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Country Reports
Cambodia, Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: In 2003, a total of 41.7 million square meters of land was cleared, including 60,626 antipersonnel mines, 1,096 antivehicle mines and 118,307 UXO. This was 20 percent more land cleared than in 2002, and the largest annual total ever. Mine risk education was provided to at least 600,000 people. Cambodia has served as the co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies since September 2003. A national workshop, “Mine/UXO Risk Reduction in Cambodia: The Way Forward,” was held in June 2003. Cambodia adopted landmine clearance as a Millennium Development Goal. An additional 9,207 stockpiled antipersonnel mines were reported found and destroyed in 2003. Cambodia has developed a strategic plan for victim assistance for the period 2004-2009. In 2003, 772 new landmine and UXO casualties were reported in Cambodia, including 115 killed and 657 injured. In the first six months of 2004, there were 671 new mine/UXO casualties recorded, showing the first upward trend in many years.

Key developments since 1999: Cambodia ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 28 July 1999 and it entered into force on 1 January 2000. Treaty implementation legislation took effect 28 May 1999; the new law created the National Demining Regulatory Authority to coordinate activities related to the mine problem. In September 2000, a new coordinating body, the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority, was established. Although Cambodia declared in 1999 that it had destroyed all of its 71,991 stockpiled antipersonnel mines, thousands of stockpiled mines are newly discovered and destroyed each year.

Cambodia served as co-chair of the Standing Committee of Experts on Technologies for Mine Clearance from May 1999 to September 2001, and as co-rapporteur and then co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies from September 2002 to December 2004. Cambodia hosted a regional seminar “Building a Co-operative Future for Mine Action in South East Asia” in March 2003.

The Cambodia Landmine Impact Survey was completed in April 2002 and revealed that nearly half of all villages are either known or suspected to be contaminated by mines or UXO. Nearly 252 million square meters of land were cleared from 1992 to 2003, and more than 146 million square meters from 1999 to 2003. The Land Use Planning Unit was established in May 1999. The Cambodian Mine Action Center faced a funding crisis that resulted in the lay-off of most CMAC employees and the temporary closure of the bulk of demining operations in October 2000. Between 1999 and 2002, about 2.1 million people attended Mine Risk Education sessions.

Since 1999, more than 28,000 prostheses were produced and fitted—the majority for mine survivors. New programs to address the socio-economic reintegration of mine survivors and their families have been implemented. However, the number of physical rehabilitation centers declined from 15 in 1999 to eleven in 2004. Between 1999 and August 2004, 5,128 new mine/UXO casualties have been recorded in Cambodia. The mine/UXO casualty rate declined from an average of 12 new casualties a day in 1996, to three a day in 1999, to two a day from 2000 through 2003. However, in the first eight months of 2004 the rate increased again to an average of almost three casualties a day.

Mine Ban Policy

Cambodia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997 and ratified it on 28 July 1999. It entered into force for Cambodia on 1 January 2000. Domestic implementation legislation—the Law to Prohibit the Use of Anti-Personnel Mines—entered into force on 28 May 1999.[1] The law provided for the creation of the National Demining Regulatory Authority to coordinate activities related to the mine problem. Cambodia was one of the earlier supporters of a comprehensive ban on antipersonnel landmines and was an active participant in the Ottawa process since the beginning. Cambodia has voted in favor of every UN General Assembly resolution promoting a mine ban since 1996.

Cambodia has participated in all annual Meetings of States Parties to the Mine Ban Treaty, and all intersessional meetings. At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2003 Cambodia, along with Japan, became co-chair of the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, having served as co-rapporteur the previous year. In its role of co-chair, Cambodia has supported the development of the “4Ps approach” (Problems, Plans, Progress, and Priorities), aimed at measuring mine action progress and assessing challenges remaining for full implementation of Article 5 (mine clearance) of the Mine Ban Treaty. With the assistance of the Implementation Support Unit, background information on more than 40 mine-affected States Parties has been compiled.[2] Cambodia was co-chair of the Standing Committee on Technologies for Mine Clearance from May 1999 until September 2000.

Cambodia participated in the Bangkok Regional Action Group (BRAG), which was formed by States Parties from the Asia-Pacific region in September 2002 with the aim of promoting landmine ban initiatives in the region in the lead up to the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in Bangkok. Cambodia hosted a regional seminar on “Building a Co-operative Future for Mine Action in South East Asia” in Phnom Penh from 26-28 March 2003. Representatives from South East Asia, China, Timor-Leste, and Sri Lanka, as well as donor countries, participated in the seminar.

Cambodia submitted its annual Article 7 transparency report on 30 April 2004, for calendar year 2003. The report includes voluntary Form J reporting on mine and unexploded ordnance (UXO) casualties and landmine survivors rehabilitation. This is its fifth Article 7 report.[3]

Cambodia has not engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2, and 3. Thus, Cambodia has not made known its views on issues related to joint military operations with non-States Parties, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training.

Cambodia is a State Party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) since 27 March 1997 and participated in the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties on 26 November 2003.

In February 2004, the Royal Government of Cambodia adopted landmine clearance as an additional Millennium Development Goal for Cambodia—a new ninth goal in addition to the eight goals adopted by the United Nations.[4] At the National Conference on Mine Action Achievements of CMAA (Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority), Prime Minister Hun Sen stated, “Landmines not only limit our access to natural resources, especially land, but landmines also cause the rural people to abandon their homelands and resettle in the urban areas. Such migration has worsened the problem of overpopulation, social and environmental degradation, especially in the urban areas. The poor and vulnerable people are often left with no option but risking their lives by working the mined areas.  Indeed, the issue of mine clearance relates not only to social security, but also to economic growth and development in general, since it relates to land distribution and the provision of safety nets for poor farmer-households in the remote rural areas.”[5]

The Cambodia Campaign to Ban Landmines (CCBL) has been an active advocate of the Mine Ban Treaty goals and the mine survivors needs. In 2003 and 2004, the CCBL continued to promote campaign initiatives at the regional and at the international level. During the year the CCBL hosted journalists, filmmakers, organizations and campaigners from other countries, including Singapore, that were interested in promoting the treaty goals. For the Fifth Meeting of the States Parties, a delegation of Cambodian campaigners, including ten survivors, traveled to Bangkok and on their way they rallied in support of the Mine Ban Treaty and released the Landmine Monitor Report 2003 in various provincial towns.

ICBL Ambassador Tun Channareth and Greg Priyadi visited Indonesia twice, and held meetings with top officials of government and the military who promised to ratify the treaty. Youth Ambassador Song Kosal promoted youth campaign initiatives in various countries.

From 26-29 April 2004, a Cambodian ICBL delegate participated in the Mine Action Conference in Kumning, China organized by China and the Australian Network of the ICBL, and called on China to come to the Nairobi Review Conference as a State Party.

Production, Transfer and Use

Since 1999, there have been no specific allegations of use, production or transfer of antipersonnel mines by government forces or any opposition forces. Cambodia reported that it does not have any antipersonnel mine production facilities.[6] The Cambodian government manufactured one type of antipersonnel landmine, the KN-10 Claymore-type mine, in the 1970s and various forces manufactured homemade mines in the past. Over the years, many landmines crossed the borders of Cambodia, though it is difficult to know which mines were imported by the Cambodian government, by opposition forces, and which were simply brought to Cambodia by foreign armies. Since October 1994, Cambodia has maintained a formal position against the import and export of antipersonnel mines. The Cambodian government is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines in the past.[7]

Landmines were first laid in Cambodia in the mid-1960s, as Cambodia began to be drawn into the Indochina War. During the Democratic Kampuchea regime from 1975 to 1979, the Khmer Rouge used landmines extensively both for military purposes and as an instrument of control over the civilian population. Use of mines intensified during the civil war that followed the overthrow of the Khmer Rouge, and continued well into the 1990s. There were reports and allegations of use of mines by the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces and the Khmer Rouge up to 1998. The northwestern provinces became the main battlefield in Cambodia. Mines were often laid in the same area by different factions, resulting in densely mined fields with little form or order. In late 1984, in an attempt to seal the border, a 700-kilometer mine belt known as K5 was laid, with an estimated two to three million mines, running from the southwestern coast of Cambodia up to the Thai border with Laos.

Stockpiling and Destruction

The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) destroyed 71,991 stockpiled antipersonnel mines in the period from 1994 to 1998. In February 1999 the RCAF Deputy Commander in Chief formally stated that the RCAF no longer had stockpiles of antipersonnel landmines.[8] In 2000, Cambodia reported a stockpile of 2,034 antipersonnel mines held by the National Police.[9] Cambodia has subsequently declared that there have been no antipersonnel stockpiles in the country since 2001.[10] However, police and military units find caches of weapons including antipersonnel mines regularly throughout Cambodia.[11] Newly discovered antipersonnel mine stocks are to be reported to CMAA and handed over to the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) for destruction.

In its April 2004 Article 7 report, Cambodia reported that from 2000 to 2003, a total of 74,544 antipersonnel mines were discovered and destroyed, including 9,207 in 2003.[12] This was a dramatic increase in the numbers previously reported—the April 2003 Article 7 report indicated a total of 15,567 had been destroyed from 2000-2002. When asked about this surprising revelation, CMAA said that the 74,544 figure was likely a mistake, and may include destruction of some mines from mined areas.[13] Subsequently, CMAA provided revised totals to Landmine Monitor: a total of 38,812 stockpiled antipersonnel mines discovered and destroyed from 2000-2003, including 8,739 in 2000; 7,357 in 2001; 13,509 in 2002; and, 9,207 in 2003.[14]

The discovery and destruction of antipersonnel mines has not been consistently or completely reported in previous Article 7 reports. The June 2000 Article 7 report noted CMAC’s destruction of 13,407 mines from 1997 to 2000, but did not distinguish between antipersonnel and antivehicle mines.[15] The June 2001 report said CMAC destroyed 11,417 newly discovered mines in 2000.[16] The April 2002 report said 533 newly discovered mines were destroyed in 2001, and another 3,165 in January 2002.[17] In its April 2003 report, Cambodia stated that since the formal completion of stockpile destruction in 1998, Cambodia had found an additional 17,100 antipersonnel mines; 15,567 of those had been destroyed and 1,533 had been used in training.[18]

Village demining contributes to the large number of newly discovered stocks of mines, as does the scrap metal trade. A metal trader in Kampong Thom province told Landmine Monitor that in 2003 he bought 200 tons of old weapons, including obsolescent mines. In turn, he traded with Poipet dealers who sold the metal to Thailand. In some cases the collectors and traders are injured or killed.

In response to the allegation that good quality antipersonnel mines are still kept in military regional stores,[19] CMAA checked with the regional command of the RCAF in Military Region 5 (Battambang) and received confirmation that no antipersonnel mines are stocked in the Regional 5 Storehouse.[20] Landmine Monitor has asked CMAA to visit all regional military storehouses before the Nairobi Review conference to verify the absence of any stockpiled antipersonnel mines. In February 2002, the Prime Minister said, “We have to take those mines, not only the ones that are uncovered in the field but that are stored in warehouses of both the military and the police to be destroyed by CMAC.”[21]

Mines Retained for Training

In all five of its Article 7 reports, Cambodia has indicated that it has no antipersonnel mines retained for training or development purposes, as permitted under Article 3. However, it has also reported transfer of mines for training and development purposes to the CMAC Training Center in 1998 (236 mines), 1999 (818 mines), 2000 (52 mines), 2001 (423 mines), 2002 (240), and 2003 (366).[22] It appears each year some mines are sent to the CMAC Training Center—mines removed from the ground by deminers or mines from newly discovered caches—and consumed shortly thereafter.

