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Country Reports
Jordan, Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: In 2003, the Jordanian Engineers Corps cleared approximately 4 million square meters of land, destroying 556 mines. On 19-21 April 2004, Jordan hosted a regional seminar on the military and humanitarian issues surrounding the Mine Ban Treaty. On 1-4 March 2004, the NDRC and UNDP conducted a regional workshop on socio-economic approaches to mine action, attended by experts from Iraq, Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen, and Jordan.

Key developments since 1999: Jordan became a State Party on 1 May 1999. Jordan began destruction of its stockpile of 92,342 antipersonnel mines in September 1999 and concluded in April 2003. A National Demining and Rehabilitation Committee was established by royal decree in 2000. Between 1993 and June 2004, demining operations cleared 11.81 million square meters of land, destroying 59,461 antipersonnel mines and 42,099 antivehicle mines from 183 minefields. Deminers from the Royal Engineering Corps deployed to Afghanistan in December 2002. Since 1999, there have been at least 57 new mine/UXO casualties in Jordan. As of June 2004, there had been at least 529 mine casualties in Jordan. The Landmine Survivors Network started a program in Jordan in April 1999.

Mine Ban Policy

Jordan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 11 August 1998, ratified on 13 November 1998, and the treaty entered into force on 1 May 1999. Jordan’s Law of Explosive Materials of 1953 serves as the legal mechanism to enforce the treaty.

While Jordan participated actively in the Ottawa Process, it was not among the countries to sign the treaty when it was opened for signature on 3 December 1997. On 11 July 1998, in Amman, Her Majesty Queen Noor told the opening session of the First Middle East Conference on Landmine Injury and Rehabilitation, “I would like to begin by announcing with great pride and hope that as of this morning the Jordanian cabinet has approved the signature of the Ottawa Convention.”[1] Jordan formally signed one month later.

Jordan and Her Majesty Queen Noor have emerged as the most visible proponents of a landmine ban in the region. In April 2004, Queen Noor attended a regional conference in Tajikistan on landmines in Central Asia, where she encouraged non-signatory countries to join the Mine Ban Treaty.[2] In March 2001, Queen Noor participated in “Ban Landmines Week” in Washington, DC, including a media event in which she called on all countries to join the Mine Ban Treaty, including the United States. Queen Noor continues to speak in support of the antipersonnel mine ban and advocates for the needs and rights of landmine survivors.

Since joining the Mine Ban Treaty, Jordan has attended every annual meeting of States Parties and it has participated in every session of the treaty’s intersessional Standing Committees, except those held in 2001. Jordan has voted in favor of every annual pro-ban UN General Assembly resolution since 1996, including UNGA Resolution 58/53 on 8 December 2003, which called for the universalization and full implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. On 19-21 April 2004, the Jordanian government hosted a regional seminar on military and humanitarian issues surrounding the Mine Ban Treaty, in cooperation with the Canadian embassy.[3]

Jordan submitted its seventh Article 7 transparency report on 5 May 2004, covering the period 30 April 2003 to 1 March 2004.[4]

Jordan has rarely engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2, and 3, and the issues of joint military operations with non-States Parties, foreign stockpiling and transit of antipersonnel mines, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training.

While Jordan is party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Amended Protocol II, it did not attend the Fifth Annual Conference of States Parties to Amended Protocol II in November 2003, nor did it submit an Article 13 national annual report.

Production, Transfer, Stockpiling and Use

Jordan never produced or exported antipersonnel mines and last used them in 1978.[5] On 23 April 2003, Jordan completed the destruction of its stockpile of 92,342 antipersonnel mines during a ceremony attended by Jordan’s King Abdullah II, landmine survivors and media. It finished just ahead of its treaty-mandated deadline of 1 May 2003. The destruction, which began in September 1999, was carried out over ten separate events at a total cost of approximately $184,684 (approximately $2 per mine).[6] The stockpile was destroyed by open detonation/burning. Ninety-eight percent of the antipersonnel mines in Jordan’s stockpile were of US manufacture, while the remainder was of Belgian, British, Egyptian, Russian, and Syrian origin. Jordan included Claymore mines in its stockpile destruction.

