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Table of Contents
Country Reports
Bosnia And Herzegovina, Landmine Monitor Report 2004

Bosnia And Herzegovina

Key developments since May 2003: A total of 6.4 square kilometers of affected land was cleared in 2003, less than half the country’s target. A Landmine Impact Survey was completed in December 2003; it identified 1,366 populated places as being mine-affected, of which 154 were categorized as high impact, and 696 as medium impact. In 2003, BHMAC carried out general survey on 75.24 square kilometers of land. BHMAC reported that 113,892 people received mine risk education during 2003. In May 2004, BHMAC stated that there were 18,319 minefields in the country containing an estimated 260,751 antipersonnel mines, 51,447 antivehicle mines and 3,635 UXO. The total area potentially contaminated was estimated in April 2004 as 2,780 square kilometers. In September 2003, BiH predicted it will require $334 million to make BiH free from the effect of mines by 2010. In 2003, there were 54 landmine and UXO casualties, a decrease from the previous year.

In 2003, SFOR found several hundred thousand antipersonnel mines among old munitions at military storage sites. By March 2004, 2,574 antipersonnel mines, 31,920 antivehicle mines and 302,832 detonators had been destroyed. On several occasions during the reporting period, illegal caches of weapons, including landmines, have been uncovered. One mine incident, in June 2003, was attributed to new use. In May 2004, Bosnia and Herzegovina hosted Landmine Monitor’s annual global researchers meeting. In June 2004, the final version of the landmine victim assistance strategy for BiH was released.

Key developments since 1999: Bosnia and Herzegovina became a State Party on 1 March 1999. National legislation to implement the treaty has been delayed by political changes. BiH announced completion of destruction of its stockpile of 460,727 antipersonnel mines in November 1999. However, in 2003 SFOR found several hundred thousand antipersonnel mines among old munitions at military storage sites. Occasional use of antipersonnel mines has occurred in criminal or terrorist activities, and illegal stores of mines and other weaponry continue to be discovered. From 1998, when “Operation Harvest” began, through February 2004, 32,907 antipersonnel mines and large quantities of other munitions have been collected and destroyed by the SFOR.

BHMAC reported that from 1996, when official mine clearance started, through 2003, 45 square kilometers of land were cleared, including 32 square kilometers since 1999. From 1998 to 2003, general survey was conducted on 365 square kilometers of land. A national Landmine Impact Survey was carried out from October 2002 to December 2003. The mine incident rate has fallen from an average of 52 casualties per month in 1996, to eight per month in 1999, to 4.5 per month in 2003, to three per month in the first half of 2004. Since 1999, 435 new mine/UXO casualties were recorded.

Mine Ban Policy

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)[1] signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 8 September 1998, becoming a State Party on 1 March 1999. Bosnia and Herzegovina attended all of the meetings of the Ottawa Process leading to the treaty.

National legislation in accordance with Article 9 of the treaty has been under development since ratification, but delayed by political changes.[2] BiH reported in May 2004 that a “special law” prohibiting use and production of antipersonnel mines is in the process of being created.[3] In 2003, the drafting of implementation legislation became the responsibility of the new State-level Ministry of Justice.[4] The Ministry expected that amendments to the criminal code, to apply penal sanctions for violations of the treaty, would be presented for parliamentary approval in September 2004.[5] Activities prohibited by the Mine Ban Treaty are said to be already subject to penal sanction under the existing criminal code at the Entity level, but not at the State level.[6]

BiH attended the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2003, where its delegation described the country as having the greatest mine problem in Europe with over four percent of its territory mine-affected. It states that clearing the minefields by 2010 will cost an estimated $334 million.[7] BiH has attended all annual meetings of States Parties and all intersessional meetings since 1999. At a February 2004 intersessional Standing Committee meeting, it described mine action as “a precondition for the reconstruction of natural and economic resources, return of refugees and displaced persons and further economic development of our country.”[8]

Also in February 2004, BiH representatives participated in a meeting of the Reay Group (part of the Stability Pact for South East Europe), which was held to assess progress on achieving the objectives of the Mine Ban Treaty.[9] In March 2004, BiH participated in a meeting of the French Commission Nationale pour l’Elimination des Mines Anti-personnel. In May 2004, BiH hosted the Landmine Monitor’s global researchers meeting. In previous years, BiH attended regional meetings on the mine issue in Croatia (June 1999) and in Slovenia (June 2000).

On 17 May 2004, BiH submitted its Article 7 report for calendar year 2003, which included optional Form J with information on mine casualties and victim assistance. Four previous Article 7 reports have been submitted.[10]

On 8 December 2003, BiH voted in favor of UN General Assembly Resolution 58/53, which calls for universalization and implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. It has voted for similar resolutions in previous years, but was absent from the votes on pro-ban resolutions in 1997 and 1998.

With regard to State Party discussions on interpretation and implementation of Article 1 of the Mine Ban Treaty, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in April 2003 stated that BiH “neither participates nor supports participation, and will not participate in joint military operations with any forces planning, exercising or using antipersonnel mines.”[11] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has also stated that BiH will not allow the storage or transit of antipersonnel mines belonging to other countries in or through its territory.[12] BiH has not expressed its views with regard to issues related to Article 2 (mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices) or Article 3 (permissible number of mines retained for training).

BiH is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II, and submitted an annual report on 25 September 2003, as in previous years. It attended the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to the Protocol in November 2003 and has attended the annual conferences in previous years except for 2001.

Production and Transfer

The production, transfer and use of antipersonnel mines was not prohibited in BiH until entry into force of the Mine Ban Treaty on 1 March 1999.

Upon its official recognition in December 1995, BiH inherited the mine production facilities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY). Prior to 1990, the SFRY was a prolific producer of antipersonnel mines, possessing an estimated six million mines of all types at the start of the conflict in 1992 when BiH declared independence. About half its total defense production was located in BiH, including antipersonnel mine production facilities in Gorazde, Vogosca, Bugojno and Konjic.

The Demining Commission has stated that production of antipersonnel mines had ceased by 1995.[13] Regarding the conversion or decommissioning of former production facilities, BiH’s May 2004 Article 7 report notes that the Bugojno factory is no longer able to produce mines, and Gorazde and Konjic now produce ammunition and explosives.[14] An official told Landmine Monitor in April 2004 that the Vogosca factory is now producing automobiles.[15] BiH has reported in previous years on the progress toward converting former production facilities.[16]

There have been no reports of the transfer of antipersonnel mines from BiH since signing the Mine Ban Treaty in December 1997. However, there have been transfers of other munitions and weaponry in violation of UN embargoes, which prompted new legislation regulating the manufacture and trade in arms and military equipment, with sanctions for violations.[17]

According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, there have been no new cases in 2003 or 2004 similar to the embargo-breaking transfers reported in 2002.[18] However, there have been reports that weapons smuggling is continuing. In July 2003, a Bosnian newspaper reported that police in Republika Srpska intercepted weapons, including antipersonnel mines, being smuggled from the Federation. The weapons had come from military warehouses, as the supply of illegal weapons was lessening due to the collection activities of the Stabilization Force (SFOR), the international peacekeeping force. The article alleged that this was one small instance of a much larger smuggling problem.[19]

Use

Occasional use of mines has occurred in criminal and terrorist activity, and illegal stores of mines and other weaponry continue to be discovered. In June 2003, a civilian was killed by a mine while working in a field which had previously been cleared of mines. SFOR believed that the mine had been newly laid.[20] Several instances of new use of antipersonnel mines were reported in 2000 and 2002, usually targeted against returning refugees.[21]

In September 2003, SFOR seized 120 tons of illegal weapons, including 777 landmines. On 2 December, Civil Protection forces announced the discovery of weaponry in Prijedor, including five landmines. In February 2004, an SFOR search with explosives detection dogs of houses in Bugojno revealed large quantity of weapons including 77 antipersonnel mines and 25 antivehicle mines.[22] In April 2004, a large quantity of weaponry including 17 mines was collected or seized in the Prnjavor area.[23] On 3 March 2004, SFOR and Bosnian police found a cache containing 12 mines. On 25 May, a “huge quantity of illegally-held weapons” including mines was seized from a house in the northeastern village of Mrtvice by SFOR.[24] In previous years, caches of antipersonnel mines were also found in 2001, 2002, and early 2003.[25]

Stockpiling and Destruction

BiH declared completion of its stockpile destruction in November 1999, with a total of 460,727 mines destroyed. Destruction was carried out at various locations by the two Entity Armies with SFOR assistance. The stockpile consisted of 19 types.[26]

In 2003, SFOR found very large additional quantities of antipersonnel mines among old munitions, after the Entity Armies requested assistance with downsizing the 500 military storage sites and dealing with old munitions in storage. An SFOR publication reported that several hundred thousand antipersonnel mines were awaiting destruction at these sites.[27] The initial aim of SFOR’s Operation Armadillo is to record the munitions stored at the various sites and ascertain their condition, with a database expected by 2005.[28] Munitions which can be safely moved are being removed and destroyed. By March 2004, 2,574 antipersonnel mines, 31,920 antivehicle mines and 302,832 detonators had been destroyed.[29]

The government of BiH has not formally reported the existence of these newly discovered stocks of antipersonnel mines, has not provided details on numbers and types of mines, and has not made known the timetable for destruction of the mines.

Collection of mines and other munitions and weaponry from the population by SFOR’s Operation Harvest continued in 2003, when 7,247 mines of all types were collected.[30] SFOR reported that the increased quantities noted in 2002 continued in 2003, with a 32 percent increase in the number of mines collected in the first nine months of 2003. From November 2003 to February 2004, 1,200 antipersonnel mines were collected.[31] Operation Harvest is an SFOR initiative introduced in 1998 to collect unregistered weapons, mines, explosives and other ordnance from private holdings, in cooperation with local police, under amnesty conditions. From 1998 through February 2004, 32,907 antipersonnel mines had been collected, as well as large quantities of other munitions. Destruction is carried out by SFOR.[32]

In August 2003, the RS army held an auction of surplus arms and equipment, including over a million “mine parts.” Anything left unsold at the end of the year was to be destroyed. SFOR announced that it would be monitoring the sale and any movement or export of these weapons.[33]

Mines retained under Article 3

At the end of 2003, BiH retained 2,652 antipersonnel mines for permitted training and development purposes, including 2,195 active mines and 457 fuzeless mines and fuzes.[34] This is an increase of 127 mines compared the end of 2002, when 2,525 mines were retained. Earlier, BiH reported 2,405 mines retained at the end of April 2002, the same number retained on 1 September 2001, and 2,145 mines retained on 1 February 2000.[35] Why the number of retained mines is increasing, and where the mines come from, has not been explained.

SFOR commented in 2002 that retained mines are located in military compounds with SFOR oversight through regular inspection, and that the numbers are not reducing as live mines are not used for training of personnel due to the cost.[36] The Entity armed forces and Civil Protection carry out continuous training of deminers. Fuzeless mines may be used by the Entity armed forces for training of explosive detection dog teams and by BHMAC for quality assurance testing of dogs.[37]

Landmine Problem

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties, the BiH delegation said that the country is still “facing the problem of heavy mine contamination” eight years after the end of the war. At least four percent of BiH remains affected, and there are 18,600 recorded minefields, which is said to represent only about 60 percent of the actual number of mined areas.[38] In May 2004, the BiH Mine Action Center (BHMAC) stated that there were 18,319 minefields containing an estimated 260,751 antipersonnel mines, 51,447 antivehicle mines and 3,635 pieces of unexploded ordnance (UXO).[39] Previously, BiH reported that there were 18,228 minefields at the end of 2003, and 18,283 minefields at the end of 2002, containing 257,258 antipersonnel mines and 50,857 antivehicle mines.[40] The total area potentially contaminated was estimated in April 2004 as 2,780.1 square kilometers, an increase from the May 2003 estimate of 2,089.9 square kilometers.[41]

The increase is attributed to identification of new suspected mined areas by the Landmine Impact Survey and by systematic survey in Republika Srpska. BHMAC stated that in the first half of 2004 it will check the amount of mine-suspected land in RS.[42]

Mine and UXO-suspected area estimated as of April 2004 (square kilometers)[43]

Entity/District
Total Suspected risk area
Priority 1
Priority 2
Priority 3
Federation BiH
1,758.0
207.6
500.0
1,061.4
Republika Srbska
964.4
171.6
314.9
478.0
Brcko District
57.7
16.7
17.3
23.7
Total BiH
2,780.1
395.9
832.2
1,563.1

Priority 1: land in regular civilian use, required for refugees or infrastructure renewal

Priority 2: areas close to priority 1 land, and agricultural and forestry land

Priority 3: all remaining areas

The landmine problem in BiH arose from the conflict of 1992–1995 during the break-up of the SFRY. Mines were used extensively along the “lines of confrontation” which moved frequently and totaled over 18,000 kilometers in length. Most minefields are in the “zone of separation” created at the end of the conflict, which separates the two Entities. This is 1,100 kilometers long and up to four kilometers wide. Mines were also laid in many other situations: to protect encamped soldiers and to protect ethnic enclaves, housing and military and economic assets. In southern and central BiH, most mines were used randomly by soldiers untrained in the laying of mines and record-keeping. The mine contamination is described as generally low density and random. The problem is further exacerbated by the inaccuracy of the minefield records – about 20 percent are thought to be inaccurate. New minefields are discovered each year.[44] Some of the affected territory is mountainous or heavily forested. Brcko District, a fertile agricultural belt, was described as one of most heavily contaminated areas of BiH.

