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Country Reports
Sudan, Landmine Monitor Report 2003


Key developments since May 2002: In May 2003, the Council of Ministers of Sudan officially endorsed the Mine Ban Treaty and transmitted it to the Parliament for ratification. Despite cease-fire agreements that include non-use of landmines, each side continues to allege mine use by the other. In September 2002, a memorandum of understanding was agreed to by the government of Sudan, the SPLM/A and UNMAS regarding UN mine action support to Sudan. UNMAS established a National Mine Action Center in Khartoum in September 2002 and a Southern Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office in Rumbek in February 2003. Mine clearance and mine risk education activities have expanded.

Mine Ban Policy

Sudan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997. The government has repeatedly expressed its commitment to the treaty, but has not yet ratified it. In July 2002, the State Minister of International Cooperation said that a technical committee had been established to look into the ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty.[1] In April 2003, the Foreign Ministry’s Director of International Organizations told Landmine Monitor that Sudan has started the ratification process, which was “now in its final stages.”[2] In May 2003, Foreign Minister Mustafa Osman Ismail announced that the Council of Ministers of Sudan had officially and unanimously endorsed the Mine Ban Treaty and had transmitted it to Parliament for ratification.[3] The Sudan delegation to the May 2003 Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee meetings also stated that Sudan would ratify the convention very soon.

The government and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed the Nuba Mountains Cease-fire agreement on 19 January 2002 and have renewed it three times for periods of six months, most recently until January 2004.[4] Further peace talks held in Kenya resulted in a partial military stand down, the Machakos Memorandum of Understanding on Cessation of Hostilities, signed on 26 October 2002, and renewed in June 2003.[5] Both the Nuba Mountains Cease-fire and the Machakos Memorandum commit the warring parties not to use any types of landmines.

The Sudan People’s Liberation Army has twice signed the Geneva Call “Deed of Commitment” to ban antipersonnel mines, first on 10 August 2001 in southern Sudan, and again on 4 October 2001 in Geneva.[6] In November 2002, it was reported that the SPLM/A had formed a new committee on mine action that agreed to take disciplinary action against commanders and fighters who failed to comply with their commitment to not use landmines.[7] In March 2003, an SPLA official said, “One of the first issues that needs to feature prominently in the pre-interim period is the landmine issue. Mines are still causing problems despite the cease-fire. If peace returns and people begin to move and cultivate, mines will inevitably become more of a problem. We have a tremendous problem that needs to be addressed as early as possible.”[8]

The government of Sudan attended the Fourth Meeting of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty in September 2002 as an observer, where its delegation expressed appreciation to the ICBL and the Geneva Call for advocating the universalization of the ban on landmines; to the Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines for national mobilization and cross-line coordination; and to the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) for introducing the humanitarian aspects to the problem of landmines.[9] Sudan also actively participated in the Standing Committee meetings in February and May 2003.

The government voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 57/74, promoting universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty.

Production, Trade, Stockpiling

Sudan has on many occasions in recent years stated that it does not produce, import, or export antipersonnel mines, and that it has no stockpile; it maintains that all mines collected during demining and those taken from rebel forces are destroyed.[10] Responding to a Landmine Monitor inquiry, the government on 31 July 2003 stated that it has “very few mines in storage, and the ones in storage are used for practice only.”[11] The assertion of no stockpile is at odds with allegations of use of antipersonnel mines as reported in this and all previous editions of Landmine Monitor Report.

An official of the Joint Military Commission (JMC) established to monitor the Nuba Mountain Cease-fire agreement told Landmine Monitor that there were few landmines held in the Nuba Mountains by either side and those were in poor condition.[12]


Mine Use by Government Forces

The government of Sudan and the SPLM/A continued to accuse each other of ongoing use of antipersonnel mines. The State Minister of International Cooperation, Dr. Adam Balloh, denied twice any use of landmines by government forces; first when he addressed the opening of a mine risk education workshop in July 2002, and again when he met with a United Nations delegation in October 2002.[13]

An official from the Joint Military Commission told Landmine Monitor that it appears that government forces used antipersonnel mines around garrisons in the Nuba Mountains, although it is unknown when the mines were laid.[14] According to a UN technical adviser, government garrisons evacuated under the terms of the Nuba Mountain cease-fire were found to be ringed with antipersonnel mines.[15] The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) filmed minefields in Torit in southern Sudan when it was captured and held by the SPLA from 31 August to 8 October 2002.[16]

The SPLA has charged that the government and its militias have continued to use mines. In March 2003, an official of the SPLA told Landmine Monitor, “The government of Sudan militias are still using mines in Upper Nile, around all the government towns and garrisons and around the oil workings. The government militias don’t feel bound by the agreements between the SPLA and Khartoum so they continue to use mines despite the ban. But the government is supplying the militias — for them agreements are just propaganda, they don’t implement them in the field.”[17]

Incidents of mine-laying have been reported around the southern oil fields of Bentiu, where heavy fighting continues, particularly around Leer, in Western Upper Nile. There are also reports of mine-laying in Yuai and Waat, and around the strategic town of Akobo, next to the Ethiopian border, all in Upper Nile.[18]

