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Country Reports
Mozambique, Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: According to the National Demining Institute, in 2003, a total of 7.06 million square meters of land was cleared. Mozambique reports that in 2003, mine risk education was provided to 840,972 people.

Key developments since 1999: Mozambique hosted the First Meeting of States Parties in May 1999. It served as co-chair of the first Standing Committee of Experts on Mine Clearance in 1999 and 2000. The National Demining Institute (IND) was established in 1999 to coordinate all mine action in Mozambique, succeeding a troubled National Demining Commission. In November 2001, the IND produced its first Five Year National Mine Action Plan for 2002-2006, which sets the goal of a “mine-impact free” Mozambique within ten years.

A national Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) was carried out from March 2000 to August 2001. The survey identified 1,374 suspected mined areas in all ten provinces, covering an estimated 558 square kilometers, in 791 communities with a combined population of nearly 1.5 million. In April 2003, the IND reported it had re-evaluated information from the Landmine Impact Survey and decided to reduce its estimate of mined areas by 38 percent, to 346 million square meters. In 2003, HALO Trust reported that it re-surveyed 433 of the suspected mined areas covered by the LIS in the four northern provinces and found that the LIS overestimated the landmine impact for much of northern Mozambique, but that is had failed to identify many mined areas.

According to the IND, between 1997 and 2003, a total of 35.6 million square meters of land was cleared, destroying 29,158 antipersonnel mines, 68 antivehicle mines, and 4,514 UXO. Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,818 antipersonnel mines on 28 February 2003. It is retaining 1,470 mines for training purposes, instead of zero as it previously reported. Since 1999, 254 new landmine casualties were reported, dropping to a low of 14 in 2003, but increasing significantly to 24 in the first seven months of 2004.

Mine Ban Policy

Mozambique signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on 25 August 1998 and the treaty entered into force on 1 March 1999. No implementing legislation is in place. In its most recent Article 7 report, Mozambique stated, “No legal measures were taken during the reporting period additional to those taken in June 1999....”[1] However, according to the director of the National Demining Institute (IND), the Parliamentary Commission for Defense and Security has prepared implementation legislation and as of September 2004 was still awaiting approval.[2]

Mozambique submitted its annual Article 7 report on 23 April 2004, covering the period from April 2003 to December 2003. This was the country’s fifth Article 7 report.[3]

Mozambique was an early and enthusiastic leader in the global movement to ban landmines, announcing in October 1995 its intention to participate fully in the international effort to ban landmines. On 26 February 1997, during the Fourth International NGO Conference on Landmines, held in Maputo, Foreign Minister Simão announced Mozambique’s immediate ban on the use, production, import and export of antipersonnel mines.[4] The country’s active participation in the Ottawa Process was reflected in the decision by States Parties to elect Mozambique as President and host of the Mine Ban Treaty’s First Meeting of States Parties, held in the capital of Maputo, from 3-7 May 1999.

Mozambique has attended every annual meeting held since, as well as every meeting of the intersessional Standing Committees. It is serving as a Friend-of-the-President-designate for the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty, to be held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 29 November to 3 December 2004. Mozambique has been very engaged in the intersessional process, serving as co-chair of the first Standing Committee of Experts on Mine Clearance in 1999 and 2000. Regionally, the country has played a key role in ensuring African support for the Ottawa Process and the Mine Ban Treaty and it has been active on the issue throughout the continent. It has voted in favor of every annual pro-mine ban UN General Assembly resolution since 1996, including UNGA Resolution 58/53 on 8 December 2003.

Mozambique has not engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2, and 3 (joint military operations with non-States Parties, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training). However, during the June 2004 intersessional meetings, a Mozambique legal advisor told Landmine Monitor that Mozambique was generally supportive of the effort to reach common understandings on these issues, and of the language in the paper distributed by the co-chairs of the Standing Committee on the General Status and Operation of the Convention. With regard to Article 2, he said Mozambique believes that the effect of the mine should be taken into account, and that, “The emphasis must be on the humanitarian character of the convention.” More specifically, he indicated that while Mozambique considers mines that detonate with more than 150 kilos of pressure to be antivehicle mines, and that any mine that is capable of exploding from the contact of a person is prohibited by the convention.[5]

Mozambique is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Production, Transfer and Use

Mozambique has never produced antipersonnel mines and has no infrastructure for this purpose.[6] Throughout Mozambique’s civil war, antipersonnel mines were imported and used by different parties to the conflict.[7] Landmines produced in the following countries have been found in Mozambique: Austria, Belgium, Brazil, East Germany, China, Czechoslovakia, France, Italy, Portugal, Rhodesia, South Africa, UK, USSR, and Yugoslavia.[8]

Stockpile Destruction

On 28 February 2003, Mozambique completed destruction of its stockpile of 37,818 antipersonnel mines, a month ahead of its treaty-mandated deadline.[9] The national army destroyed the mines by open detonation in six separate events throughout 2001 and 2003.[10]

In its 2004 Article 7 Report, Mozambique indicated that 1,470 mines had been retained for training purposes as permitted under Article 3.[11] This is 43 more mines than it reported in 2003. The new total accounts for 185 additional mines Handicap International now uses for training at its own center (previously it trained its personnel at other NGO centers and did not have mines of its own), less 21 obsolete mines destroyed by the Accelerated Demining Program (ADP/ PAD) and 121 mines destroyed by Menschen gegen Minen (MgM).[12] Mozambique’s first three Article 7 reports, submitted in 2000, 2001 and 2002, stated that no antipersonnel mines would be retained for training or development purposes, while the 2003 report indicated that 1,427 antipersonnel mines had been retained.[13]

Landmine Problem

Mozambique’s landmine problem is mostly the result of a two-decade-long civil war that ended in 1992. The country’s first Landmine Impact Survey (LIS), published in August 2001, identified 1,374 suspected mined areas (SMA), affecting 1,488,998 people in 791 communities throughout Mozambique.[14] However, some mine action operators believe that there is still not a clear picture of the mine problem in the country, in part because the LIS did not achieve nationwide coverage.[15] Additional mined areas continue to be discovered. For example, in March 2004 it was reported that four SMAs were discovered in the Murrupula district, in Nampula province around an administrator’s house, a health center and in a new residential area.[16]

In its 2003 Article 7 report Mozambique noted that because of successful mine clearance operations, the numbers had been reduced to 1,249 SMA in 719 communities, affecting 1.3 million people.[17] In its 2004 Article 7 report, Mozambique reported further reductions through clearance to 1,052 SMA in 583 communities, affecting 1,022,501 people.[18]

Mozambique: Mined Areas or Suspected Mined Areas 2003[19]

Affected Villages
Affected Population
Suspected Areas
Area (millions) m2

Cabo Delgado

IND has noted that Inhambane is the country’s most mine-affected province, containing 16 percent of the number of suspected mined areas, 18 percent of affected villages, and 26 percent of the country’s at-risk population.[20] However, in terms of square meters of land affected, Nampula is the most contaminated with 29 percent of the mined area, followed by Cabo Delgado with 20 percent.[21]

