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Country Reports
Slovenia, Landmine Monitor Report 2003


Key developments since May 2002: Slovenia completed the destruction of its antipersonnel mine stockpile on 25 March 2003. Slovenia clarified its position on antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes. In December 2002, Slovenia ratified Amended Protocol II of the CCW. The Slovenian-based International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance raised nearly $30 million in 2002, a significant increase from 2001. In 2002, the ITF funded projects that cleared 11.4 million square meters of land in South East Europe. In July 2002, the ITF co-organized a workshop on landmine victim assistance in Southeastern Europe.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of Slovenia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 27 October 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 April 1999. Implementation legislation, including penal sanctions, was being considered in 2002. However, in March 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs indicated that Article 310 of the existing penal code was deemed sufficient.[1]

Slovenia attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002, and the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003. Slovenia submitted its fifth Article 7 transparency report on 30 April 2003.[2]

Slovenia is a member of the Human Security Network, which has a primary aim of universalizing the Mine Ban Treaty. Slovenia and other members of the Human Security Network issued a declaration on 12 September 2002 calling on all non-States Parties to accede to the treaty without delay. The declaration described the Treaty as setting “an international norm that is working beyond its membership.”[3] In November 2002, Slovenia voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74, which calls for universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Slovenia is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW). It ratified Amended Protocol II on 3 December 2002, and attended the Fourth Annual Conference of States Parties to the Protocol in December 2002.[4]

Slovenia has stated previously that it has never produced antipersonnel mines, has no production facilities, and has never imported or exported antipersonnel mines. Its stockpile of antipersonnel mines derived from when it was a republic of the former Yugoslavia.[5]

Stockpile Destruction

Slovenia completed destruction of its stockpile of 168,898 antipersonnel mines on 25 March 2003, thereby meeting its four-year deadline of 1 April 2003.[6] Destruction began in 1999, and by the end of 2002, all but 200 of the original stockpile had been destroyed. The remaining 200 type PROM-1 mines were destroyed at the Poček training range on 25 March 2003. Minister of Defense Anton Grizold, diplomats, defense attachés, NGOs and media representatives attended the ceremony.[7]

Antipersonnel mine stockpile destruction program[8]

Mine Types
Original Stockpile
1 Apr –
30 Sep 99
1 Oct 99 –
30 Apr 00
1 May 00 –
30 Apr 01
1 May 01 –
30 Apr 02
Destroyed 1 May 02 -
31 Dec 02
Retained under Article 3
Destroyed on 25 March 2003









Cumulative Total Destroyed


Colonel Dusan Gorse presented details of the destruction program to the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction on 6 February 2003. He noted that the cost of destruction was US$225,000, or about $2 per mine, including salaries of personnel involved.[9] At the final destruction ceremony, Brigadier Marjan Grabnar gave the overall costs, including investments in technology, construction and training, as $338,000.[10]

Slovenia is retaining 3,000 antipersonnel mines for permitted purposes under Article 3. These are stored at one location, separate from other munitions.[11] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated in March 2002 that the mines would be used for training of personnel assigned to peace operations, foreign armed forces, and others, including the International Trust Fund.[12] As of early 2003, none of the mines has been consumed in training activities.[13]

Slovenia has a total of 220 Claymore-type mines, 38 of which are inert dummies. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs regards this type of mine as permissible under the Mine Ban Treaty because it “enables controlled use of the device for a precisely defined military objective.”[14]

The Ministry reported in June 2002 that Slovenia possesses 59,500 antivehicle mines, but none with antihandling devices and all compliant with Amended Protocol II of CCW.[15] It gave a revised number of TMRP-6 antivehicle mines as 8,228.[16] Human Rights Watch has identified the TMRP-6 as a mine of concern because it can be fitted with a tilt rod and a tripwire. A Ministry of Defense official responded that the claim of activation by tilt rod is valid, but “no manual nor practical experience records that the mines were emplaced to be activated by a tripwire.” The TMRP-6 manual states that it is primarily activated by pressure and thus cannot be activated by a person. In exceptional cases it is emplaced to be activated by a tilt rod, which is attached when arrival of tanks is expected, thus increasing the mine’s efficiency. The Ministry added that banning of the mine fitted with a tilt rod, leaving only the pressure option, could be discussed in the future.[17]

Landmine/UXO Problem

All of Slovenia’s Article 7 reports claim that there are no areas suspected to contain antipersonnel mines. A report by the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe in October 2001 stated, “Slovenia no longer has a mine problem, however there still remains a problem associated with the disposal of UXO [unexploded ordnance] from previous conflicts.”[18]