In late 2002, a US-backed Civilian Protection Monitoring Team (CPMT) was established with the parties’ consent to investigate allegations that civilians were targeted in southern Sudan. The CPMT has received allegations of landmine use by militias; it has frequently blamed the government for violations of the cease-fire by militias receiving Sudanese government support.[19]

Mine Use by SPLA

In a March 2003 interview with Landmine Monitor, a senior SPLA official conceded that there may have been limited mine use by the SPLA, but also said they have not yet found anyone actually using mines. He stated that SPLA leadership was too preoccupied with the peace talks to have fully discussed the mine issue with its fighters, and excused incidents of mine use as due to lack of dissemination of the ban message among junior commanders.[20] It also appears that senior officers are confused about or unaware of restrictions on mine use.[21]

The SPLA has only agreed to very limited demining of roads around the Nuba Mountains, as they fear that, should the cease-fire break down, government forces will attack along these routes.[22]

The government has repeatedly accused the SPLA of using antipersonnel landmines in the Eastern Equatorian region of southern Sudan.[23] In January 2003, the Sudanese Army reported in a press release that the SPLA planted landmines in the road between Rubkona and Leer in the Western Upper Nile area of southern Sudan.[24] The commander of the Malakal Military Area alleged that the SPLA was planting most of its landmines around water points and in places where people go to search for their livelihood. He said the SPLA does not emplace mines around farming areas, because they get their food from those fields.[25]

In its July 2003 response to Landmine Monitor, the government stated, “All the mines planted around oil fields were planted by rebel factions.” It contended that, despite signing the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment, “it didn’t stop rebel factions from planting mines in rural areas and along main roads. These mines hurt the shepherds, farmers and impaired humanitarian aid efforts.”[26]

Landmine Problem, Survey and Assessment

The landmine situation in Sudan has not been comprehensively surveyed, including rebel-controlled parts of southern Sudan and other areas such as the Nuba Mountains, southern Blue Nile and the Red Sea Hills. Following the January 2002 cease-fire, some initial assessments were carried out in the Nuba Mountains, which are described in Landmine Monitor Report 2002.[27]

In general, there are not large defensive minefields contaminating whole areas, but rather a number of relatively random mines blocking access routes to key areas.[28] Many roads, especially in the Nuba Mountains, are blocked to humanitarian relief traffic. In 2002, a consultant for the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) conducted an assessment for the UN World Food Program, investigating the possibility of opening roads across southern Sudan for relief aid. In April 2003, FSD produced a report for WFP, with a map showing most roads to be mined.[29] In February 2002, the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) Nuba Coordinator gave Landmine Monitor a map showing almost all roads in Nuba as suspected of being mined.[30]

In October 2002, the UN reported that landmines on key logistical routes would continue to hamper humanitarian interventions, and endanger the local community, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), and UN and NGO staff. In February 2003, the UN stated, “The presence of mines along this route are blocking access routes to key areas and forcing the bulk of all food/aid relief to be delivered by air; all at tremendous, ongoing cost. Should this route be properly cleared of a mine/UXO hazard the resulting dividend in terms of increased movement and transit of humanitarian and logistic supplies would significantly reduce the cost of humanitarian intervention in South Sudan.”[31]

The JMC convened a seminar in June 2002 in Kauda in the Nuba Mountains regarding landmines and general obligations under the Nuba Mountains Cease-fire Agreement. Following the seminar, both sides began to send information to the JMC to help identify dangerous areas. However, as of mid-2003, both sides have only provided information on the boundaries of minefields and mined routes; there are no maps or detailed information on the location or number of landmines. Institutional records are very weak, and some of the personnel who laid mines have been either killed or transferred to other parts of the country.[32]

Mine Action Funding

Given recent developments in Sudan, there is more interest in supporting mine action activities. At the same time, some donors are hesitant, preferring to wait to see a comprehensive peace settlement in Sudan before fully addressing mine action. Sudan's delay in ratifying the Mine Ban Treaty has also discouraged some donors.[33]

According to information provided by donors, in 2002, at least twelve donors provided about $5.1 million in mine action support. This compares to six donors providing some $2.2 million in 2001.

