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Country Reports
Georgia, Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: In September 2004, the OSCE expressed concern about new mine-laying by both Georgian and South Ossetian forces. Earlier in 2004, insurgents in Ajaria province reportedly laid landmines that were subsequently cleared by Georgia. In September 2003, Georgia and Abkhazia agreed to jointly demine the Kodori Gorge. The Survey Action Center conducted an Advance Survey Mission to Georgia in July 2004 to assess the need for a Landmine Impact Survey. The ICBL Georgian Committee held mine risk education sessions for 119 teachers in the Kakheti region. In 2003, there were at least 40 mine/UXO casualties in Georgia, a significant decrease from the 96 recorded in 2002.

Key developments since 1999: It appears that Georgian Armed Forces have used antipersonnel mines each year from 2001-2004, despite repeatedly government denials. In addition, private armed groups from Georgia have infiltrated into Abkhazia and laid antipersonnel mines. In 2002 NATO agreed to provide assistance for clearance of UXO around military sites, but in mid-2004, the project had not yet started. The US transferred demining equipment to Georgia in 2001 and 2002 and trained Georgian demining instructors. Georgia has frequently expressed its support for the goals of the Mine Ban Treaty, and has voted in favor of every annual UN General Assembly resolution calling for universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. The ICBL Georgian Committee recorded 266 landmine/UXO/IED casualties between 2001 and April 2004.

Mine Ban Policy

Georgia has not acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty, but it has expressed support for the global ban on antipersonnel mines on several occasions. In a July 2003 letter to Landmine Monitor, the First Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, David Aptsiauri, said Georgia “fully shares the concern of the international community regarding the challenge of anti-personnel landmines” and it “does its utmost to...facilitate the process of elimination and eradication of the above-mentioned threat.”[1]

Georgia has said that the principal reasons for not joining the Mine Ban Treaty are its lack of jurisdiction over mined areas in Abkhazia and Samachablo, and the difficulties of clearing landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) left by the forces of the former Soviet Union and Russia.[2] Georgia has also said that “without financial and technological assistance, Georgia will not be able to fulfill its obligations” under the Mine Ban Treaty.[3]

Georgia participated in the Ottawa Process in 1997 as an observer, including the negotiations in Oslo and the signing ceremony in Ottawa.[4] Georgia has voted in favor of every annual UN General Assembly resolution supporting a ban on antipersonnel mines since 1996, including UNGA Resolution 58/53 in December 2003, calling for universalization of the Mine Ban Treaty. Georgia has attended three of the five annual Meetings of States Parties (1999, 2000, and 2002) and one session of the intersessional Standing Committees, in February 2003.

The ICBL Georgian Committee (ICBL-GC) organized a press conference on 2 April 2004 to discuss the mine problem in Georgia and local NGOs hosted a regional conference in Tblisi in December 1999. ICBL Ambassador and Nobel Laureate Jody Williams has visited Georgia twice to urge accession to the treaty, in February and December 1999.

Georgia is party to the 1980 Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its original Protocol II, but it has not ratified Amended Protocol II. Regarding its participation in Amended Protocol II, “the Defense Ministry of Georgia on this stage does not consider expedient to join the Amended Protocol II of 1980 CCW because of the existence of territories uncontrollable by Georgia.”[5] In November 2003, Georgia attended the Fifth Annual Conference of State Parties to Amended Protocol II as an observer.

Production, Transfer, and Stockpiling

Georgian officials have maintained that Georgia has never produced, exported, or imported antipersonnel landmines since independence.[6] Georgia inherited what is believed to be a small stockpile of antipersonnel mines from the former Soviet Union, but the exact size and composition of that stock remains unknown.[7]

In 2002, Russia began to destroy its obsolete ammunition and landmine stockpiles held at three military bases in Georgia.[8] On 15 March 2002, Russia reportedly destroyed 500 mines stored at its former base at Sagarejo. The United States reportedly said in 2004 that it is prepared to fund Russia’s withdrawal from two of the military bases in Georgia.[9]


Georgia has had an official moratorium on the use of antipersonnel mines in place since September 1996.[10] However, it appears that Georgian armed forces have used antipersonnel mines every year since 2001. Georgia has denied any use.

