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Country Reports
Austria , Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: In September 2003, Ambassador Petritsch of Austria was designated as the President of the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty. Austria served as co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention from September 2002 to September 2003. In 2003, Austria provided funding for mine action of €775,056 (about $877,000), a decrease from €2.06 million in 2002, but a similar level to 2001. An independent evaluation in 2003 of Austrian funding for mine action in Mozambique over the past years criticized both the donor and the recipient (UNDP) for poor performance. Austria re-structured its mine action assistance program with the establishment of the Austrian Development Agency on 1 January 2004.

Key developments since 1999: Austria became a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty on 1 March 1999. It completed stockpile destruction and adopted national legislation prohibiting antipersonnel mines prior to entry into force of the Mine Ban Treaty. Since 1999, Austria has continuously played a key role in the Mine Ban Treaty intersessional work program and in promoting universalization and full implementation of the treaty. It developed the reporting format for Article 7 reports. It served as co-rapporteur then co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention from September 2001 to September 2003. In September 2003, Ambassador Petritsch of Austria was designated as the President of the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty. Austria decided not to retain any antipersonnel mines for training and development. From 1999 to 2003, Austria provided about $6.67 million in mine action funding.

Mine Ban Policy

The Republic of Austria signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 29 June 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999.

Austria was one of the first countries to support a comprehensive ban on antipersonnel mines. Austria first announced its commitment to achieving an immediate and total ban in September 1995, and destroyed its stockpile of antipersonnel mines by the end of that year. In December 1996, a national law banning antipersonnel mines was passed.[1] This law serves as implementation legislation for the Mine Ban Treaty in Austria. Austria was a leader in the Ottawa Process, preparing the three draft texts that served as the basis for the negotiation of the treaty, and hosting a preparatory meeting in February 1997.[2]

Since 1999, Austria has continuously played a key role in the Mine Ban Treaty work program. It has participated in all annual Meetings of States Parties, acting as Friend of the President of the Meetings in 2001 and 2002, and as Vice-President to the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2003. It has been actively engaged in all intersessional meetings. It served as co-rapporteur then co-chair of the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention from September 2001 to September 2003. Austria has been particularly active in the contact groups on universalization, Articles 7 and 9, and resource mobilization.

Austria was one of five countries that offered to host the first Mine Ban Treaty Review Conference, which will be held in Nairobi in 29 November-3 December 2004. In September 2003, Austria’s Ambassador to the UN in Geneva, Wolfgang Petritsch, was designated as President of the Review Conference (known as the Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World). In February 2004, Ambassador Petritsch described gaining “the necessary political and financial commitment to continue to eliminate the humanitarian impact of anti-personnel mines” as the biggest challenge facing the Review Conference.[3] As President-Designate, Ambassador Petritsch has presided over two formal preparatory meetings (in February and June 2004) and two informal meetings (in December 2003 and September 2004), and has overseen the development of key draft documents for the Review Conference, including a Final Declaration, a Five-Year Review, a Five-Year Action Plan, and a Program of future meetings. To promote the Nairobi Summit and universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty, he has traveled to Croatia, the Netherlands, Cyprus, Romania, Kenya, United States, Jordan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bhutan, India, Lithuania, and Ethiopia.

In the context of Austria’s universalization efforts, Ambassador Petritsch criticized the new US policy on landmines, issued at the end of February 2004.[4] At the Conference on Disarmament in February 2004, he suggested that the time might be ripe for India and Pakistan to accede to the treaty, and encouraged all other non-members to join the treaty.[5] During 2003, Austria continued to concentrate its efforts to encourage States in Central Asia and the Caucasus to join the treaty, and has reported on these efforts in detail.

In September 2003, Austria made a statement recognizing the importance of condemning the use of antipersonnel mines by non-State actors, but recommending a cautious approach, with action in relation to non-State actors taking place outside the Mine Ban Treaty, in order not to distract States Parties from fulfilling their obligations.[6] In December 2003, Austria voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 58/53, which calls for universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It has supported similar resolutions in previous years.