Landmine Problem

Cambodia is one of the worst landmine and UXO affected countries in the world due to almost three decades of conflict. In 2003, 97 percent of casualties were civilian. Most mine incidents are associated with livelihood activities being undertaken in forests and fields.[23] The threat of UXO and mines impedes mobility, security, economic activity, and development in several provinces, particularly in the north and northwest of the country. In the forests of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Oddar Meanchey, and Pailin, the most affected provinces, people still have their limbs blown off as they search for a way to feed their families. Mine and UXO contamination restricts access to home, agricultural land, pasture land, water sources, forests, schools, dams, canals markets, business activities, health centers, pagodas, bridges, and neighboring villages.

Up to 2000, CMAC reported 664 square kilometers of known mined land, and another 1,400 square kilometers of suspected mined land. In 2001, CMAC identified 2,900 square kilometers of mined land.

Organized mine clearance operations in Cambodia began in 1992 and since then a surface area of about 252 square kilometers has been cleared.[24] Mine clearance by civilians, known as village demining, has been conducted for a much longer period. The most commonly found antipersonnel mines in Cambodia are PMN, PMN2, PMD-6, MN79, Type 69, DH10, MON 66/50, POMZ-2M, Type 72A and Type 72B.[25]

Many mined areas are still not marked or fenced. In 2003, CMAC marked 675 minefields in 136,947,222 square meters.[26] Yet, in January 2004, 98 percent of the monthly reported casualties (86 out of 88) said that there were no signs in the place of the accident.[27]

Surveys and Assessment

Quantifying the scale of the landmine problem in Cambodia remains difficult. Before the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS), also known as the Level One Survey,) started in early 2000, there had been no systematic survey of the mine problem in Cambodia, although numerous smaller technical surveys had been conducted in various communities on request from the local population living in suspected areas, and a good deal of data had been gathered in the CMAC database.

The LIS, issued in May 2002, identified 3,037 areas suspected to be affected by mines, UXO and cluster munitions. The survey estimated that 5.18 million people in 6,422 villages were at risk. It found that about 1,640 villages, approximately 12 percent of all villages, have a high contamination of landmines and UXO.[28] The LIS was conducted by Geospatial International Inc. (GeoSpatial/GST) and was funded by the Canadian government with US$1.1 million.

An analysis of the current state of survey and mapping was presented to the Mine Action Forum in Phnom Penh on 9 March 2004. According to this analysis the Landmine Impact Survey did not utilize the technical survey reports accumulated over a decade by mine action operators and consequently missed many areas that the operators had correctly identified as contaminated.[29]

The Cambodia Mine Action Authority reported that the National Work Plan for 2003, compiling all mine clearance planned by the four demining agencies working in Cambodia, has shown that more than 15 percent of the surface area to be cleared in 2003 was not recorded in the LIS.[30] These areas are located either in a village without reference in the LIS (6.3 percent), or in a village cited as not contaminated by the LIS (9.2 percent). The same observation has been made for the 2004 National Work Plan, where 20 percent of the surface to be cleared is not recorded in the LIS: 11 percent without reference in the LIS and 9 percent not contaminated according to the LIS.The Cambodia Mine Action Authority established the National Mine Action Database (NMAD) in 2002, as a continuation of the Landmine Impact Survey. The database includes information from the LIS, Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System (CIMVIS), US Air Force bombing records from 1965 to 1973, technical surveys, topographic maps, and satellite and aerial imagery. In September 2003, the government of Canada extended its long-term support to the NMAD and provided renewed funding for equipment, four database staff and one specialist.[31]

In January 2004, the NMAD Unit produced the National Assessment of Contamination of Cambodia, which complies all major mine action data sets from all operators, and represents them on a single series of maps. The NMAD produced an analysis of mine victim incidents over the last three years and compared it with work plans of mine clearance operators.

The Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) was installed at CMAA in January 2003. Concerns about the effectiveness of IMSMA were raised at the Mine Action Forum in March 2004. One participant described IMSMA as “inflexible, not open and too complicated.” He said it transfers ownership of data away from the operators, and cannot prioritize minefield clearance correctly. He also pointed out that CMAC and HALO already have existing databases that are becoming more and more sophisticated, and that MAG, with a simpler tasking process, has a less sophisticated but adequate database capability.[32]

CMAC has collected information and reports of suspected mined areas and recorded them in a database since 1992. The CMAC database manages information on CMAC mine clearance, survey, explosive ordnance disposal, mine awareness, clearance monitoring, and socio-economic factors both pre- and post-clearance. The database serves CMAC operations and provides additional information to the CMAA national database.[33]

As of February 2004, HALO Trust had established a computer database of all clearance work undertaken, and a near complete set of aerial images giving it the capacity to overlay clearance information onto photographic images to get an exact representation of what work has been undertaken.[34]

The Casualty Analysis Survey produced by the Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System has been used by all operators to help prioritize clearance tasks. CMVIS was established in 1994 by the Cambodian Red Cross and HI to provide continuous and systematic collection and dissemination of information about mine and UXO casualties. It started gathering data in six provinces, and in 2001 expanded to 24 provinces and municipalities.[35] In 2003, it was funded by Finland and UNICEF.

Coordination and Planning of Mine Action

Cambodia has set the goal of moving toward zero impact from landmines and UXO by 2012, and plans to accomplish this by clearing all high-impact mined areas and developing more extensive mine risk education programs. The longer-term vision is to free Cambodia from all humanitarian and socio-economic impacts of landmines and UXO.[36]

However, Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty commits Cambodia to have completed the clearance of all mined areas under its jurisdiction and control by January 2010, ten years after entry into force of the treaty. Moreover, Cambodia has not clearly defined what constitutes “zero impact,” or what it implies in terms of future socio-economic impediments and accident risks from mines.

The Royal Government of Cambodia established the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority in September 2000. The CMAA has the responsibility of coordination of all mine action activities in Cambodia. It assists the government in policy formulation and the regulatory framework for mine action management and ensures that mine action programs contribute to poverty reduction policies and priorities.[37] The CMAA was formed to respond to the need to separate the functions of a regulatory authority and supervision of mine action from the government’s implementing agency for mine action.[38]

During the first half of 2003 CMAA prepared the National Mine Action Strategy and the Five Year Mine Action Plan 2003-2007 (FYMAP). FYMAP’s goals included strengthening national mine action coordination, improving socio-economic management of mine clearance, expanding mine action achievements and developing preventive and curative responses in terms of mine risk education and survivor assistance. In May 2003, CMAA issued the first National Work Plan by compiling the work plans of the demining agencies.

In October/November 2003, with the support of UNDP and funding from the United Kingdom, CMAA established a quality management unit for monitoring and evaluation.[39] Based on international mine action standards, CMAA completed a draft of the Cambodia’s National Mine Action Standards (CMAS). The CMAS was scheduled be introduced in mid-2004, but were reported to be in the final stages of government approval at the end of September 2004. According to HALO, leading operators had expressed strong reservations with regard to the appropriateness of some of the proposed standards which do not reflect what have proved to be acceptable practices over the last ten years.[40]

In recent meetings, both HALO and MAG called for a review of the standard for clearance to be adopted for low threat areas and have proposed that trials with flails and other tools go ahead to find a way to do something to reduce the risk to an acceptable level, without resorting to the more meticulous approach that remains necessary for more densely mined areas.[41]

Part of the planning and coordination process has been conducted through the establishment of Land Use Planning Units (LUPUs). In May 1999, a LUPU and a Provincial Sub-Committee for Land Use in Mined Areas were established in Battambang to address concerns about equitable allocation and ownership of demined land. Since June 2001, Handicap International has been providing financial and technical assistance to two provincial LUPUs in Banteay Meanchey and Oddar Meanchey with the financial support of the European Commission, and to a third LUPU in Preah Vihear since April 2002, with funding from France. The aim of the Land Use Planning Units is to determine, with all relevant stakeholders, the areas of land in the province that should have priority for mine clearance, and to have the issues of distribution and ownership settled in advance.

An evaluation of the achievements of LUPUs conducted in September 2003 identified both problems and opportunities.[42] According to the evaluation, the process of the identification and selection of minefields is still often being led by the demining operators and NGOs, although significant responsibility is also delegated to village chiefs for task identification and beneficiary selection. However, villagers are often poorly informed of what has being decided in their name. Some demining operators feel they are slowed down by the inexperience and working practices of the LUPUs. Almost all the concerned parties agreed that land disputes have been significantly reduced as a result of the detailed field investigation that takes place prior to clearance. The LUPUs also play an effective role in bringing demining agencies together to work more cooperatively, so that overlapping of demining in a locality is much reduced or eliminated. However, if a dispute over land proposed for clearance is identified prior to demining, the task is simply not included in the plans, so that the disputes tend not to be resolved but rather frozen.

CMAA reported that up to now the LUPU process has been an essential tool to prioritize mined land for clearance according to local socio-economic needs; but it also cited drawbacks, such as “no common composition/regulations, no similar support or no sustainable funding.” Furthermore, the LUPU process has not taken into account the responsibilities of the CMAA or of the Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction, which has established mechanisms for the resolution of land disputes. Since November 2003, three LUPUs have lost their funding support.[43]

Between August and December 2003, the CMAA drafted a Sub-Decree entitled “Socio Economic Management of Mine Clearance Operations” which establishes a new framework for the Provincial Authority/LUPU mechanism.[44] After consultations with all stakeholders, the sub-decree was passed at a full meeting of the Council of Ministers on 17 September 2004.

Every three months, NGOs engaged in mine action in Cambodia come together for a Mine Action Forum. One was held on 9 March 2004.

Mine Clearance

During 2003, the four demining operators, CMAC, HALO, MAG and the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces/Engineering Command Force, cleared a total of 41,746,541 square meters of land, destroying 60,626 antipersonnel mines, 1,096 antivehicle mines and 118,307 UXO. This is the highest total ever, and a very significant increase of 7 million square meters, or 20 percent, over 2002. Nearly 252 million square meters of land have been cleared since operations began in 1992, and more than 146 million square meters over the past five years, since 1999.

Total Mine Clearance in 2003[45]

Area (Sq. M.)
AP Mine
AT Mine

The totals in the chart are based on reports directly from the four operators. Cambodia’s April 2004 Article 7 report has somewhat different numbers for HALO and MAG. It states that HALO cleared 4.82 square kilometers and MAG cleared 2.808 square kilometers, destroying 5,387 antipersonnel mines. According to HALO, CMAA has failed to include ground cleared by HALO with mechanical clearance units.[46]

Proper humanitarian mine clearance started in 1992, initiated by the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC). Since then, CMAC, HALO, MAG and mine clearance operators that are no longer involved in clearance in Cambodia have cleared a total surface area of almost 252 square kilometers.[47]

Total Mine Clearance from 1992 to 2003[48]

Area (Sq. M.)
AP Mine
AT Mine
Past Operators

The totals in the chart come from the CMAA. However, Cambodia’s April 2004 Article 7 report again has somewhat different numbers for HALO and MAG. It states that HALO cleared 25.49 million square meters and destroyed 42,332 mines, while MAG cleared 10.59 million square meters and destroyed 18,949 mines.