Most recently, in September 2004, it was reported that representatives of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) expressed concern “about the fact that Georgia and South Ossetia are mining the conflict area.” A news account said that, according to the OSCE’s information, the conflicting parties are reinforcing their defense facilities, including mining the areas. Roy Reeve, the head of the OSCE mission to Georgia, said the mine-laying is absolutely unacceptable and will be discussed with the defense ministries of Georgia and South Ossetia.[11]

On 19 August 2004, Russian peacekeeping forces moving in to occupy an area vacated by Georgian troops in the contested Tskhinvali region of South Ossetia alleged that Georgian forces had mined the territory. Russian General Svyatoslav Nabzdorov was quoted by media stating that, “[Georgian] troops left behind some surprises for the peacekeepers who arrived here.... We removed two of these surprises – tripwire mines.”[12] The General later said that Georgian forces had placed at least 215 tripwired antipersonnel mines and 20 other mines.[13] A humanitarian worker in the area reported that a joint Ossetian-Georgian peacekeeping group discovered the Ossetian village of Sarabuk to have been mined prior to the arrival of Georgian. The worker said that two peacekeepers had died in mine explosions, but both deaths occurred in Ossetian-held territory, and not in the formerly Georgian-held Tskhinvali area. As numerous illegal armed groups operate in the area, it is difficult to assess who is responsible for laying the mines.

In February 2002, a representative of the Georgian Ministry of Defense admitted that in 2001, Georgian Armed Forces laid antipersonnel mines in several passes in the Kodori Gorge near Abkhazia.[14] There were reports, and a statement from CIS peacekeepers, in July 2002 that Georgian forces were again laying mines in Kodori gorge. A representative of the President of Georgia in Kodori, Emzar Kvitciani, was quoted in March 2003 as saying Georgian troops regularly mine the area.[15] Officials from the Ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs denied that Georgia had placed new mines in the Kodori area.[16] In a July 2003 letter to Landmine Monitor, the First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs said, “I would like to assure you that since 1996 (when President of Georgia H.E. Eduard Shevardnadze declared unilateral moratorium on use, import and export of antipersonnel mines) onward Georgian corresponding agencies have been strictly abstaining from usage of antipersonnel landmines.”[17]

In April 2004, the renegade leader of the Georgian province of Ajaria, Aslan Abashidze, reportedly ordered the planting of mines at the Batumi oil terminal. According to media, Georgian forces cleared the mines in May 2004.[18] They found 200 antivehicle mines on the edge of the Cholokhi River.[19] After Abashidze fled in May 2004, Georgian president Mikhail Saakashvili ordered the Ajaria insurgents to surrender their stockpiles of weapons and officials received large quantities of arms and munitions, including landmines.[20] The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Georgia published a list of weapons seized in Adjaria that included 52 antivehicle mines, but no antipersonnel mines.[21] However, during a field visit to Adjara, the ICBL GC saw both antipersonnel and antivehicle mines in the Helvachauri security office, seized from the population of Helvachauri district in Adjara.[22]

Since its first edition in 1999, Landmine Monitor has reported numerous instances of private armed groups from Georgia infiltrating into Abkhazia and laying antipersonnel mines.

In late 1999, the resumption of fighting in Chechnya resulted in mine-laying in Georgia, which borders Chechnya. On 9 August 1999, two Russian Su-25 aircraft entered Georgian airspace from Dagestan, where Russia was involved in fighting against Dagestani rebels, and bombed in and around the village of Zemo Omalo. The Georgian military identified the weapons used as KSS-1S cluster bombs, containing PFM-1S antipersonnel mines.[23] In May 2001, a Georgian official stated that there have been cases of Russian mining of the Chechen stretch of the Russian-Georgian border near the villages of Shatili and Omalo.[24] Russian soldiers also laid mines around their military bases in Georgia.

Both Georgian and Abkhazian forces laid tens of thousands of mines during the intense fighting in 1992-93. Allegations of ongoing use by both sides have continued since that time. (See Landmine Monitor report on Abkhazia).