Jordan is retaining 1,000 antipersonnel mines for training and research purposes, but it has not reported on the intended purposes and use of these mines in its transparency reports. At a Standing Committee meeting in June 2004, Jordan’s representative stated that live antipersonnel mines were unnecessary for training purposes.[7]

Landmine Problem

Before the mine clearance program began in 1993, there were an estimated 304,653 landmines emplaced in Jordan, mainly along its borders. The Jordanian Armed Forces planted up to 231,528 landmines in Aqaba in the Jordan Valley, as well as along the Syrian border, of which 151,028 were antipersonnel mines and 80,500 antivehicle mines. The Israeli Defense Forces planted 73,125 landmines in the Araba Valley and Albaqura (64,802 antipersonnel mines and 8,323 antivehicle mines).[8] All minefields are fenced with metal pillars and barbed wire and marked with warning signs. Engineering battalions maintain the marking and fencing on a regular basis.[9] The Jordanian military carried out an expanded and updated survey during 2000 that identified new mined areas on the western border, in Al Baqourah area and in the Araba Valley.

In March 2004, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) Resident Representative in Jordan stated that, “Mines pose a significant economic impact by denying access to large areas of high-potential agricultural land in Jordan, and in certain areas, [are] a major obstacle to the growth of the tourism industry.”[10]

In June 2004, the Engineers Corps estimated that approximately 200,856 mines remain to be cleared in the country.[11]

Mine Action Coordination

The civilian-led National Demining and Rehabilitation Committee (NDRC) was established by royal decrees issued in March 2000 and April 2002 and headed by retired General Muhammad al-Malkawi. It is the focal point for all mine action in Jordan. The NDRC’s duty is to ensure continuity of annual funding and support for demining operations and rehabilitation projects. In 2003, the NDRC signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers to exchange information concerning the Mine Action Program.[12]

In 2003, a member of the NDRC completed a Senior Mine Action Manager course in the United Kingdom, and two other members participated in Middle Mine Action Manager courses.[13] On 15 March 2004, the NDRC attended the seventh International Meeting of Mine Action Program Directors and UN Advisors in Geneva.[14] On 1-4 March 2004, the NDRC and UNDP conducted a regional workshop on socio-economic approaches to mine action, attended by experts from Iraq, Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan, Yemen, and Jordan.[15]

In August 2003, a Country Team was established, led by the UNDP’s Jordan office and including all stakeholders and active demining donors in the country. The team is working to develop a national mine action strategy that will support development plans, and has identified demining operations, rehabilitation and integration of victims into society, and increasing awareness among affected communities as the main priorities for the next two years.[16]

Mine Action Funding and Assistance

Jordan reported that it spent about $35 million on mine action from 1997-2002.[17]

In August 2004, Jordan reported that since 1996, it has received $9.56 million in mine action assistance from Canada, Germany, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States.[18]

According to Jordan, all five of those governments donated to mine action in Jordan in 2003.[19] However, according to information provided by the donors, Germany and the UK did not provide funding in 2003. The other three donors provided about $1.13 million. The United States provided $893,000 from the State Department.[20] Norway provided $190,677 (NOK1,350,000) to Trauma Care Foundation for Mine Risk Education (NOK1 million) and LSN for victim assistance (NOK 350,000).[21] Canada provided US$50,000 (C$65,520) to UNDP-NCDR to support the National Demining Commision.[22] In addition, in 2003, the UNDP allocated $150,000 towards capacity building and the hiring of a Chief Technical Advisor (CTA) for the NDRC.[23]

In 2002, Jordan received about $1.06 million from the United States ($850,000), Canada ($131,355), and Norway ($75,000).[24] In 2001, it received about $1.57 million from the United States ($997,000), Norway ($442,222), Canada ($129,163).[25] Funding totals for previous years are not available.