Total Mine Clearance from 1999 to 2003[49]

2,420,000 est

After getting mine clearance operations up and running in 1992 and 1993, the rate of clearance annually remained fairly steady from 1994 to 1999, averaging 18.1 million square meters per year. The totals are up sharply since then, with the exception of 2001, due to the CMAC mismanagement and funding crisis. From 2000 to 2003, an average of 32.7 million square meters has been cleared each year.

The National Work Plan for 2004, which compiles work plans from the four main operators, set a target of 29,640,000 square meters to be cleared.[50] The socio-economic objectives of CMAC, HALO and MAG are to clear 13,670,000 square meters for resettlement and agriculture and to benefit an estimated 15,000 families for direct use of the land cleared, and almost 86,000 families for indirect use. Mine clearance will involve 119 communes and 239 villages, including 80 of the 149 most contaminated communes, according the Landmine Impact Survey.[51]

According to CMAA, since 2001, “the total surface area cleared for resettlement, agriculture, housing or, more generally, for casualty reduction has been around 1,000 hectares [10,000,000 square meters] each” for the mine action operators. It is not possible to give accurate socio-economic impact figures in earlier years, prior to the Landmine Impact Survey.[52]

Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC)[53]

The Cambodian Mine Action Center was established in 1992 and took over demining activities from UNTAC in November 1993. CMAC is a national institution whose mandate is to carry out humanitarian demining activities. In February 1995, a royal decree gave CMAC the authority to coordinate and execute all mine action programs. In 1999, CMAC faced a stream of allegations of financial impropriety, nepotism, corruption and mismanagement, and as a result in 2000 donor contributions were withheld, forcing the downsizing of field operations.[54] A strategy for reform and restructuring was developed and by the middle of 2001 CMAC’s situation stabilized, allowing the rebuilding of a consistent capacity.

In 2003, CMAC cleared and released to communities a total of 9,708,686 square meters of land. CMAC destroyed 22,160 antipersonnel mines, 503 antivehicle mines and 76,642 UXO. The land cleared by CMAC was used for resettlement, agriculture, roads, pagodas, health centers, wells, ponds, commune offices, irrigation canals with roads, and schools. A total of 2,018 families benefited directly and 53,267 families indirectly from CMAC activities in 2003.[55] In addition to demining, in 2003 CMAC Mine Marking Teams marked 675 minefields containing 136,947,222 square meters of land to be cleared.[56]

CMAC employs around 2,400 staff. By end of 2003, CMAC mine action resources included 23 Normal Platoons (30 persons per platoon), 24 Mobile Platoons (33 persons per platoon), 18 EOD Teams (three persons per team), 19 Mine Marking Teams (five persons per team), 14 Community Mine Marking Teams (five persons per team), six Mine Awareness Teams (four persons per team), 13 Community-Based Risk Reduction District Focal Points (one person per district), five Mine Detection Dog Teams (18 persons per team), 12 Brush Cutter Teams (two persons per team), two Technical Survey Teams (10 persons per team) and four Mine Risk Reduction Teams (17 persons per team).[57] A total of 395 CMAC staff undertook training courses on a range of mine action activities at the CMAC Training Center. The Center also conducts trials and evaluation of new demining techniques and equipment.

Initiatives to improve response time to community requests for clearance include the formation of Mine Risk Reduction teams (in 2002) and Technical Survey Teams (in 2003), and the transformation of Site Structure Platoons to Mobile Platoons (in 2003), as well as the use of eight new brush cutters donated by Japan.[58]

Norwegian People's Aid (NPA) continues to provide support to CMAC. In 2003, NPA provided a Technical Advisor within Planning, Operations and Quality Management; it funded and monitored CMAC DU1; and it addressed specific needs of local mine-affected communities in the Northwest related to priority settings and land rights.[59]

HALO Trust[60]

The HALO Trust came to Cambodia in 1991 and took part in the initial national survey carried out by UNTAC. It then began mine clearance operations in March 1992. By the end of 2003, HALO had cleared 25,565,563 square meters of land, with 72 percent of the total demined between 1999 and 2003.

In 2003, HALO conducted activities in five provinces and fielded 101 manual demining sections, 14 mechanical clearance units, two Explosive Ordnance Disposal teams and a Mine Risk Education team. In total, the demining operators cleared 5,007,019 square meters of suspect ground, including 8,455 antipersonnel mines, 224 antivehicle mines, and 18,698 UXO. The land cleared by HALO in 2003 has been used for resettlement (44 percent), road and access (35 percent), agriculture (12 percent), schools (6 percent) and other purposes (3 percent).

The 8,455 antipersonnel mines found by manual deminers in 2003 was a significant increase from 4,485 in 2002. HALO reported that this came about as a result of a policy to clear mines in the border area wherever the K5 belt encroaches on human activity. In order to reduce casualty levels HALO believes the clearance of border areas where civilians forage or transit should be made a priority; according to HALO, over half of all mine casualties in Cambodia now occur in the border areas, most of them on the K5 mine belt.[61]

At the start of the 2003, HALO had 943 Khmer staff (846 in operations and 97 in support activities), and three expatriate staff members. By the end of the year, with the establishment of a new operating base in Kamrieng in Battambang, HALO had expanded to 1,074 Khmer staff, (966 in operations and 108 in support activities).

In 2003, HALO deployed three medium-wheeled loaders (two Volvo, one Muir Hill), Light Crawler tractors (Fiat Allis) and a D6 bulldozer. The machines have continued to provide mechanical support in those areas where metal contamination is high. Throughout the year HALO deployed eight rear-mounted vegetation cutting tractors and two front-mounted cutters.

HALO deploys a semi-permanent marking system to warn of the continued danger in areas outside of cleared zones. Concrete marking posts are now being inserted at 50-meter intervals along the boundaries of cleared ground. These serve as an indicator of the limit of cleared ground.

Mines Advisory Group (MAG)[62]

The Mines Advisory Group, a UK-based NGO, began operations in Cambodia in November 1992. From 1992 to 2003, MAG cleared 10.36 million square meters of land. In 2003, MAG cleared 2,682,172 square meters of land, including 4,170 antipersonnel mines, 62 antivehicle mines and 1,873 UXOs. In addition, MAG conducted 905 Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) tasks, destroying 630 mines and 3,195 UXO, and its Rapid Response Team cleared 3,047 square meters in 350 tasks, destroying 480 mines and 3,050 UXO.

The land cleared in 2003 has been used for resettlement of displaced population, road construction, canal/irrigation, agriculture, schools, health centers, water wells, pagodas, sluice, water ponds, and bridges. Clearance benefited 11,992 families, with a total of 30,307 people.

MAG reported that in 2003 its productivity in Cambodia increased 52 percent compared to 2002. It attributes the increase in productivity is attributed to enhanced clearance techniques, the procurement of new detectors, and improved working practices.

In 2003, MAG employed 500 national staff and three expatriate staff for its program in Cambodia. Personnel included 100 women deminers, including the first all-woman mine action team, and about 70 amputee deminers. It deployed 23 multi-skilled Mine Action Teams (MATs), three Explosive Ordnance Disposal teams, seven Community Liaison Teams (CL) and five Tempest mini-flail machines. Mine Action Teams are permanently deployed in four provinces: Battambang, Pursat, Kompong Thom and Preah Vihear. The EOD teams deployed to cover nine provinces.

MAG established a Rapid Response Team (RRT) in Preah Vihear province in December 2002 due to the high incident rates in Choam Ksan district. The team worked closely with Community Liaison teams to prioritize community needs. MAG reports that casualties have fallen in Preah Vihear by 45 percent since the inception of the RRT.

MAG runs a wide community liaison and data-gathering network. The Community Liaison teams provide an interface between affected communities and the responses available to them. These teams are involved with communities from the first contact, right through the demining process and beyond into the measuring of benefit years after the clearance process is completed. Community Liaison Teams also offer villagers a referral service whereby MAG staff contact other organizations outside of the Humanitarian Mine Action sphere that may be able to help with specific problems. In this regard, MAG practices a policy of partnership in mine action and development, collaborating and co-operating with other agencies such as local development NGO Wathnakpheap, Church World Service, Lutheran World Federation, and World Vision.

Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF)[63]

RCAF became involved in mine action clearance for non-military purposes after the collapse of the last Khmer Rouge remnants in 1998. RCAF reports that in 2003 it cleared 24,348,664 square meters of land, and destroyed 25,841 antipersonnel mines and 307 antivehicle mines. Land cleared was checked and cleared to guarantee the safety of national and international leaders traveling to events (2,240,000 square meters), to facilitate construction of garrisons and guard posts for the Army (3,600,000 square meters), for bridges and roads (7,616,082 square meters), for development of a hydrology system (6,742,582 square meters) and for land for new development (4,150,000 square meters). From 1999 to 2003, RCAF cleared about 68 million square meters of mine and UXO affected land.

RCAF has 830 demining personnel, including 691 in a Mine Clearance and UXO Task Force unit, 121 instructors and management officers, and 18 Explosive Ordnance Disposal personnel.

For 2004, RCAF aims to have one company of experts on a demining operation in each provincial-municipality sub-division, and has set a goal to clear an area of 10 million square meters. For this, a budget proposal of US$3 million has been submitted to the Royal Government.

A study issued in June 2003 by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) reported concerns about RCAF mine clearance expressed by donors and the civilian mine action community in Cambodia.[64] Among the concerns were: 1) RCAF reports of high clearance rates and claims of zero casualties during mine clearance are considered unreliable; 2) RCAF describes its work as humanitarian, but engages in road clearance and construction either in response to government directives or on a commercial basis; and 3) lack of transparency and accountability.[65] The study noted that the government has reported that the armed forces will play an increased role in mine clearance activities in the future and that RCAF capacity needs to be improved.

Village Demining

Demining by villagers outside of the approved humanitarian demining program continues, although it is not officially allowed. Some individuals clear land for farming and to ensure the physical and economic security of their families.[66] Others hire a village deminer to clear the land for them.[67] Landmine Monitor researchers have met former members of clearance agencies who are now engaged as individuals in village clearance activities.

Village mine clearance activities have occurred on a relatively large scale throughout Cambodia even after the arrival of mine action organizations. CMAC reported that from 1993 to 1999, villagers cleared 69,780,000 square meters of land, more than any of the professional operators in that time.[68]

The debate on how to address mine clearance activities by villagers has gone on since early 1990s and it remains unresolved. According to a study released in September 2003 by the International Peace Research Institute (PRIO), HI, and UNICEF,[69] a major reason why village demining still exists in Cambodia is that, “The mine action sector is simply not meeting the needs of the people for access to land and resources in mine-contaminated areas. For many villagers, the risk of not being able to provide for a family is greater than taking the risk of clearing mines by themselves and reducing the overall risk in contaminated land to a tolerable level.” The mine action sector is seen as providing a top-quality service, but for a very limited number of beneficiaries, while the majority of affected communities continue to cope alone with their mine-affected environment. The study suggests the mine action community should balance the focus on eradicating the absolute risk of mines with strategies that enable more land and resources to be freed up for villagers, so as to reduce the need to enter high-risk areas.

The study noted, “The village deminers in Cambodia have demonstrated that there are local-level capabilities that are being utilized by people at the village level to deal with the environment in which they live. These capabilities should not be ignored because they contradict the dominant justification for mine action. Instead, they should serve to inform mine action practitioners of the strengths and weaknesses of the recipient communities, and of the strengths and weaknesses of the intervention itself.”