Mine Action Funding

At the Fourth Meeting of States Parties in September 2002, the Slovenian representative told delegates that the Slovenian-based International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) is an efficient funding mechanism for mine clearance and other mine action.[19] In 2002, the government donated $362,534 to the ITF. In 2001, Slovenia contributed $418,373 to the ITF.[20]

International Trust Fund

The ITF is a non-profit organization established in March 1998 by the government of Slovenia.[21] In 2002, the ITF continued funding mine action in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), and Kosovo. It started funding mine action in Serbia and Montenegro (formerly the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia), the Caucasus and Afghanistan.[22]

Donations: In 2002, a total of $30,564,334 was raised from 15 countries, the European Commission, European Agency for Reconstruction and 10 other donors. This was a substantial increase from $20.5 million in 2001. In 2000, $29.4 million was raised. Much of the increase was accounted for by increased matching donations by the United States--$14 million in 2002--compared to $5.6 million in 2001.[23] Donations received by the ITF in 2002 were not necessarily used during the year.

Major contributions to the ITF in 2002 included: the US ($14 million in matching funds and $1,603,398 unilaterally); Norway ($3,578,691); Croatia ($3,155,519); the European Commission ($1,767,953); Bosnia and Herzegovina ($1,117,980); the European Commission delegation in Croatia ($1,171,069); Canada ($814,477); European Agency for Reconstruction ($687,319); Germany ($500,000); Switzerland ($439,407); “Adopt-A-Minefield” ($421,338); Sweden ($372,449); Slovenia ($362,534); Sarajevo Community Center, BiH ($168,012), Luxembourg ($102,210); Croatia Without Mines ($83,306), and the Czech Republic ($50,000).[24]

Smaller contributions in 2002 came from Austria, Bank Austria, Coordinamenti Donne, Community Hadzici, Dijana Plestina, France, Global Care Unlimited, Liechtenstein, Nova Ljubljanska Banka, Roots of Peace, Slovakia, and the “Night of a Thousand Dinners.”

Expenditures: In 2002, $25,418,121 was allocated by the ITF to the following activities: demining $19,255,686 (76 percent); victim assistance $1,118,539 (4 percent); structural support of regional mine action centers $1,864,690 (7 percent); training support $517,120 (2 percent); regional activities $2,104,032 (8 percent); Landmine Impact Survey (Bosnia and Herzegovina): $558,054 (2 percent).[25] In 2002, ITF administration costs were approximately $900,000.[26]

In 2002, no figure is identified for ITF funds spent on mine risk education, but part of the 2002 funding allocated to Serbia and Montenegro was used for mine risk education in Kosovo.

The funding was distributed by country and region in 2002 as follows: Albania $883,913 (3 percent); Bosnia and Herzegovina $9,917,739 (39 percent); Croatia $10,293,794 (41 percent); FYROM $1,264,276 (5 percent); Serbia and Montenegro (including Kosovo) $721,720 (3 percent); Regional activities $1,960,661 (8 percent); outside region (Afghanistan, Armenia) $376,018 (2 percent).[27]

In 2003, the ITF planned to continue operations in all these countries except Afghanistan, and to start funding operations on a small scale in Azerbaijan and Georgia. Also, it intended to explore the possibility of funding mine action in Cyprus.[28]

Mine Clearance and Training Activities

In 2002, the ITF contributed financially to projects that cleared 11.4 million square meters of land in South East Europe. This included 2.2 million square meters of battle area clearance, during which 11 mines and 591 items of UXO were found. On approximately one-third of the total area cleared, post-clearance visits were conducted to determine that the land was being re-used as intended. But the ITF reports insufficient funding to allow adequate pre-clearance inspection to prioritize sites according to socio-economic impact.[29]

The ITF-funded Sava regional project to clear mine-affected areas near the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Croatia started in 2001. During 2002, in BiH, 412,233 square meters were surveyed and cleared by four organizations, uncovering more than 369 mines and 62 items of UXO. In Croatia, 99,180 square meters were surveyed and checked by two demining organizations, uncovering no mines or UXO.[30]

Bosnia and Herzegovina: In 2002, the ITF provided $6.8 million for 118 projects which demined a total area of 2.8 million square meters of land. A total of 1,047 mines and 574 UXO were found.[31] Funding went to thirteen companies and seven NGOs (Akcija Protiv Mina, BH Demining, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), Promak, Provita, Stop Mines, and UG ZOM). Additionally, the ITF channeled $1.1 million into support for the demining structure in BiH.[32]

Croatia: In 2002, ITF provided funding of $10.2 million for 83 projects which demined 6.35 million square meters of land, with 2,200 mines and 880 UXO found and destroyed. Local commercial companies were used, as was NPA.[33]

