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Country Reports
Sri Lanka, Landmine Monitor Report 2003

Sri Lanka

Key developments since May 2002: In October 2002, the government announced its willingness to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty contingent upon reaching an agreement with the LTTE on the non-use of landmines. A citizens’ mine ban petition containing over one million signatures was handed to government and LTTE delegations during peace talks in Oslo in December 2002. The February 2002 cease-fire has enabled a significant expansion of mine action activities. A total of 16,356,485 square meters of land were cleared in 2002, including 36,880 mines and 10,198 UXO. Another 444,494 square meters were cleared from January to March 2003, including 17,966 mines and 2,951 UXO. The government has established a National Steering Committee on Mine Action. UNICEF and NGOs have increased mine risk education activities. In 2002, there were at least 142 new mine casualties reported in Sri Lanka, but the true number is believed to be higher.

Mine Ban Policy

Sri Lanka has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty. The government has repeatedly indicated that its accession is dependent on the success of the peace process with the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). In October 2002, the government officially announced its willingness to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty contingent upon reaching an agreement with the LTTE on the non-use of landmines.[1] In the same month, Sri Lanka told the UN General Assembly, “Although, Sri Lanka is not a signatory to this important Convention, we have always, in principle, supported its humanitarian objectives, which amongst others includes material and resource assistance to humanitarian de-mining operations as well as the rehabilitation of victims and their social and economic reintegration. In this context, at the current session of the UNGA, my Prime Minister has announced that Sri Lanka will be reviewing its position on the Ottawa Convention with a view to becoming a party to it, as confidence in the peace process in my country gradually builds up.”[2]

At the May 2003 intersessional Standing Committee meeting Sri Lanka stated, “The position of Sri Lanka on the Ottawa Convention is under review and current developments in the peace process will be taken into account.... However until such time that peace is achieved it is a National Security requirement to exercise the right of having protective mines for the protection of security establishments where deemed necessary, purely for defensive purposes.”[3]

Despite these statements, the issue of renouncing the use of antipersonnel mines was apparently not included in the official agendas of the several rounds of peace talks already held.

Sri Lanka voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74 in November 2002, calling for the universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. It also participated as an observer at the Fourth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in September 2002 and attended the intersessional Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003. At the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Awareness and Mine Action Technologies a representative of the Sri Lankan military gave a presentation on the main mine action achievements since the cease-fire agreement in February 2002.[4] Sri Lanka also participated in the regional seminar on mine action held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in March 2003.

Although not a party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), Sri Lanka participated as an observer at the Fourth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in December 2002, as well as the meetings of the CCW Group of Governmental Experts.

A Canadian government delegation visited Sri Lanka in November 2002 with the aim of encouraging the government to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty.[5] Diplomatic initiatives to encourage Sri Lanka’s accession have also been undertaken by Australia, the Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.[6] The Swiss government has encouraged the LTTE to sign the Swiss NGO Geneva Call’s “Deed of Commitment” renouncing the use of antipersonnel mines.[7]

Non-Governmental Organization Activities

The Inter Religious Peace Foundation (IRPF), a Sri Lankan member of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines, presented a citizens’ petition containing over one million signatures to representatives of the government and the LTTE during peace talks in Oslo on 4 December 2002. The petition urged the government to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty, and asked the LTTE to stop using antipersonnel mines. The following month the Prime Minister stated that “this government is mindful of the wishes of over a million people in this country, who signed a petition calling upon the government and the LTTE to stop using landmines.”[8]

The IRPF hosted the Asia-Pacific Landmine Monitor Researchers’ meeting in Colombo from 27 to 31 January 2003. This included a field trip to mine-affected areas. The opening of the research meeting was attended by representatives of the government including the Minister of Rehabilitation, Resettlement and Refugees, opposition parties, diplomatic missions, religious dignitaries, UN agencies involved in mine action, mine action practitioners, and civil society representatives. The Prime Minister sent a message saying, “As we now move towards a peaceful resolution to this conflict, I am able to say that we are in a position to consider an agreement regarding the non-use of antipersonnel landmines.”[9] During the plenary, the IRPF presented their landmine ban signature petition, now with two million signatories, to a representative of the UN Resident Country Coordinator. The IRPF also distributed translations of the Landmine Monitor 2002 report on Sri Lanka in Tamil and Sinhala.