In October 2003, MAG and local authorities started a pilot project in Kamreang and Phnom Preuk districts, Battambang, aimed at training people living in mine-affected communities to become deminers. Forty people were trained from January to August 2004 in a project carried out in cooperation with Lutheran World Federation. [70] MAG has completed trials of this new approach called “Locality Demining Teams.” The results of these trials will be available in late 2004.[71]

When village demining was discussed by the Mine Action Forum on 9 March 2004, HALO noted it had found very little evidence of village demining in areas that HALO proposes to clear, but it appears to be more widespread in areas which, on account of their very low threat, are never likely to be cleared by mainstream operators.[72]

Mine Risk Education

Organizations working in mine risk education (MRE) in Cambodia have included CMAC, the Cambodian Red Cross, HALO, HI, the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS), MAG, UNICEF, World Education and World Vision. According to UNICEF, in 2003 these organizations provided MRE to at least 600,000 people.[73] The statistics provided to Landmine Monitor identify about 350,000 MRE recipients. Between 1999 and 2002, about 2.1 million people attended MRE sessions.

In the period from 1994 to 1998, CMAC, which was responsible for MRE coordination, reported that 1.1 people received mine risk education from three main providers: CMAC, MAG and World Vision.[74] In 1999, CMAC, MAG and World Vision provided MRE to 497,198 people. In 2000, CMAC provided MRE to 627,244 people. In 2001, World Vision provided MRE to 6,367 people and World Education trained more than 2,000 teachers to use MRE in the school curriculum, and then gave MRE to more than 90,000 primary school children and 20,000 out-of-school children. CMAC did not carry out MRE activities in 2001 due to financial difficulties.[75] In 2002, mine risk education was provided to more than 224,557 people by CMAC, the Cambodia Red Cross, HALO, World Education and World Vision. In addition, they trained 2,440 MRE trainers, including teachers, community representatives and volunteers.[76]

CMAA organized a national workshop, “Mine/UXO Risk Reduction in Cambodia: The Way Forward,” in Battambang on 12 June 2003. Recommendations for prevention of mine and UXO incidents in Cambodia included: more attention to the awareness of danger caused by UXO, a strict prohibition of small business transactions of UXO, enforcement of the law banning landmines and other relevant laws, expanding mine clearance by small mobile teams in order to respond to urgent needs, more involvement of community leaders in mine/UXO awareness projects, and more job opportunities for vulnerable groups living in contaminated areas so they are not compelled to go into mined areas or tamper with UXO.[77]

Following the workshop, UNICEF agreed to fund a full time Mine Risk Education Focal Point Coordinator within CMAA, in order to strengthen linkages between mine action organizations and the government.[78]

In 2003, 4,204 teachers from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoYS) provided MRE to 265,300 primary school pupils. In addition 4,202 trained students provided MRE to 41,923 out-of-school children. These activities were conducted in the 30 most affected districts. 206 school directors received training and conducted 167 monitoring visits.[79]

In 2003, CMAC conducted MRE activities through a Mass Media campaign, Mobile Mine Awareness Teams, Mine Risk Reduction Teams (MRT) and the Community-Based Mine Risk Reduction (CBMRR) District Focal Points.[80] The Mass Media campaign included spots aired 449 times on national television and 1,200 times on national radio; the installation of 25 new billboards in areas with high casualty rates such as Pailin Municipality; the production of audio and video tapes; and field surveys on the impact of billboards and televisions and radios spots.[81] Mobile mine awareness teams, besides delivering MRE training to mine affected communities, carried out basic assessments of the needs of populations living in the contaminated areas, thus enabling the better development of future strategies.

In 2003, mobile mine awareness teams visited 762 villages (95 percent of the overall work plan) and met 95,364 households, delivering 706 courses with a total number of beneficiaries from mine awareness presentations of 137,603, including 32,353 men, 35,260 women and 75,122 children.[82]

CMAC reported that in the period from 1994 to February 2004 mobile mine awareness teams visited 8,119 villages and reached 1,801,618 people. As a result a total of 8,990 antipersonnel mines and 30,971 UXO were reported to CMAC for clearance.[83]

Launched in November 2002 by HI and CMAC, the Mine Risk Reduction Teams aim to prevent mine and UXO accidents through a multi-skilled approach combining limited clearance, long-term marking, UXO disposal, MRE and community liaison. Each team consists of 17 people.[84] In 2003, MRE systematically took place during MRT’s village assessments and an average of two people in each family were provided MRE.[85] Between January and November 2003, the four MRTs provided mine risk education to a total of 12,982 people.

The Community-Based Mine Risk Reduction program started as a pilot project in October 2001 and received assistance from HI and UNICEF. In 2003, the CBMRR program was expanded to target seven new highly contaminated districts in Battambang and four districts in Banteay Meanchey.[86] In 2003, 304 local mine/UXO committees received training in MRE, village mapping and mine action task prioritization. As a result, 43 small-scale clearance tasks were requested, 283,996 square meters were cleared, and 3,611 mines and 6,587 UXO were destroyed.[87] In May 2003, a Monitoring Committee was established to monitor and evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of the CBMRR project in Battambang and Pailin, especially to identify the areas needing improvement. An evaluation of the program was conducted in 2002.[88]

The Cambodian Red Cross established a Community Based Landmine Awareness Project in 2002. During 2003, 183 Red Cross volunteers provided MRE to 90,148 people in six provinces (Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear, and Pursat). In addition, 89 Red Cross Youth received MRE training and then provided MRE to 3,115 school students.[89] The project is supported by the Finnish Red Cross.[90]

In February 2003, HALO established a three-man Mine Risk Education team. The team delivers MRE presentations to school children and adults in villages where HALO is conducting clearance. In 2003, HALO presentations were attended by a total of 27,311 villagers.[91]

In 2003, MAG had seven Community Liaison teams and one Rapid Response Team working alongside its other teams. The Rapid Response Team’s mine risk reduction education presentations were attended by 1,994 people (930 children and 1,064 adults) in 2003.[92] MAG, together with HI and NPA, is conducting a study on the deliberate handling and usage of live ordnance. The study aims to develop a better understanding of who is involved in the deliberate handling and usage of live ordnance and what factors are contributing to the continuation of such behavior. It is anticipated that the results from the study will help identify improvements that can be made to current mine risk reduction and casualty mitigation interventions.[93]

World Vision’s Mine Awareness/Action Teams have conducted MRE activities aimed at integrating mine action and community development structures. In 2003, the teams were active in four districts of Battambang and Phreahvihear provinces. Four staff members provided MRE to 4,484 villagers, including 1,047 in Rattanakmondul, 44 in Samlot, 2,193 in Rovieng, and 1,200 in Tbeng Meanchey.[94]

Landmine Awareness Day was celebrated on 24 February 2004 in Oddar Meanchey, Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, northern Siem Reap, and on the border of Oddar Meanchey and Ponhear Leu. Children injured by mines in 2003 spoke to their peers. The day was promoted by CARE, Arrupe Centre, CMAC, Jesuit Refugee Service and other organizations.

Mine Action Funding

In June 2004, Cambodia reported to other States Parties that the current costs of mine clearance were approximately US$20 million per year.[95] In April 2004, CMAA estimated that the total costs for demining operations, including technical assistance and in-kind contributions, were approximately $30 million per year.[96]

According to information submitted to or gathered by Landmine Monitor, 15 donor governments and the European Commission provided approximately US$17 million in mine action funding for Cambodia in 2003.[97] This compares to about $27.3 million in 2002 and $21 million in 2001. Donations for mine action in Cambodia are estimated to exceed $190 million from 1994 through 2003, including $114 million for 1999-2003.

Contributions in 2003 included: Australia A$1.6 million (US$1,043,200); Belgium €960,471 ($1,086,773); Canada C$1,632,533 (US$1,188,485); European Commission €449,539 ($508,653); Finland €1,686,061 ($1,907,778); France €465,000 ($526,148); Germany €555,266 ($628,283); Ireland €385,000 ($435,628); Japan ¥389,000,000 ($3,188,000); Netherlands $675,489; New Zealand US$209,000; Norway NOK1,600,000 ($225,928); Spain €75,398 ($85,313); Sweden SEK 16,000,000 ($1,980,000); United Kingdom £271,250 ($443,250); and, United States $ 2,922,808.

In addition to the donor governments, mine action operators have received funds from private and charitable sources, as well as the Royal Government of Cambodia. The Royal Government reported in April 2004 that it supports the CMAA, CMAC and the RCAF with $800,000 per year.[98] In 2003, CMAC reported receiving $500,000 and HALO reported receiving $73,000. From 1993 to 1998, the Royal Government donated approximately $1 million to CMAC; it has also granted CMAC tax-free status, which has an estimated value of at least $2 million.[99]

Three of the four main mine action operators, CMAC, HALO and MAG, report expenditures of about $17.5 million in 2003. The cost of RCAF mine clearance activities in 2003 has not been provided to Landmine Monitor. RCAF has budgeted demining and UXO operations at $3 million in 2004.

For mine action operations conducted in 2003, CMAC reports that it received a total of US$10,733,555 from nine donors: UNDP Trust Fund ($4,897,559), United States ($1,572,185), Japan ($1,784,599), Germany ($829,430), NPA ($850,672), Royal Government of Cambodia ($500,000), HI ($189,739), Japan Mine Action Service ($61,600) and CARE International ($47,771).[100] CMAC received approximately $8.6 million in 1999, $7.6 million in 2000, $7.5 million in 2001, and $10.8 million in 2002.[101]

HALO Trust reported a total project income for 2003 of $3,746,087. HALO’s donors included the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Finland (€670,000 or $800,000),[102] United States Department of State ($762,500), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands ($675,489), Embassy of Japan ($546,234), Tokyo Broadcasting System ($362,500), Australia’s AusAid ($238,448), ECHO ($177,917), Rotary International District 2580 ($80,000), Royal Cambodian Government ($73,000), Freedom Fields USA ($16,667), and Rotary International District 5030 ($13,333).[103] HALO’s operations in Cambodia cost about $4 million in 1999, $2.5 million in 2000, $4.5 million in 2001, and $3.6 million in 2002.

In 2003, MAG received approximately $3 million for 16 projects in Cambodia from 12 donors including the US Department of State, Japan, ECHO, Church World Service, World Vision, Julia Burk Foundation, Co-op Bank-UK, Roots of Peace, Lutheran World Service, Guernsey Overseas Aid, and the Churches of Mann. For 2004 MAG seeks to maintain its annual budget of around $3 million.[104] MAG received $3.9 million in 1999, $4 million in 2000, $3.5 million in 2001, and an estimated $3 million in 2002.

CMAA has received financial and in-kind assistance from different donors since its establishment in late 2000, including funds from the Royal Government since mid-2002. Australia, Canada, Norway, UNDP, European Commission, UNICEF, and Japan helped CMAA organize a national workshop and an international seminar. In September 2003, Canada renewed funding for the National Mine Action Database. The United Kingdom through UNDP has provided support for socio-economic planning and monitoring starting in late 2003. The European Commission provided assistance for refurbishing the building of the Secretariat until August 2002. Since 2002, UNDP and France have been providing in-kind assistance for planning and socio-economic matters. From September 2001 to March 2002, the German Foreign Ministry provided technical assistance to establish the Database Center. MAG provided equipment and a Technical Specialist as well as a translator for one year (2001-2002). GICHD, UNMAS, and UNICEF have provided in-kind technical support to strengthen the IMSMA system, and technical assistance in other fields, including mine risk education.[105]

Landmine Casualties

In 2003, 772 new landmine and UXO casualties were reported in Cambodia: 115 people were killed and 657 injured; 442 were men, 46 were women and 284 were children; 751 were civilians.[106] Of the total casualties, 152 people (20 percent) required an amputation. Landmines caused 362 casualties (47 percent), while 410 casualties (53 percent) were caused by UXO; however, 80 percent of the children were killed or injured by UXO. In 1999, 63 percent of casualties were caused by landmines.[107] Casualties continue to be reported in 2004; 671 new mine/UXO casualties were recorded to the end of August.[108]

Since 1999, 5,128 new mine/UXO casualties have been recorded in Cambodia. The mine/UXO casualty rate declined from 12 new casualties a day in 1996 to three a day in 1999 and to an average of two casualties a day in 2003; a rate that has remained constant since 2000. However, in the first eight months of 2004 the rate increased again to an average of almost three casualties a day.