As chair of the Human Security Network in 2002-2003, Austria issued a declaration supporting treaty universalization, and the Austrian Minister of Foreign Affairs wrote in the name of the Network to foreign ministers of all States not yet party to the treaty. Replies and non-replies were followed up, encouraging all to attend the Fifth Meeting of States Parties and the intersessional meetings. Under the Austrian chair, the Network also adopted a work plan for 2003–2005 that included member countries acting as “regional champions” of the Mine Ban Treaty.[7]

Austria submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report, for calendar year 2003, on 30 April 2004. It indicates that all data is unchanged from the previous report, with the exception of mine action funding, which is reported on the voluntary Form J. This is Austria’s sixth Article 7 report.[8] Austria was largely responsible for developing the Article 7 reporting format that was adopted at the First Meeting of States Parties in May 1999.

Austria has participated in State Party deliberations on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1 and 2. Regarding the issue of the legality of permitting transit of antipersonnel mines across national territory, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated in April 2000 that, as a neutral country, Austria is keen to prevent any violations of the Mine Ban Treaty and has denied transit to NATO countries either across its territory or through its airspace of any transport containing any weapons, in spite of NATO requests to do so during the 1999 bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.[9]

Regarding the issue of antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices, Austria has offered its legal interpretation of Article 2 of the Mine Ban Treaty, which supports the view that any mine, regardless of how it is labeled, is banned if its design is such that it will detonate as a result of an unintentional act of a person. But Austria has also welcomed practical suggestions for taking the issue “beyond legalistic debate” in the context of the Mine Ban Treaty, and encouraged all countries to express their views “in the hope of convergence.”[10] At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties, the Austrian delegation repeated that it favors a pragmatic solution based on best practices to deal with differences of interpretation on this issue: “There is a shared conviction among all of us that the humanitarian problems caused by such mines need to be addressed.... What really matters is that the problems are dealt with comprehensively [and] what this debate boils down to is only the question under which legal framework” they are dealt with.[11] In March 2004, Austria was reported to be positive toward Germany’s proposal on this issue in the Convention on Conventional Weapons.[12] In May 2000, the Ministry of Defense stated that Austria “possesses only such types of anti-tank mines (including anti-vehicle mines) as are compatible with” the national law, the Mine Ban Treaty, and other international treaties.[13]

Austria is a State Party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW), and attended the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to the Protocol in November 2003. Austria submitted its annual report under Article 13 of the Protocol on 4 November 2003. Austria has submitted annual reports and attended annual conferences of States Parties in previous years. It has also participated actively in the CCW Group of Governmental Experts meetings, supporting the adoption of a new protocol on explosive remnants of war.

Production and Transfer

Production, export and use of antipersonnel mines were formally renounced in September 1995 under an order that was superseded by national legislation in 1997. According to the Austrian Chamber of Commerce, production ceased in 1945, with the exception of command-detonated directional fragmentation (Claymore-type) mines, which continue to be produced.[14] The Ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs confirmed in March 2000 that the Army’s stocks of directional fragmentation mines had been modified to prevent tripwire-activation.[15]

Export of mine components is not banned by Austria’s War Materials Act, which governs weapons transfers. The Ministry of the Interior stated in December 2000 that licenses had been issued only for components for treaty-compliant command-detonated devices. An attack in December 2001 on the Indian parliament with grenades made by a Pakistani company under license from an Austrian company drew attention to the possible use of these grenades as components in a bounding antipersonnel mine. A parliamentary enquiry failed to fully clarify the matter.[16] In May 2003, the Ministry of the Interior stated that foreign-licensed production of Austrian “war material” would require approval under Article 1(1) of the War Material Act and that existing law prohibits assistance to others in carrying out prohibited acts, as set out in Article 1.1c of the Mine Ban Treaty.[17]

Stockpiling and Destruction

Austria’s stockpile of antipersonnel mines included 116,000 US M14 mines (classified in Austria as Schuetzenminen M14), plus small quantities of prototypes.[18] Stockpile destruction was completed in 1996. Austria decided not to retain any antipersonnel mines for training and development, as permitted by Article 3 of the Mine Ban Treaty (and its national legislation). At the Standing Committee meetings in May 2003, Austria pointed out that in its experience and that of other countries, mine clearance training can be undertaken without live mines. Therefore, “We think that States Parties should not retain any APLs at all.”[19] Where States Parties do opt to retain mines under Article 3 of the treaty, Austria has stated that the quantity should not be “so high that the commitment of a State Party to comply with the core treaty obligations can be put into doubt.”[20] Austria has supported the common understanding that, if mines are retained, they should be numbered in the hundreds or thousands, or less, and not in the tens of thousands.