Suspected Areas and Affected Populations 1999-2003

Number of Suspected Mined Areas
Affected Population

Survey and Assessment

Survey data and mine clearance operation results are stored in the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) at the National Demining Institute; IMSMA has been operational since 2001.[28]

The national Landmine Impact Survey, carried out from March 2000 to August 2001, identified 1,374 suspected mined areas covering 558 million square meters of land. An April 2003 IND summary report indicated the IND had cross-referenced and reconciled all the SMAs identified in the 2001 LIS and in reports submitted to IND between 1993 and 2002, resulting in a 38 percent reduction in the total suspected mined area, from 558 million square meters to 346 million square meters – a drop of 212 million square meters.[29]

In 2003, HALO Trust provided new information that it had re-surveyed 433 of the 560 SMA covered by the LIS in the four northern provinces; it cleared 65 of the sites and confirmed another 86 as affected.[30] It found that the remaining 282 sites were in fact not affected. Moreover, it identified 89 contaminated sites that had been missed in the survey. Thus, according to HALO, the LIS overestimated the landmine impact for much of northern Mozambique, but also failed to identify many mined areas.[31]

In June 2003, Handicap International’s demining project manager told Landmine Monitor that the 2001 LIS was, “the first of its kind, it was faced with several problems due to the floods [and] access” and “the results were not understood by all. Its purpose was not to be exhaustive and clearly map every mined site. Therefore, it should be completed by a technical survey.”[32]

According to mine action operators, donors, and other stakeholders interviewed by Landmine Monitor, and information previously released by the IND, there remains a somewhat scattered and at times polarized view on the extent of the landmine problem in the country and what exactly is needed to remedy it. Operators are concerned that some donors are decreasing their contributions to mine action funding in Mozambique, in part because of the decrease in the number of new mine victims in recent years, in spite of the fact that the landmine problem remains acute. At the same time, there is still no clear picture of contaminated sites across the country due to the contradictions between survey data collected by HALO Trust and by the Landmine Impact Survey. Some operators are concerned that the 2002-2006 National Mine Action Plan (NMAP) does not provide real indicators for priority-setting to support socio-economic development both at the national and local level. The plan also does not reflect the Mine Ban Treaty requirement that the country be cleared of mines by 1 March 2009.[33]

The NMAP puts a high priority on technical surveys, in order to “reduce the number and size of all suspected mine areas significantly within 3 years.”[34] According to an evaluation of humanitarian mine action in Mozambique commissioned by Denmark’s development agency Danida, “The NMAP concentrates on development of orientated priority-setting criteria in relation to local and national needs and puts emphasis on area reduction, mine awareness and development of a marking system aiming at reducing the number of mine related accidents.”[35] Technical surveys are similarly given precedence over mine clearance in directives given to NGO operators by IND. Commenting on technical surveys in April 2003, the IND reported “full activities” in Inhambane and “limited activities” in every other province.[36] Updated survey information was not included in Mozambique’s 2004 Article 7 report, but in March 2004, media reports quoted the IND’s director stating that a sample technical survey to locate mined areas in the provinces of Maputo and Inhambane would start in 2004, with the support of the European Union.[37]

Some mine action operators are concerned that, while technical survey and area reduction can be effective mine risk reduction measures and fulfill an important component of an operational working strategy, too large an emphasis on those aspects without allowing for the necessary demining could jeopardize the successful completion of clearance of all suspected mined areas by the Mine Ban Treaty deadline of 1 March 2009, especially with the limited resources at hand.[38] HALO Trust believes that all known SMAs can be surveyed with current assets within the next 12 months.[39]

Mine Action Coordination and Planning

Established in 1999, the National Demining Institute (IND) coordinates all mine action in the country, operating under and reporting directly to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[40] Besides its headquarters in Maputo, IND has a regional office in Beira (Sofala province) for the central region and another in Nampula for the northern part of the country.[41] A National Demining Fund (Fundo Nacional de Desminagem, FUNAD) is also planned.[42]

In 19 November 2001, IND produced its first Five-Year National Mine Action Plan for the period 2002-2006, based on the findings of the Landmine Impact Survey.[43] The goal is to create within ten years a “mine-impact free” Mozambique, defined as “the elimination of impediments to fundamental socio-economic activity and significant reduction in the risk of encountering landmines.”[44] However, Mozambique’s treaty obligation is to have completed destruction of all antipersonnel mines in mined areas, as soon as possible but not later than 1 March 2009.

IND says that to reach the goal of creating an impact free Mozambique, the first five-year plan must accomplish the following: all high and medium impact sites must be cleared and all UXO destroyed; remaining low impact areas must be surveyed and marked; there must be a fully operational national mine risk education program; and long-term survivor and victim assistance programs must be established.[45]

According to IND, mine action is integrated into the government’s Poverty Reduction Plan, which is aimed at reducing poverty by 20 percent over the next ten years and raising the standard of living of all Mozambicans.[46] In a June 2004 statement made by the director of IND in Geneva, he emphasized the “importance the government attaches to the mine action program, both because of its importance in contributing towards socio-political stability that prevails in the country, and also because of its role in the overall government strategy of poverty reduction, and thus enhance living standards of all Mozambicans.”[47] However, according to the evaluation of humanitarian mine action conducted by Danida, mine clearance is not an integrated part of the poverty reduction plan, and Danida is concerned that the government did “not prioritize mine clearance as an element to be included in PARPA (Absolute Poverty Reduction Plan of Action).”[48]

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) continues to provide capacity-building assistance to IND.[49] IND and Accelerated Demining Program staff from have received various trainings through a joint effort of Cranfield University and a private university (Instituto Superior Politécnico e Universtitário, ISPU).[50]

In 2004, IND plans, with the assistance of Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, and UNDP, to establish and train three quality assurance teams, which will give the government an active presence in all aspects of clearance, and ensure that national and international methods and standards are used and observed.[51]

The Southern African Development Community (SADC) has been working to establish a database on all mine-affected countries in the region to facilitate sharing of experience, advice and information regionally and with the international community about national and regional mine action activities. In 2004, the main office of this database was transferred from Maputo at the IND headquarters to Gaberone, Botswana, and eventually should be connected to sub-regional offices in Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe and possibly Malawi.[52]

In 2004, IND’s regular annual audit detected some financial irregularities, which showed misappropriation of funds by four employees of IND, UNDP and NPA. The staff members were immediately suspended and collaborative ongoing investigations are attempting to uncover the extent of the problem.[53]

Mine Clearance

According to IND, 7,058,095 square meters of affected land was cleared in 2003, and 9,263 antipersonnel mines, 1,395 antivehicle mines, and 13,455 items of unexploded ordnance (UXO) were destroyed.[54] The area cleared represents a 20 percent decrease compared to 8.9 million square meters reported cleared in 2002.

