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Country Reports
Kosovo , Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: A total of 14 previously unknown dangerous areas were reported during 2003, the majority containing cluster bomblets and a limited number of mines. In 2003, a total of 799,242 square meters of land was cleared, and 161 antipersonnel mines, 59 antivehicle mines, 423 cluster bombs, and 2,381 UXO were destroyed. At the end of April 2004 there were 23 task dossiers containing 68 dangerous areas. Landmine Monitor estimates external funding of mine action in Kosovo in 2003 at $2.2 million. Caches of weapons, including mines, continue to be discovered by KFOR. In January 2004, a new law for a disability pension scheme was approved by the Parliament.

Key developments since 1999: The 1999 NATO bombing campaign and internal conflict left widespread contamination in Kosovo. The Mine Action Coordination Center (MACC) was set up by the UN in June 1999. It closed in December 2001, having declared Kosovo generally free of the impact of mines and UXO. It passed responsibility for clearance to the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC). During MACC operations from June 1999 to December 2001, 32 million square meters of land were cleared, with the destruction of 19,457 antipersonnel mines, 5,515 antivehicle mines, 15,940 cluster bomblets and 13,896 other items of UXO. Mines have been used on occasion, mainly in attacks against the remaining Serbian minority in Kosovo, with the last incident in May 2003. Weapons caches, including mines, continued to be uncovered by KFOR. From June 1999 through July 2004, 502 civilians were killed or injured by mines, cluster bomblets and UXO.


With the break-up of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in 1992, Kosovo became the southernmost province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). The FRY was dominated by its Serbian majority. Its armed forces took increasingly repressive measures against the majority population of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo. Escalating conflict with the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) led to international negotiations in February–March 1999. When these talks broke down and Serb repression intensified, NATO launched a bombing campaign against the FRY and Serbian forces in Kosovo. This ended on 9 June 1999 when an agreement was made to withdraw all FRY forces from Kosovo. To provide an interim administration, UN Security Council Resolution 1244 created the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), and responsibility for security was transferred to international forces (KFOR). A Ground Safety Zone was established by KFOR between Kosovo and the rest of the FRY, from which FRY forces were excluded.

The KLA disbanded and disarmed in September 1999. Subsequently, several other militant ethnic Albanian groups emerged, operating from the Ground Safety Zone to attack Serbian forces in the neighboring municipalities of Preshevo, Medvedja and Bujanovac, and also conducting military operations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYR Macedonia). In early 2001, KFOR allowed a phased entry of FRY police and military forces into the Ground Safety Zone, which was completed on 31 May 2001.

The Mine Action Coordination Center was established by UNMIK on 17 June 1999. The Center closed in December 2001, passing responsibility for mine action and explosive ordnance disposal to the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC), managed by local government bodies formed after elections in November 2001.[1]

The ultimate status of the province remains undecided. In May 2002, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia became known as Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro acceded to the Mine Ban Treaty on 18 September 2003.


In 2003, the use of landmines in Kosovo continued to decline. On 12 April 2003, antivehicle mines were reportedly used to damage a railway bridge in Loziste, killing three people suspected of laying the explosives.[2] The Albanian National Army later claimed responsibility. DNA evidence from one of the bodies indicated that he was a member of the Kosovo Protection Corps.[3] On 8 May, three senior KPC commanders were removed from their posts, suspected of being linked to this incident.[4] During the remainder of 2003 and through April 2004, no other instances of the use of mines have been reported, although ethnic unrest has continued in Kosovo.

Weapons caches, including landmines (it is not known whether they included antipersonnel mines), continued to be discovered by KFOR on a regular basis. In February 2003, 224 grenades and mines were seized; in March, 198 grenades and mines; in June, 169 grenades and mines; in July, 27 grenades and mines; in November, 230 grenades and mines.[5]

A month-long amnesty for all weapons, ending on 1 October 2003, resulted in only 155 guns and no mines being handed in, despite a three-month public awareness campaign by the UN Development Programme. This was attributed to uncertainty over the final status of Kosovo, distrust of the security forces, corruption and a culture of violence.[6] Two previous amnesties were more successful.[7]

In previous years, mines have been used on occasion in attacks against the remaining Serbian minority in Kosovo in disputes over land ownership, and against Serbian military and police forces on the province’s border with southern Serbia. Caches of mines and other weapons have also been seized in previous years.[8] Weapons possession is a criminal offence for all Kosovo residents, except those holding UNMIK authorization, with penal sanctions for violations.[9]

Mine/UXO Problem

UNMIK declared in December 2001 that “all known minefields and cluster munition strike sites had been cleared to internationally acceptable standards.” The UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS) stated at the time that while “some mines may be found in the future, the remaining threat in Kosovo consists primarily of limited numbers of CBU [cluster bomb units] and other UXO [unexploded ordnance].”[10]

At the end of 2003, residual mine/UXO contamination in Kosovo consisted of 68 “dangerous areas,” and 52 areas re-categorized as “EOD [explosive ordnance disposal] response tasks.”[11] In some areas, work has been ongoing for several years, and additional mine action capacity is being introduced.

In March 2004, it was reported that some construction companies were requiring written certification that land scheduled to be worked on does not contain mines and UXO. UNMIK can only state that its database indicates that an area is not considered dangerous based on previous surveys or clearance and has not been reported as suspected of containing mines and UXO. Contractors often demand an increased fee due to possible risk. This has given rise to concern that KPC deminers may carry out unofficial clearance on land, although there was no proof of this occurring.[12]

The overwhelming majority of contamination in Kosovo occurred in 1999 from three sources: Yugoslav armed forces, the KLA, and NATO. Yugoslav armed forces included the army (VJ), special police forces and paramilitaries. They used mainly antipersonnel mines. Barrier minefields laid by the VJ accounted for 75–80 percent of mines in Kosovo; most were marked and maps were later passed to UNMIK. Special police forces and paramilitaries engaged in unmarked and unmapped “nuisance mining” near population centers. The KLA used mainly antivehicle mines, mainly in nuisance mining of VJ routes. The KLA also laid minefields around defensive positions, but to a markedly lesser extent than the VJ. KLA use of mines was predominantly unmarked and unmapped, although it claimed to have later removed all deployed mines. The NATO air campaign of March–June 1999 contributed to contamination of Kosovo with UXO, primarily from an estimated 20,000 cluster submunitions which failed to explode on impact.[13]