Jordan has stated that the total amount of donations is not enough to cover the cost of the demining program and the government has appealed for further contributions on several occasions, including during the June 2004 intersessional meeting.[26] The Jordanian Ministry of Planning has provided JOD200,000 (approximately $282,500) to the NDRC.[27]

Jordan deployed thirteen Royal Jordanian Engineers Corps deminers to work in Afghanistan in December 2002. This marked the first time that Jordan has contributed to humanitarian mine action efforts outside the country. In 2003, the deminers cleared 166,450 square meters of affected land in Mazar Al Sharif, Khandahar, and Bagram, where they destroyed 29 mines and 304 UXO using the Aardvark chain flail system.[28]

Mine Clearance

In 2003, the Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers deployed a total of 400 men in 20 demining teams; each team consists of 20 personnel, five mechanical mine clearance machines, and heavy equipment, such as excavators, vegetation clearers, and heavy trucks.[29] The Commander of the Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers told Landmine Monitor, “The Corps of Engineers is focusing on the areas that are important for Jordan's economic development. These areas take longer to demine, but bring immediate positive impact to our people.”[30]

In 2003, the Engineering Corps surveyed and cleared 4 million square meters of land containing 383 antipersonnel mines, 173 antivehicle mines, and 1,850 UXO.[31] In 2002, the Engineering Corps cleared 20 minefields and total of 2,631 mines of all types.[32] For 2001 and previous years, a breakdown of number of minefields and square meters cleared and mines destroyed has not been reported.

Between 1 January 2004 and 24 February 2004, the Engineering Corps surveyed 489 square meters of land and cleared 36 antipersonnel mines and 1 antivehicle mine.[33]

Between 1993 and June 2004, demining operations cleared 101,560 mines (59,461 antipersonnel mines and 42,099 antivehicle mines) from 183 minefields covering 1.181.2 hectares (11.81 million square meters) of land, mainly in the Aqaba region and in the Jordan Valley.[34] The operations were conducted in accordance with international standards, both manually and by using detectors and earth-moving equipment.

In June 2004, Jordan activated the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) through the coordination of the Engineers Corps and NDRC. The NDRC also uses the Demining Information Management System (DIMS) to coordinate quality assurance.[35]

Under a three-phase demining plan, Jordan aims to complete mine clearance in the country by May 2009, which is the treaty-mandated deadline.[36] Phase I is scheduled to be completed in 2005, and covers the Jordan Valley and the Eastern Heights. Phase II, to be completed in 2007, covers the security zone (Jordan-Syrian border), and phase III, to be completed in 2009, will cover the remaining suspected areas in the western region.[37] Harsh environmental factors such as heat, erosion, and dense vegetation make demining in Jordan particularly challenging and costly.

Mine Risk Education

The Royal Engineers Corps provides MRE programs in schools, remote villages, and in cities near affected areas, such as Irbid and Ramtha in the north, Shouneh in the Jordan Valley, and in Karaq, Tafileh, and Aqaba in the south. Royal Engineers Corps officers and deminers carry out the programs, using inert mines, posters, slides, and videotapes to illustrate the risks posed by mines and preventative measures.

In 2003, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) carried out training and risk education activities among refugees entering the country from Iraq. It organized training sessions for volunteers from the Jordan National Red Crescent Society to enable them to carry out the risk education programs themselves.[38] On 18-22 May 2003, the ICRC held an awareness program on mines and explosive remnants of war for new refugees arriving at the Ruweished camp. It also coordinated mine risk education programs for children between ages 8 and 14 that involved activities such as theater, puppets, and competitions. In 2003, the ICRC held two role-playing competitions and one drawing competition. For adults, the ICRC organized three mine risk education programs involving presentations and community initiative activities. The ICRC produced one brochure for the public and two posters to be used in training sessions.

On 9-11 March 2004, the Jordanian National Red Crescent Society (JNRSC) held a workshop for 35 youth volunteers that provided training in landmine-related issues.[39] The volunteers planned to then disseminate the information to communities across Tafileh, Ajloun, Aqaba, karak, Madaba, Mafraq, Balqa and Irbid.[40] The workshop, an extensive effort to reach school and university students across the kingdom, is part of the 2003-2007 program of cooperation between the JNRCS and the ICRC.