Information on mine/UXO casualties is collected from all provinces by a network of Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) field staff; the data is then entered into the Cambodia Mine UXO Victim Information System (CMVIS), implemented by the CRC and HI.

Mine/UXO Casualties in Cambodia

No. of
Per month
Per day




2004 (8 mths)

The vast majority of mine casualties were engaged in daily livelihood activities such as farming, herding, clearing new land, fishing, and collecting food and wood (51 percent) or traveling (31 percent) at the time of the incident; whereas 63 percent of the UXO casualties were caused by tampering.

Mine/UXO casualties were reported in 20 of 24 provinces in 2003; 78 percent of the total casualties were reported in seven provinces, with most in the province of Battambang with 169 casualties (22 percent), followed by Banteay Meanchey with 121 (16 percent) and Oddar Meanchey 97 (13 percent).

Discussions are ongoing within the mine action community on the “lack of progress” in reducing the number of mine and UXO casualties. Some of the hypotheses put forward include: poor funding levels for mine risk education; population growth and new settlements of internally displaced persons and returning refugees; fluidity of population and socio-economic situation in the affected areas; and the need for a greater emphasis on the danger of UXO as the leading cause of mine action-related injuries in Cambodia.[109]

An external evaluation of the Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System (CMVIS) reported that the system is “unique in the world in terms of coverage and detail.”[110] As of December 2003, the database contained records on 59,153 mine/UXO casualties since 1979: 18,673 people were killed and 40,480 injured (including 8,018 amputations); 33,841 were civilians.

CMAC reported eight deminers injured during clearance operations in 2003, and six injured in the first three months of 2004.[111] HALO reported three deminers injured in 2003.[112]

Mine/UXO Casualties: 1979 to December 2003

Banteay Meanchey
Siem Reap
Oddar Meanchey
Preah Vihear
Kampong Speu
Kampong Cham
Svay Rieng
Kampong Thom
Krong Pailin
Kampong Chhnang
Kaoh Kong
Krong Preah Sihanuok
Rottanak Kiri
Krong Kaeb
Mondol Kiri
Prey Vaeng
Stueng Traeng
Phnom Penh

Survivor Assistance

The majority of persons with disabilities in Cambodia are among the very poorest in a very poor country. About 43 percent of the rural population lives below the poverty line. In Cambodia, physically challenged mine survivors live in villages scattered throughout the country or cluster in groups in tourist areas, or big towns, where they struggle to earn a living. Assisting survivors, after basic rehabilitation needs have been met, requires long journeys on bad roads. Healthcare services are available, but are often economically inaccessible. Health costs for landmine injuries can completely bankrupt the family. Most assistance to mine survivors is provided by their families, although international and local NGOs provide some specialized and community services. Survivor assistance services in Cambodia are carried out in a post-war context.[113]

According to CMAA, there are more than 30 organizations (international and local), which have been active in Cambodia—many for a decade or more—working to rehabilitate mine survivors. NGOs are the main implementers, providing physical rehabilitation and other support such as vocational training, employment, and small enterprise development.[114] NGOs in Cambodia make no distinction between assistance available to landmine survivors and assistance to people disabled by other causes.

First aid is available in government health centers at commune, district and sometimes village level, but many injuries require specialized treatment including surgery. These health services are controlled by the Ministry of Health and are available at government hospitals and some hospitals run by NGOs. Incidents frequently occur in villages or forests remote from health centers, and emergency first aid is provided by any available villager.

The Norwegian NGO, Trauma Care Foundation (TCF), in collaboration with the Catholic Relief Service, provides training in emergency first aid and life support techniques to villagers and health staff at the commune, district and hospital level. TCF training has different stages, including: Village First Helpers (VFH) who are trained in basic first aid; Village Health Volunteers (VHV) who are trained in emergency care and life saving practices; and Mine Medics, the key link in the chain of survival, who are government medical staff at health clinics or referral hospitals trained in life support techniques over a longer period of time. Mine Medics are equipped with a backpack containing basic, essential equipment to stabilize mine casualties and prepare them for transport to the referral hospital if necessary. The final stage is the training of surgeons at referral hospitals. In 2003, TCF in cooperation with the Tromsoe Mine Victim Resource Center (TMC) Norway trained twelve surgeons from six referral hospitals; 150 people with trauma-related injuries were assisted, including injuries caused by landmines. TCF is active in the provinces of Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, Pailin, Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey and Preah Vihear.[115] In 2002, the training manual, “Save Lives, Save Limbs,” was distributed in the Khmer language.[116]

As part of its Integrated Demining Development Project, CARE has trained two Village Health Volunteers in each village to respond to medical emergencies such as mine incidents.[117]

Some organizations, including Emergency, CMAC, HALO, MAG, Jesuit Services Cambodia and Cambodia Family Development Services, provide ambulances or transport to hospital. The Cambodian Red Cross informs agencies about the special needs of mine casualties in hospitals. In Banteay Meanchey, the CRC refers mine survivors requiring food assistance in hospital to JS, and the Cambodian Association for Assistance to Family and Widows provides money for surgery.

Surgery for new mine casualties and for landmine survivors requiring additional surgery is provided free-of-charge at the Emergency Surgical Center in Battambang, and by the Sihanuok Hospital Center of Hope in Phnom Penh. The Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, the government provincial and city hospitals and the Preah Ket Malea hospital, formerly for military casualties, also provide surgery.[118] However, many families cannot afford to pay for surgery at government hospitals. During the course of research for this report, Landmine Monitor saw new mine casualties at the Emergency Surgical Center, Mongkol Borei Hospital in Banteay Meanchey, Samrong Hospital in Oddar Meanchey, and Calmette Hospital in Phnom Penh.

In 2003, the Mongkol Borei provincial hospital in Banteay Meanchey assisted 42 mine casualties; 78 mine casualties and 32 UXO casualties were assisted in 2002. In January and February 2004, seven mine casualties were admitted.[119] When Landmine Monitor visited the hospital on 2 April 2004, eleven mine casualties were hospitalized.

The Italian NGO Emergency opened the “Ilaria Alpi” Surgical Center in Battambang in July 1998 to provide surgical assistance to the victims of war, especially mine casualties, and other reconstructive and general surgery. Emergency also supports five First Aid posts in the Samlot area and operates an ambulance service from Samlot. In 2003, Emergency treated 2,379 people, including 160 with war-related injuries; 104 were mine casualties and 37 UXO casualties. Emergency also provided corrective surgery for 78 mine survivors. The mine casualties assisted in 2003 reportedly had more severe injuries than in previous years requiring higher amputations and longer periods of hospitalization. Trauma casualties were admitted from 13 districts in Battambang, and from the provinces of Pailin, Pursat, Banteay Meanchey, Takeo, Siem Reap, Poipet, Oddar Meanchey, Kompong Thom and Phnom Penh. In the first few months of 2004, another 69 new mine/UXO casualties were admitted. Since July 1998, the Emergency Surgical Center has assisted 967 new mine/UXO casualties and 552 mine/UXO survivors requiring additional surgery: 69 in 2004; 219 in 2003; 255 in 2002; 236 in 2001; 271 in 2000; 316 in 1999; and 153 in 1998.[120]

Specialist surgery for landmine casualties in 2003 included that provided by Spanish surgeons on limbs, and Australian and French surgeons on ears, in collaboration with the National Pediatric Hospital, Disability Action Council, JS, Emergency, and Christian Blind Mission.[121]

Physical rehabilitation services for landmine survivors are generally well organized and of a good quality in Cambodia, particularly for amputees, even though the needs remain immense. Since 1999, the number of physical rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops covering 24 provinces in Cambodia increased from 15 to 16, reduced to 14 in early 2003 and to eleven in 2004. According to service providers, the principal reason for the decrease in the number of centers is decreased funding, but each closure was analyzed to minimize the impact on survivors needing assistance. Improved infrastructure throughout Cambodia reportedly allows amputees from areas near closed centers to travel to the closest remaining center. Other reasons for the closures include cost, quality control, and sustainability.[122] Five international organizations including the ICRC, American Red Cross (ARC), Cambodia Trust (CT), HI, and Veterans International (VI) supported the centers, in cooperation with the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation (MOSALVY). MOSALVY has no operational budget for physical rehabilitation and is therefore dependent on international agencies. Rehabilitation centers currently assisting mine survivors and other persons with disabilities are located in the provinces of Battambang (ICRC), Kompong Speu (ARC), Siem Reap (HI), Kompong Cham (HI), Kratie (VI), Sihanoukville (CT), Prey Veng (VI), Takeo (HI), Kompong Chhnang (CT), and two in Phnom Penh (CT and VI).[123] Since 2001, rehabilitation centers have closed in Banteay Meanchey (HI – closed November 2003), Kampot (HI – closed September 2001), Kompong Thom (HI – closed June 2004), Preah Vihear (VI – closed October 2004) and Pursat (HI – closed November 2001).[124]

The International Committee of the Red Cross physical rehabilitation program, run in agreement with MoSALVY, started in October 1991 and has two components: the Regional Physical Rehabilitation Center in Battambang and the Orthopedic Component Factory in Phnom Penh. In April 2001, the rehabilitation center was promoted by the government to a regional level center and now services the provinces of Battambang, Pailin, Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey and Pursat (north/northwest Cambodia). The ICRC provides physiotherapy, prosthetic/orthotic devices, walking aids, wheelchairs, accommodation and meals free-of-charge, and reimburses between 80 and 100 percent of travel costs to the center. On-the-job training is provided to physiotherapists and orthopedic technicians. Six prosthetists/orthotists were sponsored to attend the Cambodian School of Prosthetics and Orthotics in Phnom Penh to undertake a three-year training course. The center also operates a mobile clinic which travels from Battambang to the other provinces to carry out on-the-spot repairs and follow-up of amputees. In 2003, 21 outreach visits were conducted; 1,790 people were assessed and 1,055 prostheses, 15 orthoses and 64 wheelchairs were repaired.[125] Since 1999, the Regional Rehabilitation center produced 6,529 prostheses (6,089 for mine survivors), 3,115 orthoses (at least eleven for mine survivors) and distributed 18,404 crutches and 568 wheelchairs, including 1,283 prostheses (1,189 for mine survivors), 809 orthoses (four for mine survivors), 2,368 crutches, and 196 wheelchairs in 2003.[126]

In 2003, the ICRC Orthopedic Component Factory in Phnom Penh provided components and walking aids free-of-charge to 14 orthopedic centers nationwide: ICRC in Battambang and centers run by American Red Cross, Cambodia Trust, HI, and Veterans International. Components and walking aids produced include feet, hands, knees, alignment systems, orthotic joints, elbow joints, hooks, and crutches. In 2003, the factory produced all the components necessary to make over 5,000 prostheses; in 2002, components were produced for 5,500 prostheses and 4,500 pairs of crutches were distributed to rehabilitation centers. [127]