In all areas, and particularly in Brcko, there were large population movements during the war, and returning refugees are particularly at risk.[45] More than two million people are believed to have been displaced during the conflict. Since the end of the 1992–1995 war, 987,713 people have returned to their homes (438,948 refugees and 548,765 internally displaced people). In 2003, 54,315 returnees were registered. Nearly 100,000 refugees from Bosnia still remain displaced in the South East Europe region and BiH is host to more than 25,000 refugees from Croatia and Kosovo. There are also some 330,000 internally displaced people in BiH.[46] In January 2004, the Norwegian Refugee Council described landmines as remaining “a significant barrier to the safe return of displaced people and refugees, as well as to the development of economic activity.”[47]

Coordination and Planning of Mine Action

The United Nations, through the UNDP, established a mine action center (UNMAC) in BiH in June 1996. UNMAC took over all the minefield records held by SFOR and initiated training of national mine action personnel. In July 1998, national structures officially assumed the responsibility for the implementation of demining activities, but continued to receive financial, expert and technical assistance from UNDP.

The Demining Law of February 2002 established the Demining Commission as the single focal point to represent BiH in its relations with the international community on mine-related matters, and authorized the BiH Mine Action Center to operate across BiH. This put an end to the autonomy that the Entity Mine Action Centers had previously enjoyed. BHMAC functions as the technical service of the Demining Commission; both are responsible to the Ministry for Civil Affairs. BHMAC has offices in Sarajevo and Banja Luka. The Demining Law also regulates the implementation of demining operations in accordance with the national mine action strategy as approved by the Commission. A mine action strategy was drafted in early 2002 and approved in April 2003. This strategy puts forward the aim of clearing first-priority land by 2010.[48] Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, BiH should have completed destruction of all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible but not later than 1 March 2009. If it is unable to do so, it may request an extension from the other States Parties.

Following completion of the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) in December 2003, the Survey Action Center subcontracted Cranfield Mine Action to assist in the revision of the national mine action strategy, using the LIS database.[49] In April 2004, BHMAC said that revision of the mine action strategy had begun, with some of the LIS results being included in the 2004 mine action plan. The full results will be included in the mine action plans from 2005 onwards. The revision was completed by 30 June 2004, and forwarded to the Council of Ministers for approval.[50]

At the Standing Committee meetings in June 2004, the representative of BiH said that “the gap between need and reality was most evident in the failure to achieve [the mine action] plan.” He said the mine action plan was being revised to harmonize it with international organizations and to maximize capacity, and that strategic planning and working groups had been set up.[51]

A Task Assessment and Planning (TAP) pilot project was carried out by BHMAC survey teams in 2003 as part of the Landmine Impact Survey to provide the local data needed to prioritize mine action. BHMAC agreed to incorporate TAP in its planning processes.[52] For 2004, TAP community-based mine action plans were developed, concentrating on 20 to 25 highly affected communities.[53] The community mine action plans represent an integrated approach to mine action, combining clearance and survey with mine risk education and victim assistance, and coordinating the efforts of army demining/survey teams, civil protection teams and NGOs.[54]

For 2004, it was planned to clear 9.9 square kilometers of land, increase technical survey to 18.3 square kilometers, increase general survey to 148.1 square kilometers (of which 28.9 square kilometers are expected to be released to communities), and significantly increase permanent marking of risk areas to 35 square kilometers.[55] The planned clearance of 9.9 square kilometers in 2004 is a reduction from the 20 square kilometers announced in February 2004, and less than was planned for clearance in 2003 (16.3 square kilometers, later reduced to 15.12 square kilometers). But it is more than was actually cleared in 2003 (6.4 square kilometers). The reduction in planned clearance in 2004 was attributed to funding uncertainties by commercial organizations (responsible for 43 percent of the plan) and more conservative planning.[56]

During 2003, BHMAC used the resources of 37 accredited demining organizations, which is a decrease of three organizations from 2002. This includes the three Entity Armed Forces and three Civil Protection agencies, 14 NGOs and 17 commercial companies. A total of 1,791 demining licenses were issued to individuals. There were 91 accredited mine detecting dog (MDD) teams, an increase of five from 2002. There were 42 accredited machines in use, 16 of which could also be used in technical survey operations. There were 991 detectors available for use. BHMAC employed 39 qualified surveyors divided into 19 teams.[57]

In 2004 and in previous years BiH has reported that it possesses mine clearance resources in excess of the funds needed to employ these resources. With full funding, BiH estimates it could clear about 30 square kilometers every year, in contrast to the 6.4 square kilometers achieved in 2003. About 80 percent of available deminers will be employed in 2004.[58]

A Mine Detection Dog Center for Southeast Europe was opened in Konjic, south of Sarajevo, on 14 October 2003. It has US Department of State funding for three years, after which responsibility will pass to the BiH Council of Ministers. BHMAC foresees that the Center will make up the shortfall between present capacity and potential use of mine detecting dogs.[59]

SFOR has mine-related duties in its responsibility for the inspection of weapons storage sites, collection of weapons in Operation Harvest, and technical support for demining by the Entity armies (this includes providing and maintaining equipment, and accident insurance for deminers).[60] SFOR monitors ensure that international standards are met for all types of demining. They have the power to close a minefield if not satisfied. SFOR reports that, on the whole, the armies of BiH are good at manual demining, but continue to have some difficulty integrating machines and mine detecting dogs into a comprehensive process. Army productivity is improving, and there is now a good safety record.[61]

In 2003, UNDP continued to assist BiH in its planning and coordination of mine action. Previous assistance included developing the mine action strategy, the Demining Law in 2001–2002, and increasing the BiH government’s funding of mine action.[62] In 1997, UNDP set up its Trust Fund for Mine Clearance in Bosnia and Herzegovina to coordinate all donor activities and encourage resource mobilization. Support to the mine action centers started in 1998.[63]

In 2004, UNDP announced a new, five-year, $11.8 million Integrated Mine Action Program for BiH. The program aims to establish “a clear link between mine clearance priorities and national/local long-term economic development” and reverse the “slowing rates of mine clearance that have been witnessed as a result of shortfalls in donor funding.” The program has three components: capacity-building which is intended to allow the BiH government take on full ownership of mine action within 18 months; clearance of 4 square kilometers of mined land selected for its value economically and to returnees; and, transformation of the BiH armed forces into the long-term, indigenous capacity needed to “undertake mine action in a consistent manner.” The capacity-building component will include establishing a government office for tendering mine clearance contracts, with the cooperation of the International Trust Fund. Five-year budgeting includes: 2004: $4,722,288; 2005: $1,776,060; 2006: $1,776,060; 2007: $1,776,060; 2008: $1,776,060.[64]

The “Development Strategy for BiH – PRSP [Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper]” was published on 11 December 2003, covering 12 sectors including demining, education, health and social assistance. It stressed that demining activities must take the highest priority in order to accelerate the normalization of life for the whole country. It identifies the main problems as an unsystematic approach, poor liaison with other sectors, poor response and lack of pro-activity from authorities at all levels, institutionalization and legislation, and financing difficulties. The PRSP Strategy sets goals to meet the target of a BiH “free of the impact of mines” by 2010, including demining of all priority 1 land and marking of all priority 2 land.[65]

Survey and Marking

In 2003, BHMAC carried out general survey on 75.24 square kilometers of land, a similar amount to 2002, but far below the plan to survey 123.3 square kilometers.[66] This brings the total area surveyed since 1998 to 365 square kilometers. In addition, in 2003, 15.88 square kilometers were resurveyed, less than half the total in 2002 (32.71 square kilometers). Some of the re-survey teams were directed to minefield marking and mine risk education. The total reduced area returned to the population in 2003 was 57,433 square kilometers.[67]

Results of general survey in 2003[68]


Surveyed Risk Area
Re-Surveyed Risk Area
Surveyed area without Obvious Risk
Total area surveyed
Square kilometers
24.44
15.88
50.80
91.13
No. of Locations
593
208
392
1193

“Systematic survey” was started by BHMAC in the Federation in 2001, to establish the location, size and boundaries of mine contaminated areas, level of risk and impact on the population. It reduced the suspected area by 50 percent. Systematic survey was started in Republika Srpska in January 2003.[69]

BHMAC has not reported the total area subjected to technical survey in 2003. It reports that technical survey identified 218,000 square meters with “no obvious risk,” but does not report the area identified as in need of clearance. BHMAC reports that there were difficulties in conducting technical survey in 2003, caused by too few appropriate machines and lack of interest by donors to conduct this type of suspect area reduction.[70] BHMAC takes the view that technical survey should be the dominant element, as it helps in clearing suspected land more quickly.[71]

Reduction of mine-suspected area in 2003 (square kilometers)[72]


No obvious risk area reduced by general survey
No obvious risk area reduced by technical survey
Reduction of suspected risk area through clearance
Total area returned to population in 2003
Federation BiH
40.768
0.109
4.430
45.307
Republika Srpska
9.718
0.005
1.446
11.169
Brcko District
0.319
0.104
0.534
0.957
Total BiH
50.805
0.218
6.410
57.433
Percentage of area
88.45
0.37
11.16
100

From January to March 2004, BHMAC survey teams conducted general survey on 303 locations with a total suspect area of 12,775,821 square meters. As a result, 268 locations or 10,370,000 square meters were deemed to be risk areas while 35 of the locations (2,405,821 square meters) were without risk and returned to the local community. In the same period, 210 projects were opened for technical survey covering an area of 14,633,472 square meters.[73]

General survey has been carried out in BiH by the Entity Mine Action Centers and BHMAC since 1998. Technical survey data has been reported since 2000. In previous years, mine clearance has been prioritized on humanitarian and economic factors, which produced three categories of mine-affected area.[74]

The Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) was completed in December 2003. The LIS started in October 2002, with the aim of providing quantifiable, standardized data on the impact of mines and unexploded ordnance on communities. Handicap International carried out the survey, supervised by the Survey Action Center. It was funded by the US State Department, Canada and the European Commission. The survey identified 1,366 municipalities as being mine-affected out of the total 2,935 municipalities surveyed, of which 154 were categorized as high impact, 696 as moderate impact, and 516 as low impact. More than 1.3 million people are affected by mines (100,000 in high impact areas, 550,000 in moderate impact and 650,000 people in low impact areas). A total of 2,134 areas of suspected mine/UXO contamination were identified.[75]

The LIS results were entered on the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) database. BHMAC is testing the value of IMSMA in one regional office to assess how it will work on the national level. BHMAC will use the survey results for future prioritization of mine action.[76]

The permanent marking and fencing of risk areas was initiated by BHMAC in 2002, due to the increased return of refugees. In 2003, 11,063 meters of fencing was put in place (34 percent of what was planned, but an increase from 2002), with 91 marking signs. Some municipalities allocated funds for this purpose in 2002 and 2003.[77] BHMAC commented that UNDP funding provided the material for permanent marking, but municipalities were supposed to provide the people to carry out the marking. Due to financial problems at municipality level, insufficient numbers of staff were employed in 2003.[78] In January–March 2004, BHMAC survey teams put in place 1,184 emergency warning signs.[79]

Alleged lack of minefield marking was the basis of a criminal case started in August 2002 against the former director of the Federation Mine Action Center and the former Head of Civil Protection for Novo Sarajevo municipality. Three children died on 10 April 2000 while playing in an inadequately marked mined area. On 19 April 2004, charges against the two defendants were dismissed.[80]

Mine Clearance

The Mine Ban Treaty requires that Bosnia and Herzegovina clear all mined areas as soon as possible, but not later than March 2009.

In 2003, 6,411,947 square meters of land were cleared, which is an increase from 2002 (6,327,092 square meters) but less than half the planned clearance of 15,210,000 square meters.[81] The BHMAC database records clearance of 1,495 antipersonnel mines (1,532 in 2002), 156 antivehicle mines (251 in 2002), and 1,066 UXO (1,575 in 2002).[82]

Demining operations in 2003[83]

Type of Organization
Area cleared (square meters)
Percentage of plan
Percentage of total
Antipersonnel mines found
Antivehicle mines found
UXO found
Civil Protection
607,777
114.6
10 %
185
2
387
Entity Armies
1,314,610
74.61
21%
327
17
252
Non Governmental
2,396,798
65.41
37%
436
17
359
Commercial
2,092,762
20.28
32%
547
120
68
Total
6,411,947
42.16
100%
1,495
156
1,066

The types of land cleared in 2003 were primarily infrastructure (29 percent), land for repatriation of refugees (28 percent), and agriculture (27 percent).[84] This follows a change in emphasis in 2002; previously, the land prioritized for clearance was housing and electricity lines and substations.