IND reports that NGOs cleared 5,404,177 square meters in 2003—an increase from 3 million square meters cleared in 2002.[55] Commercial operators Mozambique Mine Action-MMA, JV Desminagem and ECOMS Desminagem SARL demined 858,399 square meters in 2003—a notable decrease from 3.9 million square meters cleared in 2002. The Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (FADM) cleared 795,519 square meters in 2003.[56]

According to IND, between 1997 and 2003, a total of 35,640,945 square meters of affected land was cleared, and 29,158 antipersonnel mines, 68 antivehicle mines, and 4,514 UXO were destroyed.[57] Based on previous statistics cited in annual Landmine Monitor Reports, IND has reported clearance from 1999 to 2003 as ranging from 29.2 million square meters up to 35.2 million square meters. Information provided by the mine action operators indicates clearance of 35 million square meters from 1999 to 2003.

In the six years it has been reporting, Landmine Monitor has faced difficulties in reconciling conflicting data on mine clearance for Mozambique, particularly as reported by the government and some commercial companies. Over the years, there clearly has been ineffective maintenance and updating of the national clearance database. Still, there has been consistent and reliable reporting by major NGO operators, including Accelerated Demining Program, HALO Trust, and Norwegian People's Aid.

Landmine Monitor Report 2003 found that according to an IND activity report, approximately 8.9 million square meters of land was cleared in 2002,[58] but figures obtained direct from NGO demining operators indicated a total of over 9.17 million square meters.[59] To further complicate the issue, other IND figures for the period indicated a total area of 7.37 million square meters was cleared.[60] Landmine Monitor Report 2002 outlined inconsistencies in clearance reporting in 2001: according an IND report table, a total of 12.41 million square meters was cleared in 2001,[61] but other, more detailed IND charts indicated that a total of 7.86 million square meters of land was cleared.[62] Landmine Monitor concluded that it appeared that approximately 8.88 million square meters of land was cleared in 2001.[63]

Landmine Monitor Report 2001 reported that according to IND, in 2000, a total of 4,982,907 square meters was cleared, and 6,679 mines destroyed.[64] Landmine Monitor Report 2000 said that according to data obtained from five major mine clearance operators a total of five square kilometers was cleared in 1999, far more than IND’s figure of two square kilometers.[65] Landmine Monitor Report 1999 noted that according to corrected CND data provided by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, a total of 189 square kilometers of land was cleared between 1993 and the end of 1998, and 54,468 landmines were destroyed.[66]

In 2003, ten operators were engaged in mine clearance-related activities in Mozambique: five NGOs (HALO Trust, HI, NPA, PAD/ADP, and MgM), four commercial firms (RONCO, Mozambique Mine Action, JV Desminagem, and ECOMS Desminagem SARL), and the Mozambique Armed Forces.[67] In 2004, three of these operators were no longer working in the country (MgM, JV. Desminagem, and ECOMS).[68]

According to IND, at least six more operators worked on mine action projects in Mozambique prior to 2003: Afrovita (June 2000-Apr. 2002), Armor Special Clearance Service (Nov. 2000-Mar. 2001), Empresa Moçambicana de Desminagem Lda (Apr. 2000-July 2002), Mechem (Sept. 1997 1998-Oct. 2001), MineTech (May 1997-Dec. 1999), and Necochaminas (Oct. 2000-Oct. 2001).[69] Carlos Gassmann Tecnologias de Vanguarda Aplicadas Lda (CGTVA), and Lince Lda. and Qualitas Lda., subsidiary companies of BRZ International, provided quality assurance.

2003 Mine Clearance in Mozambique by Operator[70]

Area cleared (sq. meters)
NGO operators

HALO Trust
Commercial operators

JV Desminagem

HALO Trust:[71] Since 1994, HALO Trust has carried out mine action in the northern provinces of Cabo Delgado, Nampula, Niassa, and Zambézia using manual and mechanical humanitarian mine clearance techniques, along with mine detecting dogs. In 2003, HALO cleared 1,274,861 square meters of affected land, surveyed 78,756,136 square meters, and conducted area reduction of 123,180 square meters.[72] It destroyed a total of 7,134 antipersonnel mines (including 5,755 stockpiled mines), 1,382 stockpiled antivehicle mines, and 628 UXO.[73] HALO reported that 10,312,176 hectares in Zambézia, 7,812,227 hectares in Nampula, 12,257,647 hectares in Niassa and 7,783,899 hectares in Cabo Delgado are areas considered free of mines in 2004.[74]

HALO is intending in late 2004 to commence the process of declaring districts as being mine-impact free, as it believes a number of districts within the four northern provinces contain no known mine problem. HALO reported that whereas IND in its 2003 Article 7 report presented 365 million square meters of SMA in Mozambique’s four Northern provinces, HALO believes the correct figure, as of 1 April 2004, to be only 23 million square meters.[75]

In the first quarter of 2004, HALO cleared 310,435 square meters, destroying 747 antipersonnel mines, two antivehicle mines and 656 UXO.[76] From 1 January to 31 August, HALO cleared 2,126,926 square meters, destroyed 28,666 antipersonnel minees, 362 antivehicle mines and 23,524 UXO.[77] Between 1999 and 2003, HALO cleared 2,775,581 square meters and surveyed 279,861,539 square meters, destroying 16,618 antipersonnel mines, 1,512 antivehicle mines, and 2,355 UXO.[78]

In 2003, HALO’s activities were funded by the UK (until 31 March 2003) and Japan in Zambézia (from 1 April 2003), by the Netherlands in Nampula, by Ireland in Niassa and by Switzerland in Cabo Delgado. Tokyo Broadcasting System in association with the Zero Landmine Campaign of the Association for Aid and Relief (Japan), funded manual operations across all four provinces. The US Department of State funded clearance in both Cabo Delgado and Zambézia provinces. The total reported funding for 2003 was approximately US$5 million.[79] Reported funding for 2004 is approximately US$3 million.[80]

Handicap International: Since January 1998, Handicap International (HI) has conducted proximity demining in Inhambane, Manica, and Sofala provinces. Following a reduction in funding support in 2003, HI was forced to decrease its demining personnel from 130 to 60.[81] As of September 2004, HI employed 63 staff, including 48 deminers deployed in three integrated EOD/mine clearance teams using manual and mechanical methods, as well as mine detecting dogs. HI maintains small mobile group teams and works for the communities outside of the big projects, clearing such areas such as medical posts, bridges, and schools.[82]

According to IND, HI cleared 193,361 square meters of affected land in 2003 and 252,636 square meters in 2002.[83] It destroyed 67 antipersonnel mines, two antivehicle mines and 1,341 UXO in 2003.[84] From 1998 until August 2004, HI cleared 184 sites, equivalent to 1,015,314 square meters, and destroyed 338 antipersonnel mines, 12 antivehicle mines, 1,310 UXO, and several stockpiles of weapons.[85]

In 2004, HI’s donors included of: Austria (for clearance in Sofala province); Canadian Auto Workers, Canada (CIDA), Japan, and Adopt-A-Minefield (for Inhambane); and Switzerland (for Manica). In the past, HI has received support from Australia (Austcare and AusAID), EU, Norway, and Sweden.