At the beginning of 2003, the Canadian government funded the IRPF, Landmine Action UK, and Geneva Call to initiate a “joint cross-conflict project” aimed at encouraging the government to accede to the Mine Ban Treaty and the LTTE to stop using antipersonnel landmines.

At the Donor Conference on Reconstruction and Development of Sri Lanka, held in Tokyo 9-10 June 2003, the Sri Lanka Campaign to Ban Landmines and the Japan Campaign to Ban Landmines issued a statement calling on the government and LTTE to ban antipersonnel mines.[10]

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling

There have been no reports of mine use by either the government or the LTTE since December 2001. There have been unconfirmed reports of a few incidents where antipersonnel mines have been used to settle private disputes.

There is no evidence that the Sri Lankan government has produced or exported antipersonnel mines. The LTTE has produced antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines, Claymore-type mines and Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs).[11]

The Sri Lankan government and the LTTE will not disclose the number or types of antipersonnel mines they have stockpiled, but previous Landmine Monitor reports stated that government troops had used Pakistani P4, Chinese Type 72, and Italian VS/50 antipersonnel mines. This information is currently being confirmed during demining operations.[12]

Landmine Problem and Assessment

There is no reliable estimate of the number of mines in the ground. Government estimates range from 700,000 to 1 million.[13] The demining organization HALO Trust estimated that the Sri Lankan Army laid 900,000 mines in Jaffna and Killinochchi.[14] The LTTE has estimated that more than 2 million mines have been planted.[15]

In February 2003, the UN Development Program (UNDP) stated, “The extent of the threat by mines and UXO [unexploded ordnance] is the object of ongoing surveys and analysis.”[16] The Tamil Rehabilitation Organization (TRO) in April 2003 stated, “less than 20% of the mined areas in the North and East have been cleared to date.”[17] The UNDP-operated Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) had recorded approximately 2,577 dangerous areas and minefields at the end of March 2003.[18]

In 2002, displaced persons continued to return to their homes before mines had been cleared. A government agent in the seriously mine-affected Killinochchi district told a media representative, “More than two thousand families have resettled voluntarily in high-risk areas due to economic compulsions.”[19] A worker from the TRC also declared, “It is difficult to hold back people from ignoring life threatening conditions to go back to their villages for sheer survival.”[20]

In June 2002, HALO Trust began a Technical Survey and Demarcation project, which included collection of socio-economic data.[21] HALO surveyed government-controlled areas in Mannar, Vavuniya, Tricomalee, Batticaloa, and Jaffna. It did not include the High Security Zones or areas near occupied military positions. The survey, which concluded in December 2002, was conducted by three teams, each including an Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technical Adviser and five Sri Lankan national staff.

The survey identified minefields in an area of 14.49 million square meters. A total of 3.83 million square meters were categorized as high priority; the minefields are in populated areas or areas soon to be resettled or where the local population is compelled to use the area despite the threat. A total of 8.96 million square meters were classified as medium priority; the minefields are close to populated areas, may block access to infrastructure and agricultural land, but the local population knows the area and can avoid it. A total of 1.7 million square meters were classified as low priority. Another 8.3 million square meters of land was identified as dangerous areas that require further survey.

The worst affected areas were Jaffna and Killinochchi districts with an estimated 900,000 mines laid. During the survey, HALO Trust teams destroyed 2,544 mines and 431 UXO. HALO also deployed three mechanical loaders with mine rollers and excavation buckets. The survey was financed by ECHO, Foundation Pro Victimis, the Netherlands, Japan, The Co-operative Bank, California Community Foundation, and One Sri Lanka Foundation.

HALO’s Sri Lanka program manager said, “The unique situation in Sri Lanka – clearly defined mined areas, in most cases fenced and marked by the military when they laid – allowed a level 2 survey to be conducted in six months, an achievement impossible in any other country.”[22]

In 2002, MAG conducted the first assessment of landmine/UXO contamination in LTTE-dominated areas, first in Mannar District and later in Batticaloa District. MAG surveyed 77 community areas and identified 204 dangerous areas (156 minefields and 48 UXO-affected areas).[23]

In January 2003, the UNDP received approximately 1,000 minefield records and sketches, and another 1,000 minefield locations from the Sri Lankan Army, and was awaiting similar information from the Sri Lankan Navy, Air Force, and Special Police Task Force.[24] There have been no reports of the LTTE providing any minefield records or maps.

