June, 10,000 antipersonnel mines were destroyed at the National Sergeant School “Andrés Castro.”
[11] This included 500 PMN, 500 PMN-2, 100 PP-MiSr-II, 50 OZM-4, 50 PMEH, 100 POMZ-2, 500 POMZ-2M, 100 MON-50, 11 MON-100, and 10 MON-200 mines. Article 7 Report, Form D, Table 1, 31 March 2003.
[12] Article 7 Report, Form D, 31 March 2003. Nicaragua previously reported transferring 286 training mines to the OAS/IADB MARMINCA program for canine training, beginning in September 1999.
[13] See for example, UNICEF, “Landmine and Unexploded Ordnance Awareness Education in Nicaragua through Community Liaison,” in UN, “Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects,” April 2001, p. 184.
[14] Article 7 Report, “Principales Logros del Desminado en Nicaragua,” 31 March 2003, p. 6.
[15] UN, “Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects 2003,” October 2002, p. 203.
[16] Email from Carlos J. Orozco, National Coordinator, OAS PADCA, 7 May 2003.
[17] IMSMA, “Registros consolidados a Febrero del 2003,” at www.oeadesminado.org.ni.
[18] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Carl Case, OAS Mine Action Program, 23 July 2003.
[19] UN, “Portfolio of Mine-Related Projects 2003,” October 2002, p. 203.
[20] Article 7 Report, “Introduction,” 22 May 2002.
[21] Article 7 Report, “Principales Logros del Desminado en Nicaragua,” 31 March 2003, p. 6.
[22] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Carlos J. Orozco S., National Coordinator, OAS PADCA, 5 February 2003; see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 377.
[23] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Lt. Col. Antonio César Alves Rocha, Coordinator, OAS MARMINCA, 31 January 2003.
[24] For more detail on the CND, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 378.
[25] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by José Adán Guerra, Minister of Defense, 28 June 2002.
[26] “Nicaragua pide 15 millones de dólares a la comunidad internacional para remover las minas antipersonales,” Europa Press, 17 October 2002. See also, OAS press release E-205/2, “Nicaraguan Defense Minister Calls For Continued Support For Clearing Landmines,” 17 October 2002.
[27] Article 7 Report, “Introduction,” 31 March 2003, p. 8.
[28] OAS, “Mine Action Program: Making the Western Hemisphere landmine-safe,” Resource Mobilization: Projection of Financial Resources/Requirements 2003-2007, p. 6, presented at the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 12 May 2003.
[29] Statement by William A. McDonough, head of delegation of the OAS to the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 16-20 September 2002.
[30] OAS, “Update on regional mine action efforts,” May 2003, p. 3.
[31] Article 7 Report, “Introduction,” 31 March 2003, pp. 8-9.
[32] Email from Carlos J. Orozco S., National Coordinator, OAS PADCA, 7 May 2003.
[33] OAS website, “Donantes y contribuyentes.”
[34] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Carl Case, OAS Mine Action Program, 23 July 2003.
[35] See individual country studies in this Landmine Monitor Report.
[36] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002.
[37] See OAS PADCA website, “Noticias.”
[38] OAS press release C-116/03, “La Unión Europea contribuye al programa de acción contra minas de la OEA en Nicaragua,” 6 June 2003.
[39] Article 7 Report, ”Introduction,” 31 March 2003.
[40] All the information on the location of the fronts was obtained from: OAS report, “Operaciones de desminado humanitario,” available on OAS website; Centro de Estudios Internacionales, “Minas Antipersonales en Nicaragua ‘Segundo Informe Independiente.’” CEI website, www.ceinicaragua.org.ni
[41] Article 7 Report, Form E, “Cronograma de Operaciones de Desminado Proyectado para el Año 2002,” 22 May 2002, p. 21-23; letter from Sergio Caramagna, Director, OAS National Office in Nicaragua, 11 January 2001; email to Landmine Monitor from Col. William McDonough, Coordinator, OAS PADCA, 26 July 2001.
[42] OAS website, “Mine Detection Dogs.”
[43] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by OAS MARMINCA, 31 January 2003.
[44] Article 7 Report, Form F, 31 March 2003.
[45] “Descruben mina de alto poder en barrio esteliano,” La Prensa, 28 February 2003.
[46] Article 7 Report, “Introduction,” 31 March 2003, p. 3.
[47] Ibid., p. 4.
[48] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by OAS MARMINCA, 31 January 2003.
[49] Comisión Nacional de Desminado, “Resumen de labores del año 2002 y prioridades en el plan de trabajo 2003,” Managua, 13 February 2003, p. 5.
[50] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by OAS MARMINCA, 31 January 2003; Article 7 Report, “Introduction,” 31 March 2003, p. 7.
[51] Article 7 Report, “Principle Difficulties of Demining in Nicaragua,” 31 March 2003, p. 7.
[52] Interview with Ramón Zapeda, Responsable Programas de Asistencia de Víctimas y Prevención de Accidentes de Minas, OAS Ocotal, Ocotal, Nueva Segovia, 5 February 2003.
[53] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 378.
[54] GICHD, “Update on activities between January and October 2002,” 31 October 2002.
[55] Ibid.
[56] “Evaluarán condiciones para envio de militares nicaragüenses a Irak,” Notimex (Managua), 10 June 2003.
[57] “OEA prevé dificultades para soldados del istmo,” La Prensa Gráfica (San Salvador), 17 June 2003.
[58] CEI, “Realidad Del Desminado en Nicaragua,” 21 March 2003.
[59] Article 7 Report, Form I, 31 March 2003.
[60] OAS PADCA website, “Proyecto de Prevención.”