It was estimated that around 50,000 mines were laid in Kosovo. Records indicated that a total area of 360.97 square kilometers (3.32 percent of the province) was suspected to be contaminated, although the Survey Action Center (SAC) believed this was an overestimate due to duplicate and false records.[14]

Civilians as well as combatants were substantially exposed to mine/UXO contamination in Kosovo. This was increased by large population movements. During the Serbian repression and NATO air campaign about 863,000 civilians fled from Kosovo and 590,000 were internally displaced. There were further population movements during the conflicts in 2000/2001 in southern Serbia, the Ground Safety Zone, and on the border with FYR Macedonia.[15]

Population displacement influenced subsequent efforts to deal with the landmine problem in Kosovo. The Survey Action Center (SAC) observed, “In most landmine-impacted countries, the local residents serve as expert informants, the primary source of information on the landmine threat for mine action organizations. However, in Kosovo, the roles were reversed due to large-scale displacement of the native Kosovar population during the war, and the rapid influx of mine action resources.”[16]

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

Mine action and all matters related to explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) are the responsibility of the Office of the Kosovo Protection Corps Coordinator (OKPCC). In early 2004, the OKPCC was moved from the Directorate of Civil Protection and placed under the direct authority of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General.[17] The posts of head of operations and head of quality assurance continued to be staffed by international personnel; these posts were previously expected to be filled by national staff at the end of 2003. National staff took over responsibility for public information, which includes mine risk education.

During 2003, the remaining threat was said to be unexploded cluster bomblets and grenades, with only a limited threat from mines. The main objective for 2003 was therefore “to work on and attempt to clear as many of the remaining dangerous areas as possible that have been identified as containing a definite UXO, CBU or mine threat and resurvey the remaining tasks and either verify or discredit them, and categorize them as EOD response tasks.”[18]

Mine action and EOD are carried out by the Kosovo Protection Corps. By March 2004, all seven KPC teams had been trained for EOD, mine clearance and battle area clearance (BAC). Three personnel from each team were also trained in demolition skills. Previous concerns about the efficiency of the KPC teams were reported to have eased during 2003, as they settled into their tasks and used their new skills.[19] In 2003–2004, the KPC teams received pay increases, which allayed concern that low pay was affecting motivation and efficiency.[20]

Training of the KPC teams was carried out under the Handicap International (HI) Phoenix project, the funding of which was extended to September 2004. HI remains responsible for supervision and the transport and issuing of explosives. In 2003–2004, local organizations continued to be prohibited from unsupervised explosives or munitions usage. In 2003, the HI Phoenix project employed 11 personnel for training and supervision of 105 KPC personnel working at three sites. HI has informed the OKPCC that it intends to cease all operations in Kosovo at the end of 2004, regardless of any future funding being available.[21]

As in 2002, additional clearance capacity was provided in 2003 by HI. An “All Stars” team of 20 national staff and one international supervisor was formed. This team worked in Serb areas (all KPC members are ethnic Albanian), or where flexibility and rapid response was needed. The All Stars team had funding to continue until December 2004.[22]

During 2003, difficulties were experienced with the OKPCC’s Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA). An upgrade to version 3 was carried out, but operational difficulties remained. Assistance in overcoming these difficulties was provided by the Swedish Rescue Services Agency in November 2003.[23]

From June 1999 to December 2001, mine action in Kosovo was the responsibility of the UN Mine Action Coordination Center (MACC). The MACC quickly developed a program designed to be intensive, time-limited and based on partnership rather than a command and control model. The MACC itself did not engage in clearance activity nor set up regional offices, but appointed implementing agencies in each of KFOR’s MultiNational Brigade areas. After three years, it was planned to hand over the international effort to national organizations.[24]

An external evaluation by the Praxis Group for the UN Mine Action Service praised the MACC’s achievements in the context of “piecemeal funding,” noting that with “minimal equipment and a weak logistics link to its parent UNMIK...the UN team was forced to ‘make do’ often relying on mine action NGOs for support and assistance.” It ascribed much of the “resounding success” of the mine action program in Kosovo to the MACC’s flexibility, vision and overall competence, and the acceptance of its central coordinating role by KFOR and the many NGOs establishing operations in the province.”[25]

On 15 December 2001, the MACC closed and responsibility for all mine and EOD matters was passed to the Department of Civil Security and Emergency Preparation (renamed the Office of the KPC Coordinator in November 2002). Implementation of mine action and EOD was assigned to the Kosovo Protection Corps, which had been formed from members of the disarmed Kosovo Liberation Army in 2000.[26] The Praxis/UNMAS evaluation was critical of the early and “political” decision to make the KPC responsible, “thereby effectively reducing the options available to the MACC for the creation of (civilian) long-term capacity in Kosovo.”[27] In the event, national staff transferred from the MACC to the Department of Civil Security and Emergency Preparation and international staff remained in management roles. In 2002 and again in 2003, HI was separately contracted to undertake clearance in support of the KPC.[28]

In March 2001 the MACC noted “that all of the known and suspected dangerous areas... [should be] cleared before the ‘baton of responsibility’ is passed on to the KPC, because, with the exception of CBU tasks, they will not be capable of conducting the large-scale clearance operations that MACC-coordinated teams can currently undertake.”[29] However, when the MACC closed in December 2001, there remained 47 uncompleted task dossiers (task dossiers refer to dangerous areas, which may contain more than one minefield or CBU strike site). This was attributed to unseasonably heavy rain in mid-2001 and early snow in November. Clearance capacity had also been reduced gradually from 2000, in preparation for handover to national organizations.[30]

Other MACC functions, including recording of mine casualty data, were transferred to various local government bodies, and have since been reallocated in a series of ad hoc changes. In mid-2002, responsibility for IMSMA was reallocated to the OKPCC.[31] Mine risk education became the responsibility of the Ministry of Education. Because the ministry lacked the necessary funding and personnel, in 2002 this was also reallocated to the OKPCC.[32] Maintenance of the mine casualty database has caused concern since its move from the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) to the Ministry of Health Institute for Public Health in March 2002. The regional reporting structure was changed to make one individual responsible for collecting and collating mine casualty statistics, which are now regularly communicated to the OKPCC.[33] But the reporting of mine casualties by hospitals is said to remain weak. OKPCC casualty statistics are based on KFOR and UNMIK police reports.[34]