Norwegian People’s Aid:[86] In 1993, NPA started to work in Mozambique and since 1996 it has operated in the central provinces of Tete, Manica and Sofala. Operational headquarters are located at Chimoio in Manica province, while the management retains a permanent headquarters in Maputo. Following a significant reorganization and downsizing, NPA’s mine action program employed 125 staff in September 2004 (down from over 300 staff employed in 2003), and used two mechanical mine clearance and verification machines and 13 mine detecting dogs. In 2003, NPA conducted six clearance tasks and 14 technical survey tasks, clearing 525,464 square meters and another 675,177 through area reduction, and destroyed 96 antipersonnel mines, four antivehicle mines, and 298 UXO. In 2003, NPA received funding support from Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden.[87]

In the first quarter of 2004, NPA cleared 125,425 square meters, destroying 55 antipersonnel mines and 13 UXO. Between 1999 and 2003, NPA cleared 9,254,013 square meters of land (including a technical survey in 2003), and destroyed 7,747 antipersonnel mines, nine antivehicle mines, and 1,265 UXO.[88]

In 2004, NPA reorganized its operation, including streamlining the mechanical component, and adjusting the mine dog component to use the same training methodology implemented by NPA worldwide.[89] NPA is preparing a phase-down strategy, under which its operational capacity will be progressively downsized prior to a complete withdrawal of NPA staff and assets by early 2007.[90] In April 2004, NPA suspended its national program manager following the discovery of financial irregularities. He is no longer with the organization.

Accelerated Demining Program:[91] The Accelerated Demining Program (Programa Acelerado de Desminagem, PAD) began as a UN-sponsored project in 1995 and became a nationally executed program in 1997. In 2003, ADP continued to operate in the southern provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane, employing 381 Mozambican staff and two expatriate technical advisers. In 2003, ADP deployed ten manual demining platoons, two independent demining sections for smaller clearance tasks, four survey teams and a mine detecting dog team. In 2003, ADP cleared 3,086,570 square meters of land and destroyed 290 antipersonnel mines, eight antivehicle mines and 151 UXO.[92] In 2003, ADP’s demining training personnel carried out in site demining inspections, mine risk education, and participated in leadership training and refresher courses in Guinea Bissau.

From 1 January to 31 August 2004, ADP cleared 1,359,236 square meters, and destroyed 108 antipersonnel mines, two antivehicle mines and 377 UXO.[93]

In 2003, ADP received funding support from Australia, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, New Zealand, and Sweden.[94]

Menschen gegen Minen: The Germany-based NGO MgM carried out mine clearance operations in Mozambique between 2000 and 2003, clearing 40 kilometers of minefields along the Limpopo railway (from Maputo to Zimbabwe between Monte Alto at Mpelane and Mabalane). In 2003, MgM deployed 44 deminers, six mine detecting dogs and two machines in Gaza province, where it cleared 138,619 square meters of land[95] and destroyed 607 antipersonnel mines.[96] In 2002, MgM cleared 232,441 square meters of land in Gaza, destroying 689 antipersonnel mines, 196 antivehicle mines and 44 UXO. The project concluded at the end of 2003.[97] Germany was the sole donor to MgM’s demining project in Mozambique.

RONCO: U.S. commercial company RONCO Consulting Corporation has carried out several mine action contracts in Mozambique since 1993. Between August 2000 and February 2003, RONCO deployed 12 mine detecting dogs and dog handlers to conduct demining operations along the Sena Railway Line in Sofala province under a contract with the U.S. Department of State. In this period, the MEDF cleared over 460 kilometers of railway line and over seven million square meters of land. Since concluding verification of the demining work in November 2002, RONCO has been assisting CFM (Mozambique Railways) teams to clear work areas and access paths. Working with eight mine detecting dogs, 53 deminers and one machine, RONCO cleared 33,163 square meters of land in 2003[98] and destroyed 222 antipersonnel mines and one UXO.[99.] In 2004, RONCO employed 104 Mozambican personnel, making it the third largest employer in Sofala province.[100]

RONCO supported other mine action-related tasks in Mozambique from 2000 to 2002, including establishing and supporting a quality assurance capability for the IND. RONCO also supervises Mozambique’s Quick Reaction Demining Force, described below. The United States is the sole donor to RONCO’s demining work in Mozambique, providing $1 million in 2003.[101]

Mozambique Mine Action: In 2003, commercial Mozambican operator, Mozambique Mine Action (MMA), established in 2001, cleared 732,688 square meters, in Massingir, Gaza province[102] and destroyed 222 antipersonnel mines and 119 UXO.[103] In 2002, MMA cleared 53,920 square meters in Nhassacara, Manica province and in Vilankulos, Inhambane province. In 2002, MMA carried out two mine clearance projects in Maputo at an industrial zone for Sasol and in residential area in Ponta de Ouro. MMA is based in Chimoio (Manica) and uses combined mine clearance methods (manual, mechanical and dogs). MMA was supported by the German Cooperation (GTZ).

JV Desminagem: JV Desminagem is a commercial Mozambican operator that has worked in Mozambique since 2002. In 2003, the company cleared 34,001 square meters of land[104] and destroyed 40 antipersonnel mines from the edges of national road number 2 in Maputo province.[105] In 2002, JV Desminagem carried out technical surveys in Gaza province. The company has received funding from the IND.[106]

ECOMS: In 2003, ECOMS Desminagem SARL, a commercial Mozambican company operating since 2002, cleared 91,710 square meters of land in Gaza province and destroyed 61 antipersonnel mines and two antivehicle mines.[107] The company has received funding from the IND.

Mozambique Armed Defense Forces: In 2001, engineers from the 1st Battalion of the Mozambique Armed Defense Forces received demining training and equipment from the United States. In 2003, FADM cleared 795,519 square meters of land and destroyed 18 antipersonnel mines, one antivehicle mine and 3,367 UXO in Sofala province using manual and mechanical clearance methods, as well as mine detecting dogs.[108]

Mine Risk Education

Providers of MRE in Mozambique in 2003 included IND, demining organizations including HI, the Red Cross Society of Mozambique, government institutions, and local NGOs. In 1999, IND took over responsibility for the National Coordination Program of Education Activities to Prevent Mines and UXO Accidents (PEPAM) network HI had developed since 1995.[109] IND’s National Mine Action Plan for the period 2002-2006 recognized a need “for an aggressive and sustained Mine Risk Education and Marking campaigns to be re-launched” based on PEPAM.[110]

According to the IND, a total of 840,972 people took part in mine risk education sessions in 2003,[111] a sharp increase compared to the 170,000 reported in 2002.[112] From 1992 to 2002, a total of 1,406,042 people either attended MRE sessions or were the expected wider target group. The IND was unable to located an annual breakdown.[113]

In May 2004, IND said that MRE was carried out in the southern provinces of Maputo, Gaza and Inhambane in 2003, with the assistance of UNICEF and UNDP, but that almost no MRE took place in the rest of the country.[114] The IND’s annual report for 2003 confirmed this and noted there is “an urgent need to address of financial resources and operational partners to fill this gap.”[115] The country program director of HI told Landmine Monitor that most mine clearance operators develop an integrated approach that includes MRE: “I doubt that a national action today could have a better impact than the scattered action developed by operators where the risks are the highest.”[116] He went on to add that considering the number of casualties, he was not convinced that an investment in MRE could be justified in terms of prevention.