The American Red Cross has been active in Cambodia since 1991 providing physiotherapy, prosthetic and orthotic devices, crutches and wheelchairs for mine survivors and other persons with disabilities at the Kompong Speu Rehabilitation Center. The ARC also provided on-the-job training to Cambodian staff and an outreach service to people living in remote areas. This Center covers 33 percent of the needs in Cambodia (80 percent of beneficiaries are mine survivors), and the ICRC is currently taking over responsibility of the Center so that it can continue its operations. Since 1999, the ARC fitted 3,176 prostheses, including 709 in 2003 for mine survivors. About 40 percent of people receiving rehabilitation services at the center are mine/UXO survivors. In 2003, the center also produced 939 orthoses, and distributed 972 crutches and 122 wheelchairs. The ARC also collaborates with the National Center of Disabled Persons on projects that include community-based rehabilitation, psychosocial support, job training and referrals.[128]

The Cambodia Trust opened its first clinic in 1992 and now provides physical rehabilitation services at centers in Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville and Kompong Chhnang. The centers provide physiotherapy services, make and fit artificial limbs and orthoses, and distribute wheelchairs. Since 1999, the three centers fitted 5,278 prostheses, including 885 in 2003, for mine/UXO survivors. In 2003, the center also produced 1,226 orthoses, and distributed 706 crutches and 86 wheelchairs. CT also operates an outreach program to reach persons with disabilities in remote areas, providing referrals for medical and surgical services, community-based rehabilitation, and raising awareness on disability issues. In 2003, CT paid for surgery for 99 mine survivors, and 23 self-help community groups were established. In 1999, CT commenced an Outreach Training Project to facilitate access to training, education, employment opportunities, and provides small grants and access to micro-credit loan programs to establish small businesses. CT employs 104 staff in Cambodia; about 22 percent are persons with a disability.[129]

The CT rehabilitation center in Phnom Penh is also a teaching clinic for the Cambodian School of Prosthetics and Orthotics (CSPO), set up by CT in 1994, to provide technical training in prosthetics/orthotics for Cambodia and the region. Each year twelve new students start a three-year training program, including students from Afghanistan, Burma, Laos, Sri Lanka and Timor Leste. More than 80 students have graduated since the school opened. CSPO encourages women trainees to improve available services for women with disabilities. In 1999, CSPO was accredited by the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics (ISPO), and is one of only four Category II training centers in the world.[130] Physiotherapists are trained at the Technical School of Medical Care, with specialized training also provided by the physical rehabilitation centers.[131]

Handicap International began working in Cambodia in 1991 with programs in physical rehabilitation, socio-economic reintegration, data collection, capacity-building and raising awareness on the rights and needs of persons with disabilities. In 2003, HI supported rehabilitation centers in Banteay Meanchey, Kompong Cham, Kompong Thom, Siem Reap, and Takeo providing physiotherapy services, prosthetics and other assistive devices, an outreach program, and on-the job-training for technicians and physiotherapists. In 2003, HI assisted 6,248 people, including 3,007 mine survivors. Since 1999, HI-supported centers produced 7,686 prostheses, including 1,271 in 2003. The centers also distributed 1,364 crutches, 214 wheelchairs and 160 tricycles in 2003. The Banteay Meanchey and Kompong Thom centers have now closed following a rationalization of services and a greater focus on quality-control and sustainability. HI’s community-based rehabilitation programs focus on medical follow-up, psychosocial support, alleviating poverty, and the socio-economic reintegration of persons with disabilities through self-help groups, referrals to vocational training programs, and a small grants program. HI also supports two sports clubs for persons with disabilities in Battambang and Siem Reap, and runs the Para-Tetra Rehabilitation Center, a spinal cord injury rehabilitation unit, in Battambang.[132]

Veterans International, in Cambodia since 1991, operates three rehabilitation centers, including the Kien Khleang National Rehabilitation Center in Phnom Penh, and centers in the provinces of Kratie (opened in 2000) and Prey Veng; a small center in Preah Vihear closed in October 2004. The centers provide physiotherapy services, production and fitting of prosthetic and orthotic devices, and wheelchairs and other assistive devices. The program includes community-based rehabilitation, outreach teams and referrals to other services. Since 1999, VI has fitted 5,333 prostheses, including 875 in 2003. VI also produced 1,960 orthoses and 429 crutches in 2003. Since 1999, VI produced and distributed 2,268 wheelchairs, including 480 in 2003. In March 2004, VI partnered with the Development Technology Workshop (DTW) to move the wheelchair production unit to a DTW Business Incubation Park, with the aim of transitioning production into the private sector within the next two years. VI will continue to manage the workshop during the transition. VI reports that it will turn its wheelchair program over to Development Technology Workshop in March 2004. VI also supports the “Sports for Life” program for persons with disabilities.[133] This project is being privatized at the end of 2004 with the expectation that it will continue as a successful Small Medium Enterprise. VI also supported the Sports For Life volleyball project, which is now operating as a local NGO with its own funding.[134]

Association for Aid and Relief Japan (AAR) established the Wheelchair Production Service in Phnom Penh in 1994. Since 1999, AAR produced and distributed 1,524 wheelchairs, including 254 in 2003; 18 were for mine survivors.[135] AAR opened the Kien Khleang Vocational Training Center in Phnom Penh in 1993. The center provides one-year training programs for people with disabilities in Phnom Penh and nine surrounding provinces. Training is provided in basic literacy, TV/radio repair, motorcycle repair, and sewing. In 2003, 40 people received training, including 14 mine survivors.[136]

Jesuit Services Cambodia has produced 5,009 wheelchairs since 1999 that are specially designed for local conditions, including 1,046 in 2003. JS wheelchairs are distributed by ARC, ICRC, HI and CT; JS distributed 245 in 2003. JS also provides vocational training at Banteay Prieb (Center of the Dove) residential school. Before joining courses, many students spent three months gaining literacy skills. Several instructors are former students, including mine survivors. In 2003, 145 students with disabilities undertook one-year courses in agriculture, sculpture, carpentry, electronic repair, machine repair, weaving, tailoring and literacy. Since 1999, more than 700 students have received training. JS also works with mine-affected communities in Rottanak Mondol, Battambang, O Chrov and Thmar Puok in Banteay Meanchey, in Siem Reap, some areas in Oddar Meanchey and in the old Khmer Rouge areas of Kandal. Metta Karuna teams, which include several mine survivors, provide psychosocial support to villagers and assist them in planning programs for their health and well-being. The program includes housing, water access, emergency food, schooling assistance for children, and access to health services and markets through bridges and roads. In some communities where JS operates mine survivors are village leaders, teachers, development workers, and health workers.

The National Center of Disabled Persons (NCDP) operates a community-based rehabilitation program providing home-based rehabilitation, psychosocial support through peer groups, and facilities access to services and socio-economic opportunities. The NCDP also provides education and accommodation for children with disabilities.[137]

In January 2003, a new local NGO Disability Development Services Pursat (DDSP) was launched in Pursat province with the aim of improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities in the area. DDSP provides physical rehabilitation services, including physiotherapy, wheelchairs and other assistive devices, and referral to other services. DDSP also provides psychosocial support, facilitates access to education for children and vocational training, and raises awareness on disability issues. In 2003, DDSP referred seven landmine survivors for hospital care and about 70 people benefited from the community-based program; about one-third are mine survivors.[138]

The Cambodian War Amputees Rehabilitation Society program offers landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities training in income generating trades and services. Graduates of the program are assisted to establish their own micro-enterprise business, enabling them to achieve self-confidence and independence. In 2002, 543 persons with disabilities received training.[139]

In 2000, the Cambodian Handicraft Association for Landmine and Polio Disabled was established to provide skills and business training for the production and sale of traditional handicrafts, including wallets, purses, silk scarves, greeting cards, and home accessories. Since 2000, 77 people with a disability, including 67 mine survivors, have benefited from the program; 29 people, including 13 mine survivors were trained in 2003. The association lacks funding to expand the program, or to offer small start up loans for graduates of the training.[140]

In 2001, Clear Path International, in partnership with Cambodian Volunteers for Community Development, started a vocational training program in Phnom Penh and at a dedicated training center in Kampong Cham province for mine survivors or family members. Training is offered in marketable skills such as English literacy, computer data entry, computer repairs, garment design and sewing, electronics, appliance repair, and small-engine repair. In 2003, about 90 people received training, including 50 landmine survivors. Since the program started 150 people, including 100 mine survivors, have benefited; about 80 percent are now engaged in income generation activities. The director of the Stoeung Trung Training Center is a mine survivor.[141]

The Development Technology Workshop (DTW) helped to establish the Cambodian Demining Workshop, a small Khmer-run business, which employs about 20 staff with a physical disability, to produce a range of demining equipment. DTW also manufactures and exports the Tempest, a small remote-controlled, vegetation and tripwire clearance vehicle.[142]

In 1999, the World Rehabilitation Fund implemented a three-year program, in partnership with UNDP, to promote the socio-economic reintegration of mine survivors. The program was successful in establishing the Artisans Association of Cambodia in collaboration with Children Affected by Mines, Marynoll, NCDP, RehabCraft, and VI. The Business Advisory Council was also established to implement a program to develop jobs for mine survivors and other persons with disabilities.[143]

World Vision provides agricultural and trade training in Battambang and has assumed responsibility for the former Maryknoll vocational training program in Wat Than, Phnom Penh; 237 students benefited in 2003.[144]

The Disability Action Council lists many other organizations assisting mine survivors and other persons with disabilities through self-help groups, community-based assistance, referral systems, education, counseling, vocational training and outreach. American Friends Service Committee provides physical therapy and referral services to persons with disabilities and their families; a small percentage of beneficiaries are mine survivors.[145] Caritas Cambodia (CC) facilitated eye surgery for four survivors blinded by mines, and rehabilitation services for 18 others in Kandal, Takeo, Kompong Speu and Kompot provinces. CC also assisted the families of 12 blind survivors.[146] The NGO, Children Affected by Mines, assists child mine survivors to access medical care, rehabilitation and psychosocial support; 26 were assisted in 2002 and 184 in 2001.[147] Others include Action for Disability and Development, Arrupe Center Battambang, Cambodian Disabled Peoples Association, Operation Enfants de Battambang, Servants, Krousar Thmey, Marist Mission Australia, Help Age International, and Social Services of Cambodia.[148]

Another approach to survivor assistance in Cambodia is the “Development Approach” which focuses on the mine-affected community, including mine survivors. Often these communities are frontier territory where people relocate to start a new life. The aim of the development approach is to provide land for the planting of crops, roads, bridges, wells for water, a school, a healthcare facility, and some income generating assistance after mine clearance activities. Mine survivors are assisted along with other members of the community in this integrated development approach. Agencies working in this integrated approach include CARE, AUSTCARE, World Vision, Lutheran World Federation and JS.