In 2002, funding for mine action has come from the following sources: Norway, US$375,000 (to DanChurchAid/DCA for mine clearance);[34] Italy, $150,100 (to UNMAS);[35] Germany, $477,043 (to UNMAS and UNICEF);[36] Denmark, $492,000 (to DCA);[37] Japan, $342,400 (to UNMAS);[38] Switzerland, $165,000 (to UNDP for clearance);[39] Luxembourg, $38,000 (to UNMAS);[40] Canada, $259,875 (to UNICEF for mine risk education);[41] the United States, $178,000;[42] and the EC, $1,183,000 (for mine clearance and risk education).[43] UN sources also report funding between March 2002-March 2003, from Sweden, $250,000 (coordination) and $69,759 (mine action in the Nuba Mountains); from the United Kingdom, $19,920 (IMSMA consultant), $110,000 (National Mine Action Office) and $536,000 (mine action in the Nuba Mountains); and $509,998, in unearmarked funds from the Voluntary Trust Fund.[44]

Support from the UK, German and Swedish governments totaling US$800,000 enabled the UN to deploy integrated Explosive Detection Dogs and Manual Clearance teams to the Nuba Mountains for the period January to May 2003, before the rainy season in the area.[45]

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

In March 2002, the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) posted a chief technical advisor to Khartoum in order to coordinate and plan mine action activities.[46] An Outline Concept Plan for a UN Emergency Mine Action Program in Sudan was adopted on 19 April 2002, along with a UN Emergency Mine Action Plan for the Nuba Mountains and a UNICEF plan to introduce mine risk education.[47] One of the functions of the Joint Military Commission is to supervise the mapping and clearance of mines. The JMC coordinates this information with UNMAS.[48]

In September 2002, a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was agreed to in Geneva between the government of Sudan, the SPLM and UNMAS regarding UN mine action support to Sudan. The UN is to implement an Emergency Mine Action Program in Sudan operating in both the government and the SPLM controlled areas with the objective of reducing mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) casualties among the civilian population and humanitarian aid community. According to the MoU, key elements that will be addressed are: accreditation, operational cooperation, national technical guidelines and standards, quality assurance monitoring, centralized reporting, resource mobilization and capacity-building.[49]

In September 2002, UNMAS established a National Mine Action Center in Khartoum.[50] The Humanitarian Aid Commission (HAC), under the auspices of a newly established Sudanese Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, is the government focal point for coordination of mine action and is represented in the Mine Action Center. UNMAS established a Southern Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office in Rumbek in February 2003.[51]

The Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) has been installed in each office. Information regarding mines and UXO is not to be released at any time without the prior consent of the relevant party. The IMSMA offices are working with the UN Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Assistance (OCHA) to develop a common system to facilitate planning for humanitarian interventions, particularly related to the expected return of internally displaced persons.[52]

In November 2002, it was reported that the SPLM had formed a new committee on mine action.[53] In March 2003, an SPLA official on the committee said, “It’s important to boost the capacity of local NGOs working in demining. We have a lot of local capacity that we can build on with the right kind of inputs from the international community.”[54]

The Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines oversees coordination of mine action in the government-controlled areas of the Sudan. The membership of the Sudan CBL has reached 27 national and international NGOs. The Sudan CBL convened a workshop in January 2003 to develop a three-year strategic plan. The Sudan CBL, Operation Save Innocent Lives (OSIL), which is operating in the SPLM-controlled areas, and DCA signed a cooperation agreement on 19 September 2002 to enter into a partnership to implement a cross-conflict mine action program in the Nuba Mountains. This cooperation agreement, supported by UNMAS, sets out an initial framework of cooperation and calls for further detailed plans to be developed with full consultation of all parties.

A mine action coordination meeting for Nuba Mountains was held in Umm Sirdibba on 22 February 2003. This landmark meeting brought together mine action actors from both government and SPLM areas and marked a significant milestone in the development of a cross-line mine action program. NGOs, government and SPLA military, along with a representative from the SPLM HQ Mine Action Committee, attended the meeting.[55]

A cross-line mine action technical committee, consisting of a UN senior technical advisor and representatives from SPLM headquarters and Sudan CBL, also met on 22 February 2003 at Um Sirdibba and key coordination issues were discussed and resolved. During this meeting the SPLM representative raised concerns that while much activity was taking place in government-controlled Sudan, activity was lacking on the SPLM side. The UN technical adviser agreed to explore ways to address this disparity during the coming months.[56] There are to be regular bi-monthly meetings in the Nuba Mountains for all agencies involved or interested in mine action.[57]

The Sudan Landmine Information and Response Initiative (SLIRI) was established in 2002 to create a comprehensive information network throughout all potentially mine-affected areas of Sudan in order to develop accurate landmine and unexploded ordnance related information which will be stored and used for demining work at a later date. The EC funded the project with €1.5 million through Oxfam/Great Britain.[58] SLIRI established field bases and contacts in Kadugli, Malakal, Juba, Wau and Port Sudan, but faced many difficulties with the various stakeholders and original partners both in northern and southern Sudan that slowed down project implementation. The EC offered the project a no-cost extension up to August 2003.[59]

Fully operational SLIRI Landmine Operations Centers have been established in Khartoum and Yei. In government-controlled areas, Sector Operations Centers (SOCs) are functioning in Tokar (Red Sea), Kadugli (Nuba Mountains), Wau (Bahr el Ghazal), Malakal (Upper Nile), and Juba (Bahr el Jabal). In SPLA-controlled areas, SOCs are functioning in Yei, Rumbek, Tombura, Yambio and Kurmuk. Other SOCs are expected to open soon in Panyagor, Chukudum, and Nuba Mountains (Kauda).[60]