[61] Interview with Ramón Zapeda, OAS Ocotal, 5 February 2003.
[62] OAS PADCA website, “Número de Personas Sensibilizadas por Comunidad 2001-2002. ”
[63] Response to Landmine Monitor by Carlos J. Orozco, OAS PADCA, 5 February 2003.
[64] Article 7 Report, Form I, 31 March 2003.
[65] OAS website; interview with Ramón Zapeda, OAS Ocotal, 5 February 2003.
[66] CCDPRM, “Actividades realizadas por la Comisión Conjunta de Discapacitados por la Paz y la Reconstrucción de Madriz, ORD/ADRN en el Departamento de Madriz en el año 2002,” 30 January 2003.
[67] Ibid.
[68] “Special Platoon for Marking & Attending People’s Calls,” Nicaragua Project document available on UN Mine Action website, www.mineaction.org.
[69] Interview with Ramon Zapeda, OAS Ocotal, 5 February 2003.
[70] Interview with Phillipe Diquemare, Handicap International Nicaragua, November 2002, cite in CEI, “La Situación de la acción contra minas en Nicaragua: Cuarto Informe Independente,” November 2002, p. 3.
[71] Article 7 Report, Form I, 23 March 2003.
[72] Ibid.
[73] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 375.
[74] “Mas de 20 heridos en explosión,” La Prensa, 21 April 2002.
[75] “Man In Rural Nicaragua Used Six Land Mines To Weigh Down His Roof,” Associated Press, 12 November 2002.
[76] Interview with Ramón Zapeda, OAS Ocotal, 5 February 2003.
[77] Response to Landmine Monitor by Carlos J. Orozco, OAS PADCA, 5 February 2003; OAS PADCA/IMSMA website, “Accidentes por Minas o UXOs: Casos – Resumen.”
[78] OAS PADCA/IMSMA website, “Accidentes por Minas o UXOs: Casos.”
[79] OAS PADCA/IMSMA website, “Víctimas por Minas/UXO: May 2003.”
[80] Ibid.
[81] Carol Munguia, “Mina lesiona a dos campesinos,” La Prensa, 6 January 2003.
[82] “Nicaraguan landmine kills one child, injures two,” EFE, 12 April 03.
[83] OAS PADCA/IMSMA, “Accidentes por Minas o UXOs: Casos – Resumen.”
[84] Mine/UXO casualties (including 37 demining casualties) have been recorded in 14 of the 17 departments in Nicaragua between 1980 and May 2003: in Nueva Segovia (228), Jinotega (125), Matagalpa (65), RAAN (35), RAAS (39), Chinandega (29), Madriz (26), Chontales (20), Estelí (17), Managua (14), Rio San Juan (4), Masaya (2), León (2), and Rivas (1). OAS PADCA/IMSMA website, “Víctimas Reportadas – Accidentes/Incidentes: Estadísticas,” May 2003.
[85] Ibid.
[86] OAS PADCA/IMSMA website, “Accidentes en Operaciones de Desminado.”
[87] Mario Sánchez P., “Mina destroza a sargento,” La Prensa, 4 June 2002; “Un soldado muerto y tres heridos por explosión de mina en Nicaragua,” El Colombiano (Medellín, Colombia), 4 June 2002.
[88] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 382.
[89] CEI, “Cuarto Informe Independiente,” November 2002, pp. 4-5.
[90] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 383-384.
[91] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 382.
[92] ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 5.
[93] See OAS PADCA website, “Victimas.”
[94] Response to Landmine Monitor by Carlos J. Orozco, OAS PADCA, 5 February 2003.
[95] Ibid.
[96] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 382.
[97] ICRC Special Fund for the Disabled, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 4.
[98] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 382; see also ICBL Portfolio of Landmine Victim Assistance Programs, available at www.landminevap.org.
[99] Email from Stephen Meyers, International Programs Coordinator, Polus Center for Social & Economic Development, Inc., 28 April 2003.
[100] CCDPRM, “Actividades realizadas por la Comisión Conjunta de Discapacitados por la Paz y la Reconstrucción de Madriz, ORD/ADRN en el Departamento de Madriz en el año 2002,” 30 January 2003.
[101] Interview with Rene Canacevedo, Director of Professional Rehabilitation, INATEC, Managua, 24 January 2003.
[102] OAS, “Update on regional mine action efforts,” May 2003, p. 4.
[103] Auxiliadora Martínez, “Víctimas de minas aprenden oficios,” La Prensa, 25 August 2002.
[104] Response to Landmine Monitor by Carlos J. Orozco, OAS PADCA, 5 February 2003.
[105] CCDPRM, “Actividades realizadas por la Comisión Conjunta de Discapacitados por la Paz y la Reconstrucción de Madriz, ORD/ADRN en el Departamento de Madriz en el año 2002,” 30 January 2003.
[106] Email from Uriel Carazo, Coordinator, CCDPRM, 8 May 2003.
[107] Interview with Sonya Waite, International Project Coordinator, Falls Brook Center, Somoto, 18 January 2003; for details on the program see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 383.
[108] Ibid.
[109] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire by Minister of Defense, 28 June 2002.
[110] Juan Alonso Gaitán Urbina, ORD’s National Coordinator, quoted in “Discapacitados de guerra mueren sin asistencia,” El Nuevo Diario, 9 July 2002.
[111] Intervention by Dr. Juan Umaña, Technical Secretary, CND Nicaragua, at the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socioeconomic Reintegration, Geneva, 4 February 2003.
[112] Roger Olivia, “INSS sube pensión a discapacitados,” El Nuevo Diario, 14 June 2002.