Albania: In 2002, ITF provided $809,029, which partially funded two demining projects implemented by the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action and DanChurchAid. These projects cleared 128,712 square meters in 2002, finding a destroying 2,079 mines and 480 UXO. The ITF also provided financial support to the Albanian Mine Action Executive, which carried out monitoring and quality control of the projects.[34]

FYROM: In 2002, ITF provided funding of $1.2 million for demining, battle area clearance, and training of local deminers. The BiH NGOs BH Demining, Stop Mines, and Provita checked and cleared 1.8 million square meters of land, destroying nine mines and 56 items of UXO. Training of the Macedonian Civil Protection teams was conducted from April to July 2002, with 40 personnel trained. These teams checked and cleared 361,772 square meters in 2002, finding five mines and 41 UXO.[35]

Serbia and Montenegro: ITF funding of mine action in the former Yugoslavia, excluding Kosovo, started in 2001. In 2002, ITF provided funding of $721,720 to Serbia and Montenegro, which includes funds for Kosovo ($422,676). In Serbia, ITF funded location and disposal of aerial bombs by Slovenian and US teams; general and technical survey by Serbian and Croatian teams; training of 28 personnel in battle area clearance and demining; and purchase of equipment for clearance teams and for the new mine action center in Belgrade.[36]

In Kosovo, with the completion of international mine clearance efforts at the end of 2001, ITF reduced its funding of mine action in 2002. Projects funded were a mine risk education program by Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF), and supervision by Handicap International (HI) of the Kosovo Protection Corps now responsible for mine/UXO clearance.[37]

In Montenegro, ITF funded renovation and equipping of the Regional Center for Underwater Demining, and a training course there for 10 personnel from BiH, Croatia, and Serbia and Montenegro. It funded survey of the mine-contaminated border between Montenegro and Croatia, which was completed in December 2002.[38]

Outside South East Europe: In 2002, ITF funded a six-week course in Pakistan for 29 Afghan deminers, and donated a demining machine to Armenia.

In 2002, ITF organized two training courses in information technology, the Geographic Information System and image processing, at the Training Center for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief, in Ig. Twenty-nine people from mine-affected countries took part. ITF also continued its involvement in the South-Eastern Europe Mine Action Council.[39]

Survivor Assistance

The ITF allocated $1,118,539 to victim assistance programs in 2002. This continues the trend of reductions in both absolute amounts ($1,325,053 in 2001, and $1,419,814 in 2000) and in proportions of ITF funding (4.4 percent in 2002, 5 percent in 2001, 6.4 percent in 2000, and 8.8 percent in 1999). ITF describes mine victim assistance programs as being “still grossly underfunded.”[40]

The ITF implements its mine victim assistance program on several levels including: rehabilitation of mine survivors at the Slovenian Institute for Rehabilitation; training of rehabilitation specialists; support of programs by various NGOs in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo; and regional victim assistance activities.

During 2002, 111 mine survivors from Albania (21), Bosnia and Herzegovina (83) and FYROM (7) were treated at the Institute for Rehabilitation. As part of the rehabilitation training program, three specialists from Bosnia and Herzegovina completed training in prosthetics and orthotics in Ljubljana. The ITF is also funding six students studying prosthetics and orthotics technology at the University of Ljubljana.[41]

In 2002, the ITF funded the Landmine Survivors Network, the International Children’s Institute, the BiH Red Cross, and the EdaS study on the development of low-cost, high-quality prostheses in BiH. In Croatia, funding was provided to the Croatian Mine Victims Association. In Kosovo, the “Sports for Life” program of the VVAF received funding.[42]

On 1-2 July 2002, the ITF, in collaboration with James Madison University, organized a workshop, “Assistance to Landmine Survivors and Victims in South-Eastern Europe: Defining Strategies for Success,” on landmine victim assistance in Southeastern Europe. The aims of the workshop were to discuss the regional needs and capacities in mine victim assistance, and identify gaps in current provision. More than 45 representatives from the donor community, government institutions, NGOs, and health facilities attended. The need for a proper assessment of the assistance available to mine survivors on a local and regional level was identified.[43]

In December 2002, Handicap International Belgium, in cooperation with the Landmine Monitor research network, began a study on landmine victim assistance in the Balkans, funded through the ITF by Canada and the US Department of State.