A Technical Training and Advisory Team has been established by Landmine Action to support SLIRI. Dialogue and networking is being pursued with key stakeholders. Local populations have also been contacted to make them aware of the objectives and importance of the project in terms of resettlement, rehabilitation and planning in the future.[61]

Since SLIRI’s partnership with OSIL was dissolved, a strategy has been established to find new partnerships and to broaden the base of the program. From the various meetings held between SLIRI staff and the key partners and stakeholders of the project in the south, several areas were identified for possible collaboration, including: networking and information sharing, information dissemination, landmine awareness creation among the grass roots communities, campaigns against indiscriminate use of landmines, lobbying and advocacy with policy makers and relevant authorities, and landmine education. [62]

SLIRI partners in the south include: Sudanese Women Voice for Peace, Sudan Integrated Mine Action Systems, Sudan Evangelical Mission, Nuba Relief and Rehabilitation Development Organization, New Sudan Council of Churches, Sudan Women Action Nairobi, Bahr El Ghazal Youth Development Association, Pan African Christian Women Alliance, Sudan Women Mission for Peace, and Sudan Production Aid. In the north, SLIRI has entered into negotiations with local NGOs regarding partnerships, and has concluded an agreement with the Sudanese Development Association (SDA). In addition, the Nuba Mountains Solidarity Abroad (NMSA) has a partnership that will involve them in demining in the Nuba Mountains.[63]

Mine Clearance

Landmine Monitor Report 2002 reported that as part of the cease-fire agreement and humanitarian relief plans in the Nuba Mountains, the US had deployed its Quick Reaction Demining Force (QRDF) in April 2002.[64] The QRDF cleared the route between the villages of Um Sirdibba and Kauda, a total of 50,208 square meters of land, and a UXO-contaminated area around the JMC location in Kaudahas; it returned to its base in Mozambique in June 2002.[65]

In August 2002, UNMAS reported on clearance in the Nuba Mountains, stating, “To date 50,000 square meters has been cleared. The UN Technical Advisor (TA) has been actively working with JMC, Government of Sudan and with SPLA to gather reliable information regarding the presence of mines in the area. Many areas previously thought to contain a mine hazard are now being discredited based on local knowledge and activity. All such information is being recorded in IMSMA.”[66]

DanChurchAid brought in a demining dog team from South Africa, with eight dogs and four handlers, accompanied by a team of four deminers from Kosovo and two medics from Zimbabwe. They established a camp in the former government garrison town of Umm Sirdibba in January 2003 and began road clearance tasks co-coordinated by UNMAS and JMC. They are also training and deploying two demining teams in the Nuba Mountains across the lines of conflict, as well as training and deploying mine risk education teams. One team of international deminers worked with the dog teams to open the first road for the World Food Program (WFP) to supply food. Work ended in March 2003 and the demining team returned to Kosovo. A total of 9,825 square meters of road were cleared between El Hamra and Umm Sirdibba.[67]

For the first time in 19 years, WFP was able to deliver humanitarian assistance to Karkar in the Nuba Mountains in a convoy originating from government-controlled areas of Sudan. The first trucks, which contained 43 metric tones of food commodities, left Kadugli in northern Sudan on 31 March and arrived in rebel-held Karkar on 1 April 2003. Under the escort of the JMC, the convoy traveled the 80 kilometer journey along a route cleared and/or verified free of landmines by DCA.[68]

DCA believes it will take some time before local deminers can replace the outside teams, stating, “It is clear that the emergency phase of the program should be extended until the end of 2003, in order to ensure that local partners are able to take part in the start up, training and further deployment of the teams. This will ensure that they become familiar with the complexity of a demining operation.” [69]

Landmine Action has been training Sudanese deminers in the Nuba Mountains, initially at a training school established at Tillo. As of June 2003, the first teams had completed training and were being deployed on priority clearance tasks. Landmine Action's partner for demining in government-held areas of the Nuba Mountains is Nuba Mountains Solidarity Abroad (NMSA). Funding is provided by the EC.[70]

In January and February 2003, RONCO cleared a total of 18,595 square meters in the Fruk al Kup area of Miri Hills, Nuba Mountains.[71]

Government armed forces marked some mined areas in the Nuba Mountains in 2002.[72]

OSIL reports that between September 1997 and November 2002, its humanitarian demining teams in Yei and Nimule cleared 5,176,362 square meters of land, 1,284 miles of roads and destroyed 3,376 antipersonnel mines and 112,947 UXO.[73]

The South Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office (SSMACO) has facilitated two mine clearance projects during this reporting period. NICOH Holdings, a private company developing land for use in Rumbek, asked for help in confirming their land was clear of mines and UXO before development. The SSMACO utilized a local NGO, Sudan Integrated Mine Action Service (SIMAS), for this task. A number of UXO were found and removed for destruction.[74] A second clearance task was requested by the WFP to determine whether land for two new compounds was free of mines and UXO. SIMAS was again deployed and a number of mines and UXO were found and removed; this task was still ongoing in June 2003.