Mine Action Funding

In 2003, Austria disbursed €775,056 (US$876,976) for mine action projects, and pledged a further €400,000 ($452,600) for disbursement in 2004.[21] This compares with mine action funding in 2002 of €2,061,701 ($1.96 million).[22] Funds were distributed to three countries and four other items:

  • Afghanistan: €104,453 ($118,189) in technical support to OMAR for mine clearance
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: €382,842 ($433,186) consisting of €342,842 to the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) for mine clearance, and €40,000 to NPA for mine clearance
  • Nicaragua: €70,000 ($79,205) to Horizont 3000 for rehabilitation and mine risk education in Rio Coco
  • Fifth Meeting of States Parties: €30,022 ($33,970) as support for human resources
  • ICBL: €59,149 ($66,927) for the Landmine Monitor
  • Evaluation of the Austrian mine action program: €29,779 ($33,695)
  • UNICEF and Austrian Red Cross: €98,811 ($111,805) for the World Without Mines fundraising event, to be used in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[23]

In addition, the 2003 budget included €200,000 ($226,300) to be expended in 2004 on victim assistance projects in Ethiopia, and €200,000 ($226,300) to be expended in 2004 on mine clearance in Mozambique. The 2004 budget includes €651,589 ($737,273) allocated for mine clearance in Afghanistan.[24]

In the five years from 1999 to 2003, Austria contributed about $6.67 million to mine action (1999: $950,000, 2000: $1,992,445, 2001: $888,000, 2002: $1,960,000, 2003: $876,976). Countries receiving Austrian mine action funding in that period include: Afghanistan, Albania, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Croatia, Mozambique, Namibia, and Nicaragua, as well as Kosovo.[25] Of the total mine action funding, $1,334,284 has been identified as victim assistance, comprising, in 2001: $342,526 (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Nicaragua, and Uganda); in 2002: $912,553 (Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Nicaragua); and in 2003: $79,205 (Nicaragua).

Austrian projects in Mozambique, which have experienced slow progress in recent years, were subject to an independent evaluation in 2003. Between 1995 and 2002, Austria donated about $3.3 million to multilateral and bilateral mine action projects in Mozambique, concentrated in Sofala province. This included multilateral projects totaling $2.1 million, primarily involving the UN Development Programme (UNDP). However, UNDP provided the evaluation team with only limited documentation after a long delay, and was unable to provide a full account of the project funding. The evaluation found that, although mine contamination was named as one of the main problems in the larger Austrian projects of reconstruction (1996-1998, 1999-2001) and poverty reduction (2002-2004), little mention was made of mine action planning and operations in the available documents. The team concluded that mine action was not integrated into the Austrian program in Mozambique. There were many anomalies; for example, a donation was made in 1997 even though 1995 funds had not yet been spent, and operations did not start until 1998. The team was informed of contributions to a UNICEF project in 1997, and donation of mine detectors with a value of $500,000, only after its field visit, and was unable to evaluate these projects.[26]

The evaluation team also identified bilateral funding of $700,000 given to the DESSOF project. DESSOF was established by the Austrian Development Corporation and Austrian officials in Beira in 2001. Although the major purpose was initially said to be demining, the evaluation found little record of any demining carried out. The head of DESSOF and his deputy were released at the end of 2002 for, among other reasons, “abuse of funds.” An investigation is ongoing. Other activities were carried out, and stakeholders described the program as “a success, but...not meeting the strongest need [mine clearance].”[27] Finally, the evaluation team recommended that Austria continue to support mine action in Mozambique, specifically in Sofala, but that mine action be integrated in the development program and that monitoring and control be strengthened.[28]

Landmine Monitor reported previously that funds designated for Mozambique in 2002 were held over to 2003. The Austrian regional coordinator indicated that no funds were disbursed in 2003, and two new projects were funded to start in January 2004 (local capacity building in Beira, and demining by Handicap International in Sofala).[29]