Landmine Problem, Survey and Assessment

The majority of landmines are located near the Inguri River separating Georgia and Abkhazia. (See entry on Abkhazia in this Landmine Monitor Report 2004.) Outside of the Abkhazia, mines laid around Russian military bases pose the main danger to civilians in Georgia. In July 2004, the Survey Action Center (SAC) conducted an Advance Survey Mission to Georgia to assess the need for a national Landmine Impact Survey. It concluded that the landmine problem was largely confined to Abkhazia and a limited number of military bases and strategic locales, but that mines also exist in the border areas with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan, Chechnya, Turkey and Ingushetia.[25] In late 2003, the US State Department and Defense Department undertook an assessment mission to Georgia that concluded the impact of landmines in Georgia was minimal.[26] Also in 2003, a project coordinator with the Slovenian-based International Trust Fund, Iztok Hocevar, conducted an assessment of the mine situation in Georgia.[27] In mid-2002, HALO Trust conducted a Level One Survey of affected areas surrounding three Russian military bases in Georgia. It determined while the areas were mined, the presence of fencing, barbed wire, and military guards meant the areas did not constitute an immediate humanitarian threat.[28]

Mine Clearance and Coordination

Responsibility for mine clearance in the zone of military actions and at military bases is entrusted to the Ministry of Defense, whereas the Ministry of Internal Affairs is responsible for populated areas, roads, and railroads, and the Department of Border Guards is responsible for border areas. A Georgian Mine Action Center, in the form of a local NGO without a coordination mandate, was established in early 2004, with plans to conduct humanitarian demining operations in Georgia.

The US transferred demining equipment to Georgia in 2001 and 2002 and trained 20 Georgians as demining instructors, who have in turn trained 34 others, giving Georgia a force of 54 trained deminers.[29] In September-November 2000, under the “Beecroft Initiative,” US military conducted simultaneous humanitarian demining training of Georgian, Armenian, and Azerbaijani soldiers at the Gori military base near Tbilisi.

In September 2003, Georgia and Abkhazia agreed to jointly demine the Kodori Gorge.[30] According to a press account, experts believe that there are hundreds of antipersonnel mines in the gorge, and that a lack of minefield maps combined with broken terrain will make it impossible to use mechanical clearance equipment. Operations were postponed initially due to weather conditions.[31] In June 2004, the Georgian presidential envoy to the Kodori Gorge area stated that each side was ready to begin the clearance work, and that the UN Mission in Georgia would provide assistance.[32] As of September 2004, the demining operation had still not commenced, due to security risks in the area.[33]

On 1 October 2002, Georgia’s then-Minister of Foreign Affairs, Irakli Menagarishvili, signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency (NAMSA) that opens the way for the implementation of a Partnership for Peace Trust Fund Project to demilitarize and dispose of over 300 missiles at former military bases, as well as to clear UXO at military sites.[34] According to NATO, Luxembourg will be the lead donor for the project, contributing €1,250,000, while Georgian authorities will contribute in kind support.[35] On 23 October 2003, Luxembourg signed the financial management agreement for the Trust Fund Project. The project – the first of its kind in Georgia – should help prevent environmental contamination and allow future civilian use of the land.[36]

Under the agreement, NATO will provide material assistance and training to clean up a former military site near Tbilisi.[37] A local demining organization formed by former Georgian military engineers, “Jani,” will clear the 10,000-hectare site, which will then be handed over to the local population for agricultural use.[38] As of August 2004, the clearance project had not yet started because, according to the SAC Advance Survey Mission, Russia has not officially handed the land to be cleared over to Georgia.[39]

In February 2004, the media reported that Russia would deploy engineering troops to demine around a former engineering ammunition depot in Sagarejo, in western Georgia. A Russian Army officer reportedly stated that most ammunition at the site would be removed or destroyed, so that Georgia could assume control of the facility.[40] The ICBL-GC subsequently surveyed the Sagarejo depot and found that while the Russian engineers had deployed a clearance machine to demine the roads inside the military base, it did not clear other areas, including some concealed by overgrown vegetation. ICBL-GC found several PFM-1 and PMN-2 type mines, including one discovered while in the presence of a Survey Action Center representative. HALO Trust marked the Sagarejo depot in July 2004, but one week later none of the preventive signs could be found.