The Swiss Foundation for Mine Action reports that, in collaboration with the World Food Program, it is in the process of establishing a dedicated national route clearance and survey capacity aimed at the facilitation of safe access to high priority routes required for distribution of humanitarian aid.[75]

Mine Risk Education

Mine risk education (MRE) operators in Sudan include: Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines, Sudan Red Crescent, Save the Children Sweden, Save the Children USA, Operation Save Innocent Lives, Sudan Integrated Mine Action Service, and, more recently, DanChurchAid. All together they provided MRE to approximately 200,000 people in 2002. Organizations planning to get involved in MRE include: the Center for Humanitarian Assistance Resource Management (CHARM), Friends for Peace and Development Organization, Roots, Abrar, Nile Valley, and Plan Sudan.[76]

Funding problems were reported in 2002. About US$100,000 was raised for MRE in Sudan in 2002.[77] In 2003, Canada pledged US$250,000 while Finland pledged €300,000 over three years (€100,000 per year) to fund MRE in Sudan. The UNICEF UK National Committee pledged US$50,000 for MRE in south Sudan.[78]

In July 2002, SCBL, UNICEF and UNMAS convened a two-day seminar on mine risk education in Khartoum. The seminar was aimed at reviewing and strengthening MRE in Sudan, while also addressing the issue of Sudan’s ratification of the Mine Ban Treaty.

In November 2002, UNICEF sent an MRE Coordinator for Sudan, to be based at the National Mine Action Office.[79] UNICEF reports that there is an urgent need to train national NGOs in mine issues.[80] The UNICEF MRE Coordinator, together with a newly established MRE Advisory Group, developed a plan and terms of reference for an assessment on mine risk education to take place in the Nuba Mountains, Kassala and Juba areas. MRE provisional Guidelines and Standards have now been developed as the basic requirement for accreditation of relevant partners in government-controlled areas.[81]

The Sudan CBL has launched a number of MRE and information gathering initiatives throughout Sudan and has been active in the region of Kassala since 1998.[82]

Operation Save Innocent Lives has been conducting MRE in the area around Yei and Nimule on the Ugandan border. It received training from the UK-based Mines Advisory Group (MAG) in the past.[83] It has also received technical assistance from the Canadian organization, CAMEO. OSIL has received funding from Trocaire, DCA, UNICEF and CIDRI.[84]

The Sudan Integrated Mine Action Service has been conducting limited MRE in schools and villages around Rumbek. It has received funding in the past through UNICEF, but still lacks proper training, equipment and funding.[85]

The International Save the Children Alliance supports MRE projects in Kassala (Save the Children Sweden) and in the Nuba mountains (Save the Children Sweden and USA).[86]

DanChurchAid started MRE training in May 2003 in the Nuba Mountains in government-controlled areas, and plans to work in SPLA/M-controlled areas. DCA works in partnership with OSIL and another NGO, Sudanese Association for Combating Landmines (JASMAR).[87]

The Center for Humanitarian Assistance Resource Management had a MRE project aimed at internally displaced people from the Nuba Mountains returning home following the January 2002 Cease-fire Agreement.[88]

Landmine Casualties

In 2002, SLIRI was established, in part, to create a comprehensive data collection mechanism to register landmine casualties in Sudan. The National Mine Action Office in Khartoum and the Southern Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office are working to collect and collate all mine/UXO casualty data through the use of IMSMA.[89] As of June 2003, a total of 2,667 mine/UXO casualties had been reported since 1998 to the National Mine Action Office. Reports were received from Khartoum, Kadugli, Juba, Malakal and Kassala, and have come from various authorities, but mainly the military and health units.[90] Landmine Monitor did not obtain information on the year in which the reported incidents occurred.

In 2002, at least 68 new mine/UXO casualties were reported in the limited information available from various sources in the country. Of these, 21 people were killed and 42 injured, while the status of five casualties is not known. In February, two people were killed in Kadugli province, and in March another person was killed in the Talodi area by antipersonnel mines.[91] In April, one man was killed and 12 injured by an antipersonnel mine in Karic, near Rumbek.[92] In May, a landmine killed nine civilians, including a top state official from Warap, and injured eight near Wau, the largest town in Bahr el-Ghazal region.[93] In July, OSIL recorded five casualties, two relief workers and three other men, and in August, a man lost his right leg in a mine explosion while trying to rescue an injured cow in Kaya town in Equatoria.[94]

In Kassala State, 14 mine/UXO casualties were reported in 2002. In March, a soldier was killed by an antivehicle mine. In April, five people were injured in a UXO incident. In May, six people were injured in an incident involving an antivehicle mine. In December, a soldier lost his leg in an antipersonnel mine incident, and another soldier was injured by UXO. Eleven of the fourteen casualties were civilians.[95]

In the Nuba Mountains, several mine casualties were reported in 2002. In June, a pickup truck detonated an antitank mine, slightly injuring the four occupants. In another incident on 11 June, a tractor detonated an antitank mine, killing six people and injuring three others.[96] In December 2002, a truck detonated a suspected antitank mine. The driver and passengers suffered light injuries.[97]