Quality assurance in 2003 involved 3,412 inspections on 292 demining sites. For the 243 sites where work was completed, certificates were issued.[85]

BHMAC reported that from 1996, when official mine clearance started, through 2003, 45 square kilometers of land were cleared.[86] From 1999 to 2003, 32 square kilometers of land were cleared.

Area Cleared 1999-2003 (square meters)>[87]

1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
6,553,479
7,111,682
5,545,005
6,327,092
6,411,947

A total of 15,467 mines of all types have been found in this five-year period (1999: 2,989 antipersonnel mines, 134 antivehicle mines, 1,314 UXO; 2000: 5,797 mines and 3,408 UXO; 2001: 3,113 mines and 2,675 UXO; 2002: 1,532 antipersonnel mines, 251 antivehicle mines, 1,575 UXO; 2003: 1,495 antipersonnel mines, 156 antivehicle mines, 1,066 UXO).[88]

In the Federation entity, 4,430,150 square meters were cleared in 2003 (47 percent of plan), in Republika Srpska 1,446,822 square meters were cleared (31 percent of plan), and in Brcko District 534,975 square meters were cleared (49 percent of plan). Brcko District does not have Entity armed forces to provide demining capacity, but has its own Civil Protection demining team.[89]

In the first three months of 2004, the area cleared amounted to 259,137 square meters. The types of land cleared were predominantly for repatriation and agriculture.[90]

Accreditation of mine clearance organizations has been required since 1999. The number of accredited organizations has not changed significantly, with 38 in 1999 and 37 in 2003. Three categories of organizations are involved: commercial, NGO and governmental (entity armies and civil protection). The proportions of land cleared have changed, with commercial organizations responsible for about 70 percent of clearance in 2000, but only 32 percent in 2003. An increasing proportion of clearance is attributed to NGOs (from 18 percent in 2000 to 37 percent in 2003) and governmental organizations (from ten percent in 2000 to 31 percent in 2003).[91]

The average cost of demining in 2003 was KM3.45 ($2)[92] per square meter for NGOs, KM2.48 ($1.44) for commercial companies, and KM4.31 ($2.5) for government organizations (Entity Armies and Civil Protection).[93] SFOR estimated the cost of military demining operations as KM3.09 ($1.79) per square meter.

A study of mine clearance by military forces highlights the much lower salaries and less adequate training of entity armies in BiH, compared with commercial companies and NGOs. The cost of demining by the entity armies is significantly higher. With 450 personnel, the entity army demining units have almost 40 percent of the total manpower in this sector, but accounted only for 24 percent of the total area cleared in the years up to 2002. However, the military are often involved with clearing the most difficult terrain.[94]

NGOs and Commercial Demining Companies

In 2003, NGOs cleared 2,396,798 square meters (65 percent of plan). Commercial companies cleared 2,092,762 square meters (20 percent of plan). The low clearance figure for the commercial companies was due to lack of funding and the funding preferences of donors, according to BHMAC.[95]

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) has carried out mine/UXO clearance and other mine action projects in BiH since 1996. In 2003, NPA cleared 356,903 square meters and found 52 antipersonnel mines and 132 UXO. Clearance of 450,000 square meters was planned,[96] but cuts in international funding reduced NPA staff from 157 to 131. NPA worked on seven sites in Sarajevo canton, one site in Brcko District and one in Visoko. Six of the projects were completed. Four machines were used in 2003, which carried out ground preparation of 263,520 square meters. Manual teams cleared 308,095 square meters, destroying 49 antipersonnel mines and 121 UXO. The one Mine Detection Dog team (12 dogs and handlers) cleared 48,808 square meters, finding three antipersonnel mines and 11 items of UXO. The one explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team disposed of 185 antipersonnel mines, 19 antivehicle mines, and 12,329 other explosive items.[97] All NPA projects include a task impact assessment. NPA works closely with the Civil Protection and SFOR.

During 2003, the Italian NGO Intersos completed clearance operations in the Famos industrial complex in Sarajevo and other priority tasks in the municipality of Illidza. The project aimed to support the return of refugees through the social and economic stabilization of the area. A total of 96,000 square meters was cleared in 2003. Intersos had one Italian member of staff and 30 local people working on the project. In April 2004, Intersos completed clearance of 40,000 square meters of land in a municipal park in Sarajevo near one of the most important orthopedic rehabilitation centers, which was heavily mined in 1992–1995.[98]

The German NGO Help has been operating in BiH since 1996. The total area cleared from November 1998 to December 2003 was 1,770,699 square meters. This includes 332,000 square meters of agricultural land in Hasici, which was checked and cleared with the mechanical ground preparation machine, Mine Wolf, in 2003. This field-testing of the German-Swiss Mine Wolf machine was funded by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[99]

The Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center reported that in 2003 IMI cleared 55,351 square meters on which it located five antipersonnel mines (and no other mines or UXO), in three projects. In 2002, IMI cleared 169,665 square meters in four projects in Brcko District.[100]

Bosnian NGOs involved in mine clearance in 2003 included STOP Mines, APM, and UG ZOM. STOP Mines carried out five projects in 2003, clearing a total of 328,115 square meters.[101] APM cleared 194,929 square meters in seven projects.[102] UG ZOM demined 443,979 square meters in eight projects.[103]

In 2003, NGOs and commercial companies funded by the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) were responsible for clearing 3,599,266 square meters of land in BiH.[104]

Entity Armies and Civil Protection

In 2003, demining teams of the Entity Armed forces cleared 1,314,610 square meters or 74 percent of plan, compared with 1,341,707 square meters or 24 percent of plan in 2002.[105] In 2003, 338 antipersonnel mines, 10 antivehicle mines and 227 UXO were found. SFOR notes that failure to reach the planned amount of clearance was due in part to problems with the Bozena machines, the mine detecting dogs, and insurance; moreover, in general, the teams are not adequately equipped.[106] When the two Entity armies are merged, as was planned for 2004, the number of demining teams will be reduced from 43 to 30. Despite this reduction, SFOR anticipates greater productivity due to pooling of resources and harmonization of working practices.[107]

Entity Civil Protection demining teams cleared 607,777 square meters or 114 percent of plan in 2003, which was less than in 2002 (679,162 square meters). A total of 185 antipersonnel mines, two antivehicle mines and 387 UXO were found.[108] Commenting on the Civil Protection ability to exceed clearance targets in recent years, BHMAC said that the targets are set conservatively.[109] Republika Srbska Civil Protection teams cleared and technically surveyed 247,460 square meters, Federation teams cleared and technically surveyed 348,372 square meters, and in Brcko Civil Protection cleared 11,944 square meters.[110]

The Federation Civil Protection has 114 deminers in 13 teams, and the RS has 58 deminers in six teams plus an EOD team. Both entities have ground preparation machines and mine detecting dogs.[111] Civil Protection teams were trained and equipped by two commercial companies and the German NGO HELP under various programs from 1996 to February 2003, with EU and Japanese funding.[112]

Several BiH companies produce equipment used in mine clearance. The Famos-Koran company in Pale (RS) has produced two mine clearance vehicles: the FML 100 and FML 200. Ten machines have been produced – eight for use in BiH, one for Armenia and one for Albania. Average daily productivity of the machines is said to be 4,000–8,000 square meters depending on the type of soil and vegetation.[113] The TRZ company in Hadzici produces protective clothing for use by deminers.[114]

Mine Risk Education

BHMAC reported that in 2003 it started to develop a national policy on Mine Risk Education (MRE), and drafted national MRE standards, based on the international standards, in order to develop an accreditation system. It continued with the work, which started in October 2002, of developing coordination, quality assurance/monitoring, and integration of MRE with other sectors of mine action.[115] Casualty statistics indicate that the most at-risk group is male local residents in mine-affected areas involved in farming activities. More than one-third of all mine victims admit to taking risks consciously. Socio-economic information from the Landmine Impact Survey will be used to check and revise prioritization of population groups for MRE.[116]

A total of 461 communities (34 percent of all mine-affected communities) reported receiving some form of MRE in the previous two years. The most common methods were school presentations, posters and signs, and educational brochures. Radio and television each reached only 3–4 percent of all mine-affected communities, and performing groups reached less than one percent.[117]

Organizations carrying out mine risk education in BiH during 2003 include the entity/cantonal ministries of education, BHMAC, Civil Protection, SFOR, UNICEF, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the BiH Red Cross Society, the local NGO Genesis, and international NGOs, including PRONI and the Spirit of Soccer. Norwegian People's Aid also carries out MRE as part of its mine clearance operations.[118]

BHMAC reported that 113,892 people received mine risk education during 2003, from the activities of the BiH Red Cross Society (RS: 33,473, FBiH: 45,047), Genesis (17,714), PRONI (3,520), Spirit of Soccer (7,966), NPA (165), Drina Srebrenica (190), and BHMAC(5,817).[119]

Ministries of Education in both entities provide MRE in the school system for pupils aged seven to 17 years. From two to six hours is spent on the topic per class each year, at the teacher’s discretion. MRE is a mandatory subject in primary schools in five of the ten Federation cantons, and in Brcko District. In Republika Srpska, it will be a mandatory subject in secondary schools during the 2004–2005 school year.[120]

UNICEF provided material or financial support for MRE to BHMAC, the ministries of education, Genesis and PRONI. In 2004, support will also be given to Intersos and the Civil Protection agencies.[121] UNICEF assisted the ministries of education with school-based MRE and disability awareness for young children through interactive and participatory puppet shows and workshops. Discussion groups started with adults but later focused on schoolteachers, who were also given training, supported by UNICEF, in integrating MRE into core education subjects.

BHMAC survey and inspection teams were also engaged in giving MRE in high-risk areas. MRE was directed primarily towards adults and returnees.[122] A series of five-day trainings were given to people who would be conducting MRE in local communities, with a total of 47 participants including 14 SFOR interpreters. During 2003, BHMAC distributed 8,000 MRE notebooks donated by SFOR, calendars prepared in co-operation with UNICEF, and 800 copies of two bulletins. BHMAC also undertook activities to raise the national and international profile of the mine issue.

SFOR provides MRE to its own troops, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, EU Police Monitors and embassy staff. It does not have an MRE program for the civilian population, but accompanies Entity army deminers who carry out some MRE during the winter independent of BHMAC. Since 1999, SFOR has contracted the Moving Theatre (Pokretno Pozoriste), a Sarajevo-based NGO, to run a performance-based MRE program aimed at primary school children. From 1999–May 2004, Moving Theatre undertook 1,758 MRE theatre shows.[123] SFOR interpreters who accompany the SFOR teams monitoring mine clearance were trained in September 2003 to be able to conduct MRE in the winter months, when demining has finished. In June 2003, SFOR’s Mine Information Coordination Cell took part in a three-day BHMAC workshop on MRE. The Cell coordinates all SFOR support to MRE program in BiH.[124]

Genesis has provided MRE to over 60,000 children in the five years up to December 2003. In the first half of 2003, over 6,500 children aged five to 12 years in 72 educational establishments in eastern Republika Srpska were reached. There were also MRE sessions for adolescents and adults, and workshops involving 330 teachers were held to initiate community-based MRE. The method of teaching was participatory action mapping, which was reported to be very successful. Additionally, 600 adults took part in discussions on the impact of mines on their lives, and 3,000 adolescents and 1,200 adults received indirect MRE through pamphlets and brochures. In the second half of 2003, the project “From puppets to empowerment” was initiated in 25 primary schools in both entities. This included developing an integrated peer education approach through selected schools, with training of teachers and development of MRE kits for teachers for future self-sustainable MRE in schools. In total, 13,000 children benefited from this pilot project in 2003. During the Landmine Monitor global research meeting in Sarajevo in May 2004, Genesis gave an MRE presentation for the researchers in front of a class of children.[125]

PRONI is a member of the committee planning MRE strategy that BHMAC hosts. Since June 2003, PRONI has implemented a 12-month MRE project in northeast Bosnia, focused on communities heavily contaminated with mines and UXO. By April 2004, 4,306 residents in 36 communities had received MRE via 12,000 brochures and leaflets distributed, and a message broadcast by three local television stations for a month. Three local volunteers became certified MRE instructors, and five open meetings were held to evaluate the project. PRONI also carried out MRE training for 18 SFOR soldiers in Brcko District, and SFOR personnel observed MRE lessons in three communities in Samac municipality, including the village where five members of a family were killed by a PROM-1 mine while farming their land in March 2003. Following this incident, 155 local people and 268 children were given MRE. In July 2003, PRONI also implemented the MRE component of a mine clearance project in the village of Donja Brka in cooperation with Counterpart International, giving door-to-door presentations to 320 people. In 2004, PRONI started a project to create local MRE capacity in northeast Bosnia.[126]