Mine Action Coordination

The government plans to establish a national coordination body for mine action in Colombo in 2003, with the assistance of the UNDP and UNICEF. Its responsibilities will include planning and prioritizing, coordination, quality assurance, data collection, resource mobilization and interaction with national and international agencies involved in mine action activities. Coordination at the district level is already provided by Government Agents (GAs), with the support of District Mine Action Offices (DMAO) and funding from the UNDP.[25]

Since September 2001, the UN Interagency Mine Action Working Group has aimed to facilitate a coordinated response to the mine problem in Sri Lanka.

A National Steering Committee on Mine Action (NSCMA) was established in the latter part of 2002 to provide guidance and direction in the formulation of a National Mine Action Program. Among its functions are: to establish policy guidelines; to review and approve (1) the National Mine Action Plan, (2) the national priorities for mine action, (3) mine action standards, and (4) national policy on victim assistance and mine risk education; assist in resource mobilization; to establish the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA); and, to facilitate the establishment and staffing of a National Mine Action Unit or Authority.[26]

It is chaired by the Prime Minister’s Secretary and includes secretaries of stake-holding ministries, the Resident Coordinator of the UN, representatives of several foreign missions in Sri Lanka, the TRO, and civil society representatives. The UNDP advises the Steering Committee at a technical level, as does Norwegian People’s Aid and HALO Trust. An NSCMA Sub-Committee on Demining has been established under the Ministry of Rehabilitation, Resettlement and Refugees to coordinate resettlement activities with mine clearance operations.[27]

In LTTE-controlled areas, mine action activities are coordinated by the TRO and implemented by the Humanitarian Demining Unit (HDU). These bodies have also established a steering committee.[28]

All mine action practitioners must sign a Memorandum of Understanding with the government. No formal accreditation process had been established as of mid-2003.[29]

UNICEF supports four district Mine Risk Education coordinators; two work in the District Mine Action Offices in Jaffna and Vavuniya, a third is based in the UNICEF office in Trincomalee, and a fourth is stationed in the LTTE-controlled areas of Killinochchi and Mullaitivu.[30]

Mine Clearance

Mine clearance activities have expanded greatly since the February 2002 cease-fire. Those involved in mine clearance in 2002 and early 2003 include HALO Trust, the Humanitarian Demining Unit, Mines Advisory Group, Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA), Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD), RONCO, and the Sri Lankan Army.

All of the mine action operators cleared a combined total of 16,356,485 square meters of land in 2002, and 444,494 square meters of land between January and March 2003.[31] Of the total, the Army cleared 16,089,124 square meters in 2002 and 387,459 square meters from January to March 2003. According to information provided by the Sri Lankan Army and UNDP, these operators cleared a total of 36,880 antipersonnel mines, 28 antivehicle mines, and 10,198 UXO in 2002, as well as 17,966 antipersonnel mines, 11 antivehicle mines, and 2,951 UXO between January and March 2003.[32] Of these totals, Sri Lankan Army Engineers reported removing 28,459 antipersonnel mines, 18 antivehicle and 1,605 UXO in 2002; and 16,039 antipersonnel mines and 150 UXO between January and March 2003.[33] All mines and UXO removed are reported to have been destroyed.

HALO Trust in 2003 shifted its focus from survey to mine clearance. HALO Trust trained 20 local deminers in October 2002 and expanded to 37 deminers in January 2003 and to 154 by July 2003.[34] From October 2002 through March 2003, HALO Trust reported removing 3,104 antipersonnel mines, and 329 UXO, and clearing 5,378 square meters of land.[35]

Norwegian People's Aid (NPA) conducted an assessment mission in Sri Lanka in April 2002, followed by a six-month consultancy during which a complete practical assessment was carried out. NPA reports that this led to the development and pioneering of a unique excavation method based on the use of a light RAKE and a heavy RAKE, and that the method proved to be both sustainable and cost effective. NPA has developed a RAKE training school in the Vanni, where approximately 100 deminers are trained a month.