In 2001, 123 landmine casualties were reported in the period from January to June.[98]

Casualties continued in 2003. On 14 February 2003, a man was killed in a mine incident on the edge of Rumbek town.[99] The Sudanese Red Crescent, Kassala branch reported one mine and two UXO incidents in January and February. Two soldiers and four children were injured.[100]

Survivor Assistance

Landmine survivors reportedly have access to free medical treatment in the public and NGO hospitals in Sudan.[101] However, in general, the assistance available to landmine survivors, from both the government and NGOs, is irregular and not sufficient to address the size of the problem. Years of war seriously damaged the healthcare system, and for many people living in remote areas, the nearest medical facilities are days of travel away. In the Nuba Mountains there is reportedly only one doctor for every 300,000 people and health workers are often insufficiently trained or equipped to treat trauma patients.[102]

Survivor assistance will reportedly form a core component of the UN Mine Action strategy in Sudan.[103] In April 2003, the National Mine Action Office recruited a Victim Assistance (VA) Officer.[104] The UNMAS Victim Assistance Officer spent one month with the new Sudanese VA Officer to assist in capacity-building within the NMAO, and develop a plan of action for victim assistance.[105]

The ICRC’s medical assistance activities in Sudan include first aid training and providing comprehensive medical and surgical care to the war-wounded and other surgical emergencies, including landmine casualties, at its two referral hospitals, the ICRC Lopiding surgical hospital in Lokichokio in northern Kenya, and the government-run Juba Teaching Hospital (JTH). The ICRC airlifts emergency cases from Sudan to the hospital in Lokichokio. In 2002, Lopiding Hospital treated ten landmine casualties from southern Sudan.[106]

In the Nuba Mountains area, Save the Children USA and MSF Holland have health clinics, in Como and Limoon, in addition to the German Emergency Doctors hospital in Luweri. However, all suffer shortages of doctors and medical supplies. In July 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) started a training program for medical assistants to treat landmine casualties in the Nuba Mountains.[107]

In 2002, the ICRC continued to train staff at the National Corporation for Prosthetics and Orthotics (NAPCO) in Khartoum, and worked with the authorities to help set up satellite centers in Kassala, Dongola, Nyalla and Damazin. It also trained hospital staff from Juba, Kassala and Dongola in physiotherapy for amputees. The ICRC also provided training and materials to the Juba orthopaedic center, which almost doubled its production, fitting over 100 patients with prostheses. In 2002, the ICRC-supported centers provided 798 prostheses (of which 117 were for mine survivors) and 628 orthoses.[108] NAPCO provides free services to military personnel and charges 50 percent to civilians.

The Prosthetic Center in Kassala, eastern Sudan, has been refurbished and supplied with new equipment. The ICRC provided US$350,000 while NAPCO supervised the refurbishment. UNHCR supported the upgrading of the buildings as part of its program targeting areas with refugee populations.[109]

During a UN mission to Kassala State, it was reported that the facilities for mine survivors requiring prosthetics were inadequate. Although the ICRC has re-equipped the Kassala prosthetic center, the high cost of obtaining a suitable prosthesis is beyond the means of many amputees.[110]

The ICRC’s Lopiding Hospital, with its annexed prosthetic-orthotic center in Lokichokio, northern Kenya, has provided physical rehabilitation to mine survivors, and other persons with disabilities, from across the border in rebel-held areas of Southern Sudan since 1992. In 2002, the orthopedic workshop fitted 380 prostheses, of which 78 were for mine survivors, produced 194 orthoses (one for a mine survivor) and 1,576 crutches, and distributed 23 wheelchairs.[111]

In 2002, the Sudanese Association for the Care and Rehabilitation of War Victims (ABRAR) provided physiotherapy, psychosocial support and legal aid to war victims. In 2002, ABRAR assisted 285 landmine survivors. ABRAR also advocates for a disability policy and legislation that supports the victims of war, including landmine survivors.[112]