The BiH Red Cross Society continued MRE activities in 2003 with additional efforts to target returnees, in response to an increase in mine casualties in this group. Over 1,470 MRE presentations and 2,930 group discussions were organized for some 74,535 participants throughout the country. Other activities supported by the ICRC and Red Cross Society led to 428 presentations and 1,821 discussions for 26,771 residents, 830 presentations and 539 discussions for 39,489 children and 218 presentations and 573 discussions for 8,275 returnees. Also, 37,900 people participated in Red Cross-sponsored activities during community sports, cultural and traditional celebrations. The Red Cross especially targets the most at-risk group of males aged 19–39 through programs for farmers, hunters, fishermen, and woodcutters. Specially designed MRE promotional materials such as work gloves, harvest bags and work caps are used. MRE quiz competitions for primary school pupils were held in the second part of 2003, involving 56,336 pupils and with 6,500 pupils in the final audience. The Red Cross is using the Landmine Impact Survey to review its MRE program. The 2002 ICRC-commissioned Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) survey of 1,546 people, published in June 2003, allowed re-orientation of MRE activities.[127] The ICRC plans to hand over complete responsibility for MRE to the BiH Red Cross Society at the end of 2004.[128]

Spirit of Soccer is a British NGO funded by the ITF to implement a program aimed at teaching children about mine risks through playing soccer (football). In 2003, over 3,800 children and their coaches and teachers participated in the program, which continued until April 2004.[129]

In 2004, Handicap International (HI) received funding of €600,000 ($678,900) from Luxembourg for a three-year project to develop sustainable MRE capacity in BiH.[130] The German NGO HELP planned a three-year MRE project starting in August 2004, targeting areas with large numbers of returnees.[131] The Italian NGO, Intersos, planned to implement an MRE project aimed at trade union representatives and workers, funded by UNICEF ($214,879).[132]

In previous years, other organizations carrying out MRE in BiH include the local NGO, APM (Akcija Protiv Mina), in cooperation with HI, the Mountain Roof Associations, Medex, and a network of regional NGOs.[133] Numbers of people receiving MRE have not been reported consistently in previous years.

Mine Action Funding and Assistance

BHMAC estimated that its survey and clearance targets for 2003 would require financing of KM64 million ($37.1 million), of which the BiH government and entities planned to provide KM6.4 million ($3.7 million).[134] In fact, national sources provided a total of KM12,863,853 ($7.46 million) for mine action in 2003. The government provided KM2,941,212 for BHMAC salaries; municipalities and utilities contributed KM9,890,943 for demining and technical survey, and KM37,700 for minefield marking.[135] This was an increase in national funding from KM10,413,563 ($5.06 million) in 2002.[136]

However, BiH remained dependent on international donors for the majority funding of mine action in 2003, as in previous years. There is no comprehensive record of international donations to mine action in BiH. The ITF and UNDP were responsible for nearly $13 million of international funding in 2003 (see below). According to information provided to Landmine Monitor, in 2003, eleven governments as well as the European Commission and NATO provided about US$10.4 million for mine action in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[137]

  • Austria: €382,842 ($433,186) consisting of €342,842 to the ITF for mine clearance, and €40,000 to NPA for mine clearance;
  • Belgium: €26,000 ($29,419) in-kind assistance (four personnel) for disposal of mine and munition stockpiles;
  • Canada: C$1,827,772 (US$1,330,618) for UNDP (US$1.09 million), SAC LIS (US$155,000) and CIDC dog training (US$83,000);
  • Finland: €170,000 ($188,700) to Finnish Red Cross and ICRC for mine risk education;
  • Germany: €1,104,188 ($1,249,389) consisting of €669,502 to the ITF for mine clearance, €349,686 to HELP for mine clearance, and €85,000 to UNICEF for mine risk education;
  • Greece: €1,660,620 ($1,878,991) to the Greek organization International Mine Initiative;
  • Italy: €400,000 ($452,600) to UNDP;
  • Norway: NOK17,856,000 ($2,521,357) to NPA for integrated mine action;[138]
  • Sweden: SEK1.9 million ($235,085) to ITF for integrated mine action;[139]
  • Switzerland: $120,000 to NPA for integrated mine action;
  • United States: $5 million in 2002–2003, and $500,000 in 2003 to the ITF;[140]
  • European Commission: €1,000,000 ($1,131,500) for mine clearance to aid the return of refugees and internally displaced persons and for mine clearance capacity building;[141]
  • NATO – €300,000 ($339,450) for support to Entity army demining teams.[142]Some of these donations were channeled through the ITF, which added matching donations from the US.

The ITF reported allocating $11,773,900 to mine action in BiH in 2003, including donations from various BiH sources.[143] According to BHMAC, the ITF provided funding totaling $16,055,638.[144] Some donations may also have been channeled via the UNDP, which allocated $1,069,122 to BiH in 2003, made up of donations from Canada, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US.[145]

Funding of the BHMAC structure in 2003 totaled KM4,989,511, of which the BiH government contributed KM2,941,213 with UNDP, ITF, UNICEF and the European Commission providing the balance.[146]

For 2004, BHMAC estimated that KM88.26 million ($51.17 million) was required to carry out its mine action plan for the year, of which the State and Entity budgets would provide KM13.239 million ($7.675 million) and international donors would be expected to contribute the balance of KM75.021 million ($43.49 million).[147] In February 2004, BHMAC presented the required funding as some €44 million ($49.786 million) with BiH sources donating €6.6 million and international donors providing €37.4 million.[148]

In previous years, the BiH and entity governments were reliant to an even greater extent on international funding of mine action. A feature of the mine action strategy approved in April 2003 was annual increases in the level of State and Entity contributions, rising from 5.5 percent in 2002 to 10 percent in 2003, with an increase of 5 percent each subsequent year until 2009 when BiH would be responsible for 40 percent of mine action funding; in 2010 this would increase to 70 percent.[149] BiH informed the intersessional Resource Mobilization Contact Group that it had provided mine action funding of $25,988 in 2000, $170,641 in 2001, and $1,328,200 in 2002.[150]

Landmine Monitor has reported mine action funding for Bosnia and Herzegovina totaling $82 million from 1999-2003: $23 million in 1999, $16.2 million in 2000, $16.6 million in 2001, $15.8 million in 2002, and $10.4 million in 2003. The UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) records that international donors contributed over $123 million in the period 1995–2003 (1999–2003: $70 million).[151] These totals may well under-report actual funding. The ITF alone has channeled $53 million to BiH for mine action in the period 1999–2003.[152] The ITF started in 1998 as the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina, before broadening its remit to other mine-affected countries in the region.

Since 1997/1998, the UNDP has assisted in coordinating donor activities and provided financial and in-kind support to the State and Entity mine action centers, in recognition of the weak institutional and financial structure of mine action in BiH. In 2001, there was a severe funding crisis, in part due to lack of donor confidence. In March 2001, UNDP warned that lack of funding would close the mine action structure unless a shortfall of $2.3 million was found. BHMAC reduced staff and demining activities before increased international donations were secured in 2002.[153] In early 2003, the government failed to pay BHMAC salaries and asked the Board of Donors to cover this cost, diverting funds temporarily from mine action operations.[154]

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2003, the cost of making BiH free from the effect of mines by 2010 was set at $334 million.[155] BHMAC’s 2010 strategy estimated the cost as KM634 million, including operations in 2003.[156]

Landmine/UXO Casualties[157]

In 2003, landmine and UXO incidents killed 23 people and injured 31 others, including nine children in BiH, representing a continuing downward trend from 72 new casualties in 2002. The mine incident rate has fallen from an average of 52 casualties per month in 1996, to eight per month in 1999, to 4.5 per month in 2003, to three per month in the first half of 2004. Of the new casualties in 2003, all 54 were civilians; 87 percent were males. Mines were the cause of 30 casualties, 13 were caused by UXO, four by improvised explosive devices, while the cause of seven casualties was unknown.

New mine/UXO casualties continue to be reported in 2004, with six civilians killed and 12 injured as of 1 July. In addition, on 10 July, two military deminers were killed and two others seriously injured while clearing mines near Travnik.[158] On 19 July, one man was killed and another was injured while working in a field near Agici, north of Sarajevo.[159] On 15 August, a woman was killed and two men injured by a mine while collecting herbs near Demirovac in central Bosnia.[160]

Since 1996, the ICRC and the BiH Red Cross Society network throughout the country have collected mine casualty data and provided up-to-date information on landmine and UXO incidents. As of 1 July 2004, the ICRC/RCS database contained information on 4,843 individuals killed or injured by landmines or UXO. Data on mine casualties during the war years, 1992 to 1995, is included in the database; however, it has not been possible to validate this data and it is likely to be incomplete.[161]

Landmine/UXO Casualties – 1992 to 1 July 2004

Year
No. of Casualties

Total
Killed
Injured
1992–1995
3,346
525
2,821
1996
632
110
522
1997
290
88
202
1998
149
60
89
1999
95
38
57
2000
100
35
65
2001
87
32
55
2002
72
26
46
2003
54
23
31
2004 (through
1 July 2004)
18
6
12
Post-War Total
1,497
418
1,079
Total
4,843
943
3,900

The Landmine Impact Survey reports significantly higher casualty figures for the period 1996 to 2001, recording 2,171 mine/UXO casualties as compared to 1,353 recorded in the ICRC database for the same period.[162]

The ICRC statistics indicate that local residents of mine-affected areas, rather than internally displaced persons or returning refugees, suffer the highest number of casualties. Since 1996, 71 percent of mine/UXO casualties were local residents. The population is, in many cases, aware of the existence of mines and the danger they pose, but do not always practice safe behavior, mainly due to the economic necessity of cultivating the land, although other factors also come into play. An ICRC survey conducted in 2002 indicated that 84 percent of foresters/wood collectors and 55 percent of returnees would continue carrying out dangerous activities for work or survival, despite knowing the risks.[163] Of the total casualties reported in 2003, 44 percent had knowledge they were entering an at-risk area. According to the LIS, the typical profile of a mine casualty in BiH is a working-age male killed or injured while collecting wood, farming, or herding his animals.[164]

From 1996 to the end of 2003, of the 1,479 mine/UXO casualties, 90 percent were civilians; 89 percent were males, and 40 percent were aged between 19 and 39 years. Children under the age of 18 accounted for an average of 21 percent of new casualties since 1996; however, this number dropped to 17 percent in 2003. Landmines were the cause of around 62 percent of casualties.[165]

An analysis of type of injuries sustained indicates that from 1992 to July 2004, there were 2,285 amputations, 415 eye injuries sustained, and 2,743 cases of fragmentation wounds to the lower or upper body. These figures do not match the total number of injured because some individuals suffered more than one type of injury.

Survivor Assistance

The governments of FBiH and RS, the international community, and local NGOs continue to work toward alleviating the medical and socio-economic obstacles faced by landmine survivors. However, until 2003 no overall coordination mechanism existed. Each entity has responsibility for the health and social welfare of its population, with further division of responsibilities between the cantons in FBiH. In the past, it was reported that the needs of mine survivors were neglected, their problems were not tackled in a systematic and serious way, and that assistance programs were conducted in isolation, and coordination occurred only on a bilateral basis, which often led to duplication of efforts.[166]

BiH continues to need international assistance and cooperation in the healthcare sector.[167] Between 35 and 50 percent of the health infrastructure was destroyed during the war. In 2001, it was reported that the healthcare infrastructure was inadequate to meet the needs of the population, due in part to a lack of facilities, equipment, medication and essential funds.[168]

BiH has four university clinical centers, in Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar and Tuzla, a network of general hospitals, district hospitals, and a public health center in every municipality. First-aid posts are located in all health centers throughout the country, but there is a lack of well-equipped emergency transport.[169] In the past, it reportedly could take up to three hours for an emergency vehicle to arrive on site after receiving a call.[170]

Between 1998 and 2002, the ICRC worked with local communities to improve the standard of primary healthcare as part of a “healthy cities” program, which included refurbishment of the physical infrastructure.[171] In addition, the World Bank War Victims Rehabilitation Project, completed in December 1999 at a cost of $30 million, supported improvements in the availability and quality of orthopedic and reconstructive surgical services in three clinical centers and four general hospitals, and promoted a Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) approach.[172] The CBR concept has met with partial success, including the establishment of an interdisciplinary team approach to rehabilitation; however, some believe full success will require a change in societal attitudes to persons with disabilities, reform of the health sector, and ongoing training of healthcare professionals and beneficiaries.[173]