Mine Action Funding

A total for mine action funding in Kosovo in 2003 has not been obtainable from the OKPCC or UNMIK. Landmine Monitor estimates external mine action funding in 2003 to be US$2,187,741. In 2002, funding totaled $1,438,560.[35]

Landmine Monitor has identified the following funding for 2003. UNMIK provided €100,000 ($113,150)[36] for technical survey by the Mine Awareness Trust (MAT). Handicap International’s Phoenix project was funded by the US State Department and France through the International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) up to June 2003, and by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office for the rest of 2003, with funds totaling $852,325.[37] UNMAS budgeted $255,383 for the All Stars team to operate from March–September 2003, supplementing the limited KPC clearance capacity, and Germany provided additional funds of €46,531 ($52,650).[38] In 2003, the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) Sports for Life project received $755,823 via the ITF, and the Jesuit Refugee Service program of assistance for child mine survivors received €140,000 ($158,410).[39]

In addition to the above $2.19 million, the Netherlands has reported that when HALO Trust’s program closed in Eritrea in 2003, it shifted funds to finance HALO’s resumption of work in Kosovo; the amount of funding devoted to HALO in Kosovo was $697,072 covering the period 1 September 2003 – 29 February 2004.[40]

Salaries of the seven Kosovo Protection Corps teams are provided by UNMIK as part of its overall funding of the KPC, with equipment and running costs funded by the OKPCC. The OKPCC is funded by UNMIK, and previously received much equipment from UN Mine Action Coordination Center.

The OKPCC believes that 2004 will be the last year in which external funding can be secured for mine action in Kosovo. Therefore, as of 2005 mine action and EOD response may be undertaken only by the KPC.[41]

The Mine Awareness Trust received approximately $30,000 from the ITF to remain operational through 5 April 2004. To ensure it remains operational for the rest of 2004, the OKPCC will provide €150,000 (about $170,000). HI was allocated GB£185,000 (about $302,000) by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office for the period 1 April–30 September 2004.[42]

Before the declaration in December 2001 that Kosovo was mine-impact free, there was substantial international funding of mine action. From mid-1999 to December 2001, mine action in Kosovo was funded by UNMIK, the ITF, the UN Voluntary Trust Fund, and bilateral donations. The Praxis/UNMAS evaluation estimated funding in this period totaled $85 million, including over $59 million in bilateral donations and in-kind assistance. The UN Voluntary Trust Fund contributed about $10 million of this total, largely from donations by Canada and European Union countries. However, many donors favored the greater speed and lower cost of the ITF as a funding channel. The ITF donated about $12 million to mine action in Kosovo in 1999–2001 (1999: $1.8 million; 2000: $2.7 million; 2001: $7.2 million).[43]

Survey and Prioritization

At the end of April 2004 there were 23 task dossiers containing 68 dangerous areas; in January 2003 there were 49 task dossiers containing 120 dangerous areas. This reduction resulted from an audit in early 2003 of the dangerous areas which re-prioritized 52 of them as “EOD response tasks,” and from technical survey of the remaining dangerous areas.[44]

The 52 areas reprioritized as EOD response tasks will not be proactively surveyed or cleared, but will remain on file should reports of UXO or mines be received. These areas are either arable farmland in active use and therefore unlikely to contain undiscovered UXO, or heavily forested areas predominantly along the Albanian border.[45]

Technical survey of the remaining 68 dangerous areas was carried out by a nine-person technical survey team from the Mine Awareness Trust. The MAT was contracted by the OKPCC in June 2003, because the KPC does not have an effective survey capacity. It was tasked with technical survey to verify the 68 dangerous areas, mark verified areas, and to undertake area reduction of known cluster strikes prior to KPC clearance.[46] From June to November 2003, 48 reported dangerous areas were surveyed, of which 30 percent were verified. A total of 130 explosive items were located and destroyed, predominantly CBUs, and a small number of mines. In November and December 2003, the MAT team surveyed a further four areas. The remaining areas were to be surveyed during 2004, after which the MAT team will provide a rapid response capacity to survey new dangerous areas reported.[47] The HALO Trust added a six-man survey team to the MAT team in June 2004.

In 2003, 14 previously unknown dangerous areas were reported, the majority containing cluster bomblets and a limited number of mines. All newly reported areas are densely forested. They were categorized as low priority, to be surveyed and cleared if necessary to reduce to EOD response tasks, when teams become available.[48]

The MACC reported at the end of 2001 that Kosovo had been extensively surveyed. It was thought unlikely that new large-scale mined areas would be found. MACC said that any new tasks “will be within the clearance capabilities of the teams trained in Technical Survey.”[49]

In August 1999, the IMSMA database contained reports of over 4,000 dangerous areas. This was described as “an information glut” and of unreliable quality, with up to half the IMSMA entries being false, duplicate or overlapping, which hampered the planning and prioritization process.[50] The Survey Action Center observed that the availability of IMSMA together with satellite and aerial imagery provided “information resources to a degree unprecedented in other, less high-profile complex emergencies.” But, mine clearance, military and other sources “compiled rich physical mine/UXO area data” that IMSMA was unable to use in the prioritizing of mine action.[51] The Praxis/UNMAS evaluation commented that Kosovo was the first use of IMSMA in a mine action program, which revealed many deficiencies and led to an improved version.[52]

In October 1999–March 2000, the Survey Action Center carried out a modified Level One Impact Survey, merged the different types of data in IMSMA, and developed a socio-economic basis for prioritizing mine action in Kosovo.[53]

Mine/UXO Clearance

In 2003, a total of 799,242 square meters of land was cleared, and 161 antipersonnel mines, 59 antivehicle mines, 423 cluster bombs, and 2,381 UXO were destroyed in clearance, survey and area reduction activities. This was a significant increase from clearance in 2002 (203,360 square meters), reflecting the increased capacity of the KPC and the assistance provided by the HI All Stars team and MAT.[54]

As in 2002, KPC clearance activity focused on the Grimija and Jasic cluster bomb strike sites. Three KPC teams were tasked with the Grimija site throughout 2003, and two teams continued to work there in 2004. It was estimated that clearance will be completed by mid-2004. The site will not be declared “cleared,” because it is steep and heavily wooded, and a popular recreation and sports area, but will be re-designated as a possible EOD response task.[55]