On 21 March 2004, Yarmouk University's Refugees and Displaced Persons and Migration Studies Center (RDFSC) held a landmine awareness day. Activities included lectures on demining operations in the kingdom, reducing the risk of accidents, and the rehabilitation of those injured by landmines. The RDFSC displayed brochures, various types of mines, and detection equipment.[41]

Landmine Casualties

In 2003, landmines killed at least two people and injured four others. On 2 January, a military deminer was injured during clearance operations, resulting in a below-knee amputation.[42] On 13 April, a landmine explosion in Al-Mafraq injured a Syrian national.[43] In June 2003, a mine explosion killed one sister and injured another in the Zarqa area, and in a separate incident a civilian was killed in a mine incident in the Baq’aeh area. In September 2003, a civilian was injured in a landmine incident that resulted in a below-knee amputation.[44]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2004. In January, four brothers were injured in a mine incident in the Mafraq area.[45] On 8 March, a mine explosion killed a woman and badly injured her two children. In a separate incident on 8 March, two people were seriously injured while trying to clear mines.[46] In May 2004, three children were killed and two injured in a UXO incident.[47]

Between 1999 and 2002, there were at least 39 new landmine/UXO casualties in Jordan: 15 (at least three killed and five injured) in 2002; four killed and four injured in 2001; nine military personnel and three civilians injured in 2000; two killed and two injured in 1999.[48]

According to the government, the total number of mine casualties recorded in Jordan, as of June 2004, was 529 with 108 people killed and 421 injured; 212 were civilians and 317 were military personnel and peacekeepers. However, it is acknowledged that the true number is probably higher as not all mine casualties have been reported to the authorities.[49] A US Department of State publication in 2001 cited the Jordanian Armed Forces Medical Services as reporting 636 mine casualties (92 killed and 544 injured), including 370 civilians, since 1967.[50]

On 18 August 2001, eight Jordanian peacekeepers were injured after their vehicle hit a mine in the Temporary Security Zone in Eritrea.[51]

Survivor Assistance and Disability Policy and Practice

Landmine survivors are entitled to medical care and rehabilitation under the standard healthcare system in Jordan.[52] However, there is limited local outreach for physiotherapy and rehabilitation services for mine survivors. Smaller physiotherapy centers do exist at several of the regional hospitals, including the Princess Basma Hospital and Ramtha Hospital in the north, at the Mafrak Hospital in the east, and at Salt Hospital in midwest. Other hospitals report irregular access to physiotherapists.[53]

In practice, more complex cases of mine injuries are transferred to the national institutions in Amman for prosthetics and rehabilitation services. The main institutions are the public al-Bashir Hospital and the King Hussein Medical Center, under the Royal Medical Services. Al-Bashir’s rehabilitation unit and prosthetic center is the primary provider of such services to civilians in the country. There are eleven rehabilitation specialists working at the center, including physiotherapists and occupational therapists, however, the center does not offer facilities for social workers or psychologists. As a referral hospital for all of Jordan, with a very high number of patients, al-Bashir operates on the margins of its capacity. There is a waiting list to receive treatment, and its facilities and equipment are reportedly run-down.[54]

The second main institution for rehabilitation and prosthetic care in Jordan is the military King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC), with the attached Farah Rehabilitation Center. The hospital is primarily for Jordanians with military insurance.[55]

The Al-Hussein Society for the Habilitation/Rehabilitation of the Physically Challenged, affiliated with Jordan University, provides practical training for orthotic/prosthetic technicians. The Society also offers medical and physical rehabilitation, psychosocial support and vocational training for all persons with disabilities, with particular emphasis on children. It also operates a mobile clinic in its community-based rehabilitation/outreach program.[56]