Funding policy and structure

In May 2003, Austria announced that the separate status of mine action which had arisen from Austria’s early involvement in the mine issue would be changed, and previous single-year funding of mine action would also change. Mine action was now recognized as an aspect of sustainable development, and development programs have the advantage of multi-year funding.[30]

This restructuring resulted in the establishment of the Austrian Development Agency on 1 January 2004 as a limited liability company wholly owned by the Republic of Austria. It took over all projects in development cooperation. All policy and administration for developing countries were geared to three primary aims: poverty reduction, promotion of peace and human security, and protection and preservation of the environment. The Agency is managed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and works to the Ministry’s three-year program. However, the 2004-2006 program does not explicitly mention mine action or victim assistance.[31]

Under the previous structure, the absence of a separate budget for mine victim assistance was explained in terms of Austria’s “integrated approach...and comprehensive character of our projects.”[32] In May 2003, Austria’s delegation at the Standing Committee meetings advised mine-affected states to include the care of mine victims within their public health development priorities for negotiation with Austrian development agencies.[33]

Mine Action

In 2003, as in previous years, Austria continued to provide mine and UXO clearance teams as part of the international forces in Kosovo and the Golan Heights. Austria reports that it has a pool of some 75 personnel trained for humanitarian demining operations, using Schiebel, Vallon, MD8, Minelab and Minex equipment.[34] In September 2004, the Ministry of Defense reported that Austria has an Explosive Ordnance Disposal team (five soldiers) continuously deployed within the KFOR unit in Kosovo, engaged in mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) clearance.[35]

Nongovernmental Funding of Mine Action

Funds raised by a charity concert organized by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, reported in last year’s Landmine Monitor, were channeled by UNICEF to a mine risk education project in Bosnia and Herzegovina (€134,833 – $152,564) and by the Austrian Red Cross to the International Committee of the Red Cross also for mine risk education in Bosnia and Herzegovina (€66,667 – $75,434).[36]

In 2003, several Austrian NGOs made contributions to mine action. CARE Austria donated €163,000 ($184,435) for clearance of UXO by the Mines Advisory Group in Laos, and €91,339 ($103,350) for mine risk education in Laos.[37] Horizont 3000 received Austrian funding and contributed a total of €110,000 ($124,465) for victim assistance projects in Nicaragua.[38] Hope 87 received Austrian and Japanese funding to continue its ongoing victim assistance projects in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[39] The Entwicklungshilfe-Klub contributed €10,178 ($11,516) to a project to provide houses for mine survivors’ families in Cambodia.[40] In previous years, contributions to mine action have been made also by Austrian Aid for Mine Victims, Caritas, Dreikoenigsaktion, Médecins Sans Frontières, Rotary Club branches.

In 2004, Austrian Aid for Mine Victims received an award for advertisements used in its public awareness-raising campaign, which was supported by an Austrian advertising agency.[41] Austrian Aid for Mine Victims has pledged €5,000 ($5,658) in 2004 for victim assistance.

On 9 July 2003, a parliamentary inquiry was initiated by the Austrian Socialist Party into the affairs of Gemeinsam gegen Landminen (GGL, formerly Menschen gegen Minen-Austria). The inquiry centered on the decision of the German parent-organization to dissociate itself from the Austrian branch, and on suggestions that funds raised for Mozambique had not been transferred or used for the intended purpose.[42] On 30 July 2003, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs responded that it was aware of GGL, but had no involvement with GGL and no knowledge of its fundraising or other activities.[43] A lengthy press report on 19 January 2004 referred to the “fundraising scandal” involving the Swiss branch of GGL.[44] It described GGL’s fundraising activities in Austria as also “suspicious,” and quoted the German parent-organization as saying that “projects are announced that don’t even exist or make no sense. We have not received a single Euro from the Austrian organization yet.”[45] A criminal investigation of GGL-Austria was started, and its progress was reported by the same newspaper on 25 April 2004. GGL-Austria said that it had stopped using the original fundraising consultant, and wanted “to bring transparency to the use of the funds.” There were 43,000 registered donors to GGL-Austria, and about €500,000 ($565,750) was collected in 2003 (in 2002, donations were “marginal”). Half the funds raised were used for overhead costs, and the rest assigned to project costs. Eventually, €35,000 (under 10 percent of the funds raised) were passed to the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action.[46] On 7 May 2004, Handicap International terminated its partnership agreement with GGL-Austria, in view of the ongoing criminal investigation.[47]