[1] Remarks by Adam Balloh, State Minister of International Cooperation, to the Mine Risk Education Workshop, organized by the Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines and UNICEF, Khartoum, 3-4 July 2002.
[2] Interview with Ambassador Dafaalla Elhaj Ali, Director of International Organizations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Khartoum, 3 April 2003.
[3] “Minister Graham and Sudanese Foreign Affairs Minister conclude bilateral discussions,” News Release Number 62, Ottawa, 14 May 2003.
[4] “Mediators say factions to extend truce,” Reuters, 24 June 2003.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Interview with Commander Nhial Deng Nhial, Foreign Minister, SPLM, London, 2 March 2002. The SPLA first orally committed to the Geneva Call on 27 March 2000, in Geneva, though SPLA mine use apparently continued after that point.
[7] “Sudanese Groups Agree On Mines,” The East African Standard (Nairobi), 2 November 2002.
[8] Interview with Nhial Deng, Senior SPLA officer, Karen, Kenya, 4 March 2003.
[9] Statement by Dr. Sulafadin Salih, Commissioner, Humanitarian Aid Commission, to the Fourth Meeting of States Parties, Geneva, Switzerland, 16-20 September 2002.
[10] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 575.
[11] Response to Landmine Monitor from the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Humanitarian Aid Commission, received by fax from the Embassy of the Republic of Sudan, Washington, DC, 31 July 2003. Translation by Landmine Monitor.
[12] Interview with Stuart McGhie, JMC Deputy Assistant Chief of Staff, Khartoum, 6 April 2003. The JMC is composed of nine military officers, three each from the government, SPLA and foreign countries.
[13] “The government ratifies the mine ban treaty in days,” Alhoriyah (daily newspaper), 6 October 2002.
[14] Interview with Stuart McGhie, JMC, 6 April 2003.
[15] Interview with Graeme Abernethy, UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) technical coordinator, Nuba Mountains, 9 February 2003.
[16] Roger Harding, “Newsnight,” BBC TV News, 21 September 2002; “On Sudan’s Tense Frontline,” BBC Radio 4 and World Service, 21 and 22 September 2002.
[17] Interview with Nhial Deng, Senior SPLA official, Karen, Kenya, 4 March 2003.
[18] Interview with John Luk Jok, former SPLA Secretary for Information and currently Editor of the South Sudan Post, Nairobi, 9 March 2003; interview with Nuer Tribal Chief of Yuai, Nairobi, 9 March 2003; interview with Rev. Stephen Tut, Deputy Editor of the South Sudan Post, Lokichoggio, Kenya, 24 January 2003.
[19] Interview with CPMT monitor, Rumbek, southern Sudan, February 2003.
[20] Interview with Nhial Deng, SPLA, 4 March 2003.
[21] Interviews with senior SPLA officers and officials in Sudan and Kenya, February and March 2003. The Geneva Call “Deed of Commitment” prohibits all use of antipersonnel mines. The January 2002 Nuba Mountains Cease-fire and the October 2002 MoU prohibit use of both antivehicle and antipersonnel mines.
[22] Interview with Commander Abdelaziz Adam el Hilu, SPLA Governor of Nuba Mountains, Luweri, 9 March 2003.
[23] Statement by Dr. Sulafadin Salih, Humanitarian Aid Commission, to Fourth Meeting of States Parties, 16-20 September 2002.
[24] “The Peace Advisory requests SPLA to return to the negotiations,”Alayam (daily newspaper), 28 January 2003.
[25] Statement by Lt. Col. Khalid Abbas, Commander of the Malakal Military Area, in SLIRI Newsletter, Issue No. 1, January-February 2003.
[26] Response to Landmine Monitor from the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Humanitarian Aid Commission, received by fax from the Embassy of the Republic of Sudan, Washington, DC, 31 July 2003. Translation by Landmine Monitor.
[27] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 577-578.
[28] UN Consolidated Interagency Appeal for Sudan, 2003.
[29] Swiss Foundation for Mine Action, “Assessment Mission for the establishment of a technical capacity to undertake verification and clearance of priority roads within Sudan,” April 2003.
[30] Interview with Graeme Abernethy, UNMAS Nuba Coordinator, el Bati, 3 February 2002.
[31] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme in Sudan, “Monthly Report: January-February 2003.”
[32] Interview with Stuart McGhie, JMC, 6 April 2003.
[33] Interview with Chris Clark, Senior Technical Advisor, UNMAS, Khartoum, 2 April 2003.
[34] Email from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 March 2003.
[35] Article 7 Report, Form J, 16 April 2003.
[36] Email to the German Initiative to Ban Landmines from the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 22 April 2003.
[37] Email from Ulrik Enemark Petersen, Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 28 March 2003.
[38] Written response to the Japanese Campaign to Ban Landmines by Humanitarian Assistance Division, Multilateral Cooperation Department, Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 20 February 2003.
[39] UN Mine Action Investments Database, accessed at www.mineaction.org.
[40] Email from François Berg, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Luxembourg, 18 April 2003.
[41] UN Mine Action Investments Database.
[42] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002.
[43] Email to ICBL (Sylvie Brigot) from Catherine Horeftari, European Commission, 23 May 2003.
[44] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Quarterly Report: October to December 2002.”
[45] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “2002 Annual Report.”
[46] UN Consolidated Appeal for Sudan 2003.
[47] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “2002 Annual Report.”
[48] Interview with Stuart McGhie, JMC, 6 April 2003.
[49] MoU between the GoS, SPLM and UNMAS signed in Geneva on 19 September 2002.