Data collected by Jesuit Services Cambodia as part of its outreach program in 1999 and 2000 in the provinces of Battambang, Oddar Meanchey, Banteay Meanchey, Siem Reap, and areas surrounding Kampong Speu revealed that of 1,663 survivors interviewed: 71 percent did not have adequate housing; seven percent had no house at all; 45 percent had to travel more than five minutes to get water for drinking and washing; 89 percent reported food insecurity; 32 percent had no land for housing or cultivation; 28 percent received a government pension; 50 percent had a “job” (including rice farming); and the children of at least 46 percent did not go to school.[149] Based on these findings, mine survivors developed a 12-point plan that identifies their needs and those of their communities. Their priorities include adequate shelter, enough food to eat, and water; a job, or the possibility to generate an income; access to healthcare, rehabilitation and assistive devices they can afford; a school for their children, and a chance for adults to learn new skills. JS is currently undertaking a follow-up survey to determine if the situation for mine survivors has improved in the past four years. Early results from the survey indicate that in the areas where the 12-point plan was implemented, many survivors who had received assistance reported a happier quality of life but many more survivors are still awaiting assistance.

The Victim Assistance Department of the CMAA’s Secretariat General has developed a strategy for a medium- and long-term plan for the coordination of mine victim assistance provided by national institutions, local and international NGOs.[150] CMAA’s strategic plan for victim assistance includes collecting information from service providers and producing reports; developing a quick response trauma care and transportation system for mine/UXO casualties; liaising with the Ministry of Health to ensure the availability of appropriate hospital care and follow-up for mine/UXO survivors; work with the Disability Action Council Physical Rehabilitation Committee to contribute to a national plan on mine survivor needs; assisting mine survivors to lead a normal productive life by developing strategies and pilot programs that encourage access to mainstream activities of poverty reduction and income generation programs; and developing relevant databases to collect information that will assist NGOs, the government and donors in planning appropriate mine victim assistance programs.[151] On 10 March 2004, a meeting of NGOs and government ministries was held at CMAA to look at CMAA’s role in coordinating victim assistance. The draft strategic plan 2004-2009 was presented for discussion.

The Cambodian Campaign to Ban Landmines has said that the challenge for the Cambodian government is to address the rights and needs of mine survivors and their affected communities through decentralized structures and the provision of realistic budgets to meet the needs; international assistance is essential to provide the resources needed for sustainable development that will facilitate the socio-economic integration of mine survivors and their communities and for their medical and rehabilitation needs.[152]

Two landmine survivors from Cambodia participated in the Raising the Voices training in Geneva, Switzerland in May 2003 and attended the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in Bangkok in September 2003.

Since 2002, Cambodia has submitted the voluntary Form J attachment with its annual Article 7 Report, providing information on mine/UXO casualties and rehabilitation services to mine survivors.[153]

Disability Policy and Practice

In 2000, a draft “Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities” was prepared under the coordination of the Disability Action Council. The final draft was sent to the Minister of Social Affairs in 2002 for review and approval before being submitted to the Council of Ministries, together with a concept paper, describing the reasons and benefits of the proposed law.[154] In June 2004, it was announced that the review had been finalized and the legislation was ready to be submitted to the Council of Ministries and then on to the National Assembly “in due course.”[155] However, it would appear that as of September 2004 the legislation has not been submitted to the Council of Ministries.

CMAA is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of mine victim assistance; however, CMAA has delegated responsibility to the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSALVY), and the Disability Action Council.[156]

The Disability Action Council was initiated in 1997 as a semi-autonomous national coordinating body on disability and rehabilitation. DAC became fully operational in September 1998 with funding support from the USAID’s Leahy War Victims Fund. The government formally recognized the status of DAC under MoSALVY Prakas No 308 dated 26 October 1999.[157] DAC has also coordinated research activities to promote disability issues.[158] The main role of DAC is to facilitate and advise the government on the formulation of policies affecting the rights, needs and well-being of people with disabilities and to coordinate the development of a national plan of action. Following the recommendations of a USAID-funded consultancy in February 2003 to restructure the DAC, a new Governing Board was installed in February 2004. The new Board includes three representatives from the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports, and MoSALVY, one from CMAA, two local NGO representatives (Association of Blind Cambodians and Cambodian Disabled Independent Living), two international NGO representatives (HI and CT), and a representative from the business sector (TOTAL). An executive director is still to be recruited.[159]