In FBiH, there are 38 CBR centers for physical rehabilitation located throughout the Federation, funded through the FBiH Medical Fund. The medical personnel in the centers are reportedly highly qualified. Victims of the war, including mine survivors, are treated free of charge.[174] There are 22 CBR centers in RS.[175] Some hospitals, public health centers, and private centers or spas also provide physical therapy and rehabilitation.[176]

In late August 2002, a joint Canadian/Japanese project to refurbish, supply with equipment and train the staff of 16 CBR centers in RS, and build and equip one new center commenced. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) contributed about $955,000 to the project, while the Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA) contribution will be approximately $8 million. Reconstruction of the CBR centers began in January 2003 and is due for completion by December 2004.[177]

In BiH, there are 13 public orthopedic workshops, eight in FBiH (Sarajevo, Cazin, Fojnica, Livno, Mostar, Travnik, Tuzla and Zenica), four in RS (Banja Luka, Bjeljina, Prijedor and Zvornik), and one in Brcko district, and 14 private workshops. However, the standards of facilities and quality of care is said to vary dramatically across BiH. There are between 60 and 70 orthopedic technicians in BiH, but very few have received training to an international standard.[178] The average distance between amputees and a limb-fitting center is 100 to 150 kilometers.[179] Since 2001, all the prosthetic centers use imported prosthetic components of good quality from Otto Bock, one of the leading producers of orthopedic material in the world. The high cost of prostheses and other assistive devices is said to limit the government’s ability to meet the needs of mine survivors and other amputees.[180]

State-run social welfare centers are located in each municipality and can assist landmine survivors at the local level. However, psychosocial support in BiH is reportedly inadequate and one of the main issues is the lack of understanding among the general population of the rights and needs of persons with disabilities. Thirty-eight CBR centers are located throughout the Federation for psychosocial rehabilitation, funded through the FBiH Medical Fund. Victims of the war, including mine survivors, are treated free of charge.[181]

The ITF has provided US$5,387,264 for mine victim assistance in BiH since 1998: $989,500 in 2003; $661,627 in 2002; $656,850 in 2001; $1,419,814 in 2000; and $1,659,473 in 1998/1999.[182] Donors included Austria, Canada, Denmark, France, Norway, Slovenia, and the United States. Since 1998, 694 mine survivors have been fitted with prostheses and rehabilitated with funding provided by the ITF: 567 at the Institute for Rehabilitation in Slovenia, including 63 in 2003, and 127 at facilities in BiH in 1999 and 2000.[183] The ITF is also funding a project with Adopt-A-Minefield and Elegant Designs and Solutions for the development of low-cost high quality prostheses to be distributed in rehabilitation centers in RS. Successful mechanical trials of the limb have been carried out at Queen’s University in Canada.[184]

Since 2002, Iceland has been donating prosthetic devices to orthopedic centers in Sarajevo, Mostar and Tuzla; 200 were sent in 2004.[185] In early 2004, in a partnership with the Wheelchair Foundation and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 50 wheelchairs were distributed to war-disabled, with another 450 available for distribution through the BiH Red Cross network.[186]

The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) has been active in BiH since 1998 and runs an assistance program for children injured during and after the war, and another program for elderly mine survivors. Based in Sarajevo, the program for children provides medical assistance, rehabilitation including support to obtain prostheses and assistive devices, educational assistance through scholarships, summer camps, and material, psychosocial and legal support. JRS has 330 young mine/UXO survivors registered in their database.[187] In 2003, 179 children, including 75 mine survivors, benefited from the program; 186 children were assisted in 2002, and 173 in 2001. The program for elderly mine survivors, covering the Sarajevo canton, Middle Bosnia, Una Sana and Banja Luka region, assisted 125 people in 2003, including 26 mine survivors, providing medicines, prostheses, rehabilitation treatments and home visits; 86 people were assisted in 2002, and 32 in 2001. JRS also has a computer club and a building renovation program to assist mine survivors and other people with a disability adapt their homes. In 2003, 317 families benefited from the building renovation program, including at least one mine survivor. The programs have been supported by RENOVABIS (Germany), CORDAID, JRS funds, and also UNICEF since March 2003. JRS is assisting the working group on the development of the mine victim assistance strategy in BiH.[188]

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) has been active in BiH since 1997. By 2003, its program had expanded to 12 heavily mine-affected regions of the country: Sarajevo, Tuzla, Doboj, Doboj East, Banja Luka, Mostar, Bugojno, Trebinje, Bijeljina, Velika Kladusa, and Bihac, and Gorazde (started January 2003). LSN community-based outreach workers, who are amputees themselves, work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services, or vocational training. By January 2004, LSN had interviewed 1,416 survivors; of those about 35 percent no longer require direct assistance. If no such services exist, LSN sometimes intervenes to provide direct assistance, including covering the cost of prostheses, house repairs, and emergency food aid. In 2003, 312 people received direct assistance, including 280 mine survivors; 242 people were assisted in 2002. In addition, LSN conducted 6,107 house visits, interviewed 213 mine survivors, made first contact with 221 survivors, and paid 257 hospital visits in 2003. LSN also establishes social support groups and tracks survivors’ progress toward recovery and reintegration. In 2003, LSN organized a number of group art and handcraft exhibitions in which 30 landmine survivors exhibited their work. It released and distributed a revised national directory of organizations providing care and rehabilitation services in BiH.

In 2001-2002, the Rotary Club of Sarajevo sponsored a project, with the Rotary Foundation and the German Rotary Club of Rottaler-Baderdreieck, to provide prostheses and trauma therapy to child landmine survivors. Over 15 months, the $60,900 project provided 23 children with artificial limbs, and 17 others with rehabilitation services. An additional 109 children were identified, medically assessed, and recommended for assistance.[189]

According to statistics from the ICRC, 415 people suffered eye injuries in landmine incidents. The Banja Luka Association for the Blind’s membership includes 57 mine/UXO survivors. However, it would appear that little is being done to address the needs of visually-impaired survivors. In 2001, it was reported that there are only two guide dogs in BiH.[190]

The International Rescue Committee (IRC) has been working in BiH since 1992 and conducts programs for persons with disabilities, including mine survivors, in Konjic, Prozor, Banja Luka, Tuzla and Sarajevo. In Banja Luka, Tuzla and Sarajevo, the IRC program focused on raising awareness of issues relating to disability by conducting a mass media campaign, organizing seminars, and encouraging mine survivors to participate in sports events. In September 2002, the program in Banja Luka closed due to a lack of funding. In a separate project in Banja Luka, the IRC is working on the removal of physical barriers to improve access and mobility for persons with disabilities. The project is funded by the US Department of Agriculture.[191]

The IRC is also working with the Center for Integration of Persons with Disabilities (CIOO) in Tuzla, started in 1998, to raise awareness and advocate for the rights of all persons with disabilities.[192] Another Tuzla-based local NGO advocating for the rights of people with disabilities is the Information Center for Disabled People “Lotos.”

Although not directly targeted at mine survivors, Handicap International is implementing the SHARE-SEE Program in BiH; Self Help and Advocacy for Rights and Equal Opportunities in South East Europe. The program is aimed at raising awareness, strengthening disability organizations, and promoting equal opportunities and the full participation of persons with disabilities in the community. The project is funded by Handicap International and the US Department of State through the ITF.[193]

Queen’s University International Center for the Advancement of Community Based Rehabilitation (ICACBR) had a project, which ended in October 2002, that supported 12 peer counseling groups in BiH linked to existing CBR centers. The project focused on training group leaders and local health professionals on issues ranging from personal counseling and rehabilitation support services, community and family interactions, and self-employment, to the development of sustainable NGO initiatives and economic reintegration of landmine survivors, and other persons with disabilities, into society. In 2002, the program, funded by CIDA, benefited around 1,000 individuals, including about 300 mine survivors. Since the project ended some of the beneficiaries have established NGOs or small businesses, or merged their activities into the work of other organizations.[194]

The NGO, Hope 87, is running two programs for mine survivors, the “Medical and Psychosocial Rehabilitation of Mine Victims in Sarajevo” and the “Rehabilitation and Social Integration of Young People in Sarajevo,” which is due to end in 2004. Hope 87 provides medical treatment at an out-patient clinic, psychosocial support and vocational training in computer skills and languages for about 200 mine survivors and other victims of the war. The programs are funded by the Austrian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Japan International Cooperation Agency.[195] Hope 87 has also established a database of about 1,150 amputees.[196]

In December 2003, the NGO, Udruzenje Amputiraca (UDAS), based in Banja Luka, began a program in RS that includes data collection, facilitating access to prostheses and rehabilitation treatment, psychosocial support, and economic reintegration. In 2003, 44 mine survivors were assisted, including eight referred for prostheses, 20 for crutches, and 12 assisted with house renovation to improve access. UDAS cooperates with LSN and Handicap International and is supported by the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare. The main source of funding is the Banja Luka city council.[197]

The Canadian-based International Children’s Institute, in cooperation with the Ministries of Health and Education, is developing a program to provide psychosocial support to children, and their families, while they are undergoing medical interventions and rehabilitation following a landmine explosion or other traumatic injury.[198]

In FBiH, there are about 50 sports clubs for people with disabilities, including three with women’s teams in Tuzla, Sarajevo and Zenica. There are 18 sitting volleyball clubs, seven men’s wheelchair basketball clubs and one women’s club. FBiH also has three athletic clubs for the disabled and several small football clubs.[199] The Association for Sport and Recreation of Invalids in BiH provides facilities in Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde, Zenica, Una Sana, and Middle Bosnia. Around 10,000 people benefit from the programs, including many mine survivors. Teams have enjoyed international success, including 1st place in sitting volleyball at the World Championships, and 2nd at the Paralympic Games in Sydney in 2000.[200] BiH will participate in the 2004 Paralympic Games in Athens. Eight team members are mine/UXO survivors and will compete in swimming, athletics or sitting volleyball.[201] In 2003, the FBiH government donated KM40,000 ($23,188) to the Association for Sports and Recreation of Invalids in BiH.[202]

Before 2000, there were no organized sporting activities for people with a disability in RS. Now there are around 20 sports associations and clubs, including seven sitting volleyball teams and two wheelchair basketball teams. In 2003 there were chess, wheelchair basketball and wheelchair volleyball tournaments. In RS, the government supports all associations for persons with disabilities according to the Law regulating sport, which stipulates that Municipalities are obliged to support disabled sporting associations from their budget. The RS Secretariat for Sport and Youth has a focal person to promote the issue of sports for people with disabilities. In 2003, the RS government allocated KM75,000 ($43,478) to sports for the disabled, the same amount as in 2002.[203] The main problem faced in both FBiH and RS is the lack of funding to provide suitable facilities and to support activities.[204]

No State-run programs for vocational training have been identified; such programs are implemented through NGOs working with persons with disabilities. High unemployment in BiH has exacerbated the problem of economic reintegration for mine survivors and other persons with disabilities. It is acknowledged that more attention is needed in the area of vocational training.[205] LSN statistics reveal that 31 percent of mine survivors regard the lack of employment opportunities and economic reintegration as their main concern, followed by 24 percent who consider the lack of suitable housing as their main concern.[206]

In Konjic and Prozor, the IRC is working with disability associations providing advice and training on agricultural production, including bee-keeping, cow farming, sheep farming, and land cultivation. In 2002, the program directly assisted 18 disabled persons, including four landmine survivors. The IRC also organized two business management skills workshops for 18 mine survivors. Six other skills retraining courses were organized for 24 mine survivors, who, with assistance from LSN, are now self-employed.[207]

In February 2003, Adopt-A-Minefield, together with its implementing partner STOP Mines, started a three-year income-generation project, “May Life be Sweet,” in ten municipalities of RS. Ten landmine survivors have been trained as bee-keepers and provided with beehives and equipment which will enable them to earn an income from the sale of the honey produced. The project will become self-sustaining through a Common Honey Fund. The program is initially planned to run until September 2005 with a budget of KM45,000 ($26,087) provided by the Annenberg Foundation and STOP Mines.[208]

In 2003, STOP Mines together with the BiH Red Cross societies distributed 105 second-hand computers to mine survivors. The computers were collected by the British company Redbus, and transported to BiH by the British army. In January 2004, STOP Mines also provided food and household goods to 35 mine survivors and their families with money raised from mine clearance activities.[209]

In 2004, two regional governments from Italy, Emila Romagna and Marche, allocated the sum of €3.5 million ($3.96 million) in cash and in-kind to assist in various projects in the health sector in BiH. The funding will also be used to assist the job placement of disabled young people. The project is planned for three years and will be run in Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, Zenica, Bihac and Banja Luka. In addition, training will be provided in state institutions to raise awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities.[210]