Jasic is another large wooded area, and the site of seven cluster munition strikes by NATO aircraft. This site took up the efforts of two KPC teams throughout 2002, and was worked on by HI and two KPC teams during part of 2003.[56] The HI team also continued to work on the Dulje pass area in 2003 and 2004, as well as dealing with any emergency tasks not suitable for the KPC. [57]

In 2003, the KPC also carried out battle area clearance in Cafa Prushit (two teams) and Nerodimje (two teams). During the winter months prior to snowfall, KPC teams marked remaining dangerous areas requiring some form of future clearance. In the process, they located and destroyed three antipersonnel mines and two CBU reported by members of the public. In 2004, the KPC concentrated on nine of the remaining task dossiers, the majority of which were cluster strikes.[58]

Three Quality Assurance personnel carried out daily visits to sites throughout Kosovo during 2003.[59]

The HALO Trust reported that it restarted clearance operations in Kosovo as of 1 May 2004.[60] HALO trained 110 personnel to work throughout Kosovo.

When responsibility for dealing with residual contamination was handed over to the KPC in December 2001, 47 task dossiers remained to be completed. Subsequent discoveries of mine/UXO contaminated areas increased this to 52 dossiers by April 2002. In 2002, more tasks were added to the list than were taken off, because new dangerous areas were discovered, two large clearance sites continued to require KPC capacity, and because of limited KPC effectiveness.[62]

New dangerous areas were discovered and low priority areas required higher prioritization, partly as a result of woodcutters penetrating further into forested areas.[63] In 2002, 14 previously unknown dangerous areas were reported and subsequently verified.[64]

During MACC operations in June 1999–December 2001, 32,224,107 square meters of land were cleared, with the destruction of 19,457 antipersonnel mines, 5,515 antivehicle mines, 15,940 cluster bomblets and 13,896 other items of UXO.[65] Clearance was carried out by many international agencies, including BACTEC, Danish Church Aid/Action by Churches Together, Defence Systems, EMERCOM, European Landmine Solutions, HALO Trust, Handicap International, HELP, International Demining Alliance of Canada, InterSoS, Mines Advisory Group, Mine Clear, MineTech International, Norwegian People’s Aid, RONCO, and Swiss Foundation for Mine Action.[66]

Clearance of cluster bomb strike sites posed particular difficulties in the period 1999–2001, and remained in 2004 the major residual threat in Kosovo. NATO data on strike sites proved to be inaccurate or incomplete, many of the sites were steep and heavily wooded, making the limits of strike areas more difficult to define, and many of the unexploded bomblets were either caught in vegetation or penetrated the ground. The MACC reported that “CBU strike areas must be subjected to sub-surface clearance using detection equipment before the area can be declared free of UXO.”[67]

However, by April 2000 it was recognized that subsurface clearance was very time-consuming and CBUs on the surface were a major cause of civilian casualties, especially children. The policy was changed to prioritize surface clearance of cluster bomblets, except where land was used agriculturally. Since it was unlikely that all CBU strike sites could be sub-surface cleared before the end of 2001, efforts were concentrated on high-priority sites close to populated areas, leaving others to be worked on by the KPC in 2002. By December 2001, all 224 CBU-affected locations had been addressed to some extent, but 21 required further work.[68]

Mine Risk Education

In 2003, mine risk education (MRE) was carried out by the ICRC, the Kosovo branch of the Red Cross and the OKPCC, which is responsible for coordinating MRE in Kosovo. The KPC and KFOR also carry out mine risk education in the course of their other duties. In total, 32,484 people attended MRE sessions in 2003.[69]

The ICRC concentrated on creating the capacity for the Kosovo branch of the Red Cross to take over MRE activities in 2004. A structure was established with one Pristina-based coordinator and five field officers. In 2003, this group and ICRC personnel undertook mine risk education with 80 village representatives of the Kosovo branch of the Red Cross in 26 mine/UXO-affected municipalities, focusing on people living, or visiting friends and relatives, near suspected dangerous areas.[70]

The OKPCC developed a series of TV spots transmitted six times a day for a month on the three most popular Kosovo television channels. By media survey and needs assessment, it concluded that about 46 percent of Kosovo’s 1.8 million population had received the MRE media messages during 2003.[71]

Following the recommendations of a UNICEF consultant helping the OKPCC plan mine risk education, a Kosovo-wide needs assessment was undertaken during 2003 by the local NGO ARKA. From this survey, it was planned that schools in risk areas would receive MRE from a four-member team of KPC MRE personnel. For 2004 there would be one KPC MRE team for each of the six protection zones. [72]

In 2003, the Ministry of Education did not carry out its 2002 plan to train teachers from schools near known dangerous areas in MRE, due to lack of resources and poor morale among low-paid teachers.[73]

Responsibility for mine risk education in Kosovo was transferred from the UN Mine Action Coordination Centre in December 2001. Organizations carrying out MRE in 2002 were the ICRC, UNICEF, ARKA, and the German NGO, Caritas. In previous years, many more organizations were involved in MRE, and KFOR personnel also carried out MRE activities. From 2000, the MACC operated an accreditation scheme for MRE organizations and required that MRE be integrated in all clearance activities through what it termed Mine Action Support Teams. To remedy the previous lack of integrated MRE, the MACC started its Operation Normal Life program “to make all communities in Kosovo aware of the extent of mine action in their area.”[74]

The Praxis/UNMAS evaluation reported that: “Kosovo showed that the mine awareness lessons learned over the past ten years still primarily rest with various pioneering NGOs. The MACC was not in a position to lead from day one as there was no mine awareness experience represented within the MACC. NGOs such as the Mines Advisory Group, Handicap International and the ICRC introduced their own community based approaches, grounded in years of experience. These approaches were then adopted by the MACC and embodied in the mine action support team (MAST) concept.”[75]

Landmine/UXO Casualties

In 2003, the OKPCC recorded 19 civilian mine/UXO/CBU casualties, including three people killed and 16 injured. Cluster bomblets killed two people while UXO killed one. Landmines caused three of the injuries while UXO caused 13. All the casualties were males. One of the dead and seven of the injured were under 18 years of age. All OKPCC casualty data is a result of direct OKPCC investigations and, where appropriate, interviews with survivors or the families of those killed. The Institute of Public Health (IPH) should inform the OKPCC of incidents, but seldom does.[76]