[50] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “2002 Annual Report.”
[51] Ibid.
[52] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: January-February 2003.”
[53] “Sudanese Groups Agree On Mines,” The East African Standard (Nairobi), 2 November 2002. Members of the committee include Nhial Deng Nhial; Edward Lino, Security Chief; Dr Justin Yac, East Africa Representative; and Aleu Ayieng Aleu, OSIL Director.
[54] Interview with Nhial Deng, SPLA, 4 March 2003.
[55] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: January-February 2003.”
[56] Ibid.
[57] Interview with Dr. Hussein Elobeid, Coordinator, Sudan CBL, Khartoum, 24 March 2003.
[58] Interview with Mohamed Fawz, Program Coordinator, SLIRI, Khartoum, 3 April 2003.
[59] Ibid.
[60] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Dylan Matthews, Landmine Action UK, 11 July 2003.
[61] Ibid; email from Richard Lloyd, Landmine Action UK, 5 June 2003.
[62] Ibid.
[63] Ibid.
[64] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 579.
[65] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: July-August 2002.” The team consisted of two squads of 10 persons each, four mine detection dogs, and additional support personnel, operating under the auspices of the US commercial firm RONCO, www.roncoconsulting.com. Also, interview with Graeme Abernethy, Technical Coordinator, UNMAS, Nuba Mountains, 9 February 2003. Despite this clearance, a Landmine Monitor researcher encountered a newly unearthed cluster bomb inside the Kauda JMC base on 5 February 2003.
[66] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: July-August 2002.”
[67] Email from DCA, 3 June 2003.
[68] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: April 2003.”
[69] DCA, “Demining in Nuba Mt Appeal,” March 2003.
[70] Email from Richard Lloyd, Landmine Action UK, 1 July 2003.
[71] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: January-February 2003.”
[72] Interview with Stuart McGhie, JMC, 6 April 2003.
[73] OSIL monthly report for November 2002. According to a June 2003 news article, OSIL cleared 10.5 million square meters from September 1997 and April 2003, destroying 3,512 antipersonnel mines, 732 antitank mines, and 116,930 UXO. “The Foreseen Arch-Enemy of a Post-War Sudan,” All Africa News Agency, Nairobi, 30 June 2003.
[74] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: April 2003.”
[75] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Ian Clarke, Director of Operations, Swiss Foundation for Mine Action, 29 July 2003.
[76] Email from Miranda Shala, MRE Coordinator, UNICEF Sudan, 9 June 2003.
[77] Email from Miranda Shala, UNICEF, 12 June 2003.
[78] Mine Action Support Group, “Newsletter: April 2003,” p. 29.
[79] Email from Miranda Shala, UNICEF, 12 June 2003.
[80] Minutes of the Mine Risk Education Working Group, Geneva, 13-14 March 2003.
[81] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: April 2003.”
[82] Interview with Dr. Hussein Elobeid, Coordinator, Sudan CBL, 24 March 2003.
[83] See www.mag.org.uk.
[84] Interview with Una McCauley, UNICEF Child Protection Officer, OLS Southern Sector, Rumbek, 21 February 2003.
[85] Ibid.
[86] Interview with Miranda Shala, UNICEF, 31 March 2003.
[87] Email from Miranda Shala, UNICEF, 12 June 2003; see www.reliefweb.int.
[88] Interview with Dr. Hussein Elobeid, Director of CHARM, Khartoum, 20 December 2002.
[89] UN Emergency Mine Action Project in Sudan, “Quarterly Report: April to June 2002.”
[90] Interview with Shaza Najmeldin, Victim Assistance Associate, National Mine Action Office, 3 July 2003.
[91] Save the Children-USA, “Updates,” February and March 2002.
[92] Interview with Simon Baak Chol, SIMAS team leader, Rumbek, 18 February 2003.
[93] “Land mine kills nine, including top official, in southern Sudan; government blames rebels,” Associated Press, 2 May 2002.
[94] OSIL, Monthly Reports, July and August 2002.
[95] Sudanese Red Crescent-Kassala Branch, “Annual Report 2002.”
[96] UN Emergency Mine Action Project in Sudan, “Monthly Report: June 2002.”
[97] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme in Sudan, “Monthly Report: December 2002.”
[98] For more details see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 580-581.
[99] Interview with Deng Alor, SPLM Governor of Bahr el Ghazal, Rumbek, 21 February 2003. The local administration claimed this was a hand grenade, but local SIMAS mine action personnel claimed the explosion was caused by an antipersonnel mine.
[100] Sudanese Red Crescent, Kassala Branch, “Report to Landmine Monitor,” 3 April 2003.
[101] Sudan presentation to Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, Socioeconomic Reintegration and Mine Awareness, Geneva, 7 May 2001; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 232.
[102] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 581.
[103] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Quarterly Report: October to December 2002.”
[104] Interview with Chris Clark, UNMAS, 2 April 2003.
[105] UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: April 2003.”
[106] Landmine Monitor (Kenya) interview with Sister Engred Tjosflaat, Head Nurse, Lopiding Hospital, 17 December 2002.
[107] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 581.
[108] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Kathleen Lawand, Legal Advisor, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), 10 July 2003.
[109] “Rehabilitation of the Prosthetics Centre in Kassala,” Alayam (daily newspaper), 16 February 2003.
[110] UN Emergency Mine Action Project, “Quarterly Report: April to June 2002.”
[111] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2002,” Geneva, June 2003.
[112] Report to Landmine Monitor from Najat Salih, Executive Director, ABRAR, March 2003.