According to Dr. Goran Cerkez of the FBiH Ministry of Health, training for healthcare providers should be a high priority.[211] Prosthetic and orthotic technicians reportedly receive no formal training, but are trained at vocational high schools followed by on-the-job training and short-term workshops.[212] Since 1998, 273 specialists from BiH have undertaken rehabilitation training at the Institute for Rehabilitation in Slovenia, with the support of the ITF. In 2003, one physician and two physiotherapists have successfully completed their training, and another four are currently enrolled in the prosthetics and orthotics technology course at the College of Health Studies at the University of Ljubljana.[213] The US-based Center for International Rehabilitation has developed a distance learning training course that is being implemented in cooperation with the FBiH Ministry of Health for prosthetic/orthotic technicians; 23 students from 12 workshops are undertaking the course. The first module was completed in September 2003.[214] Queen’s University International Center for the Advancement of Community Based Rehabilitation has been active in FBiH and RS since 1994 with training of healthcare providers including physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physicians, nurses, community leaders, peer counselors and care givers.[215]

In 2003, BHMAC announced its plans to establish a mine victim assistance coordination group aimed at ensuring that the needs of mine survivors are addressed in a coherent manner, in accordance with national and international policy on disability, and that limited resources are allocated in the most effective way.[216] On 30 September 2003, the first of now-regular meetings of agencies providing mine victim assistance in BiH was convened. The next meeting in November 2003 was attended by 25 government representatives and NGOs. At the meeting a sub-working group was created to develop a long-term mine victim assistance strategy for BiH.[217] The group consists of representatives of the FBiH Ministries of Health and Labor and Social Policy, RS Ministries of Health and Labor, BHMAC, UNICEF and three NGOs: STOP Mines (chair), LSN, and Union of Civilian War Victims. HI provides technical expertise.[218]

The objective of the Landmine Victim Assistance Strategy is to: “Enable landmine victims to achieve full social participation, through strengthening BiH Institutions’ capacities to provide integrated social, medical and vocational services for all persons with disabilities.” The strategy does not consider mine victim assistance as a substitute for existing services, but rather as an integrated part of the overall health and social welfare system for persons with disabilities. The Strategy identifies four priority areas: improvement and harmonization of legislation protecting the rights of all persons with disabilities; strengthening the rehabilitation sector; raising awareness on disability issues as a means to improve accessibility; and, creating opportunities for the employment of persons with disabilities. However, the strategy also stresses the need for a coordination mechanism and the creation of a an information and research department to improve knowledge on the needs of mine survivors and the impact of programs.[219]

While progress is being made in BiH, in general, assistance to mine survivors is inadequate to meet their needs.[220] Two studies on mine victim assistance conducted in 2003 identified several key challenges to providing adequate assistance to mine survivors including: access to appropriate healthcare and rehabilitation facilities; affordability of appropriate healthcare and rehabilitation; improving and upgrading facilities for rehabilitation and psychosocial support; creating opportunities for employment and income generation; capacity building and ongoing training of healthcare practitioners, including doctors, nurses, physiotherapists and orthopedic technicians; raising awareness on the rights and needs of persons with disabilities; establishing an effective social welfare system and legislation to protect the rights of persons with disabilities; improving coordination and referrals between existing services; obtaining sufficient funding to support programs; and supporting local NGOs and agencies to ensure sustainability of programs.[221] The Landmine Victim Assistance Strategy is a first step in addressing these challenges.

Two mine survivors from BiH participated in the “Raising the Voices” training in Geneva in February 2004.

In 2004, BiH submitted the voluntary Form J attachment to its Article 7 Report with details of mine casualties and organizations supporting victim assistance.[222]

Disability Policy and Practice

In BiH, there are four different schemes to support persons with disabilities: the Social Insurance system; the Social Protection system; the Protection of Civilian Victims of War; and the War Veterans system. Laws are enacted at the State and Entity level. In FBiH, once a law has been adopted at Entity level the cantons must then adopt their own laws; therefore the situation varies from canton to canton. Brcko District has it own laws in social protection. However, it has not enacted any specific laws on the rights and benefits of military personnel or civilians disabled by the war. There are significant variations in the level of care and support available between the entities, and between the cantons, due to different levels of economic development and resources, and between civilian and military war-disabled. Difficulties encountered by organizations providing assistance include the lack of State programs for persons with disabilities, different legislations for civilian and military victims, and poor implementation of existing laws.[223]

Civilian mine survivors must pay for their own healthcare or insurance, and receive much lower, and more irregular, compensation for their injuries than military survivors. In RS, pensions for civilian victims of war, including mine survivors, range from KM78–233 (approx. $45–135) per month.[224] In FBiH, pensions range from KM30–300 (approx. $17–170) per month.[225] In some cases, civilians must pay a part of their medical costs and a portion of the costs of their prosthesis, which can be between KM3,000 and KM5,000 (approx. $1,740–$2,900).[226] The costs are prohibitive for many in a country where the average wage is around $880 per year.[227]

In July 2002, the RS Ministry of Health adopted a new public health strategy with an emphasis on reintegration of persons with disabilities, and physical rehabilitation at the community level.[228] The Ministry of Labor and War Veterans (MLWV) provides social support to victims of the war; including both military and civilian mine survivors. In May 2004, the RS Parliament adopted a new law on military and civilian mine victims, to be implemented on 1 January 2005, which is in accordance with World Bank conditions for obtaining credits to administer social welfare.[229] It was reported that, due to budget constraints, the law would be amended to reduce the benefits available as the RS government believed it was preferable to have realistic laws that can be implemented, rather than raise expectations that cannot be met with the available resources.[230] However, according to a media report, benefits for military disabled have increased under the new law.[231] In 2003, the budget for military and civilian victims of the war was KM112 million (approx. US$65 million). Support is provided to 64,556 individuals and families of those killed, including mine victims.[232] In 2003, the RS MLWV provided KM350,000 (approx. $203,000) to NGOs assisting persons with disabilities. For 2004, the RS government has allocated KM117 million (approx. US$67.8 million) from the budget for war veterans and civilian protection.[233]

In FBiH, through the Ministry of War Veterans, a military mine survivor has the right to a free prosthesis every third year, free healthcare and insurance, free treatment in special rehabilitation centers, and compensation for his disability. However, the government reportedly has difficulty balancing needs with available resources. In 2003, the budget for the FBiH Ministry of War Veterans was KM275 million (approx. $159 million), or 22 percent of the total Federation budget. Funds are allocated to each canton for distribution to beneficiaries. Pensions ranged from KM50 to KM745 (approx. $29–$432) per month depending on the level of disability; the same rate as in 1996. Cantons provide additional benefits based on available resources. Support was provided to about 97,976 individuals and families of soldiers killed, including mine victims.[234] In June 2004, a new Law on War Veterans was approved, which, it is claimed, goes a long way in improving the rights of disabled veterans.[235]

In 2000, it was reported that FBiH had agreed to complete the Strategic Framework on Victim Assistance as outlined by the World Health Organization.[236] The Strategic Framework was intended to have political and technical/operational levels. At the technical/operational level, a two-day training session took place in Geneva in January 2000. A plan of action presented at the Second Meeting of States Parties in September 2000 included only the work done by the ministries and not that of NGOs and other international and local organizations; therefore it was not clear where there were gaps in the provision of assistance, from which an effective plan of action could be drawn up.[237] It would appear that no further action was taken on the Strategic Framework.[238]

In 2002, BiH commenced a series of roundtable consultations on an initiative called “Development Strategy for BiH: PRSP [Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper] and Social Protection of People with Disabilities,” involving representatives from FBiH and RS government ministries, disability groups, and NGOs.[239] The final version of the “BiH Medium Term Development Strategy (PRSP) (2004–2007)” was adopted by the Council of Ministers on 5 February 2004 after being adopted by the RS government on 29 December 2003 and FBiH government on 13 January 2004. The strategy incorporates 12 sectors including healthcare, social and pension policy, and mine action.[240] According to the PRSP “the protection of persons with disabilities has significantly deteriorated in the post war period in both entities,” and in the future it would be necessary to harmonize the legal protection of disabled persons in line with international standards and norms.[241] In December 2002, the head of the World Bank mission in BiH stated that “what we would like to do is bring the problem of disabled persons to the development mainstream...to make it an integral part of the development strategy.”[242]