On 29 January 2001, then-President Eduard Shevardnadze and his Turkish counterpart Ahmet Necdet Sezer signed an agreement on the elimination of landmines on the border of the two states.[41]

Mine Action Funding

The United States provided $4.3 million in demining assistance to Georgia between 1993 and 2003, the bulk of which went to support the HALO Trust mine clearance operations in Abkhazia, while the remainder was used to purchase mine detectors, body armor, and vehicles.[42] In its fiscal year 2003, the US provided $1.05 million in demining assistance. In late 2003, the US expressed concerns that the Georgian government was not “sufficiently committed to alleviating this [landmine] problem,” and that there was a high risk that funding designated for demining would be misappropriated.[43] Georgia’s change in government in November 2003 apparently means US support will continue. A US Embassy official indicated that in 2004 the US planned to provide $1.5 million in mine action assistance for Georgia.[44]

According to the United Nations Mine Action Investments database, in 2003, the Netherlands provided $300,000 to mine action in Georgia, and Canada donated $68,960.[45]

Mine Risk Education

Organizations involved in mine risk education (MRE) in Georgia, outside of Abkhazia, have included the ICBL Georgian Committee, the HALO Trust, the Ministry of Education, and UNICEF. In 2003, 2,610 people attended MRE sessions conducted by these organizations. Between January and July 2004, 18,685 people attended MRE sessions. Between 1999 and 2002, about 2,000 people attended MRE sessions.[46]

The ICBL-GC has carried out mine risk education activities in Georgia since 1998. In 2003, it conducted several MRE activities in the Kakheti region, in the administrative departments of Akhmeta, Dedoplistskaro, Lagodekhi, Sagaredjo, and Telavi. The ICBL-GC distributed a brochure for military schoolteachers that included photographs and technical information about mines. In February 2004, it held an MRE training for 119 military schoolteachers and 20 students, and provided the teachers with MRE materials such as brochures, workbooks, calendars, stickers, and posters. The ICBL-GC created a database of landmine victims in the Kakheti region, conducted several field visits and prepared two video presentations on the landmine/UXOs problem. It met with local government, police, and hospital workers to discuss the mine situation in the Kakheti region. It made a film while visiting two military bases that was later released at a press conference in Tbilisi. In 2003, the ICBL-GC also posted billboards in Tbilisi with the slogan “Mine Danger for Everyone” that display photographs and statistics on landmine victims.[47]

In July 2003, HALO Trust opened an office in Zugdidi to enable it to liaise with local authorities and increase the provision of mine risk education to internally displaced persons (IDPs) and people traveling between the Zugdidi region and Abkhazia. HALO identified a need to conduct MRE for people crossing the border illegally, often accompanied by their children.[48] As of July 2004, HALO had provided MRE to 23,125 people from the Zugdidi region, including 18,456 people between January and July 2004. It did not conduct any mine clearance in the Zugdidi region.[49]

In December 2003, UNICEF helped produce Georgian-language mine risk education pamphlets that were to be distributed to the IDP families in Zugdidi.[50] UNICEF has provided support to the ICBL-GC for its MRE activities.[51] A needs assessment conducted in July 2003 called on UNICEF to develop and implement MRE activities for Chechen refugees in the Pankisi valley.[52] However, as of September 2004, UNICEF had not developed any activities for Chechen refugees in Georgia.[53]

Landmine Casualties

There are no official statistics on the number of people killed or injured by landmines and UXO in Georgia.[54] In 2003, the ICBL-GC collected data on 40 new casualties in Georgia caused by landmines, UXO, or improvised explosive devices (IED); eight people were killed and 42 injured, including eight children, three women, and nine military personnel. This represents a significant reduction from the 97 casualties (31 killed and 66 injured) recorded in 2002, and the 111 casualties (37 killed and 74 injured) recorded in 2001. In April 2003, three Georgian soldiers were injured in a landmine explosion during a US-sponsored training exercise.[55]

The ICBL-GC database currently provides the only source of information on mine casualties in Georgia, outside of the territory of Abkhazia. However, an advance survey mission to Georgia in July 2004 questioned the accuracy of the data due to the lack of comprehensive details on each casualty recorded. The ICBL-GC is in the process of developing a more detailed mine casualty database in part to address this issue.[56]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2004. Between January and September, the ICBL-GC recorded 42 new mine/UXO/IED casualties. Seven casualties were reported near the Sagarejo military base.

The total number of landmine casualties in Georgia is not known. The total 300 casualties recorded by the ICBL-GC since 2001 includes 54 children, 21 women, and 43 Armed Forces personnel, Security forces, deminers or Russian peacekeepers..