NPA provides technical assistance to HDU in mine clearance and mine survey activities. In 2002, NPA trained a total of 130 deminers and deployed two international Technical Advisors (TAs). During a five-month period in 2002, HDU demining teams under NPA supervision cleared a total of 123,700 square meters of land. As of January 2003, the number of trained deminers had expanded to 224, under supervision from four international TAs. By May 2003, the teams had cleared an additional 123,559 square meters of land. In total, more than 8,000 antipersonnel mines and 7,000 UXO have been destroyed, more than 400,000 square meters of land has been cleared, and more than 700 IDP families have resettled. NPA has also trained the first female demining team. NPA has developed a socio-economic score sheet based on points related to the return of IDPs, mines removed, square meters cleared, income generation, and land reused after clearance. This score sheet helps to understand the impact of clearance activities and helps to set clearance priorities. In 2002, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs provided funding for NPA in Sri Lanka, while in 2003, the program is funded by Norway, Japan and EC/ECHO.[36]

Mines Advisory Group works in collaboration with local organizations, including HDU and White Pigeon, conducting community surveys, marking minefields and disposing of explosive ordnance.[37] Together, in 2002, MAG and HDU fenced off 27 minefields covering an area of approximately 1.4 million square meters. They destroyed 7,287 antipersonnel mines, three antivehicle mines and 5,162 UXO.[38] In most instances, MAG carried out the demolition of mines that had been cleared by HDU working with NPA. In 2003, MAG added two EOD teams to its two community liaison teams and four technical survey teams.[39] It introduced a Bozena flail and plans to establish an additional clearance capacity in Batticaloa district.

FSD started mine action operations in October 2002, including clearing Battle Areas and performing Technical Surveys. FSD has trained deminers in government- and LTTE-controlled areas, as well as disposing of explosive ordnance.[40] According to UNDP, FSD has “trained a small operations team to investigate mine incidents and carry out socio-economic surveys in the mine affected areas in the Jaffna peninsula.”[41]

The Danish Demining Group plans to set up four manual demining teams, two EOD teams, one mechanical mine clearance team and one mine detection dog team.[42] Two manual demining teams will work with the HDU. The EOD teams are expected to start operations in May 2003 and the others are expected to complete their training by October 2003.[43]

In April 2003, the TRO reported that HDU had a capacity of over 400 deminers and plans to increase this figure to 600 by the end of 2003.[44]

In early April 2002, the US State Department deployed its Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) to the Jaffna area of Sri Lanka, where refugees and internally displaced persons were returning to their homes in mine-affected regions.[45] The QRDF went to assess the mine threat and perform short-term mine clearance tasks. Between May and August 2002, the QRDF cleared 32,500 square meters, destroying 621 mines and 60 UXO.[46]

Mine Risk Education

UNICEF is playing a leading role in coordinating, funding, and advising on MRE activities in Sri Lanka. According to UNICEF, the cease-fire has greatly increased the urgent need for MRE activities as many families are returning to their homes, even if the areas are heavily mined.[47] UNICEF has sponsored the printing and distribution of MRE material including 200,000 posters, leaflets, and brochures for returnees and host communities, 100,000 school exercise books and one million school timetables with MRE messages.[48] An MRE Officer was hired in December 2002 to provide technical expertise and to support the UN Interagency Mine Action Working Group and Steering Committees.[49]

In Jaffna, UNICEF works through government structures and NGOs. The NGOs Sarvodaya and White Pigeon give MRE presentations and also provide community liaison activities between demining operators, communities and returnees. The Tamil Refugee Rehabilitation Organization utilizes drama productions. Save the Children focuses on children, spreading the MRE message in children’s clubs and through schoolbooks, radio broadcasts and billboards.

MAG carries out MRE activities across the Vanni area. In 2002, MAG provided MRE to 3,381 people and conducted MRE training for local staff and local government workers in Vavuniya and Mannar. MAG has conducted MRE in Batticaloa district in 2003.[50] In the Vanni area, White Pigeon is conducting MRE activities in communities and schools through ten MRE centers.

In the Vavuniya, Mannar, and Trincomalee districts, MRE activities are carried out by the Community Trust Fund in collaboration with the Mine Awareness Trust.[51] In the Trincomalee district, UNICEF finalized the first MRE assessment in collaboration with the NGOs in the area and as a result, Save the Children plans to establish partnerships in the affected communities there.[52] UNICEF estimates a total of 100,000 to 150,000 MRE beneficiaries nationwide and states that quality assurance structures have also been introduced.[53]

UNICEF and the UNDP signed a contract with the Young Asia television station in order to heighten public awareness of landmine and UXO issues and to address MRE matters in affected communities.[54] In addition, at UNICEF’s request, the NGO PALTRA is conducting an MRE management training course to establish MRE partners. This is aimed at increasing community-based interventions.