[1] BiH is composed of two entities and an autonomous district: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), Republika Srpska (RS), and Brcko District. An international peacekeeping force–the Stabilization Force (SFOR)–was deployed in BiH. For events leading to the formation of BiH in 1992 and agreements ending the conflict in 1994–1995, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 550–552.
[2] Interview with Mustafa Alikadic, Darko Vidovic, Dragica Stankovic, members of the Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 30 January 2003. Draft legislation was sent to the Council of Ministers on 1 November 1999; see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 587. Another draft law was expected by late 2002; see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 113.
[3] Article 7 Report, Form A, 17 May 2004 (report dated April 2004) (for calendar year 2003).
[4] Interview with Darko Vidovic, BiH Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 28 April 2004.
[5] Email from Amira Arifovic, Counselor, Division for Peace and Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 August 2004.
[6] Email from Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, 23 May 2003. For previous claims by a member of the BiH Mine Action Center regarding the existing criminal law, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 113.
[7] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Bangkok, 15–19 September 2003.
[8] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education, and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 11 February 2004.
[9] See later sections of this report for details of the Reay Group meeting.
[10] See Article 7 reports submitted: 17 May 2004, but dated April 2004 (for calendar year 2003); 1 April 2003 (for calendar year 2002); 20 May 2002 (for the period January 1996–30 April 2002); 1 September 2001 (for the period January 1996–1 September 2001); 1 February 2000, due by 28 August 1999 (for the period 8 March 1999–1 February 2000).
[11] Fax from Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Landmine Monitor, 29 April 2003.
[12] Ibid.
[13] Interview with members of the Demining Commission, 30 January 2003. See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 552-553, 829.
[14] Article 7 Report, Form E, 17 May 2004. The report states that none of the former antipersonnel mine production facilities was located in Republika Srpska. The former production facility at Konjic was not mentioned in previous Article 7 or BHMAC reports.
[15] Interview with Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, 28 April 2004.
[16] In its February 2000 Article 7 report, BiH reported that the conversion or decommissioning of former production facilities would be completed that year. The April 2003 Article 7 report stated “reorganization and reorientation–complete.” See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 116.
[17] Law on the Import and Export of Arms and Military Equipment was approved at State level and entered into force on 15 March 2003. Law on the Manufacture of Arms and Military Equipment was approved at State level and entered into force on the 13 April 2004.
[18] Email from Amira Arifovic-Harms, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 8 April 2004; see also, Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 588-589.
[19] “How Bosnians and Serbs agreed to smuggle weapons,” Slobodna Bosna, 5 July 2003, pp. 9-11.
[20] Email from Maj. Matt Richards, SO Countermines, SFOR, Sarajevo, 18 March 2004.
[21] Possible new use of antipersonnel mines was reported in April, June and December 2000, and in February 2002. See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 623-624, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 115.
[22] Tania Subotic, “Dog beat soldiers at nosing out Bosnia’s weapons, SFOR finds,” Agence France-Presse, 19 February 2004.
[23] Capt. Steve Hawken, ”The sweet taste of Harvest success,” SFOR Informer, no. 171, June 2004.
[24] “NATO peacekeepers collect 120 tons of illegal weapons,” Associated Press, 24 September 2003; “Bosnian Serb civil protection department finds illegal weapons in 76 locations,” Onasa (news agency), 1 December 2003; “NATO discovers missiles in Bosnian weapons stash,” AFP, 3 March 2004; “Bosnian Serb man arrested for hiding large quantity of wartime weapons,” AFP, 25 May 2004.
[25] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 115, and Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 117. Other caches were found in February, March and April 2003.
[26] Article 7 Report, Form G, 1 February 2000. See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 590–591.
[27] Sgt. Kris Dlouhy, “JMA–Blasting Ahead to a safer BiH,” SFOR Informer, No. 165, September 2003.
[28] Email from Col. Tim Knox, SO Countermines, SFOR, 29 April 2004.
[29] Capt. Julian Gumley, “Weapons Storage Sites in BiH,” SFOR Informer, No. 165, September 2003; email from Maj. Matt Richards, SO Countermines, SFOR, 18 March 2004.
[30] Email from Maj. Michael Forster, SO Countermines, SFOR, 24 May 2004.
[31] UN Security Council, “Bosnia: monthly report to the UN on the operations of the Stabilization Force,” 8 December 2003; “Bosnian Serb authorities collect large haul of weapons,” SRNA (news agency), 6 March 2004.
[32] Email from Maj. Michael Forster, SO Countermines, SFOR, 29 April 2004; interview with Richard Dickinson, Chief Countermines/EOD, SFOR, Sarajevo, 11 February 2003. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 624-625, and Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 117.
[33] “SFOR to Monitor Bosnian Serb Arms Auction,” Balkan Times, 9 August 2003.
[34] Article 7 Report, Form D, 17 May 2004. The active mines retained were: PMA-1 (312), PMA-1A (9), PMA-2 (212), PMA-3 (12), PMR-2 (12), PMR-2A (300), PMR-3 (300), PROM1 (912), MRUD (68), PROM KD (9), and “Ap” (49). The RS Army held 2,000 of the active mines, the Federation Army held 146, and Federation Civil Protection held 49.
[35] Article 7 reports, Form D, 1 April 2003; 20 May 2002; and 1 September 2001. The 1 February 2000 report listed 2,165 as of 1 February 2000, not 2,145 as of that date as listed in the subsequent report.
[36] Interview with Richard Dickinson, SFOR, 11 February 2003.
[37] Email from Maj. Matt Richards, SO Countermines, SFOR, 18 March 2004; email from Col. Tim Knox, CO Countermines, SFOR, 29 April 2004.
[38] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, 15-19 September 2003.
[39] Interview with Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 29 April 2004.
[40] Article 7 Report, Form C, 17 May 2004; Article 7 Report, Form C, April 2003.
[41] BHMAC, “Report on Demining and other Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 4; presentation by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education, and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 14 May 2003. In 2002, BHMAC estimated that 4,000 square kilometers were potentially contaminated. “BHMAC Mine Action 2002,” January 2002, p. 2.
[42] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 4.
[43] Ibid.
[44] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 550, 555, Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 625-626, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 116.
[45] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 118.
[46] “UNHCR satisfied with return of refugees to Bosnia,” Deutsche Presse Agentur, 11 February 2004; UNHCR, “UN refugee agency reports 1,415 returns in Bosnia and Herzegovina in February,” 13 April 2004.
[47] International Federation of the Red Cross, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Appeal No. 01.73/3003, Update No. 3,” 5 February 2004; Norwegian Refugee Council, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: 330,000 people still displaced eight years after the peace agreement,” 30 January 2004.
[48] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 114, 117–118.
[49] Survey Action Center, “Draft Bosnia and Herzegovina Landmine Impact Survey,” April 2004, p. 32.
[50] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH for the period January to March 2004,” 31 March 2004.
[51] Statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2004.
[52] Interview with Davin Lisica, BHMAC, and David Rowe, UNDP, Sarajevo, 18 February 2004.
[53] Ibid., 18 February and 7 May 2004.
[54] Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 8 May 2004, and BHMAC, “Draft Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Plan for 2004,” 7 April 2004, pp. 11–12; Presentation by Bosnia and Herzegovina, Reay Group Workshop on the Implementation of the Ottawa Convention, Bucharest, 2–3 February 2004, and “Mine Action in 2003,” BHMAC, 15 April 2003, p. 12.
[55] BHMAC, “Draft MA Plan 2004,” 7 April 2004, p. 13.
[56] Ibid.
[57] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, pp. 5–10. For quality control capacity and procedures, see Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 120.
[58] BHMAC, “Draft MA Plan 2004,” 7 April 2004, pp. 6–9.
[59] Email from Marija Alilovic, Public and Donor Relations Officer, Mine Detection Dog Center, Konjic, 25 February 2004; “Regional MDD Center in Konjic officially opened,” Trust (ITF newsletter), No. 12, December 2003, p. 6.
[60] Interview with Richard Dickinson, SFOR, 11 February 2003.
[61] Ibid. In mid-2001, a Demining Coordination Committee was set up by SFOR to bring together engineering chiefs and experts from all BiH armies and demining organizations, and to integrate their operations.
[62] “UNDP, Update, February 2004.
[63] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 631.
[64] UNDP, “Integrated Mine Action Programme (IMAP),” February 2004; “UN agency project aims to clear landmines from Bosnia and Herzegovina,” UN News Service, 10 March 2004.
[65] Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, “BiH Medium Term Development Strategy (PRSP), 2004–2007, Final Draft,” 11 December 2003, pp. 267-269.
[66] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, pp. 8, 10; BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan 2003,” 15 April 2003, p. 12.
[67] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, pp. 8, 10.
[68] Ibid. BHMAC subtotals for areas surveyed produce a total area surveyed of 91.12 square kilometers.
[69] BHMAC, “Project presentation: Systematic Survey on Mine Impact in Fed BiH,” provided on 28 February 2003; interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 28 February 2003.
[70] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 8.
[71] Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, and David Rowe, UNDP, 18 February 2004.
[72] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p.8.
[73] BHMAC, “Mine Action January–March 2004,” Sarajevo, 31 March 2004, p. 2.
[74] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 634-635.
[75] Executive Summary, “Landmine Impact Survey: BiH,” in email from Mike Kendellen, Director for Survey, Survey Action Center, 14 July 2004. A hectare equals 10,000 square meters.
[76] “Mine action in Bosnia and Herzegovina: history, structure, strategy,” Reay Group Workshop, Bucharest, 2–3 February 2004. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 119, and “Landmine Impact Survey in BiH,” Trust, no. 12, December 2003, p. 3.
[77] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 10.
[78] Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 29 April 2004.
[79] BHMAC, “Mine Action January to March 2004, 31 March 2004, p. 2.
[80] “Who is guilty of the deaths of three children?” Vecernji List (daily newspaper), 22 April 2004, p. 15.
[81] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 9; Article 7 Report, Form F, 17 May 2004. In April 2003, BHMAC reported that it planned to demine 16.3 square kilometers during 2003. Reporting the results of demining in 2003, BHMAC stated that the planned clearance was 15.21 square kilometers, against which all percentages are calculated. BHMAC initially reported that in 2002 it cleared 6,001,392 square meters, but this was later revised to 6,327,092 square meters. Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 29 April 2004; BHMAC, “Action Plan 2003,” 15 April 2003, p. 12; BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 7.
[82] BHMAC, “Draft Summary on Demining Report and Other Countermine Activities for the Year 2003,” March 2004, p. 3; Article 7 Report, Form F, 17 May 2004.
[83] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 9.
[84] Ibid., p. 25.
[85] Ibid., p. 10.
[86] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 11 February 2004.
[87] Clearance data for 2003 is from the BHMAC and Article 7 reports for 2003. Clearance of 6,477,582 square meters in 2003 was reported by the BHMAC Deputy Director on 29 April 2004, with the discrepancy explained by differences in data processing. Figures for 1999-2002 provided by Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 29 April 2004. The Landmine Monitor reported different clearance data in previous years, based on BHMAC reports: 1999: 3,720,000 square meters; 2000: 7,111,000 square meters; 2001: 5,545,005 square meters; 2002: 6,001,392 square meters.
[88] Data taken from previous Landmine Monitor reports. For mine clearance prior to 1999, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 562–564.
[89] Article 7 Report, Form F, 17 May 2004; BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” March 2004, p. 3.
[90] BHMAC, “Mine Action in January-March 2004,” 31 March 2004.
[91] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 9. Data not available for 1999.
[92] The rate between the KM and the Euro was set at 1.95583, as the KM was fixed at parity with the German Mark. This rate is used throughout this report. 2003 exchange rate is €1 = $1.1315, used throughout this report, unless dollar figure given. US Federal Reserve, 2 January 2004.
[93] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 6.
[94] GICHD, “The Role of the Military in Mine Action,” June 2003, pp. 23-55.
[95] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 9. Mine clearance NGOs operating in BiH in 2003 include Norwegian People’s Aid, Intersos, HELP, Counterpart International (which commissioned the BiH company Vilakol), European Landmine Systems, and the local NGOs, STOP Mines, APM and UG ZOM.
[96] Email from Per H. Breivik, Bosnia Operations Manager, NPA, 21 July 2004.
[97] Email from Per H. Breivik, Bosnia Operations Manager, NPA, 25 February 2004; interview with Per H. Breivik, Sarajevo, 20 February 2004; email from Damir Atikovic, Assistant Program Manager, NPA, Sarajevo, 24 March 2003.
[98] Email from Simona Beltrani, Italian Campaign to Ban Landmines, with input from Valentina Crini, MRE Expert and Fernando Termentini, MAU Technical Director, Intersos, 14 April 2004.
[99] HELP, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: HELP test MineWolf,” Press Release, 23 September 2003.
[100] BHMAC, ” Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, Annexes 2 and 3.
[101] Response to LM Questionnaire from Radisav Zivkovic, President, STOP Mines, 15 February 2004.
[102] Faxes from Nihad Susnjar, Administrator, APM, 7 and 15 April 2004.
[103] Email from Fadil Hasanagic, Program Manager, UG ZOM, 1 June 2004.
[104] ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 26.
[105] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p.10. The low achievement in 2002 was attributed to a decrease in army numbers and non-delivery of expected donations of equipment. Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 123.
[106] SFOR Demining Co-Ordination Centre, “AF’s B&H Demining Report for 2003,” Sarajevo, p. 3; email from Major Matt Richards, SFOR, 14 April 2004. These figures are similar to those given in the BHMAC 2003 report.
[107] Email from Major Matt Richards, SFOR, 1 April 2004.
[108] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 9.
[109] Interview with Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 18 February 2004.
[110] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, Annex 3.
[111] Email from Branko Grabez, Deputy Director for mine clearance, Civil Protection, Republika Srpska, 17 March 2004; BHMAC, “Review of currently available material and human resources for demining in 2003,” 29 April 2004, Annex 1.
[112] Letter from Michael B. Humphreys, Ambassador, Delegation of the European Commission to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, March 2003; “Mine Clearance,” Kathimerini (Greek daily newspaper, English internet edition), 28 November 2002.
[113] Email from Radosav Zivkovic, President, STOP Mines, Pale, 8 July 2004; faxes from Rajko Cicovic, Director, Famos-Koran, Pale, 23 June and 9 July 2004.
[114] Fax from Bajro Ramic and Azra Ajetovic, TRZ Hadzici, 9 July 2004.