As in the past, the ICRC reports different casualty data. For 2003, the ICRC recorded 18 casualties, with three people killed and 15 injured.[77]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2004. As of 9 July, the OKPCC had recorded eleven new casualties including one person killed by UXO, three injured by landmines, two injured by cluster bomblets, and five injured by UXO. All casualties were male except for one woman injured by a mine.[78]

From June 1999 to December 2002, a total of 472 civilian casualties of landmines, UXO and cluster munitions were recorded by UNMIK, including 100 people killed and 372 injured. There were: 15 casualties (eight killed and seven injured) in 2002; 23 casualties (nine killed and 14 injured) in 2001; 93 casualties (9 killed and 84 injured) in 2000; and from June to December 1999, 341 casualties (74 killed and 267 injured).[79] No comprehensive statistics on landmine casualties prior to June 1999 are available.

With the achievements of the mine clearance program in Kosovo, unexploded ordnance is emerging as a greater threat to the population than landmines. In 2000, 50 casualties were caused by antipersonnel mines (53 percent), 24 by cluster munitions (25 percent), nine by UXO (10 percent), and one by an antivehicle mine, with the cause of eleven casualties unknown.[80] In 2001, mines caused five casualties (22 percent), three were caused by cluster munitions (13 percent), and 15 by UXO (65 percent). In 2002, landmines caused only one injury (7 percent), cluster munitions killed three people (20 percent), and UXO caused five deaths and six injuries (73 percent).[81]

Since December 2001, the Institute of Public Health within the Ministry of Health Environment and Spatial Planning (Ministry of Health) has been nominally responsible for data collection, but it did not actually begin gathering data until August 2002.[82] Previously, the MACC used IMSMA to maintain casualty data in Kosovo. The ICRC provided support to the casualty surveillance system and maintained the database up to the handover of the MACC in December 2001.[83]

The recorded casualties do not include deminers, soldiers, peacekeepers, or victims of deliberate attacks. In June 1999 through December 2001, mine accidents during clearance operations caused 32 casualties (including 14 traumatic amputations, one fatality, one permanent incapacitation, and one loss of sight).[84] No demining casualties were reported in 2002 or 2003. In the past, numerous casualties to KFOR personnel have been reported in the media.[85]

In July 2000, the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation undertook a province-wide survey of mine/UXO survivors with support from the MACC. The survey teams interviewed 333 survivors and found that: 147 (44 percent) of survivors interviewed were children; 77 percent were under 35 years of age; 89 percent were male and lived in rural areas; 152 (46 percent) had permanent disabilities, including loss of limbs, sight, or hearing; and 76 percent suffered from one or more outstanding health problems, but less than half of this group were receiving treatment.[86]

Survivor Assistance

Kosovo has an extensive network of medical support across the region, although the standard of facilities can vary widely. The Qendra University Hospital in Pristina is the only hospital capable of handling major trauma cases. KFOR units provide an evacuation capability as well as immediate medical attention, if necessary.[87]

The ICRC has supported healthcare facilities in Kosovo since 2000 working with local Red Crescent teams to provide surgical supplies, equipment, training in emergency medical evacuations, and technical support. In 2002 and 2003, work continued on the World Bank three-year healthcare project for Kraljevo municipality. In 2002, the Swiss Red Cross contributed to a WHO/UNMIK healthcare project by training nurses and doctors in the Pec/Peja region.[88]

Handicap International is the lead agency for survivor assistance in Kosovo as part of its wider program of support to persons with disability in Kosovo. HI continues to focus on building capacity in the health system and provides technical support to the Ministry of Health as required. In 2003, HI in collaboration with the Emergency Center of the Qendra University Hospital conducted training for KPC medical technicians in the care of mine/UXO related casualties.[89]

Facilities for physical rehabilitation are reportedly poor and there is limited or no capacity to provide occupational therapy. Under a project funded by the European Agency for Reconstruction (EAR), six regional hospitals have received physical therapy equipment.[90] In 2003, 30 doctors started to specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation.[91] Since 1998, two specialists from Kosovo, supported by the ITF, have completed their rehabilitation training in Slovenia.[92]

The Qendra National Ortho-Prosthetic Center (NOPC) in Pristina is the only facility in Kosovo for the production and fitting of lower limb prostheses. The NOPC has sufficient capacity to deal with the number of cases it receives. However, it is very difficult for some patients to access the facility on a regular basis, particularly those living in rural areas without family and friends in Pristina.[93] Production statistics for 2003 were not available to Landmine Monitor; in 2002, however, the department of prosthetics assisted 424 people, including several mine survivors, and supplied 143 prostheses and repaired a further 88.[94]

HI facilitated the renovation and refurbishment of the center in late 2001 with funding provided by the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs. HI provided material support to the NOPC in the form of components for prostheses, orthoses, and shoes, wheelchairs and crutches, and staff training. Full responsibility was handed over to the Ministry of Health in May 2004. Although material support has ceased, HI will continue to provide support and management advice as required. HI also continues to fund the training of two high-level technicians in France who are expected to graduate in June 2005. A further six technicians were trained on-the-job in Kosovo and graduated in April 2004.[95] There are concerns about the capacity of the center to obtain sufficient raw materials to meet the needs without international support.[96]

Mine/UXO survivors have also received assistance through the ITF at the Slovenian Institute for Rehabilitation in Ljubljana, which has a specialist rehabilitation unit for mine survivors. Since 1998, 40 mine survivors from Kosovo have been fitted with prostheses and received rehabilitation at the Institute.[97]

According to HI, there are only 24 highly trained physiotherapists in Kosovo. About 600 are needed to meet the needs of the region. HI supported the establishment of a three-year degree course in physiotherapy at the University of Pristina. The program is supported by EAR, HI, Queen’s University and the French Red Cross. Eighty-five students were in the program in 2004.[98]

In 2001, it was reported that there were 27 Centers for Social Welfare, 232 social workers and five psychologists in Kosovo;[99] as of July 2004, there were 31 centers and six sub-offices with about 520 staff and seven psychologists.[100]