According to IND, about 100 local MRE facilitators and 300 teachers were trained in Inhambane province during 2003, including 25 from the Maputo Technical School of Geodesia and Cadastro and 275 from schools that are located in areas affected by mines.[117] UNICEF financed the project, which targeted school-age children living in mine-affected areas and attempted to re-introduce MRE into the educational system.[118]

Between 1999 and 2003, the Red Cross Society of Mozambique (Cruz Vermelha Moçambicana, CVM), supported by the ICRC, carried out MRE activities. In 2003, it provided 234 MRE sessions that reached 62,678 people.[119] The project ended in 2003, but MRE is continuing under CVM public education activities.

In June 2003, HI reviewed its MRE strategy and developed three EOD teams to focus on areas smaller than 15,000 square meters. When working in an area, HI’s community liaison team provides MRE and collects data on casualties and mine risk among village leaders, schoolteachers and people living in and around mine-affected areas. This approach, according to the HI country director, enables a quick response to all clearance requests by communities.[120] In the first half of 2004, HI reached more than 3,510 people through 30 MRE sessions (eight in Inhambane province, twelve in Manica, and ten in Sofala provinces).[121]

Mine Action Funding

According to IND, approximately US$18.15 million was received for mine action activities in 2003 from fifteen governments, the European Commission, UNICEF, and the NGO UN Association-USA. The biggest contributor was the United States ($3.4 million), followed by Denmark ($2.9 million) and Norway ($2.7 million). IND cautioned that the “amounts disbursed cannot be accurately confirmed,” and “fiscal years are not always uniform,” and some funding was not received in calendar year 2003.[122]

Not included in the total is 18 billion meticais (approximately US$818,181) provided by the government of Mozambique for mine action in 2003; in 2004, the government has allocated a much higher sum to mine action of 144 billion meticais (approximately US$6.5 million).[123]

IND Report on Mine Action Funding for Mozambique in 2003[124]

Total (US$)






















New Zealand














Funding information provided directly by the donors does not always match that provided by IND. According to information provided to Landmine Monitor, in 2003, 11 donor governments and the European Commission provided about US$15.25 million for mine action in Mozambique:[126] Canada gave C$1,200,000 (US$873,600), Denmark DKK 17,300,000 (US$2,629,179), European Commission €1,000,000 (US$1,131,500), Germany €1,150,000 (US$1,301,225), Ireland €850,000 (US$961,775), Japan ¥ 84,200,000 (US$690,000), Netherlands US$973,568, New Zealand US$159,000[127], Norway NOK15,671,000 (US$2,212,824), Sweden SEK 8,000,000 (US$990,000), Switzerland US$700,000, and the United States $2,632,000. Australia and Italy did not report mine action funding for Mozambique in 2003 to Landmine Monitor. Other support in the past has come from Finland, France, Republic of Korea, and Slovenia.

Between 1999 and 2003, Landmine Monitor has identified and reported a total of $73.3 to $79.6 million in funding for mine action in Mozambique: $12.4 million in 1999 from eight donors, $17 million in 2000 from ten donors, $15.1 million in 2001 from thirteen donors, $13.5 million in 2002 from sixteen donors (IND cites $16.9 million in 2002 from seventeen donors), and $15.3 million in 2003 from twelve donors (IND cites $18.2 million in 2003 from eighteen donors). In its first report issued in May 1999, Landmine Monitor indicated that according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, between 1993 and the end of 1998, funding for demining in Mozambique exceeded US$116 million.[128]

Landmine Casualties

In 2003, IND reported 14 new mine casualties in 13 incidents; six people were killed and eight injured, including four women and two children. However, this may not represent the total number of casualties as the ability to collect and record data is reportedly weak.[129] Casualties were reported in six provinces: Maputo (three), Gaza (one), Inhambane (five), Sofala (two), Zambezia (one), Cabo Delgado (two).[130] The number of new mine casualties has dropped significantly from 133 casualties reported in 1998, to 60 in 1999, and 29 in 2000 (eight killed and 21 injured), but rose again to 80 casualties in 2001, before dropping again to 47 casualties in eight provinces in 2002.[131] NGOs working in Mozambique have, in the past, questioned whether data collection on mine casualties is comprehensive and truly reflects the reality on the ground.[132] In April 2002, the IND Director was quoted as saying that people were still being injured every day by landmines.[133]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2004 with 24 mine casualties reported to July in the provinces of Maputo (seven), Sofala (12) and Tete (five); three people were killed and 21 injured, including one child.[134]

Since 1999, at least 42 casualties were reported during mine clearance activities: one in 2004; four in 2003; nine in 2002 (at least two killed); and 28 in 1999 (five killed and 23 injured).[135] Landmine Monitor has no information on demining accidents in 2000 or 2001.

In May 2002, a Mozambican peacekeeper serving with the United Nations force in southern Lebanon (UNIFIL) lost both his hands and injured his legs in an accident during mine clearance operations. According to Lebanese Police, he was the third Mozambican peacekeeper to be injured during clearance operations that month.[136]

In July 2001, a deminer and four mine detecting dogs were killed when a vehicle carrying seven NPA deminers and a driver hit an antivehicle mine in Manica province.[137]

According to a media report, there were 615 mine casualties reported between 1996 and 2003, with at least 232 killed and 322 injured; at least 165 were children. All ten provinces reported casualties, with the highest number recorded in Maputo province with at least 106 casualties.[138]

Between 1996 and 1999, data on mine incidents was collected under the National Coordination Program of Education Activities to Prevent Mines and UXO Accidents (PEPAM), coordinated by Handicap International, which collected, verified and analyzed incident reports from all mine-affected provinces before entry into the IND database.[139]

Since then, the most comprehensive collection of casualty data in the past five years remains the nationwide Landmine Impact Survey, started in March 2000 and concluded in August 2001. The Survey identified 172 “recent” landmine casualties, of which 53 were killed. In total, 2,145 casualties were recorded; no detail was provided on the total number of survivors. The report acknowledged that the casualty figure is probably understated as 31 communities reported “many” casualties, but did not estimate an actual number. The majority of recent casualties (71 percent) were engaged in economic activities, such as collecting food/water, farming, herding, or household work, while incidents during travel (seven percent) and tampering (one percent) were rare.[140]