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) has been active in Jordan since April 1999 in five geographic areas; Irbed, Ramtha, Zarqa, Mafreq and Amman. LSN’s community-based outreach workers, who are amputees, work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. LSN is following-up with 956 persons with disabilities. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services, or vocational training. In 2003, LSN assisted 209 people to obtain services for health insurance, customs exemptions, and monthly pensions from the local service providers (Ministry of Social Development, Customs Development and UNRWA). If no such services exist, LSN sometimes provides direct assistance including covering the cost of prostheses, house repairs or emergency food aid. In 2003, LSN supported 265 people with mobility devices (70 percent) and with adapting their homes to improve access (30 percent). LSN also helped 20 survivors establish small businesses. In 2003, LSN also provided 95 prostheses, 29 wheelchairs, 106 crutches and 55 other assistive devices.[57] About half the beneficiaries of the program are mine survivors.[58] LSN also establishes social support groups, and links survivors to existing job training and other economic and social service opportunities, and tracks their progress toward recovery and reintegration. It maintains a Rehabilitation Services Directory with information on 81 service providers in Jordan.[59]

In September 2003, the Vision Association for Development and Rehabilitation and Care in Lebanon, in cooperation with LSN, held the First Arab Summer Camp in Lebanon. Participants included landmine survivors from Jordan, Lebanon, Sudan and Syria. The aim of the camp was to improve the psychosocial recovery of survivors through peer support.[60] In October 2003, LSN announced the “King Hussein Award for Excellence in Demining and Rehabilitation” to recognize the contribution of organizations that have provided outstanding assistance to mine survivors and to individuals who demonstrated leadership and courage in efforts to demine Jordan.[61]

In January 2004, His Majesty King Abdullah laid the foundation stone of the Queen Rania Center for Military Personnel with Special Needs in the Jandaweel area. The center, which functions under the Hashemite Society for Military Personnel with Special Needs, is expected to serve more than 1,275 persons.[62]

Two mine survivors from Jordan participated in the Raising the Voices training in Geneva in June 2004.

The “Welfare of Disabled Persons” law, adopted by the Jordanian Parliament in April 1993, outlines the rights of persons with disabilities to healthcare, education, vocational training, rehabilitation, employment, sports, and participation in decision-making processes.[63]

In June 2004, the government identified the need to design a national mine victim assistance program and announced its future plans, which included the creation of a national registry of mine accidents and incidents; the development of a detailed program to meet the needs of mine survivors by improving access to and affordability of physical rehabilitation services; developing a comprehensive vocational training program based on the needs and background of affected individuals; and addressing long-term social assistance in the form of financial assistance or providing micro-credits for the establishment of business ventures. All activities will be carried out in conjunction with the Ministries of Health and Social Development, the Royal Medical Services, and other actors.[64]