The National Institute of Education, supported by UNICEF, has initiated a project involving MRE school programs and teacher training modules, to increase children’s awareness of the danger of mines and promote safe behavior in the North-East province.[55]

Mine Action Funding

There has been a progressive increase in the donor base and funding for mine action since the cease-fire took effect in February 2002. According to information provided to Landmine Monitor by eleven donors, contributions to mine action in Sri Lanka in 2002 totaled about US$6 million. This included: European Commission $3.7 million; Norway $736,000; Denmark $380,000; Italy $378,000; Switzerland $296,000; Australia $271,000; Canada $102,000; New Zealand $63,000; Sweden $51,000; South Korea $30,000; and United Arab Emirates $10,000.[56] Additional funding was provided by international agencies, NGOs and other institutions.

By March 2003, Sri Lanka had received about $5 million for mine action in 2003 from the World Bank, the governments of Australia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Denmark and the UK and other agencies and NGOs.[57]

In 2003, UNICEF received funding of $470,000 for mine action, (ECHO contributed $120,000; Canada’s CIDA $100,000; UK’s DFID $150,000 and Sweden’s SIDA $100,000).[58]

Landmine Casualties

In 2002, there were at least 142 new mine casualties in Sri Lanka, of which 27 people were killed. Of the total casualties, 38 were children under the age of 18. The majority of casualties were men aged between 18 and 35 years.[59] The highest number of casualties was reported in Jaffna. The UNDP believes that the actual number of casualties is higher than currently recorded.[60] In 2001, 207 mine casualties were reported.[61]

There have been no “battleground” accidents due to landmines laid by the government or LTTE armed forces reported since the cease-fire. However, the Sri Lankan Army did report that in 2002 seven soldiers were injured during mine clearing operations; in 2003, one soldier was injured to March.[62] More than 40 Sri Lankan Army deminers have been killed or injured in mine clearance activities since March 2001.[63]

The HDU, working in the LTTE controlled areas, reported four deminers injured during operations in 2002.[64] An expatriate supervisor working with the HDU was also reportedly injured by a P4 antipersonnel mine.[65]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2003 with 12 new mine casualties recorded in January.[66]

The UNDP IMSMA database has become a reliable source of information on landmine and UXO casualties in Sri Lanka. All mine incidents causing casualties are investigated within 24 hours of the UNDP receiving notification.[67] The database contains records on 958 civilian mine/UXO casualties from 1995 to 10 February 2003, of which 139 people were killed, and 819 injured.[68] In addition, Sri Lanka reports 3,005 military and police casualties attributable to landmines.[69]

Survivor Assistance

Generally, Sri Lanka has sufficient medical facilities to provide the care needed by landmine survivors. However, health care is less effective in LTTE-controlled areas. In the Jaffna peninsula, the Jaffna Teaching Hospital and the Point Pedro Hospital provide secondary surgical treatment while three other hospitals have limited capacities for providing emergency care.[70]

The ICRC, working with the Sri Lankan Red Cross and the Canadian Red Cross, provide basic health services in remote areas through public health centers and mobile clinics. A second training seminar on war surgery was organized in collaboration with the Sri Lankan College of Surgeons and the Sri Lankan Army’s medical services for 150 surgeons.[71]

Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) supports medical facilities in the LTTE-controlled area. The ceasefire has improved the situation considerably, however, there continues to be a lack of health staff and the needs remain high. MSF provides medical assistance and surgical facilities at public hospitals in Vavuniya, Mallavi, Point Pedro and Batticaloa, and basic health-care to people in remote war-affected areas. MSF also provides psycho-social support in the camps for internally displaced people.[72]

Sri Lanka has several prosthetic clinics that are generally able to respond to the physical rehabilitation needs of civilian mine/UXO survivors in government-controlled areas. Three workshops are producing, adapting and renewing prostheses, with financial assistance from several national and international organizations, including the ICRC.[73]

The ICRC supports the Colombo Friends-in-Need Society (FINS) Jaipur Foot Program with materials and training. FINS is headquartered in Colombo with branches in other parts of the country. It provide prostheses to all amputees who come to them, including landmine survivors. Civilian amputees are provided prostheses free-of-charge. In 2002, the ICRC reports that the FINS workshops produced 323 prostheses (180 for mine survivors) and 67 orthoses (two for mine survivors); it also distributed 41 pairs of crutches and 23 wheelchairs.[74] A British NGO, Hope for Children, works in partnership with FINS to assist child mine survivors with prostheses and physical and psychological assessment.[75]