Survivor Assistance

Mozambique’s healthcare infrastructure was severely damaged during almost thirty years of armed conflict, with over 40 percent of health clinics destroyed or forced to close. The floods of 2000 caused further damage to four hospitals and 52 health centers. There is reportedly a lack of immediate first aid treatment and no mechanism to arrange treatment or transport to the nearest health facility. The lack of available transport makes facilities for continuing care and rehabilitation inaccessible for many landmine survivors. Orthopedic centers are reportedly not being used to their full capacity because of the difficulties of access encountered by people from rural areas. In 2001, at least 46 percent of the population did not have access to formal healthcare.[141]

Responsibility for landmine survivor assistance is shared by the Ministry of Health (MINSAU) and the Ministry for Women and the Coordination of Social Action (MMCAS), which assisted 140 mine survivors in 2003 with transport services, medical, and financial support; a small increase from 133 survivors assisted in 2002.[142] Unfortunately, the program operates in only one of the country’s ten mine-affected provinces.[143]

The World Health Organization (WHO) has initiated training programs in pre-hospital care and surgical techniques for trauma victims, including landmine casualties. More than twenty trainers, including twelve doctors and eight medical technicians, participated in the program at a national level and now initiate pre-hospital trauma care training programs throughout Mozambique.[144]

In January 1999, the Ministry of Health operated nine orthopedic centers providing rehabilitation and orthopedic devices, with technical assistance from international NGOs, HI and POWER.[145] In 2004, Mozambique has ten orthopedic centers, including one opened by the National Red Cross, sixty physiotherapy centers, and ten transit centers specifically designated to host persons with disabilities undergoing treatment.[146]

The Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM) operates the Jaipur Orthopedic Center (COJ) in Gaza province. The COJ is the first rehabilitation center to be wholly run by a Mozambican NGO, and is located in a rural district to facilitate and improve access to rural communities. The center provides mobility devices, vocational training, disability awareness and social support programs. Since the center opened in February 2000, more than 829 people have benefited from the program, including over 298 in 2003; 106 were mine survivors. In 2003, the CVM’s activities were funded by the Portuguese Red Cross, the Canadian Red Cross, and the Jaipur Limp Campaign. In 2004, financial support is provided by the German Red Cross. Previous donors include the UK-based Comic Relief, the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund, Khalatbari Foundation, and private donors.[147] The CVM, with financial assistance from the Canadian Red Cross, also implements survivor assistance programs in the provinces of Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Zambezia and Tete. The program facilitates transport to the orthopedic centers and supports socio-economic reintegration activities.[148]

Handicap International has operated in Mozambique since 1986, establishing orthopedic centers in the cities of Vilanculos, Inhambane, Lichinga, Tete, Pemba, and Nampula, which are now fully integrated into the Ministry of Health. HI’s activities in physical medicine and rehabilitation focus on supporting the quality of national services, and improving the skills of staff in the rehabilitation sector, including sending orthopedic technicians to Lyon in France to upgrade qualifications. HI also works with the MMCAS and the Forum of Mozambican Associations of Disabled Persons (FAMOD) to improve access to physical medicine and rehabilitation services, and to promote the rights of all persons with disabilities.[149]

POWER supported the Ministry of Health prosthetic and orthotic services until the end of May 2002, providing materials for the manufacture of limbs and technical expertise to improve the quality of services, for four centers in Maputo City, Beira, Nampula, and Quelimane and the HI-supported centers. In 2002, POWER changed its focus from prosthetics and orthotics to assisting persons with disabilities in Mozambique to participate fully in civil society by empowering disability organizations to build capacity and services for their members. POWER works closely with FAMOD, the umbrella organization of disability associations, and ten local organizations representing persons with disabilities, in a four-year program funded by the European Commission. Other donors include USAID, The Community Fund, and Foundation Pro Victimis. POWER is also involved in a number of vocational training initiatives in metal work, leatherwork and carpentry, to provide specialized skills for persons with disabilities.[150]

Cooperation Canada Mozambique’s four-year program in the provinces of Inhambane and Nampula ended in March 2002. The program provided transport to the orthopedic and rehabilitation centers, and assisted about 100 mine survivors over the four years.[151]

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) has been active in Zambézia province since 1999 working in Quelimane, Ile, Maganja da Costa, and Nicoadala. LSN’s community-based outreach workers, who are amputees, work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services, or vocational training. If no such services exist, LSN sometimes provides direct assistance including covering the cost of prostheses, house repairs or emergency food aid. LSN works with local associations, including the Association of Disabled Mozambicans (ADEMO) and the Association of Military Disabled (ADEMIMO), to increase awareness about disability rights. In 2003, LSN supported the socio-economic reintegration of 321 mine survivors and their families; a significant increase over the 193 assisted in 2002. Of the 321 survivors assisted, only twelve are no longer in need of assistance. LSN has also facilitated the start of over 128 small income generation activities since 1999. LSN also establishes social support groups, and links survivors to existing job training and other economic and social service opportunities, and tracks their progress toward recovery and reintegration. In 2004, LSN plans to expand the program to other districts of Zambézia province and Sofala and Inhambane provinces.[152]

There are several Mozambican disability organizations working on advocacy and two in particular, ADEMO and ADEMIMO, work to support the rights of landmine survivors. Two mine survivors from these organizations participated in the Raising the Voices training in Geneva in September 2002.[153]

One of the major problems for mine survivors is the lack of opportunities for socio-economic reintegration. Even after receiving physical rehabilitation and prostheses many survivors cannot find employment to support themselves or their families.[154] The government acknowledges that financial constraints are limiting the availability of programs to assist mine survivors and that more facilities are needed to promote their socio-economic reintegration.[155]

The World Rehabilitation Fund (WRF), in partnership with UNDP, has developed a number of projects including a rural economic development project, supporting POWER and ADEMO with two vocational training programs in metal work and baking, providing technical advice to IND in the development of policies for survivor assistance, disability awareness education, and providing technical assistance to Beira Hospital to improve services to landmine survivors. The economic development and vocational training programs directly benefit more than 100 mine survivors and other persons with disabilities.[156] ADEMO is also involved in a number of other income generation initiatives for mine survivors. One project provides donkeys to mine survivors, while another project breeds ducks and goats.[157]

Following a Mine Victim Assistance Workshop, sponsored by the WRF in November 2001, IND developed a draft policy for Survivor and Victim Assistance.[158] The policy includes plans to “develop appropriate strategies and methodologies for providing long-term assistance” for landmine survivors. The IND Five Year National Mine Action Plan (2002-2006) affirmed its coordinating role in mine victim assistance.[159]

Assistance programs for mine survivors reportedly face major difficulties due to the lack of financial resources and the needs of survivors greatly exceed the available medical assistance and supply of prostheses. It is acknowledged that very few mine survivors have benefited from assistance programs in Mozambique, and that there is a need for a stronger commitment to implement assistance programs.[160] IND, in collaboration with MINSAU and MMCAS, has developed a project aimed at improving the daily lives of mine survivors and their families. Planned activities and outcomes of the project include increased geographic coverage of services, increased capacity of transportation services to rehabilitation centers, support and upgrading of existing orthopedic centers, on-going training of rehabilitation workers, increased psychological support after a mine incident, raising awareness on disability issues, increased access to vocational training and employment opportunities, and the creation of a database. Mozambique seeks the support of donors and international NGOs and agencies to implement the project.[161]

Since 2001, Mozambique has submitted the voluntary Form J attachment to its four annual Article 7 reports, providing information on victim assistance activities.