[115] “Presentation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Reay Group Workshop, Bucharest, 2-3 February 2004; BHMAC, “Draft MA Plan 2004,” 7 April 2004, pp. 15-16.
[116] BHMAC, “Draft MRE Plan for 2003,” pp. 5-8, provided by Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 28 February 2003.
[117] Survey Action Center, “Draft BiH Landmine Impact Survey,” April 2004, p. 50.
[118] Email from Per H. Breivik, Bosnia Operations Manager, NPA, 25 February 2004; interview with Per H. Breivik, Sarajevo, 20 February 2004.
[119] Email from Dinko Sijercic, BHMAC, 28 May 2004. Details of the MRE carried out by Drina Srebrenica have not been reported.
[120] Email from Michelle Blatti, Cooperation Delegate, ICRC, Sarajevo, 4 June 2004.
[121] Email from Natalie Prevost, Mine Risk Education Adviser, UNICEF BiH, April 2004.
[122] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” 7 April 2004, pp. 11–12. From 1996–1999, the Moving Theatre MRE program was sponsored by UNICEF.
[123] Fax from Sead Arslanagic, Director, Moving Theatre (Pokretno Pozoriste), 22 May 2004.
[124] “SFOR Supports Efforts of BHMAC,” Press Release, 18 June 2003; “SFOR Interpreters Trained in Mine Risk Education,” Press Release, 18 October 2003; email from Maj. Matt Richards, SFOR, 18 March 2004.
[125] Email from Dijana Pejic, Program Manager, Genesis Project, Banja Luka, 3 February 2004.
[126] Email from Zehrudin Sukanovic, MRE Team Coordinator, PRONI, Brcko, 6 April 2004.
[127] Email from Michele Blatti, ICRC, 26 April 2004; KAP Survey, ICRC/RCSBiH, June 2003, p. 5.
[128] ICRC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Special Report on Mine Action 2003, p. 39.
[129] ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 42.
[130] Email from Melissa Sabatier, Administrator, HI, Sarajevo, 26 March 2004.
[131] Email from Aleksandra Milosevic, Project Assistant, HELP, Sarajevo, 21 April 2004, and interview with Roland Zimmermann, Demining Project Coordinator, and Aleksandra Milosevic, HELP, Sarajevo, 19 February 2004.
[132] Email from Simona Beltrani, Italian Campaign to Ban Landmines, with input from Valentina Crini, MRE Expert and Fernando Termentini, MAU Technical Director, Intersos, 14 April 2004.
[133] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 641–642, Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 124, Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 125. Other local NGOs are noted in Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 561–562.
[134] BHMAC, “Demining Strategy for BiH,” 15 April 2003, p. 12.
[135] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” pp. 6-7. These amounts total KM12,869,855. The discrepancy is not explained.
[136] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2002,” 15 April 2003, p. 6. Exchange rate in 2002: $1 = KM2.058.
[137] Unless otherwise noted, information comes from the individual country reports in this edition of Landmine Monitor Report. In some cases, the funding was for the country’s fiscal year, not calendar year 2003. Landmine Monitor has converted the currencies and rounded off numbers.
[138] For 2003 funding, exchange rate was $1=NOK7.0819. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2004.
[139] For 2003 funding, exchange rate was $1 = SEK8.0822. US Federal Reserve, 2 January 2004.
[140] Mine Action Investment Database, Current & Planned Donor Activity for US.
[141] The EC allocated €1 million in 2003, but BiH received the 2002 allocation of €2.3 million, including €1.5 million for clearance and €800,000 for the LIS. BHMAC reports receiving KM4,907,212 ($2,844,761) for Civil Protection demining teams. BHMAC, “Mine Action 2003,” p. 6.
[142] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” p. 6.
[143] ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 21; email from Sabina Beber, Head of International Relations, ITF, 27 February 2004.
[144] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” p. 6. ITF funding was reported by BHMAC as €12,262,866, $2,148,901 and KM54,000.
[145] Email from Seid Turkovic, Manager, Institutional Capacity Building Portfolio, UNDP, Sarajevo, 19 March 2004.
[146] BHMAC, “Mine Action in 2003,” Annex 5.
[147] BHMAC, “Draft MA Plan 2004–draft,” p. 9.
[148] Presentation by BiH,” Reay Group Workshop, Bucharest, 2–3 February 2004.
[149] BHMAC, “Demining Strategy Plan for BiH,” 15 April 2003, p. 12.
[150] Resource Mobilization Contact Group, “A review of resources to achieve the Convention’s aims,” presented by Norway at the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 25 June 2004.
[151] Mine Action Investment Database, “Multi-year Recipient Report: Bosnia and Herzegovina,” www.mineaction.org , accessed on 12 August 2004.
[152] Email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 13 May 2004.
[153] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 631, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 119.
[154] Interview with Seid Turkovic, UNDP, 18 March 2003.
[155] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, 15-19 September 2003.
[156] BHMAC, “Demining Strategy Plan for BiH,” 15 April 2003, p. 12.
[157] Unless otherwise stated, information is from ICRC/BiHRCS, “Mine Victim Statistics: BiH,” 26 April 2004, and emails from Michele Blatti, ICRC, 11 June and 12 July 2004.
[158] “Two Federation Army deminers die in central Bosnia military plant,” TV Hayat, 10 July 2004.
[159] “Father, son latest victims of land mines left over from Bosnian war,” Associated Press, 20 July 2004.
[160] “Landmine explosion kills mother of three,” Deutsche Presse Agentur, 16 August 2004.
[161] Interview with Mustafa Sarajlić, Mine Awareness Assistant, ICRC, Sarajevo, 26 March, 2003.
[162] Executive Summary, “Landmine Impact Survey: BiH,” provided 14 July 2004.
[163] ICRC, “Detailed Slide Handouts Mine Awareness Briefing,” Sarajevo, 15 July 2003, provided in email from Michele Blatti, ICRC, 14 August 2003.
[164] Executive Summary, “Landmine Impact Survey: BiH,” provided 14 July 2004.
[165] “Mine Victim Statistics: BiH,” email from Michele Blatti, ICRC, 27 February 2003.
[166] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 649; see also “Mine Action Strategy for BiH: Landmine Victim Assistance sub-strategy,” Strategic sub-working group for Landmine Victim Assistance in BiH, Final Version, June 2004, p. 3.
[167] UNDP, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: Human Development Report 2002,” Sarajevo, p. 60; Handicap International and UNICEF, “Landmine Victim Assistance in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” December 2004, p. 4.
[168] UNHCR, “Healthcare in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Context of the Return of Refugees and Displaced Persons,” Sarajevo, July 2001; Dr. Goran Cerkez, Assistant Minister for International Co-operation, Development and Information Technology, FBiH Ministry of Health, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: mine victims assistance,” presentation at the ITF Workshop on Assistance to Landmine Survivors and Victims in South-Eastern Europe: Defining Strategies for Success, Ig, Slovenia, 1 July 2002.
[169] For more details see HI and UNICEF, “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003, pp. 21-25.
[170] UNHCR, “Healthcare in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” July 2001.
[171] Interview with Michele Blatti, and Mustafa Sarajlic, Mine Awareness Assistant, ICRC, Sarajevo, 26 March, 2003.
[172] “War Victims Rehabilitation Project,” World Bank Reconstruction and Development Program in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Progress Update, May 2001, p. 41.
[173] Professor Bozo Ljubic, Professor Nadezda Zjuzin, Dr. Zdravko Trolic, and Dr. Goran Cerkez, “Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR): A Modern and Efficient War Victims Rehabilitation Concept,” presentation to the Third ISPO Central and Eastern European Conference, Dubrovnik, 23-25 October 2002.
[174] Letter from Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 17 April 2003.
[175] Letter from Dr. Martin Kvaternik, RS Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Banja Luka, 20 February 2003.
[176] For more details, see HI and UNICEF, “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003, pp. 25-29.
[177] Email from Michele Monette, Information Officer, Communications Branch, CIDA, 13 January 2003.
[178] For more information see “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003, pp. 30-34.
[179] Final Report on the MOPS Research Phase, EdaS, 9 October 2001, pp. 8-9.
[180] Letter from Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 17 April 2003.
[181] Ibid.
[182] Emails from Sabina Beber, ITF, 13 May 2004 and 18 June 2003; email from Eva Veble, Head of Department for International Relations, ITF, 24 June 2002.
[183] ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” pp. 27 and 41; email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 19 May 2004.
[184] ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 41; email from Megan Burke, Program Manager, Adopt-A-Minefield, New York, 28 August 2003; email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 18 June 2003.
[185] Telephone interview with Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 30 May 2004.
[186] Email from Michele Blatti, ICRC, 26 April 2004.
[187] Fr. Danijel Koraca SJ, “Projection of Needs for Mine Victims for the Next 10 years, Children Mine Victim Assistance Program (Bosnia and Herzegovina),” 30 October 2003, p. 3.
[188] Article 7 Report, Form J, 17 May 2004; interview with Fr Zdeslav Sucur SJ, National Director, and Sanja Miletic, Database Manager, JRS, Sarajevo, 17 February 2004; responses to LM Questionnaire, JRS, 29 January 2004, 30 January 2003 and 22 February 2002; emails from Sanja Miletic, JRS, Database Manager, 26 and 27 February 2004; interview with Danijel Koraca, JRS, 26 March 2003; JRS, “Annual Report for Mine Victims Assistance Program 2002,” 23 December 2002.
[189] “Bosnian landmine victims receive prostheses and therapy,” Reliefweb, 18 December 2002.
[190] Final Report on the MOPS Research Phase, EdaS, 9 October 2001, p. 11.
[191] Email from Sarah Saleh, Grants Manager, International Rescue Committee, 16 March 2004; interview with Dragan Tatic, Country Director, IRC, and Sarah Saleh, Sarajevo, 17 February 2004; interview with Dragan Tatic, 27 March 2003; response to LM Questionnaire, March 2003.
[192] Interview with Dragan Tatic, IRC, 27 March 2003.
[193] Information distributed by HI, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[194] Djenana Jalovcic, Senior Program and Administrative Officer, ICACBR, response to LM Questionnaire, 8 January 2003; email from Djenana Jalovcic, Associate Director, ICACBR, 2 February 2004.
[195] Email from Fikret Karkin, Director, Hope 87, Sarajevo, 4 March 2004; interview with Fikret Karkin, Sarajevo, 2 June 2003; response to LM Questionnaire, 8 July 2003.
[196] HI and UNICEF, “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003, p. 38.
[197] Response to LM Questionnaire, Aleksandar Kecman, Communications Manager, UDAS, Banja Luka, 15 April 2004.
[198] Email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 18 June 2003; see also www.icichildren.org .
[199] Email from Plamenko Priganica, Director, Landmine Survivors Network in BiH, 25 January 2002.
[200] Interview with Husein Odobasic, President, Association for Sport and Recreation of Invalids in BiH, Sarajevo, 27 March 2003.
[201] Email and telephone interview with Hrvoje Rebic, General Secretary, BiH Paralympic Committee, Sarajevo, 18 March and 19 May 2004.
[202] Telephone interview with the General Secretary, Association for Sport and Recreation of Invalids in BiH, Sarajevo, 1 June 2004.
[203] Fax from Novak Grbic, focal point for sports for the disabled, RS Secretariat for Sport and Youth, Banja Luka, 11 May 2004; telephone interview with Novak Grbic, 24 May 2004; letter from Novak Grbic, 11 March 2003; interview with Novak Grbic, Banja Luka, 31 March 2003.
[204] Interview with Husein Odobasic, Association for Sport, 27 March 2003, interview with Novak Grbic, RS Secretariat, 31 March 2003.
[205] Interview with Halil Plimac, Deputy Minister, FBiH Ministry of War Veterans, Sarajevo, 2 April 2003.
[206] Interview with Plamenko Priganica, LSN BiH, 3 April 2003, and email dated 18 August 2003.
[207] Interview with Dragan Tatic, IRC, 27 March 2003; response to LM Questionnaire, March 2003.
[208] Response to LM Questionnaire, Radosav Zizkovic, President, STOP Mines, Pale, 15 February 2004; email from Megan Burke, Adopt-A-Minefield, 28 August 2003.
[209] Email from Radosav Zizkovic, STOP Mines, 22 March 2004; response to LM Questionnaire, 15 February 2004.
[210] Email from Andrea Biagini, First Secretary, Italian Embassy, Sarajevo, 25 May 2004.
[211] Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, “Bosnia and Herzegovina: mine victims assistance,” presentation at the ITF Workshop, Slovenia, 1 July 2002.
[212] Laura Hamilton, “Education needs of prosthetic technicians in Bosnia,” presentation at the ITF Workshop, Slovenia, 1 July 2002.
[213] Email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 20 May 2004; ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 27.
[214] Letter from Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 17 April 2003; HI and UNICEF, “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003, p. 34.
[215] Information on all projects available at meds.queensu.ca/icacbr.
[216] “Mine Action Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina – draft,” p. 15 (document provided by Dusan Gavran, Director, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 10 January 2003); “Draft MRE Plan for 2003,” p. 7 (document provided by Darvin Lisica, BHMAC, 28 February 2003.
[217] BHMAC, “Mine Action 2003,” 7 April 2004, p. 28.
[218] Statement by BiH, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva 23 June 2004; see also “Victim Assistance sub-strategy,” June 2004, p. 3.
[219] For full details of the strategy see “Victim Assistance sub-strategy,” June 2004.
[220] Interview with Mustafa Karabasic, President, Federal Union of Civilian Victims, Sarajevo, 27 March 2003.
[221] For more information on mine victim assistance in BiH see HI Belgium, “Landmine Victim Assistance in South East Europe,” Brussels, September 2003; HI and UNICEF, “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003.
[222] Article 7 Report, Form J, 17 May 2004.
[223] For more details see HI and UNICEF, “Victim Assistance in BiH,” December 2003, pp. 9–20.
[224] Interview with Radomir Graonic, Assistant to RS Minister of Labor and War Veterans, Banja Luka, 1 April 2003.
[225] Interview with Mustafa Karabasic, President, Federal Union of Civilian Victims, Sarajevo, 27 March 2003.
[226] Email from Plamenko Priganica, LSN BiH, 25 January 2002.
[227] Final Report on the MOPS Research Phase, EdaS, 9 October 2001, p. 8.
[228] Interview with Dr. Milan Latinovic, Assistant to RS Minister of Health, Banja Luka, 1 April 2003.
[229] Fax from Branka Sljivar, Public Relations Officer, RS Ministry of Labor and War Veterans, Banja Luka, 21 May 2004.
[230] Interview with Radomir Graonic, Assistant to RS Minister of Labour and War Veterans, Banja Luka, 1 April 2003.
[231] “From 2005, the most disabled (military invalids) will receive is KM 1,313,” Dnevni List (daily newspaper), 14 May 2004, p.18.
[232] Interview with Radomir Graonic, Assistant to RS Minister of Labour, 1 April 2003.
[233] Fax from Branka Sljivar, RS Ministry of Labour and War Veterans, 21 May 2004.
[234] Interview with Halil Plimac, FBiH Ministry of War Veterans, 2 April 2003.
[235] Telephone interview with Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 30 May 2004; Law on War Veterans, Official Gazette of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, No. 33/04, 19 June 2004.
[236] Interview with Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, Sarajevo, 7 March 2000.
[237] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 649.
[238] Handicap International Belgium, “Landmine Victim Assistance in South East Europe,” Brussels, September 2003, p. 36 (online version).
[239] Interview with Haris Mesinovic, Consultant, Office of the BiH Coordinator for PRSP, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations, Sarajevo, 4 April 2003; “Development Strategy BiH – PRSP: Second Draft for Public Discussion,” Sarajevo, 30 May 2003.
[240] “BiH Medium Term Development Strategy (PRSP) 2004–2007,” available at

www.bih.prsp.info/knjiga/ZA-WEB/english/index2.htm , accessed on 14 July 2004.
[241] “BiH Medium Term Development Strategy (PRSP), 2004–2007,” Final Draft, Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Development, Sarajevo, 11 December 2003, p. 169.
[242] World Bank, “World Bank, UNDP and Invalid and Disabled Persons Associations Discuss Social Issues as a Part of Development Strategy for PRSP,” Press Release, Sarajevo, 11 December 2002.