The Jaipur Foot Center in Jaffna, with the support of the ICRC and the international NGO Motivation, provide prosthetic limbs and physiotherapy services.[76] In 2002, Jaipur Foot Kundasale provided 281 prostheses for mine survivors;[77] the Jaipur Foot Jaffna provided 88;[78] and the Jaipur Foot Mannar provided four prostheses.[79]

The NGO, White Pigeon, operates two prosthetic workshops in the LTTE-controlled area. In 2002, 343 prostheses were produced, primarily for mine survivors. The workshops also distribute crutches, wheelchairs and tricycles. Nine male and two female prosthetic technicians are employed; two are amputees. There are no physiotherapists at the workshops. There is reportedly only one qualified physiotherapist in the region. White Pigeon also provides vocational training for persons with disabilities in sewing, weaving and typing.[80] In December 2002, White Pigeon opened a prosthetics workshop in the government-controlled area in Jaffna. However, as of March 2003, it had not been able to secure sufficient funding to begin operations.[81]

UNICEF supports psycho-social counseling and community-based rehabilitation through local NGOs including the Association for Rehabilitation of Displaced (AROD), Killinochchi Association for Rehabilitation of Displaced (KAROD), Shanthiham, White Pigeon, and the Family Rehabilitation Center.[82]

AROD provides rehabilitation treatment and physiotherapy including home care, as well as distributing wheelchairs, tricycles and crutches. AROD and Jaipur Foot Jaffna assist mine survivors in the Jaffna peninsula with limited psycho-social counseling and socio-economic reintegration. AROD provides school kits, small grants and some vocational training. Jaipur Foot provides loans of between US$25 and $100 (Rs.2500 and Rs.10,000) to boost income generating activities. The government also distributes small grants through its local offices.[83] The national NGO Sarvodaya has provided 100 landmine survivors with loans to support income generating activities.[84]

Military mine survivors receive rehabilitation, including prostheses, counseling, vocational training and reemployment within the armed services, and free bus and train passes.[85]

In February 2003, UNDP announced the start of its “Disability Assistance Project” which is being implemented in partnership with AROD in the Jaffna district. The project is intended to restore sustainable livelihoods and promote the economic reintegration of mine survivors and other persons with physical disabilities. The program, for 150 people, includes vocational training, training in managing a small business, and start-up loans for small business.[86]

The Mine Action Resource Center reported that it is conducting a victim assistance survey in the Mannar district.[87]

Two landmine survivors participated in the Raising the Voice program held during the May 2003 intersessional Standing Committee meetings in Geneva.