Disability Policy and Practice

In June 1999, Parliament enacted a national disability law, and the Cabinet approved the first national policy on persons with disabilities (Resolution no. 20/99) that included principles and strategies to encourage the active participation of disabled people in the country’s socio-economic development. However, the policy has not been fully implemented due to a lack of resources.[162] There is reportedly a huge gap between the intent of the legislation and the reality of the problems faced by persons with disabilities in their daily lives.[163]

The Ministry for Women and the Coordination of Social Action (MMCAS) is the national coordinating agency for assistance to persons with disabilities.

[1] Article 7 Report, Form A, 23 April 2004. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 339.
[2] Interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, National Demining Institute, Geneva, 29 June 2004.
[3] See Article 7 reports submitted: 30 March 2000 (covering 1 March–31 August 1999)—this initial report was due by 27 August 1999; 30 October 2001 (covering 1 September 1999-31 December 2000); 2 July 2002 (for calendar year 2001); and one with no submission date (covering 1 January 2002-1 March 2003).
[4] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p.44.
[5] Interview with Numibio Mambique, Legal Advisor, IND, Geneva, 29 June 2004.
[6] Article 7 Report, Form E, 23 April 2004.
[7] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 45.
[8] Human Rights Watch, Still Killing: Landmine in Southern Africa (New York: HRW, 1997), pp. 74-75.
[9] National Demining Institute, “Mine Action Programme Annual Report: 2003,” Maputo, February 2004, p. 4. Details on the types and countries of origin of the mine stockpile were provided in Mozambique’s initial Article 7 Report, submitted March 2000: 310 AUPS mines (Italy); 367 M966 (Portugal or Belgium); 41 M969 (Portugal); 3,383 M971 (unknown origin); 11,930 M67-5-18 (unknown); 1,802 MON-100 (Soviet Union); 971 MON-50 (Soviet Union); 2,679 OZM-4 (Soviet Union); 406 OZM-72 (Soviet Union); 3,326 PMD-6 (Soviet Union); 8,966 PMN (Soviet Union); 493 PMN-2 (Soviet Union); 528 POMZ (Soviet Union); 2,616 POMZ-2 (Soviet Union). See, table in Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 109.
[10] In Moamba, 2,000 mines were destroyed on 19 March 2002; 6,000 mines on 22 August 2002; and 2,700 mines on 28 February 2003; in Sofala, 13,818 mines were destroyed on 30 October 2002; in Nampula, 10,812 mines were destroyed on 25 February 2003; and in Chokwe, 1,988 mines were destroyed on 20 February 2003, as reported in Article 7 Report, Forms B, D, and G, for the period 1 January 2002-1 March 2003. Landmine Monitor notes that these totals do not include 500 mines destroyed in September 2001 at Moamba, as reported in the 2002 Article 7 Report. Canada supported the destruction program with a contribution of US$22,670, of which $8,157 was used. Interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, 14 June 2004.
[11] Article 7 Report, Form D, 23 April 2004. Mines retained for training and development purposes include 900 mines for the Armed Forces, 151 for the Accelerated Demining Program, 216 for HALO, 18 for RONCO, and 185 for HI.
[12] Interview with Eng. Aurelio Faduc, Chief, Department of Study, Planning and Information, and Augusto Nogueira, Information Advisor, National Demining Institute, Maputo, 24 June 2004.
[13] Landmine Monitor notes that it is unclear where these mines originated. All previous Article 7 reports cited a stockpile of 37,818 with no mines retained, and this is the total reported as destroyed in 2003.
[14] CIDC and Paul F. Wilkinson & Associates Inc, “Landmine Impact Survey,” August 2001. The survey was carried out by the CIDC, with quality assurance provided by the Survey Action Center and the UNMAS. See also Landmine Monitor 2001, pp. 109-112.
[15] Email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, Norwegian People's Aid, 11 September 2004.
[16] Interview with Administrator of Murrupula district, Afonso das Neves, reported by Jaime Cuambe, “Descobertas areas de estarem ainda minadas,” (Discovered areas that are suspected to be mined), Noticias (newspaper), 3 March 2004.
[17] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2003.
[18] Article 7 Report, 23 April 2004; interview with Ego Aurelio Faduc and Augusto Nogueira, IND, 24 June 2004.
[19] National Demining Institute, “Annual Plan of Demining Priorities 2004,” Maputo, February 2004; Article 7 Report, Form C, 23 April 2004.
[20] IND, “Annual Plan 2004,” Maputo, February 2004, p. 4.
[21]Ibid., p. 5.
[22] CND, Bulletin No. 8, March 1999; Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 67.
[23] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004.
[24] “Summary of MLIS Activities and Findings,” attachment to email from David Horton, CIDC, 26 July 2001; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 110.
[25] Article 7 Report, Form C, 2 July 2002; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 110.
[26] IND, “Mine Action in Mozambique 2002,” April 2003; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 341.
[27] IND, “Annual Plan 2004,” p. 4.
[28] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 354.
[29] IND, “Summary Report 2002,” April 2003; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 340.
[30] Response to LM Questionnaire by Cameron Imber, Mozambique Program Manager, HALO Trust, 9 May 2003.
[31] Ibid.
[32] Interview with Adérito Ismael, Chief of Project, Handicap International, Inhambane, 2 June 2003.
[33] Email from Sara Sekkenes, Program Manager, Norwegian People's Aid Mozambique, 11 September 2004.
[34] Danida, “Review, Support To Humanitarian Mine Action, Mozambique, 16-27/2 2004,” April 2004, p. 4.
[35] Ibid., p. 10.
[36] IND, “Mine Action 2002,” April 2003.
[37] Jaime Cuambe, “O governo cria projecto-piloto para identificar áreas minadas” (Government creates a sample project to identify mined areas), Notícias (newspaper), 2 March 2004.
[38] Interview with Sara Sekkenes, NPA, 21 August 2004.
[39] Email from Tim Porter, Southern Africa Desk, HALO, 5 October 2004.
[40] The IND replaced the National Demining Commission (CND) that year after problems with the earlier institution and loss of donor confidence; see Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 69. For more information on the CND, see Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 54-55.
[41] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 344.
[42] Interview with Ego Aurelio Faduco and Augusto Nogueira, IND, 16 September 2004
[43] National Demining Institute, “Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 344.
[44] Ibid.
[45] Ibid. See also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 344.
[46] IND, “Annual Plan 2004;” see also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 344 –245.