In Iraq, on 25 August 2003, four deminers with the Georgian Armed Forces were injured during mine clearance operations in Tikrit.[57]

Survivor Assistance

Hospitals throughout Georgia, including in Abkhazia, routinely run short of basic medical supplies due to a lack of funding, and many people cannot afford medical care. Specialized rehabilitation and psychological support is limited, or unavailable, for many mine survivors.[58]

The ICRC regularly provides equipment, supplies, and medicines to Zugdidi Republican Hospital, Sukhum Republican Hospital, Agudzera and Tkvarcheli hospitals, two facilities in Darcheli and Jvari, and the Gali and Ochamchira hospitals receive first aid supplies. Since 2001, ICRC-supported hospitals treated 37 mine casualties: seven in 2003; 16 in 2002; and 14 in 2001. In 2003, four surgeons from Georgia and Abkhazia attended an ICRC seminar on war surgery in Moscow; five surgeons attended ICRC seminars on war surgery in both 2001 and 2002.[59]

The ICRC, in collaboration with local authorities, has supported two prosthetic/orthotic centers in Tbilisi and Gagra since 1995. The centers are the only major facilities available for physical rehabilitation in Georgia. In 2003, the ICRC handed over the management of the center in Tbilisi to the Georgian Foundation for Prosthetic and Orthopedic Rehabilitation, with a view to improving prospects for long-term sustainability. The ICRC will continue providing technical and financial support to the center through 2004. The Tbilisi Orthopedic Center continues to have several hundred people on the waiting list for services; 458 amputees were on the waiting list at the end of 2002. Since 1999, the two centers produced 2,505 prostheses (550 for mine survivors) and 3,375 orthoses (at least two for mine survivors), and distributed more than 90 wheelchairs and 3,516 crutches; including 373 prostheses (80 for mine survivors), 1,082 orthoses (two for mine survivors), 20 wheelchairs (two for mine survivors) and 1,230 crutches (88 for mine survivors) in 2003. The ICRC also provides on-going training for orthopedic technicians. In 2003, three technicians attended short technical courses in Sochi in Russia, and in May 2002, one technician was sent to Germany for a three-month upgrading course in prosthetics and orthotics. In May 2001, five orthopedic technicians attained internationally recognized qualifications after completing a three-year training course in prosthetics and orthotics, equivalent to the International Society of Prosthetics and Orthotics (ISPO) level II standard; 14 students completed two-year training courses in 2000.[60]

In early 2004, the ICBL-GC conducted psychological support sessions for two landmine survivors in Sagarejo. A psychologist and a psychiatrist from “NDOBA” Trust, the first psychosocial support service in Georgia, participated in the sessions.

The Ministry of Labor, Health, and Social Affairs has developed a special program, “Medical and Psycho-Social program for Invalids,” for the care and rehabilitation of persons with disabilities at rehabilitation centers in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, and Batumi. The program provides outpatient treatments, prosthetic/orthopedic assistance, and consultations on legal rights.[61]

Two mine survivors from Georgia participated in the Raising the Voices training in Geneva, Switzerland in February 2004.

Disability Policy and Practice

The June 1995 Law on the Social Protection of the Disabled outlines the rights of persons with disabilities; however, it has not been fully implemented because of the economic situation in Georgia.[62]