Research and Development

In March 2004 it was reported that researchers at Vienna Technical University are developing various robots to locate, excavate and deactivate mines.[48]

Since 1999, two Austrian companies have been involved in mine-related R&D. The SCHIEBEL company coordinated the ARC aerial system for technical and post-clearance survey of minefields, and developed the ARC Camcopter. In 2003, this was successfully field-tested in Croatia, and a public demonstration was given on 27 November near Vienna. This three-year project ended in December 2003. The total cost was €5.9 million, including €3 million donated by the European Commission.[49] SCHIEBEL is also involved in the Demand multi-technology project.

The Hadi-Maschinenbau company developed and produced the FMR 2000 ground-preparation machine, which has been used in mine clearance in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[50]


On 17 July 2003, two bomb disposal experts were killed and another seriously injured while trying to excavate a World War II bomb in Salzburg.[51] The Landmine Monitor is not aware of any mine casualties in Austria in the period 1999-2003. In November 1999, seven Austrian tourists were killed and three were injured by mines in Croatia.[52]

[1] Federal Law on the Prohibition of Antipersonnel Mines, 10 January 1997. The law entered into force on 1 January 1997. It is more stringent than the Mine Ban Treaty in some respects (destruction of stockpiles within one month of entry into force, prohibition of antimagnetic devices), but less stringent in others (omitting the ban on assisting others in prohibited activities).
[2] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 524-528.
[3] “Conference on Disarmament hear statements on fifth anniversary of Mine-Ban Convention,” M2 Presswire, 26 February 2004.
[4] Statement by the Permanent Mission of Austria to the UN in Geneva, “US Landmines Policy–Disregard for Multilateralism?” 27 February 2004.
[5] “CD hear statements,” M2 Presswire, 26 February 2004.
[6] Statement on universalization by Austria, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Bangkok, 15-19 September 2003.
[7] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 101. Members of the HSN are Austria, Canada, Chile, Greece, Ireland, Jordan, Mali, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Switzerland and Thailand.
[8] See Article 7 reports submitted: 30 April 2004 (for calendar year 2003); 29 April 2003 (for calendar year 2002); 3 May 2002 (for calendar year 2001); 30 April 2001 (for calendar year 2000); 28 April 2000 (for the period 30 April–31 December 1999); 29 July 1999 (for the period 1 March-30 April 1999).
[9] Interview with Wernfried Koeffler and Gerhard Doujak, Disarmament Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Vienna, 19 April 2000.
[10] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 102, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 91–92.
[11] “Addressing the humanitarian problems of mines that may pose similar risks to the civilian population as AP-mines,” Statement by Austria, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Bangkok, 15–19 September 2003.
[12] Telephone interview with Alexander Kmentt, Counselor, Permanent Mission to the UN, 11 March 2004.
[13] According to the Ministry of Defense in January 2001, the Army had two types of antivehicle mine, the Pz 75 and the Pz 88. The latter is equipped with an antihandling device, but it is said to explode only when tipped a certain degree after excavation, so cannot be activated by unintentional disturbance and is Mine Ban Treaty-compliant. The other mine is the DFC 19, which is a command-detonated antivehicle mine. Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 572, and Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 607.
[14] Directional fragmentation charges are considered prohibited as antipersonnel mines by the Mine Ban Treaty if victim-activated by a tripwire. If command-detonated, they are not prohibited. The Chamber of Commerce stated early in 1999 that the Austrian Federal Army holds only command-detonated directional fragmentation “charges.”
[15] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 569. Until 1999, Austria continued to export Claymore-type mines with tripwires. The Ministry of the Interior stated that, at the time, it considered the mines not to be prohibited by domestic law. These mines were reportedly exported to Brazil, Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland, Sweden, and, in 1999, to an unnamed Arab country. See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 571, and Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 606.
[16] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 605, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 90-91.