[1] The law bans the production, use, possession, transfer, trade, sale, import and export of antipersonnel mines. It provides for criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment for offences committed by civilians or members of the police and the armed forces. It also provides for the destruction of mine stockpiles.
[2] CMAA, ‘‘Mine Action Achievements in the Kingdom of Cambodia 1992-2003,’’ 29 April 2004, p. 37.
[3] Previous Article 7 reports were submitted on: 15 April 2003 (for calendar year 2002); 19 April 2002 (for calendar year 2001); 30 June 2001 (for calendar year 2000); and 26 June 2000 (for the period from 1993 to 26 June 2000).
[4] Statement by Prime Minister Hun Sen, at the National Conference on Mine Action Achievements 2003 of the CMAA, Phnom Penh, 19 February 2004.
[5] Ibid.
[6] Article 7 Report, Form E, 15 April 2003.
[7] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 382–383.
[8] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 391, for annual destruction totals.
[9] Types included DH10, M18A1, PMN, PNM2, OZM4, POMZ2, POMZ2M, K, MH, Type 72, Type 69, 652A, blast mines and improvised mines. Article 7 Report, Form B, 26 June 2000.
[10] Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2004.
[11] See, for example, CMAA, “2002 Activities Report of CMAA,” 31 December 2002, p. 21; Article 7 Report, Forms D and F, 15 April 2003.
[12] Article 7 Report, Form G, 30 April 2004.
[13] Email from Cambodia Campaign to Ban Landmines, 5 October 2004.
[14] Ibid, with revised Article 7 Report, Form G, provided by Prum Sophak Mongkul, CMAA.
[15] Article 7 Report, Form F, 26 June 2000.
[16] Article 7 Report, Forms B and F, 30 June 2001. The report indicated that 8,739 stockpiled antipersonnel mines were found and destroyed by CMAC, another 1,078 by the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces, and about 1,600 by the National Police in 2000.
[17] Article 7 Report, Form F, 19 April 2002.
[18] Article 7 Report, Form D, 15 April 2003.
[19] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 439.
[20] Interview with Sam Sotha, Director General, Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority, Kumning,30 April 2004.
[21] Address by Prime Minister Samdech Hun Sen, Rottank Mundul, 24 February 2002.
[22] Article 7 Report, Form D, 30 April 2004; Article 7 Report, Form D, 19 April 2002. In 2001, 423 mines were transferred from CMAC DU 6 (Siem Reap) to the CMAC Training Center and “used for the training of Mine Detection Dog teams.” In 2002, the Ministry of Interior handed over 240 mines for training. In 2003, the CMAC Training Center received 366 antipersonnel mines from various demining units.
[23] Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System (CMVIS), “Monthly Mine/UXO Report,” January 2004.
[24] See details in Mine Clearance section below.
[25] Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2004. Other types found in Cambodia include KN-10, M-62, M14, M16A1, M18A1, MBV-78-A1, MBV-78-A2, MD-82-B, MDH-10, MDH-2, MDH-3, MDH-5, MDH-7, MIN, MN, MODEL, MON, NOMZ2B, OMZ-3, OMZ-4, OMZ-72, P-40 BALL, PMA-2, PMA-3, POMZ-2, PPMI-SR, PPM-2, PSM-1, Type 66; US Department of Defense, Mine Facts CD Rom, version 1.2.
[26] Article 7 Report, Form I, 30 April 2004.
[27] CMVIS, “Monthly Mine/UXO Victim Report: January 2004.”
[28] Article 7 Report, Form C, 30 April 2004.
[29] Ian Thomas, GIS & Database Specialist, CIDA, “Presentation on CMAA database,” at Mine Action Forum meeting, Phnom Penh, 9 March 2004. Thomas is a Technical Advisor for CMAA.
[30] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p.8.
[31] Ibid, p.18.
[32] Ian Thomas, CIDA, “Presentation on CMAA database,” 9 March 2004. This view was echoed to Landmine Monitor by HALO which described IMSMA as being of little use to the established operators who have developed their own more user friendly systems. Email from Richard Boulter, Programme Manager, HALO Cambodia, 2 October 2004.
[33] CMAC, “Six Month Progress Report,” November 2003, p. 7.
[34] HALO Trust, “Annual Report 2003, for submission to the CMAA,” February 2004.
[35] CMVIS “Mine and UXO Casualties in Cambodia 2000,” Cambodia 2002.
[36] Implementation Support Unit, “Progress in implementing Article 5: An overview of the mine-affected States Parties’ problems, plans, progress, and priorities for assistance,” Geneva, 21 June 2004.
[37] Response to Landmine Monitor by Dominique Pierre Guéret, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 13 January 2004.
[38] The National Demining Regulatory Authority was established after the 1999 landmines legislation was adopted. It served a coordinating role until CMAA was created. Previously CMAC coordinated mine action activities.
[39] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 19.
[40] Email from Richard Boulter, HALO, 2 October 2004.
[41] Ibid.
[42] Michael F. Bolton, Praivan Limpanboon and Chhim Vanak, “LUPU Project Evaluation,” October 2003.
[43] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 20.
[44] Ibid, p. 21.
[45] Response to LM Questionnaire by Khun Ratana, Chief Secretariat CMAC, 27 February 2004; MAG, “2003 Report submitted to CMAA,” February 2004; HALO Trust, “Annual report 2003 for submission to the CMAA,” February 2004; RCAF, “Demining Assignment Task and Development of Nation Society,” February 2004.
[46] Email from Richard Boulter, HALO, 2 October 2004.
[47] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 22. Among past operators, Compagnie Française d’Assistance Spécialisée/Compagnie International de Dévelopment cleared 11.88 million square meters, UNTAC cleared 3.47 million square meters, and Norwegian People’s Aid cleared 3.94 million square meters before transferring its capacities to CMAC.
[48] Questionnaire Response by CMAC, 27 February 2004; MAG, “2003 Report,” February 2004; HALO, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004; RCAF, “Demining Assignment,” February 2004.
[49] The 2001 clearance figure for MAG does not match Cambodia’s 2002 Article 7 report total of 1,418,813.
[50] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004.
[51] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 31.
[52] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 29.
[53] Unless otherwise noted, CMAC data is from: Questionnaire Response by CMAC, 27 February 2004.
[54] Other problems identified by the Director General of CMAA included too many technical advisors who did not take responsibilities, the lack of a demining plan at the national level, the fact that CMAC was at the same time an operator and regulator and coordinator, and the limited involvement of the government in mine action. Presentation by Sam Sotha, CMAA, to the Standing Committee of Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 5 February 2003.
[55] Ibid.
[56] Article 7 Report, Form I, 30 April 2004.
[57] These mine action resources were deployed within six Demining Units (DU) namely: DU1 at Bantey Meanchey Province, DU2 at Battambang Province, DU3 at Pailin and Samlot district of Battambang province, DU4 at Kampong Thom, Kampong Cham and Preah Vihear provinces, DU5 at Pursat Province, and DU6 at Siem Reap and Odor Meanchey Provinces. Questionnaire Response by CMAC, 27 February 2004.
[58] CMAC, “Six month progress report,” November 2003, pp. 46-47.
[59] Email from Harald Smedsrud, Advisor, NPA, Oslo, 14 June 2004.
[60] Information in this section, unless otherwise noted, is from HALO, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004.
[61] Email from Richard Boulter, HALO, 2 October 2004.
[62] Unless otherwise noted, MAG data is from: MAG, “2003 Report submitted to CMAA,” February 2004; Email from Tim Carstairs, Director for Policy, Mines Advisory Group, 5 October 2004.
[63] Unless otherwise noted, RCAF data is from RCAF, “Demining Assignment Task and Development of Nation Society,” February 2004, p. 8.
[64] GICHD, “The Role of the Military in Mine Action,” 2003.
[65] Donors also cited allegations that senior military figures have taken cleared land and that some roads have been built or exploited by RCAF engineers for lucrative and illegal logging.
[66] For a more detailed description see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 446.
[67] The price for clearance in Battambang district is $250 per hectare (10,000 square meters) in 2003, an increase from $100 per hectare in previous years. Interview with a villager in Battambang, April 2004.
[68] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 389.
[69] Ruth Botomley, Crossing the Divide, Landmines, Villagers and Organisation, (Oslo: International Peace Research Institute, 2003), p.130.
[70] MAG, “2003 Report,” February 2004, p. 8.
[71] Email from Tim Carstairs, MAG, 5 October 2004.
[72] Email from Richard Boulter, HALO, 2 October 2004.
[73] Email from Plong Chhaya, Assistant Project Officer, UNICEF Phnom Penh, 28 July 2004.
[74] CMAC, “Socio Economic Unit Report,” December 1998.
[75] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 145-146.
[76] See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 143-144. Statistics for HALO Trust and World Vision in 2002 are not available.
[77] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 32.
[78] Ibid; email from Sam Sotha, CMAA, 15 January 2004.
[79] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 28 July 2004.
[80] Questionnaire Response by CMAC, 27 February 2004.
[81] Information provided by CMAC to the CCBL and emailed to Landmine Monitor by Ny Nhar, CCBL, 26 August 2004; email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 28 July 2004; CMAC, ‘‘Six month progress report,’’ November 2003. p. 4.
[82] Information provided by CMAC, 26 August 2004; CMAC, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 13.
[83] Presentation by CMAC, “Mine/UXO Risk Education Components,” at Humanitarian Mine/UXO Clearance Technologies and Cooperation Workshop, Kunming, China, 26 – 28 April 2004.
[84] Presentation by Tang Sun Hao, MRT Field Project Manager, HI, January 2004.
[85] HI, “Emergency Mine & UXO Risk Reduction in North-West Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, February 2004, p.7.
[86] Information provided by CMAC to the CCBL, 26 August 2004.
[87] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 28 July 2004.
[88] Project Development Group, “External Evaluation of the Pilot Project of Community-Based Mine Risk Reduction (CBMRR),” undated. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p.144.
[89] Email from Plong Chhaya, UNICEF, 28 July 2004.
[90] ICRC, “Special Report Mine Action,” sent to Landmine Monitor on 23 July 2004, p.41.
[91] HALO, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 4.
[92] MAG, “2003 Report,” February 2004, p. 5.
[93] “Terms of reference, Study on the deliberate handling and usage of live ordnance,” Commissioned by HI, MAG, and NPA, 30 November 2003, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, p. 5.
[94] Chham Sokha, World Vision Cambodia, report to Landmine Monitor, 28 July 2004.
[95] GICHD Implementation Support Unit, “Progress in implementing Article 5: An overview of the mine-affected States Parties’ problems, plans, progress, and priorities for assistance,” Geneva, 21 June 2004.
[96] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004.
[97] See individual country reports in this edition of Landmine Monitor Report. In some cases, the funding was for the country’s fiscal year, not calendar year 2002. Landmine Monitor has converted the currencies and rounded off numbers.
[98] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 16.
[99] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 397.
[100] Questionnaire Response by CMAC, 27 February 2004.
[101] From December 1993 to April 2000, CMAC received a total of $53 million through the UNDP Trust Fund; this does not include other contributions to CMAC such as in-kind donations, equipment and bilateral funding.
[102] Exchange rate calculated by HALO Trust.
[103] HALO, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 7.
[104] MAG, “2003 Report,” February 2004, p.10.
[105] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 16.
[106] Unless otherwise stated, information in this section was provided in email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Chhiv Lim, Project Manager, CMVIS, 25 September 2004; and Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System, special report prepared for Landmine Monitor, 6 October 2004.
[107] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, pp. 12-13.
[108] CMVIS, “Monthly Mine/UXO Victim Report: June 2004.”
[109] UNDP Cambodia, “Support to Mine Action Programs in Cambodia,” Project Progress Report for 2002, January 2003.
[110] Steven Mellor, “External Evaluation of the CMVIS Database, Data-entry and reporting systems,” Evaluation conducted on behalf of HI and the Cambodian Red Cross, September 2002, p. 1.
[111] CMAC response to Landmine Monitor, 27 February 2004.
[112] HALO, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 6.
[113] Presentation by Denise Coghlan, CCBL, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 10 February 2004.
[114] Statement by Sam Sotha, Secretary-General, CMAA, to meeting on victim assistance, Phnom Penh, 10 March 2004.
[115] Yan Vanheng, Manager, TCF, response to LM Questionnaire, 10 February 2004
[116] Trauma Care Foundation, “Tromsoe Mine Victim Resource Center: Annual Report 2002,” pp. 7-8; Catholic Relief Service, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance questionnaire, 7 February 2002.
[117] Email from John Levinson, Project Coordinator, IDDP3 CARE, Battambang, 2 February 2004.
[118] DAC, “List of Organizations helping landmine survivors in Cambodia,” February 2003.
[119] Sok Eng, Metta Karuna Sisophon, response to Landmine Monitor; Information from a comparative study on landmine casualties at the Mongkol Hospital from January to August 1996-1997, 2002-2003. Email from Krisna Uk, NPA, 23 April 2004.
[120] EMERGENCY Surgical Center for War Victims, “Annual Report for 2003,” January 2004, p. 5; Response to LM Questionnaire by Sonia Riccelli, Desk Officer for Cambodia, Emergency, 28 February 2004.
[121] Adelphe Tran and Liz Cross, DAC response to Landmine Monitor, 20 June 2004.
[122] Email from Larrie Warren, Director, Post Conflict Rehabilitation VVAF, 16 September 2004; Response to LM Questionnaire by Keo Phalla, ARC, Phnom Penh, 22 January 2004; interview with Marc Hermant, Program Director, HI, Phnom Penh, 12 January 2004.
[123] Response to Landmine Monitor by Punya Droz, DAC, Phnom Penh, 7 April 2004; DAC, “Action for Victim Assistance: Cambodia 2003,” September 2003, p. 11; Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 406; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 451-452; Article 7 Report, Form J, 15 April 2003.
[124] Email from Larrie Warren, VVAF, 16 September 2004; Email from Edith van Wijngaarden, Coordinator, Rehabilitation Department, HI Cambodia, 17 September 2004.
[125] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, 9 March 2004, p. 11; ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Program in Cambodia,” May 2003, pp. 1-2.
[126] Ibid, p. 26; “Annual Report 2002,” June 2003; “Annual Report 2001,” 14 April 2002; “Annual Report 2000,” 31 March 2001; “Annual Report 1999,” 31 March 2000, p. 11.
[127] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2003,” 9 March 2004, p. 11; ICRC, “Physical Rehabilitation Program in Cambodia,” Briefing Paper, May 2003, p. 3.
[128] Response to LM Questionnaire by ARC; ARC, “Helping Cambodia’s Disabled,” 30 January 2003; DAC, “Country Profile: Study on Persons with Disabilities (Cambodia),” February 2001, p. 45; see also previous editions of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[129] Response to LM Questionnaire by Pith Sokra, CT, Phnom Penh, 27 January 2004; The Cambodia Trust, “Annual Report 1999-2000,” p. 7; DAC, “Country Profile: Study on Persons with Disabilities (Cambodia),” February 2001, p. 45; Cambodia Trust website, www.cambodiatrust.com ; see also previous editions of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[130] DAC, “Cambodia 2003,” pp. 10-11; The Cambodia Trust, “Annual Report 2002-2003,” p. 9.
[131] DAC, “Cambodia 2003,” pp.10-11.
[132] Response to LM Questionnaire by Edith van Wijngaarden, HI Cambodia, 25 March 2004; HI, “Activity Report 2003,” Brussels, 15 July 2004, pp. 19-20; HI, “Program Summary: Cambodia 2004,” 7 December 2003; interview with Marc Hermant, HI, 12 January 2004; see also previous editions of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[133] DAC, “Cambodia 2003,” p. 34. Veterans International is also known as Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation.
[134] Email from Larrie Warren, VVAF, 16 September 2004; DAC, “Cambodia 2003,” p. 34.
[135] Tith March, AAR Japan, response to LM Questionnaire, 16 February 2004.
[136] Daisuke Sagiya, Country Representative, AAR, questionnaire submitted for “Portfolio of Socio-Economic Reintegration Projects,” 31 August 2004.
[137] DAC, “Cambodia 2003,” pp. 16, 27-28.
[138] Response to LM Questionnaire by Steve Harknett, Consultant, DDSP, 10 July 2004, and email, 6 September 2004.
[139] Response to LM Questionnaire by Sam Oeurn Pok, Cambodian War Amputees Rehabilitation Society, Phnom Penh, 14 February 2003.
[140] Hay Kim Tha, Director, CHA, questionnaire submitted for “Portfolio of Socio-Economic Reintegration Projects,” 2 September 2004.
[141] Imbert Matthee, President, Clear Path International, questionnaire submitted for “Portfolio of Socio-Economic Reintegration Projects,” 31 August 2004; Response to LM Questionnaire by Sothea Aroun, Cambodian Volunteers for Community Development, Phnom Penh, 28 February 2003.
[142] DTW brochure from Guy Craft, Vol. 1, Issue 2, Phnom Penh, 22 October 2001.
[143] For more details see WRF, “The Socio-Economic Reintegration of Landmine Survivors: Lebanon, Mozambique, Cambodia,” New York, 2003, pp. 4-7.
[144] Response to LM Questionnaire by Sarah Bearuph, Mine Program Manager, World Vision, 12 February 2004
[145] Response from Roath Leakhana, Country Representative, AFSC, 11 January 2002.
[146] Response to LM Questionnaire by Mu Socheat, CARITAS, 6 February 2004.
[147] Response to LM Questionnaire by Annd de Pasquat, DAC, Phnom Penh, February 2003; Response to LM Questionnaire by Andrea Crossland, International Adviser, Children Affected by Mines, 19 April 2002.
[148] See DAC, “Cambodia 2003,” pp. 10-11, 16 and 19.
[149] Data collected during Jesuit Services Outreach Program as of 31 March 2000.
[150] CMAA, “Mine Action: 1992-2003,” 29 April 2004, p. 6.
[151] Ibid, pp. 33-34.
[152] Presentation by Denise Coghlan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 10 February 2004.
[153] Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2004; Article 7 Report, Form J, 15 April 2003; Article 7 Report, Form J, 19 April 2002.
[154] Response to LM Questionnaire by Ouk Sisovann, DAC, 22 January 2003. The full text of the draft legislation is available at www.dac.org.kh/legislation/list-laws/draft-disability-law.htm. (accessed 3 September 2004).
[155] Presentation by Sam Sotha, CMAA, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[156] Ibid; Article 7 Report, Form J, 30 April 2004.
[157] CMAA, 2002 Work Plan, Phnom Penh, December 2001, p. 8.
[158] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 453-454.
[159] Steering Group meeting, National Institute of Public Health, Phnom Penh, 27 February 2004. DAC released a plan of action in February 2001, but it would appear that no real progress was made due to the restructuring of DAC. See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 451. For more details see Disability Action Council website at www.dac.org.kh.