HandiKos, a local disability NGO established in 1983, has a network of offices in 25 municipalities throughout Kosovo together with 10 community centers in Pristina, Besiana, Drenas, Ferizaj, Gjakova, Gjilan, Mitrovica, Peja, Prizren, and Vushtrri. The program, which is made up of components of physical rehabilitation, psychosocial support, vocational training and material support, assists all persons with disabilities in Kosovo, including mine survivors. HandiKos received financial support from HI until October 2002. Other donors to the program include Finland, the Save the Children Alliance, and Italian NGOs. [101]

In February 2001, the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) set up a mine victim assistance program for children born after 1980 aimed at reducing the dependency of mine survivors and assisting in their reintegration into society. Four local staff members implement the project. In 2001, the program operated only in Prizren, but in 2002 was extended to cover all areas of Kosovo, providing medical, material, psychosocial and legal support. Direct actions of the program include assessment visits, visits to hospital, prostheses and orthopedic follow-up, assistance with school materials, and the distribution of food parcels and firewood. When necessary, children are taken to Skopje in FYR Macedonia for specialist treatment. In June each year, a summer camp is organized to take 20–30 children to the beach in Montenegro. In 2003, the project assisted 163 children, including 12 children who benefited from the program for the first time. In 2002, a total of 148 children directly benefited from the program; in 2001, 182 children benefited. The program is supported by Renovibis and SCIAF.[102]

The Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation survivor assistance program ended on 28 February 2002, having operated in Kosovo since November 1999. The VVAF program included psychosocial assistance to mine survivors, their families and communities, direct material assistance in food, medicine, or transport, educated survivors on their rights, and designed sports and recreational activities. In 2001 the program assisted 400 families, including about 2,400 individuals. The program was funded by UNICEF and the ITF. After the program’s closure, VVAF presented each regional Center for Social Work with summaries of VVAF’s work with the families and recommended follow-up action.[103] In May 2002, VVAF started a new program called “Sports for Life,” which aims to promote rehabilitation, rights, and reintegration for all persons with disability, including mine survivors. Since the program started, more than 2,568 persons with disabilities, including at least 65 landmine survivors, have participated in various sporting activities. The program is supported by the ITF, Norway and the United States.[104]

The VVAF survey in 2000 found that of the 177 survivors in the 19–65 age group who were interviewed, 141 were unemployed (80 percent). More than 60 percent claimed that their financial situation had deteriorated since being injured, mostly due to medical expenses and the inability to work.[105] The OKPCC interviews with the mine/UXO survivors from 2002 and early 2003 indicated that all were suffering economic hardship.[106]

There are eight vocational training centers supported by the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare (MLSW) in Pristina, Ferizaj, Gjilan, Gllogovc, Mitrovica, Peja, Podujevo, and Prizren. However, these centers do not specifically target persons with disabilities. HandiKos collaborates with the MLSW in some areas, and the vocational training center in Pristina is hosted in HandiKos premises.[107] OXFAM has been working with HandiKos at the community center in Peja since 1999 teaching handicraft skills to disabled women as part of an income generation project. The center also runs literacy courses and computer courses.[108] Since late 2000, the Jesuit Refugee Service has operated a program to train women with disabilities at a sewing center in Ferizaj, in cooperation with HandiKos.[109] In July 2003, HandiKos, in cooperation with the NGO, World Vision, opened a new Resource Center on Disability in Veternik near Pristina, which includes facilities for vocational training.[110]

A study on mine victim assistance in 2003 identified a number of key challenges to providing adequate assistance in Kosovo. These included difficulties faced in accessing appropriate healthcare and rehabilitation facilities, and the affordability of appropriate healthcare and rehabilitation. The report also highlighted the need to improve and upgrade rehabilitation facilities and stressed the need for capacity building to increase the numbers and abilities of healthcare professionals. Perhaps most crucial, and problematic, was the limited prospects for mine survivors to obtain employment in an area where unemployment among all sections of society was already extremely high.[111]

Disability Policy and Practice

In its exit strategy, the MACC acknowledged that “more emphasis will need to be applied to rehabilitation and reintegration initiatives because of the relatively low level of attention given to this aspect of mine action to date.”[112] The Ministry of Health has an officer for physical medicine and rehabilitation to strengthen the rehabilitation sector.[113]

Legislation has been introduced in Kosovo which provides all persons, including mine victims, who sustained injuries between November 1998 and June 1999 with a small monthly stipend. However, there is no provision in the legislation for those suffering casualties from mines, UXO or cluster bombs after this date. Social assistance for civilian victims of the conflict ranges between €34 and €63 (approx. $38–$71) per month depending on the degree of incapacity, but is only available to those unable to work.[114]

In January 2004, a new law for a disability pension scheme was approved by the parliament. The new law reorganizes the medical assessment of persons with disabilities in order to harmonize the criteria of previously existing schemes. The pension provides an allowance depending on the degree of disability; however, generally social benefits in Kosovo are inadequate for a reasonable standard of living.[115]

HandiKos was instrumental in the appointment of a Disability Adviser within the Prime Minister’s Cabinet, and the establishment of the Disability Council, which includes representatives from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Social Welfare, the Ministry of Education, HandiKos, HI, and donor bodies. In December 2001, the Disability Council presented its final draft of the Comprehensive Disability Policy Framework to the Office of Disability Issues.[116] Although well received, as of June 2004, the policy was still not officially recognized.[117]