[1] One news article reported, “The government officially announced its readiness to sign the landmine international treaty banning the use of landmines – but on condition that the LTTE also agreed to it.” Shakuntala Perera, “Landmine landmark,” Daily Mirror, 11 October 2002. In another article, Cabinet spokesman G.L. Peiris stated, “The government expected to discuss its plans to sign the de-mining treaty with the LTTE and expected to reach an agreement before they proceed.” Himangee Jayasundere, “Ceasefire prompts govt to decide to sign de-mining treaty,” The Island, 11 October 2002. Another quoted the Cabinet spokesperson saying, “If we become a signatory to the treaty we have to commit ourselves not to lay landmines in future. Therefore, it is necessary that we discuss this with the LTTE first.” Daily News, 11 October 2002.
[2] Statement by Ambassador Prasad Kariyawasam, Permanent Representative of Sri Lanka to the UN, at the UN General Assembly First Committee, New York, 10 October 2002.
[3] Presentation by Brigadier Mohanthi Peiris, Directorate of Legal Services, Army Headquarters, to the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Awareness and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 14 May 2003.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Notes taken by Landmine Monitor researcher during a meeting with the delegation at the Canadian High Commission, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 20 November 2002.
[6] Email from Will Nankervis, Australian High Commission in Sri Lanka, 27 May 2003; email from Royal Netherlands Embassy in Sri Lanka, 26 May 2003; telephone interview with Kazumi Endo, Embassy of Japan in Sri Lanka, 27 May 2003; email from Ambassador, Switzerland Embassy in Sri Lanka, 23 May 2003.
[7] Email from Ambassador of Switzerland, 23 May 2003.
[8] Prime Minister Hon. Ranil Wickremasinghe, Statement to Opening Ceremony, Asia-Pacific ICBL/Landmine Monitor Researchers’ Meeting, Colombo, 27 January 2003.
[9] Ibid.
[10] The statement is available at http://www.icbl.org.
[11] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p.747.
[12] Interview with Tim Horner, Mine Action Technical Advisor, UNDP, Colombo, 4 April 2003.
[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 747. The 1 million estimate is attributed to Bradman Weerakoon, Secretary to the Prime Minister, in Faraza Farook, “Call for a better mine action programme,” Sunday Times, 21 July 2002, p. 5.
[14] HALO Trust, “Sri Lanka Minefield Survey Report,” Edition one, January 2002.
[15] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 747.
[16] UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” 1st Edition, February 2003, p. 1.
[17] Note from TRO to Sri Lanka Landmine Monitor researcher, 3 April 2003. TRO is an umbrella organization working in the areas controlled by the LTTE; it coordinates mine action and other relief and rehabilitation work.
[18] Interview with Alex van Roy, Chief Technical Advisor Mine Action, UNDP, Colombo, 3 April 2003. The IMSMA database was first installed in 2000, then upgraded in 2002 and again in May 2003.
[19] D. Sivaram (Tarki), “K’nochchi IDPs resettle amidst the landmines,” Northeastern Herald, 4 October 2002, p. 8.
[20] Ibid.
[21] All of the following information regarding the survey comes from HALO Trust, “Sri Lanka Minefield Survey Report,” January 2002.
[22] Email from Simon Porter, Program Manager Sri Lanka, HALO Trust, 4 April 2003.
[23] Email from Richard Moyes, MAG Program Manager, Sri Lanka, 26 June 2003.
[24] UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” February 2003, p. 7.
[25] Ibid, p. 2.
[26] Letter from Bradman Weerakoon, Secretary to the Prime Minister and Commissioner General for Coordination of Triple “R,” to Chief Technical Advisor UNDP and Programme Managers for HALO Trust, FSD, NPA, MAG, MAT and DDG, 17 June 2003.
[27] UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” February 2003, p. 2.
[28] Leonie Barnes, UNDP Technical Advisor in Vavuniya, in UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” February 2003, p. 6.
[29] Interview with Alex van Roy, UNDP, Colombo, 3 April 2003.
[30] Email from Hanoch Barlevi, Technical Advisor for Mine Risk Education, UNICEF, Colombo, 19 May 2003.
[31] Note to Landmine Monitor researcher from Sri Lanka Engineering Brigade, 3 April 2003; interview with Alex van Roy, UNDP, 3 April 2003.
[32] This compares to 14,937 antipersonnel mines and 268 IEDs in 2001. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 749.
[33] Note from Sri Lanka Engineering Brigade, 3 April 2003. The UNDP told Landmine Monitor that apart from the Sri Lankan Army, other mine clearance operators removed 8,421 antipersonnel mines, 10 antitank mines and 8,593 UXO in 2002; and 1,927 antipersonnel mines, 11 antitank mines, and 2,801 UXO between January and March 2003. Interview with Alex van Roy, UNDP, 3 April 2003.
[34] Email from Valon Kumnova, Sri Lanka Program Manager, HALO Trust, 10 July 2003.
[35] Email from Simon Porter, Sri Lanka Program Manager, HALO Trust, 4 April 2003. By the end of June 2003, the numbers had increased to 3,104 antipersonnel mines and 329 UXO destroyed while clearing 5,378 square meters of land. Email from Simon Porter, 29 July 2003.