Mine Casualties

On 18 October 2002, a Croatian attending a course at the Training Center for Civil Protection and Disaster Relief, in Ig, was killed when a “Gorazdanka” detonated.[44] Another Croatian and several others attending the course received minor injuries.[45] The explosive ordnance was in use at the Center for the third consecutive year, and the training was reported to have followed normal practice. The Minister of Defense suspended further training at the Center until investigations revealed the cause of the accident.[46] As of April 2003, training at the Center remained suspended.[47]

[1] Email from Irina Gorsic, Department of Political Multilateral Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 March 2003. The email provided the text of Article 310. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 437-438.
[2] Article 7 Report, 30 April 2003 (for the period 1 May 2002–30 April 2003); Article 7 Report, 16 April 2002 (for the period 1 May 2001–30 April 2002); Article 7 Report, 1 April 2001 (for the period 1 May 2000–30 April 2001); Article 7 Report, 30 January 2001 (for the period 1 October 1999–30 April 2000); Article 7 Report, 7 September 1999 (for the period 1 April-30 September 1999).
[3] Human Security Network, “Declaration on Promoting the Universalization of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,” 12 September 2002.
[4] Emails from Irina Gorsic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 March and 8 May 2003.
[5] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 716.
[6] Statement by Ambassador Aljaz Gosnar, Permanent Representative to the UN in Geneva, to the Conference on Disarmament, 27 March 2003.
[7] Brigadier Marjan Grabnar, “Welcome Address, Information on Observation on Anti-personnel Mines Stockpile Destruction,” Pocek, 25 March 2003.
[8] Article 7 Reports and telephone interview with Colonel Dusan Gorse, Head of Arms Control and Disarmament Section, Verification Center, Ministry of Defense, 16 January 2003.
[9] Colonel Dusan Gorse, Ministry of Defense, “Implementation of the Ottawa Convention in the Republic of Slovenia,” Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 6 February 2003.
[10] Brigadier Marjan Grabnar, “Welcome Address, Information on Observation on Anti-personnel Mines Stockpile Destruction,” Pocek, 25 March 2003.
[11] “Information on Observation on Anti-personnel Mines Stockpile Destruction,” Pocek, 25 March 2003. Initially, Slovenia was going to keep 7,000 mines, but later decided that 3,000 was sufficient.
[12] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from Irina Gorsic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 14 March 2002.
[13] Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2003; telephone interview with Colonel Dusan Gorse, Ministry of Defense, 16 January 2003.
[14] Telephone interview with Colonel Dusan Gorse, Ministry of Defense, 16 January 2003; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 439-440.
[15] Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from Irina Gorsic, 14 March 2002; email from Irina Gorsic, 12 June 2002.
[16] Email from Irina Gorsic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 March 2003.
[17] Telephone interview with Colonel Dusan Gorse, Ministry of Defense, 31 January 2003.
[18] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 440.
[19] Statement by Ignac Golob, Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, 16-20 September 2002.
[20] International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 18; Response to Landmine Monitor questionnaire from Irina Gorsic, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 14 March 2002. Exchange rate at 11 February 2002: US$1=254.2 SIT, used throughout this report.
[21] For details of the ITF, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 441.
[22] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 18.
[23] Ibid., pp. 14, 18.
[24] Ibid., p. 18.
[25] Ibid., p. 19. Percentages have been rounded. This compares to allocations of $26.3 million in 2001.
[26] Email from Eva Veble, Head of International Relations, ITF, 30 April 2003.
[27] Ibid.
[28] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 37; email from Eva Veble, ITF, 30 April 2003.
[29] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 22
[30] Email from Eva Veble, ITF, 8 May 2003; ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 11.
[31] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 33.
[32] Ibid., p. 34.
[33] Ibid.
[34] Ibid., p. 32.
[35] Ibid., p. 35.
[36] Ibid., p. 36.
[37] Ibid., p. 37.
[38] Ibid., p. 36.
[39] Ibid., pp. 25-27.
[40] Ibid., p. 19; see also, Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 445.
[41] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” pp. 19, 32-34.
[42] Email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 18 June 2003.
[43] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 23.
[44] “Gorazdanka” is an unofficial term. The Gorazde factory in BiH previously produced detonators, cluster ammunition, and other explosives. This incident was thought to involve an M-79 hand grenade produced at the Slavko Rodic factory in Bugojno, BiH. Information supplied by Captain Slavko Đurak and Milan Sucic, Ministry of Defense, Croatia, 13 January 2003.
[45] Notification of Jernej Cimpersek, Director, ITF, to Zeljko Vukosav, Chargé d’Affaires, Embassy of Croatia in Ljubljana, 18 October 2002.
[46] Report from Miran Bogataj, Undersecretary of State for Defense, to Jernej Cimpersek, Director, ITF, 25 November 2002.
[47] Email from Eva Veble, ITF, 4 April 2003.