[1] Opening speech of Queen Noor, First Middle East Conference on Landmines Injury and Rehabilitation, , Jordan, 11-12 July 1998.
[2] “Mines make childhood dangerous pastime in Tajikistan,” Agence France-Presse (Dushanbe), 24 April 2004; “Queen Noor Promotes Demining, Women’s Rights on Tajikistan Visit,” IPR (Tajikistan), 20 April 2004.
[3] Governments attended from States Parties Qatar and Yemen, and from non-States Parties Bahrain, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates.
[4] Previous reports were submitted: 1 May 2003 (for the period 1 May 2002–30 April 2003); 17 March 2003, 27 November 2002 and 1 May 2002 (all for an unspecified time period); 30 June 2000 (for the period 1 December 1999–30 June 2000); and 9 August 1999 (for the period 1 May–1 September 1999).
[5] Article 7 Report, Form C, 5 May 2004.
[6] Email from Brig. Gen. Fayez al-Dwairi, Director, Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 9 June 2003.
[7] Intervention by Jordan, Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, 25 June 2004. Jordan also said States Parties should set a limit of 1,000 retained mines.
[8] Jordan Article 5 Summary, presentation by Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, Geneva, 21 June 2004.
[9] Article 7 Report, Form I, 5 May 2004.
[10] “Experts say landmine threat hinders Socio-economic development,” The Jordan Times, 3 March 2004, p. 3.
[11] Jordan Article 5 Summary, 21 June 2004.
[12] Interview with Yasin Majali, Board Secretary, National Demining and Rehabilitation Committee, 20 January 2004.
[13] Email from Yasin Majali, National Demining and Rehabilitation Committee, 13 February 2004.
[14] Ibid, 18 April 2004.
[15] Ibid, 13 February 2004.
[16] MASG Newsletter, February 2004; email from Firas Gharaibeh, UNDP, 3 February 2004.
[17] Mine Ban Treaty Resource Mobilization Contact Group, “A review of resources to achieve the Convention’s Aims,” Presented by Norway to the Standing Committee on General Status and Operation of the Convention, 25 June 2004. Jordan reported US$4.4 million in 1997, US$5.9 million in 1998, US$6.3 million in 1999, US$6.4 million in 2000, US$5.8 million in 2001, and US$6.3 million in 2002.
[18] Email from Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 5 August 2004.
[19] Ibid, 28 February 2004.
[20] See US country report in this edition of the Landmine Monitor Report. The US reports that from 1996-2002, it provided Jordan with US$8.8 million in demining assistance. US Department of State, “To Walk the Earth in Safety,” September 2002.
[21] See Norwegian country report in this edition of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[22] See Canadian country report in this edition of the Landmine Monitor Report.
[23] Email from Yasin Majali, National Demining and Rehabilitation Committee, 13 February 2004.
[24] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 309.
[25] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 319.
[26] Jordan Article 5 Summary, 21 June 2004.
[27] Email from Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 28 February 2004.
[28] Ibid, 5 August 2004.
[29] “Jordan expected to remove all mines in the country by 2009,” Xinhua (Amman), 21 April 2004; Presentation by Jordan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 5 February 2003.
[30] Email from Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 28 February 2004.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 309.
[33] Email from Brig. Gen. Falah al-Maiteh, Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 28 February 2004.
[34] Jordan Article 5 Summary, 21 June 2004; Article 7 Report, Form G, 1 March 2004; Presentation to Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 9-13 February 2004.
[35] Interview with Brig. Gen. Fayez al-Dwairi, Royal Jordanian Corps of Engineers, 5 January 2004.
[36] Presentation to Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Geneva, 5 February 2003; “Jordan expected to remove all mines in the country by 2009 – official,” Xinhua (Amman), 21 April 2004.
[37] Jordan Article 5 Summary, 21 June 2004.
[38] Interview with Mu’en Qassis, International Committee of the Red Cross, 22 February 2004.
[39] ICRC, “Jordan: Raising awareness of the danger of mines,” ICRC News, No. 04/35, 17 March 2004.
[40] “Youth volunteers begin training on landmine-related issues,” Jordan Times, 10 March 2004, p. 3.
[41] “Yarmouk U to hold landmine awareness day,” The Jordan Times, 21 March 2004, p. 3.
[42] Interview with Khaled Al Batayneh, Social Worker, Hashemite Society, Amman, 22 February 2003.
[43] Email from Mona Abdeljawad, Landmine Survivors Network, 5 June 2003.
[44] Email from Adnan Al Aboudi, Director, Landmine Survivors Network, 20 January 2004.
[45] Ibid.
[46] ICRC, “Jordan,” 17 March 2004.
[47] Presentation by Jordan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[48] For details see Landmine Monitor Reports 2003, p. 310; Landmine Monitor Reports 2002, p. 320; Landmine Monitor Reports 2000, p. 900; US DOS, “To Walk the Earth,” November 2001, p. 41.
[49] Presentation by Jordan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[50] US DOS, “To Walk the Earth,” November 2001, p. 41.
[51] “Report of the Secretary-General on Ethiopia and Eritrea,” New York, 5 September 2001.
[52] For details see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 854.
[53] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 321.
[54] Ibid.
[55] Ibid.
[56] Ibid.
[57] Email from Adnan Al Aboudi, LSN, 18 April 2004.
[58] See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 311; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 321.
[59] Available from: www.lsndatabase.org .
[60] Email from Adnan Al Aboudi, LSN, 18 April 2004.
[61] Ibid.
[62] “King tours Raimoun Village and orders development plans,” Jordan Times, 29 January 2004, p. 4.
[63] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 900.
[64] Presentation by Jordan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.