[1] Letter to Landmine Monitor from David Aptsiauri, First Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 10 July 2003. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 583-584, and earlier Landmine Monitor reports for pro-ban statements.
[2] Interview with a representative of the Ministry of Defense, Tbilisi, 6 February 2002. The representative also provided written answers to questions submitted by Landmine Monitor. One written answer stated: “There do still exist the mined territories in Abkhazia and Samachablo, on which do not apply the jurisdiction of Georgia and naturally on these territories Georgia cannot carry out monitoring nor demining works. Besides on the territory of Georgia there are hundreds of military objects left by forces of former Soviet Union and Russia, objects where are set mines, explosive substances and the sources which cause various professional diseases, and in the budget of the state and the Defense Ministry of Georgia there were not foreseen the means for liquidation of sources of danger.”
[3] Note Verbale from the Permanent Mission of Georgia to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), FSC. DEL/12/01, 17 January 2001.
[4] At the signing ceremony, Georgia’s Ambassador stated, “Georgia believes that the human and social costs of antipersonnel mines far outweigh their military significance.... Georgia...will in every way support and promote the ban on the use of the mines.... Therefore, Georgia supports the Ottawa Process and its goal--the prohibition of use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and their destruction.” Address of H.E. Tedo Japaridze, Ambassador of Georgia at the Signing Ceremony of the Mine Ban Treaty, Ottawa, 3-4 December 1997.
[5] Letter (#11/316) to ICBL-GC from N. Laliashvili, Head of Defense Politics and Euro-Atlantic Integration Department, Ministry of Defense, 23 June 2004 (unofficial translation by ICBL-GC).
[6] This was originally reported in Landmine Monitor Report 1999: Interview with Col. K. Kalandadze, Head of Engineering Department, Ministry of Defense, April 1998.
[7] Information provided to the ICBL Georgian Committee by the Ministry of Defense, 6 February 2002.
[8] As reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 878. The Sagarejo, Batumi, and Akhalkalaki bases are believed to be mined.
[9] “US would aid withdrawal of Russian bases from Georgia,” Xinhua (Moscow), 14 January 2004.
[10] The moratorium was proclaimed by President Shevardnadze at the United Nations in September 1996 and has been repeated by officials many times since. See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 792, and Note Verbale to the OSCE, 17 January 2001.
[11] “OSCE voices concern over landmines in Georgian-Ossetian conflict zone,” Interfax (Tbilisi), 10 September 2004.
[12] “Russian general says withdrawing Georgians left behind booby traps,” Channel One TV (transcript), Moscow, 20 August 2004.
[13] “Situation in the Northern Caucasus,” Strana.Ru Information Agency, 24 August 2004.
[14] Interview with a representative of the Ministry of Defense, Tbilisi, 6 February 2002. The use of mines was confirmed in his written answers to questions submitted by Landmine Monitor. He also stated mines were used in the Pankisi gorge. He confirmed the mine-laying in July 2002, saying that the areas where the antipersonnel mines were laid are inaccessible to vehicles. Telephone interviews with Ministry of Defense official, 23 and 24 July 2002.
[15] “Kodori main direction is permanently mined,” Akhali Taoba, No. 74, 17 March 2003, p. 7. Kvitciani reiterated his remarks a few days later in an interview with the ICBL Georgian Committee. ICBL GC interview with Emzar Kvitciani, representative of President of Georgia in Kodori, 23 March 2003. For more information, see Landmine Monitor 2003, pp. 584-585.
[16] Letter to ICBL Georgia Committee from Shota Dogonadze, Deputy Minister, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, #8-14/621, 23 May 2003.
[17] Letter from David Aptsiauri, First Deputy Minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 10 July 2003.
[18] “Georgians press ahead with mine clearance work at Ajarian oil terminal,” Itar-Tass (Tbilisi), 6 May 2004; www.civil.ge/eng/article.html?id=6819 (Civil Georgia, 2 May 2004).
[19] “At Choloki river were found ATM”, Akhali Taoba, 14 June 2004.
[20] “Adzharia: Arms Surrender Deadline Over, Midnight,” RIA Novosty (Tbilisi), 16 May 2004.
[21] http://www.primenewsonline.com/index.html?action=show&type=news&id=26021 (11 May 2004)
[22] ICBL GC monitoring group field visit to Helvachauri district, Adjara, 24 August 2004.
[23] See “Prime-News,” (television), Tbilisi, Georgia, 10 August 1999; “Georgian Deputy Says Type of Russian Bomb Established,” RIA (news agency), 11 August 1999.
[24] Interview with Mr. Sergo Gumberidze, Security Council Staff, 23 May 2001.
[25] Email from Mike Kendellen, Director for Survey, Survey Action Center, 29 September 2004.