[1] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 874, Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 948–949, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 821–822.
[2] Ministry of Foreign Affairs Serbia and Montenegro, website: www.mfa.gov.yu/Policy .
[3] “Report of the Secretary General on the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo,” UN Security Council, S/2003/675, 26 June 2003.
[4] “Monthly Report to the UN on KFOR Operations, 1–30 June 2003,” UN Security Council, 1 July 2003.
[5] “Monthly Report to the UN on KFOR Operations 1–28 February 2003,” UN Security Council, 3 March 2003; “KFOR Monthly Report: 1–31 March 2003,” UNSC, 1 April 2003; “KFOR Monthly Report: 1–30 June 2003,” UNSC, 1 July 2003; “KFOR Monthly Report: 1–31 July 2003,” UNSC, 1 August 2003; “KFOR Monthly Report: 1–30 November 2003,” UNSC, 1 December 2003.
[6] “Kosovo Fun Amnesty Setback,” Institute for War and Peace Reporting, 16 October 2003.
[7] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 822–823.
[8] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 949–951, Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 822–823, and Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 748.
[9] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 822.
[10] Ibid, p. 823.
[11] UNMIK, “UNMIK OKPCC EOD Management Section Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 8; email from Steven Saunders, EOD Operations Officer, Office of the KPC Coordinator, UNMIK, Pristina, 27 April 2004.
[12] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 14 March 2004.
[13] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 875–880, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 823–824.
[14] Interview with Chris Clarke, Operations Manager, MACC, Pristina, 29 May 2001; Survey Action Center, Global Landmine Survey, “Modified Level One Impact Survey: Setting Mine Action Priorities in Kosovo,” 31 March 2000, p. ix.
[15] Independent International Commission on Kosovo, “The Kosovo Report,” October 2000, p. 21.
[16] SAC, “Modified Level One Impact Survey: Kosovo,” 31 March 2000, p. vii.
[17] The Landmine Monitor researcher understands this change in reporting structure reflects UNMIK’s perception that greater management control and oversight of the KPC is needed.
[18] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 2.
[19] Email from John Hare, Program Manager, Mine Action, HI, Pristina, 2 April 2004.
[20] Interviews with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 28 January 2003 and 14 March 2004.
[21] Interview with Aidan Thornton, Program Manager, Mine Action, HI, Pristina, 28 January 2003; email from John Hare, Program Manager, Mine Action, HI, Pristina, 2 April 2004.
[22] Email from John Hare, HI, 2 April 2004.
[23] “UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 5.
[24] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 883.
[25] The Praxis Group Ltd, “Willing To Listen: an Evaluation of the United Nations Mine Action Programme in Kosovo 1999–2001,” 12 February 2002, pp. 5–10.
[26] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2002,” 20 January 2003, p. 1. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 824–825 for evaluation of the UN mine action program in Kosovo and handover to the KPC.
[27] The Praxis Group Ltd, “Willing To Listen,” 12 February 2002, p. 10.
[28] See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 824.
[29] MACC, “Quarterly Report: 1 January–31 March 2001,” para. 21.
[30] MACC, “Remaining Tasks in MNB Order, Amendment Six,” Pristina, 12 March 2002. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 823.
[31] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 28 January 2003.
[32] UNMIK MACC “Annual Report 2002,” 20 January 2003, p. 4.
[33] Interview with Nora Demiri, Mine Awareness Officer, ICRC, Pristina, 28 January 2003.
[34] Email from Bajram Krasniqi, Public Information Assistant, OKPCC, 26 March 2004.
[35] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 28 January 2003.
[36] 2003 Exchange rate of €1=$1.1315, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 2 January 2004.
[37] ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 49; email from Sabina Beber, Head of International Relations, ITF, 16 April 2004.
[38] Email from John Hare, HI, 2 April 2004; interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 28 January 2003; UN, “Portfolio of Mine-related Projects 2003,” p. 164; Germany Article 7 Report, Form J, 13 April 2004.
[39] Email from Sabina Beber, ITF, 16 April 2004; ITF, “Annual Report 2003,” p. 49; Jesuit Refugee Service Southeast Europe, Landmine Victims Projects, p. 5.
[40] See Netherlands country report in this Landmine Monitor Report.
[41] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 14 March 2004.
[42] Ibid; interview with Ben Remfrey, Director, MAT, Geneva, 15 March 2004; email from John Hare, HI, 2 April 2004.
[43] The Praxis Group Ltd, “Willing To Listen,” 12 February 2002, pp. 85–97. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 881–882, and Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 955–958.
[44] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 8; email from Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 27 April 2004.
[45] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 14 March 2004.
[46] Interview with Ben Remfrey, MAT, 15 March 2004.
[47] Ibid.
[48] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2002-2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 8.
[49] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2001,” paras. 24 and 25.
[50] “Case Study of Kosovo,” Appendix 1, in A Study of Socio-Economic Approaches to Mine Action, (Geneva: UNDP/GICHD, March 2001), p. 101.
[51] SAC, “Modified Level One Impact Survey: Kosovo,” 31 March 2000, pp. x, 2, 25.
[52] The Praxis Group Ltd, “Willing To Listen,” 12 February 2002, pp. 59–62.
[53] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 958–960.
[54] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 7; interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 14 March 2004. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 751.
[55] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 14 March 2004; UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, pp. 2, 5. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 751.
[56] Email from Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 27 April 2004.
[57] Email from John Hare, HI, 2 April 2004.
[58] Ibid.
[59] UNMIK, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 2.
[60] Email from Matthew Hovell, Caucasus and Balkans Desk Officer, HALO Trust, 3 September 2004.
[62] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 28 January 2003; MACC, “Remaining Task in MNB Order, Amendment Six,” Pristina, 12 March 2003.
[63] Interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 28 January 2003.
[64] UNMIK, “UNMIK OKPCC EOD Management Section Annual Report 2002,” 20 January 2003, pp. 1–3.