[17] Letter (no. GZ 11.200/160-III/3/03) from Dr. Ernst Strasser, Minister of the Interior, to Dr Andreas Kohl, President of the National Assembly, 20 May 2003. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 102.
[18] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 529, and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 571.
[19] Intervention on Article 3 by Austria, Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 16 May 2003.
[20] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 102.
[21] Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2004. Exchange rate of €1 = $1.1315, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2004.
[22] Article 7 Report, Form J, 29 April 2003. The 2002 funding included €273,725 contributed in 2002 from the mine action budget for 2003.
[23] Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2004. The ITF does not record receipt of Austrian funds in 2003. ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 16.
[24] Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2004.
[25] See previous editions of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[26] A. Gloor, M. Heiniger & Hebeisen, “Evaluation of the Austrian Mine Action Programme 1998-2002. Field study about projects supported by Austria in Mozambique (since 1995),” October 2003.
[27] In October 2003, the deputy head of DESSOF was reported to have been arrested for the theft of $130,000 from the Austrian-financed demining project. “Demining official detained,” Agencia de Informacão de Moçambique, 13 October 2003.
[28] “Evaluation of the Austrian Mine Action Programme 1998-2002,” October 2003.
[29] Email from Christian Zeininger, Regional Coordinator in Mozambique, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 25 February 2004.
[30] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 103.
[31] www.ada.gv.at , accessed on 5 and 11 March 2004.
[32] Email from Gerhard Doujak, Disarmament Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 25 January 2002.
[33] Intervention by Austria, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 13 May 2003. For Austria’s previous funding policy, see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 607.
[34] CCW Amended Protocol II Article 13 Report, Forms E, G, 4 November 2003.
[35] Email from Lt. Col. Monsberger, Military Policy Division, Ministry of Defense, 10 September 2004.
[36] Email from Birgit Schneider, Austrian National Committee for UNICEF, 12 January 2004; email from Helga Kohl, Austrian Red Cross, 16 January 2004.
[37] Fax from Reinhard Trink, Emergency Director, CARE Austria, 13 January 2004.
[38] Email from Elenore Köck, Horizont 3000, 14 January 2004. This project started in October 2000 and ended on 20 June 2004.
[39] Email from Fikret Karkin, HOPE 87, 15 January 2004. HOPE stands for Hundreds of Original Project for Employment. This project started in November 2002, and ended on 31 March 2004.
[40] Email and telephone interview with Franz Christian Fuchs, Entwicklungshilfe-Klub, 9 January 2004. The funds were donated via the German NGO Misereor. This project started in 1999.
[41] “Europäisches Gold für Österreichs Werber” (“European Gold for Austrian Advertisers”), Der Standard (daily newspaper), 3 August 2004.
[42] Parliamentary Inquiry by the SPO (Austrian Socialist Party), No. 635/J-NR/2003, to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 9 July 2003.
[43] Letter (no. 535/AB XXII.GP) from Benita Ferrero-Waldner, Minister for Foreign Affairs, 30 July 2003.
[44] MgM-Switzerland was reported to have raised CHF6.8 million from 2000-2002 for demining projects in Angola and Mozambique, of which only CHF80,000 was transferred. See report on Switzerland in this edition of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[45] “SpendungSpenden-Sammlung im Minenfeld” (“Fundraising in the Minefield”), Kurier (daily newspaper), 19 January 2004. Translated by Landmine Monitor researcher.
[46] “Anti-Minen-Verien im Zwielicht: Jetzt ermittelt auch die Kripo,” (“Anti-mine organization under suspicion: now the Crime Squad investigates”), Kurier (daily newspaper), 25 April 2004. Translated by Landmine Monitor researcher.
[47] Letter from Jean-Baptiste Richardier, Executive Manager, Handicap International, to Wolfgang Schachinger and Alexander Petz, GGL-Austria, 7 May 2004.
[48] “Austrian researchers develop landmine-deactivating robots,” German News Digest, 10 March 2004.
[49] Email from Mehrdad Khalili, SCHIEBEL Gmbh, 28 April 2004; emails from Petra Hoermann-Wambacher, SCHIEBEL Gmbh, 9 and 21 January 2004. See also www.cordis.lu .
[50] For details of R&D projects, see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 575, Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 610, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 96.
[51] “Wartime bomb explodes in Austria, killing two,” Reuters, 18 July 2003.
[52] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 672.