[26] Letter to the ICBL Georgian Committee from David Aptciauri, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, 22 January 2004; Humanitarian Mine Action Subgroup Minutes of December 11, 2003 Meeting, Fact Sheet, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 23 December 2003.
[27] Letter from David Aptciauri, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, 22 January 2004.
[28] Email to ICBL Georgia Committee from Tim Turner, Program Manager, HALO Trust, Abkhazia, Georgia, 28 October 2002.
[29] US Department of State, “Humanitarian Mine Action Subgroup Minutes of June 14, 2002.”
[30] “Georgia to cooperate with Abkhaz separatists in mine clearance,” Interfax (Georgia), 22 September 2003.
[31] “Georgia: joint mine clearance in Kodori Gorge postponed until next spring,” Kavkasia-Press (Georgia), 10 September 2003.
[32] “Georgia, Abkhazia Agree to Demine Kodori Gorge,” Interfax News Service (Tbilisi), 10 June 2004.
[33] Interview with David McMahon, Program Manager, HALO Trust, Sukhum, 8 September 2004.
[34] NATO Press Release, “NAMSO Signs Memorandum of Understanding with Georgia on Logistics Support for Demilitarization,” #2002: 113, 2 October 2002.
[35] Ibid.
[36] NATO, “Financial management agreement for Trust Fund project with Georgia signed today,” #2003:127, 28 October 2003, available at www.nato.int/docu/pr/2003/p03-127e.htm , accessed 12 October 2004.
[37] NATO Press Release, 2 October 2002.
[38] Ibid.
[39] Email from Mike Kendellen, Survey Action Center, 29 September 2004.
[40] “Russian Servicemen to Clear Mines in Georgia,” Interfax News Service (Tbilisi), 27 February 2004.
[41] “Georgia, Turkey agree to develop strategic partnership,” ITAR/TASS (Ankara), 29 January 2001.
[42] US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002.
[43] Letter from David Aptciauri, First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, 22 January 2004; Humanitarian Mine Action Subgroup Minutes of December 11, 2003 Meeting, Fact Sheet, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 23 December 2003.
[44] Email to ICBL GC from David Habecker, Political Adviser, US Embassy to Georgia, 12 July 2004.
[45] Mine Action Investments database, www.mineactioninvestments.org, accessed 29 July 2004.
[46] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 825; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 881; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 656; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 586; email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Narine Berikashvili, Coordinator, Georgian ICBL Committee, 29 July 2004.
[47] In February 2003, the Ploughshares Foundation provided $10,000 to ICBL-GC for its MRE and advocacy activities. In January 2004, Canada provided $21,232 to ICBL-GC for its MRE and advocacy work. Previously, in 2002, the ICBL-GC conducted a school program survey in Tbilisi and discovered that while some schools teach limited mine risk education; the teachers did not have any MRE training manuals or materials. Results of School Program Survey conducted by ICBL Georgian Committee, October 2002.
[48] Laurence Desvignes, “Mine Action Needs Assessment Mission - Georgia,” UNICEF, July 2003, p.10. See also Landmine Monitor report on Abkhazia.
[49] HALO Trust, Report to Landmine Monitor, 28 July 2004.
[50] Mine Action Support Group Newsletter, February 2004.
[51] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 881.
[52] “Mine Action Needs Assessment Mission - Georgia,” July 2003, p. 17.
[53] Telephone interview with Ingrid Kolb-Hindarmanto, Program Coordinator, UNICEF Georgia, 10 September 2004.
[54] Unless otherwise stated, all information in this section is based on the ICBL-GC casualty database which records information obtained from hospitals in Kakheti and Kvemo Kartli regions, and in Tbilisi, as well as media reports and surveys since 2001.
[55] “Three Georgian soldiers wounded in US training exercises,” Agence France-Presse, 16 April 2003.
[56] Survey Action Center, “Advance Survey Mission to Georgia: 17 July to 26 July 2004,” p. 10.
[57] “Wounded among Georgian Peacekeepers” Mtavari Gazeti, 28 August 2003; “Wounded peacekeeper returned home,” Svobodnaya Gruzia, 23 October 2003.
[58] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 883.
[59] ICRC, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, June 2004, p. 223; ICRC Special Reports, “Mine Action 2002,” Geneva, July 2003, p. 44; “Mine Action 2001,” July 2001, p. 34.
[60] ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, 9 March 2004, pp. 15-16, 26; ICRC, “Annual Report 2003,” June 2004, p. 223; “Annual Report 2002,” June 2003, p. 10; “Annual Report 2001,” 14 April 2002; “Annual Report 2000,” 31 March 2001; “Annual Report 1999,” 31 March 2000, p. 11; email from Maia Tsotsoria, Head of Communication Unit, ICRC Georgia, 13 January 2004; statistics provided by ICRC Mission in Tbilisi, 17 March 2003.
[61] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 883-884; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 587-588.
[62] Letter to ICBL GC from Marina Gudusauri, Deputy Minister, Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs, Ref. 17/06-134, 23 April 2001.