[65] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2001,” para 9; Steven Saunders, “Kosovo after the UNMACC and Beyond,” Journal of Mine Action, Issue 7.2, 2003. Landmine Monitor has added in to the cluster bomblet total the 7,455 cleared by KFOR.
[66] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 885–888, Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 961–965, Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 829–831.
[67] MACC, “Mine Action Program in Kosovo/Background,” (undated).
[68] See Landmine Monitor Reports 2001, p. 963, and Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 831.
[69] Email from Rajmondo Thaqi, MRE Assistant, OKPCC, UNMIK, 15 June 2004. In 2002, about 80,000 people attended MRE sessions. Data was not recorded in earlier years.
[70] Interview with Nora Demiri, ICRC, Pristina, 2 April 2004; email from Nora Demiri, 6 April 2004.
[71] Email from Bajram Krasniqi, Public Information Assistant, OKPCC, 26 March 2004.
[72] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 3.
[73] Email from Bajram Krasniqi, Public Information Assistant, OKPCC, 26 March 2004.
[74] MACC, “Guidelines for Project Normal Life,” (undated), p. 1.
[75] The Praxis Group Ltd, “Willing To Listen,” 12 February 2002, pp. 51, 63.
[76] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2003,” 20 January 2004, p. 4; interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, 14 March 2004; email from Bajram Krasniqi, Public Information Assistant, UNMIK OKPCC, Pristina, 19 March 2004.
[77] ICRC, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, June 2004, p. 215; email from Nora Demiri, ICRC, 6 April 2004.
[78] Email from Bajram Krasniqi, OKPCC, 9 July 2004.
[79] The Praxis Group Ltd, “Willing To Listen,” 12 February 2002, p. 73; UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2000,” p. 4; UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2001,” paras. 36–38; UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2002,” 20 January 2003, Annex G. In 2002, the ICRC reported 24 casualties, including seven people killed, in 15 incidents, one involving a mine, two involving cluster bomblets and twelve involving UXO. Interview with Nora Demiri, ICRC, 29 January 2003.
[80] MACC, “Monthly Summaries 1 January 1999–31 May 2001.”
[81] UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2001,” paras. 36–38; UNMIK MACC, “Annual Report 2002,” 20 January 2003, Annex G; interview with Steven Saunders, UNMIK, Pristina, 28 January 2003.
[82] UNMIK, “Annual Report 2002,” Annex G.
[83] MACC, “Mine/UXO Victim Assistance in Kosovo: Roles and Responsibilities of Local Government Departments and Supporting Organizations,” 13 December 2001; interview with Nora Demiri, ICRC, 19 April 2002.
[84] MACC, “Summary of Lessons Learnt of the Mine/UXO Accidents in Kosovo,” 1 November 2001.
[85] For example, “German Soldiers Wounded in Kosovo Minefield,” Reuters, 23 September 1999; “One Peacekeeper Killed, Five injured in Kosovo,” Associated Press, 23 September 1999; “US Soldier Killed in Mine Explosion in Kosovo,” FBIS, 16 December 1999; “Soldiers Injured in Kosovo Landmine Blast,” Financial Times, 30 December 1999; David Holley, “Mine kills British soldier in Kosovo,” Los Angeles Times, 15 April 2001; “2 U.S. Soldiers Hurt in Mideast,” Associated Press, 25 June 2001.
[86] VVAF, “Socio-Economic Survey of Mine/UXO Survivors in Kosovo,” November 2000, pp. 2–3.
[87] UNMIK, “UNMIK MACC Exit Strategy Discussion Paper,” 3 January 2001, p. 11.
[88] ICRC, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, June 2004, p. 215; ICRC, “Annual Report 2002,” July 2003, p. 255; ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2001,” July 2002, pp. 35–36; ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2000,” July 2001, p. 32.
[89] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Dr. Pascal Granier, Disability Policy Program Coordinator, HI Regional Office for Southeast Europe, 7 July 2004.
[90] Interview with Dr. Pascal Granier, and Dr. Iliriana Dallku, Program Assistant, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Program, HI, Pristina, 22 April 2003.
[91] Email from Dr. Pascal Granier, HI, 7 July 2004.
[92] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 23.
[93] “UNMIK, “Exit Strategy Discussion Paper,” 3 January 2001, p. 11.
[94] Interview with Lirije Makolli, Administrator, Qendra National Ortho-Prosthetic Center, Pristina, 24 April 2003.
[95] Email from Dr. Pascal Granier, HI, 7 July 2004; interviews with Lirije Makolli, Qendra National Ortho-Prosthetic Center, 24 April 2003 and Dr. Pascal Granier and Dr. Iliriana Dallku, HI, Pristina, 22 April 2003.
[96] Interview with Lirije Makolli, Qendra National Ortho-Prosthetic Center, 24 April 2003.
[97] ITF, “Annual Report 2002,” p. 23.
[98] Interview with Dr. Pascal Granier and Dr. Iliriana Dallku, HI, 22 April 2003; email from Dr. Pascal Granier, 7 July 2004.
[99] HI, “Landmine Victim Assistance World Report 2002,” HI, Lyons, December 2002, p. 302.
[100] Email from Dr. Pascal Granier, HI, 7 July 2004.
[101] Interview with Afrim Maliqi, Program Coordinator, HandiKos, Pristina, 25 April 2003.
[102] Interview with Kastriot Dodaj, Program Manager, Jesuit Refugee Service, Pristina, 25 April 2003; “Annual Report, JRS Southeast Europe, Landmine Victims Projects 2003,” p. 5; “Annual Report, JRS Southeast Europe, Landmine Victims Projects, Year 2001 and 2002.”
[103] Response to LM Questionnaire by Robert Schmidt Jr., Head of Mission, VVAF, Pristina, 18 February 2002; email from Robert Schmidt Jr., VVAF, 19 February 2002.
[104] Interview with Barbara Stuart, Head of Mission, VVAF, Pristina, 22 April 2003; VVAF Sports for Life Fact Sheet 2002–2003; ITF, “Annual Report 2004,” p. 49.
[105] VVAF, “Socio-Economic Survey of Mine/UXO Survivors in Kosovo,” November 2000, pp. 14, 17.
[106] Interview with Bajram Krasniqi, Public Information Assistant, UNMIK OKPCC, Pristina, 24 April 2003.
[107] Email from Dr. Pascal Granier, HI, 7 July 2004.
[108] Adrienne Hopkins, “Disabled women organize for economic and social empowerment,” LINKS, OXFAM Newsletter on Gender, April 2002.
[109] Jesuit Refugee Service, “Annual Report 2001,” p. 57.
[110] Interview with Afrim Maliqi, HandiKos, 25 April 2003; “Grand Opening of the Resource Centre for People with Disabilities,” available at www.worldvision.org, accessed on 28 August 2003.
[111] HI, Landmine Victim Assistance in South East Europe, Brussels, September 2003, p. 84.
[112] UNMIK, “Exit Strategy Discussion Paper,” 3 January 2001, p. 13.
[113] Interview with Dr. Ismail Blakaj, Officer for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ministry of Health, Pristina, 23 April 2003.
[114] Interview with Nuhi Ismaili, Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare, Pristina, 25 April 2003, by Landmine Monitor Victim Assistance Research Coordinator.
[115] Email from Dr. Pascal Granier, HI, 7 July 2004.
[116] Interview with Dr. Nexhat Shatri, HI, 28 January 2003.
[117] Email from Dr. Pascal Granier, HI, 7 July 2004.