[36] Emails from Harald Smedsrud, Program Manager, NPA Sri Lanka, 3 April and 9 May 2003; email from Luke Atkinson, Technical Advisor, NPA Sri Lanka, 24 July 2003.
[37] Email from Richard Moyes, Sri Lanka Program Manager, Mines Advisory Group (MAG), 3 April 2003.
[38] Email from Richard Moyes, MAG, 26 June 2003.
[39] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Tim Carstairs, Director for Policy, MAG, 17 July 2003.
[40] Email from Christoph Hebeisen, Sri Lanka Program Manager, FSD, 2 April 2003.
[41] Tim Horner, Mine Action Technical Advisor, UNDP (Jaffna), in UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” February 2003, p. 5. The team works within the District Mine Action Office structure.
[42] Email from Erik Willadsen, Sri Lanka Program Manager, DDG, 2 April 2003.
[43] Ibid.
[44] Note to Landmine Monitor researcher from TRO, 3 April 2003.
[45] The QRDF is based in Mozambique and is managed by the RONCO Consulting Corporation under contract with the US State Department.
[46] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002, p. 54.
[47] Email from Hanoch Barlevi, Technical Advisor for Mine Risk Education, UNICEF, 3 April 2003.
[48] Ibid.
[49] Mine Action Support Group, “Newsletter: December 2002,” p. 26.
[50] Email from Richard Moyes, Sri Lanka Program Manager, MAG, 26 June 2003.
[51] Both are non-governmental organizations. Leonie Barnes, UNDP Technical Advisor in Vavuniya, in UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” February 2003, p. 6.
[52] Email from Hanoch Barlevi, UNICEF, 3 April 2003.
[53] Email from Hanoch Barlevi, UNICEF, 19 April 2003.
[54] Mine Action Support Group, “Newsletter: May 2002,” p. 37.
[55] Email from Hanoch Barlevi, UNICEF, 19 May 2003.
[56] See individual country studies in this Landmine Monitor Report 2003. In some cases, funding may be for the donor’s fiscal year rather than the calendar year. Currency conversions and rounding off done by Landmine Monitor.
[57] Interview with Borja Migueleze, ECHO, Colombo, 7 July 2003; interview with Alex van Roy, UNDP, 3 April 2003; email from Brian Agland, Australian High Commission, 4 March 2003; Embassy of Japan in Sri Lanka press release, 6 January 2003; “Dutch make mine exception with Sri Lanka,” Daily Mirror, 12 February, p. 6.
[58] Email from Hanoch Barlevi, UNICEF, 3 April 2003.
[59] Interview with Matthew Todd, UNDP, Colombo, 19 May 2003.
[60] Interview with Matthew Todd, UNDP, Colombo, 3 April 2003.
[61] Email to Landmine Monitor (HIB) from Matthew Todd, UNDP, 18 February 2003.
[62] Note from the Commander, Sri Lanka Engineering Brigade, 3 April 2003.
[63] Sri Lanka Intervention, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Awareness, and Mine Action Technologies, 14 May 2003.
[64] Note from Tamil Rehabilitation Organization, 3 April 2003.
[65] “Expatriate injured in Wanni de-mining,” The Island, 18 November 2002, p. 1.
[66] Email to Landmine Monitor (HIB) from Matthew Todd, UNDP, 18 February 2003.
[67] Alex Van Roy, Chief Technical Advisor Mine Action, UNDP, Statement to Opening Ceremony, ICBL/Landmine Monitor Researchers Meeting, Colombo, 27 January 2003.
[68] Email to Landmine Monitor (HIB) from Matthew Todd, UNDP, 18 February 2003; Sri Lanka Intervention, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 14 May 2003.
[69] Sri Lanka Intervention, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 14 May 2003.
[70] Email from Tim Horner, Mine Action Technical Advisor, UNDP (Jaffna), 23 March 2003; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 752.
[71] ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” Geneva, June 2003, p. 172.
[72] Médecins Sans Frontières, “Activity Report 2001-2002,” available at www.msf.org.
[73] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 752.
[74] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2002,” Geneva, June 2003.
[75] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 753.
[76] UNDP, “Information Bulletin,” February 2003, pp. 4-5.
[77] Fax from S. Arumugam, Jaipur Foot Center, Kundasale, 22 March 2003.
[78] Interview with N. Sivanandan, Administrative Secretary, Jaipur Foot Center, Jaffna, 2 April 2003.
[79] Email from Rtn. S. Shanmuganathan, Jaipur Foot Center, Mannar, 2 April 2003.
[80] Presentation by S.S. Pillai, Administrator, White Pigeon, during ICBL/Landmine Monitor researchers’ visit, Killinochi, 30 January 2003.
[81] Email from Tim Horner, UNDP, 23 March 2003.
[82] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 753; email from Melanie Reimer, UNDP (Jaffna), 2 June 2003.
[83] Email from Tim Horner, UNDP, 23 March 2003.
[84] Email from Melanie Reimer, UNDP, 2 June 2003.
[85] Sri Lanka Intervention, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 14 May 2003.
[86] Email from Tim Horner, UNDP, 23 March 2003; UNDP press release, ”Jaffna Disability Assistance Project – 28/02/03,” available at www.undp.lk/transition/news_events.html (accessed 22 June 2003).
[87] Email from Samitha Hettige, Project Coordinator, Mine Action Resource Center, 2 April 2003. For more information on the Center see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 749.