[47] Presentation by Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, Standing Committee On Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education And Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 21 June 2004.
[48] Danida, “Support To Mozambique,” April 2004, p. 9.
[49] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004.
[50] Interview with Renato Raimundo, President, Clube de Jovens da Huila (Angola), Maputo, 3 June 2003; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 344.
[51] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004.
[52] Interview with Eng. Aurelio Faduc and Augusto Nogueira, IND, Maputo, 24 June 2004.
[53] Email from Sara Sekkenes, NPA, 30 September 2004; email from Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, 30 September 2004;
[54] National Demining Institute, www.ind.gov.mz/sumario2003.htm
[55] IND includes RONCO, a commercial contractor, in its listing of NGOs. IND considers RONCO as a humanitarian operator, because it is not following the process that is used in Mozambique by commercial operators.
[56] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 5.
[57] In Cabo Delgado provinces (2,296,424 square meters), Gaza (2,197,600), Inhambane (14,460,965), Manica (2,884,286), Maputo (4,986,495), Nampula (518,337), Niassa (516,327), Sofala (3,966,067), Tete (2,080,767), Zambezia (1,733,667). This adds up to 35,640,935 square meters, not the total provided in the table of 35,640,945 square meters. “Summary of Finished Tasks: From January 1997 to December 2003,” IND Website, www.ind.gov.mz/en/tconcluidas.htm accessed 5 September 2004.
[58] IND, “Mine Action 2002,” April 2003.
[59] For details on the discrepancies, see Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 345-346.
[60] Statement by Gamiliel Mumguambe, IND, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 5 February 2003.
[61] IND, “Demining Activities in Mozambique: 1997-2001,” Maputo, 30 January 2002, Table II, p. 6.
[62] IMSMA database information, emailed to Landmine Monitor by IND, 9 July 2002.
[63] For details on the discrepancies, see Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 355-356.
[64] IND, “History of Mine Action in Mozambique,” 31 January 2001.
[65] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 72.
[66] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 48.
[67] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, pp. 7-8.
[68] “Current Mine Clearance Sites (May 2004),” IND Website, www.ind.gov.mz/en/corente.htm accessed 5 September 2004.
[69] “Summary of Finished Tasks: From January 1997 to December 2003,” IND Website.
[70] IND Website, www.ind.gov.mz/sumario2003.htm
[71] Email from Cameron Imber, HALO, 31 May 2004.
[72] Email from Matthew Hovell, Caucasus and Balkans Desk Officer, HALO, 3 September 2004.
[73] Ibid.; interview with Ego Aurelio Faduc and Augusto Nogueira, IND, 24 June 2004. According to IND, this included: 327,956 square meters of land and 114 antipersonnel mines in Zambézia; 384,538 square meters of land and 38 antipersonnel mines in Nampula; 254,366 square meters of land and 67 antipersonnel mines in Niassa; 308,001 square meters of land and 1,169 antipersonnel mines in Cabo Delgado.
[74] Email from Cameron Imbir, HALO, 12 April 2004. A hectare equals 10,000 square meters of land.
[75] Email from Tim Porter, HALO, 5 October 2004.
[76] Email from Cameron Imbir, HALO, 12 April 2004.
[77] IMSMA database, IND, Maputo, accessed 17 September 2004.
[78] Email from Matthew Hovell, HALO, 3 September 2004.
[79] Email from Cameron Imbir, HALO, 31 May 2004.
[80] Ibid.
[81] Danida, “Support To Mozambique,” April 2004, p. 7.
[82] Email from Adérito Ismael, HI, 27 May 2004.
[83] Interview with Ego Aurelio Faduc and Augusto Nogueira, IND, 24 June 2004.
[84] IMSMA Database, IND, 2004.
[85] Email from Gilbert Hascoet, Country Program Director, HI, Maputo, 29 September 2004.
[86] Email from Geir Bjorsvik, Advisor, Norwegian People’s Aid, Oslo, 29 June 2004.
[87] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 11.
[88] NPA reports clearance of 1,712,446 square meters in 1999; 2,624,231 in 2000; 1,726,760 in 2001; 1,989,935 in 2002; and, 1,200,641 in 2003, including technical survey.
[89] Email from Geir Bjorsvik, NPA, 29 June 2004.
[90] Danida, “Support To Mozambique,” April 2004, p. 19.
[91] Unless otherwise noted, all information on ADP is taken from: ADP, Quarterly Report for period October to December 2003, Maputo.
[92] IMSMA Database, IND, accessed 17 June 2004.
[93] Ibid.
[94] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 11.
[95] Ibid., p. 7.
[96] IMSMA Database, IND, accessed 17 June 2004.
[97] Danida, “Support To Mozambique,” April 2004, p. 17.
[98] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 7.
[99.] IMSMA Database, IND, accessed 17 June 2004.
[100] RONCO website, www.roncoconsulting.com accessed 5 September 2004.
[101] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 11.
[102] Ibid., p. 8.
[103] IMSMA Database, IND, accessed 17 June 2004.
[104] IND, “Annual Report Mozambique 2003,” February 2004, p. 8.
[105] IMSMA Database, IND, accessed 17 June 2004.
[106] Email from JV Consultants (no name provided), JV Demining, 8 May 2003.
[107] IMSMA Database, IND, accessed 17 June 2004.
[108] Ibid.
[109] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p.117; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p.358.
[110] UNIDIR, “Participatory Monitoring of Humanitarian Mine Action: Giving Voice to Citizens of Nicaragua, Mozambique and Cambodia,” 2003, p. 46; Dr. Hildegard Scheu, “Pilot Study on Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation of Humanitarian Mine Action in Mozambique,” UNIDIR, 2002.
[111] Article 7 Report 2003, Form I, 23 April 2004. The IND reports that the total was calculated “by estimating the target group that the 300 agents and 100 teachers would be in contact with in the local village/town community regions etc. This was an estimate only, based on our population information of the likely dissemination of the MRE message through the 400 teachers and agents.” When asked whether there is a system to monitor and support teachers and local agents, IND responded, “The IND have regional MRE support personnel to conduct follow up visits to ensure the MRE is conducted to the target groups.” However, in this case no follow up visits have occurred due to the lack of funds. Email from Graeme Abernethy, TA Operations, IND, 11 September 2004.
[112] Interview with Orlando Uaiene, Chief, Department of the Operations, IND, Maputo, 14 May 2004. IND explains the increase between 2002 and 2003 as follows: “It was a funding issue, the budget in 2003 was larger than in 2002. The same method was used, teachers and agents to pass the MRE messages on to the greater community. Less money less group targeted.” Email from Graeme Abernethy, IND, 11 September 2004.
[113] Email from Graeme Abernethy, IND, 14 September 2004.
[114] Interview with Orlando Uaiene, IND, 14 May 2004.
[115] IND, “Mine Action 2003,” February 2004, p. 14.
[116] Email from Gilbert Hascoet, HI, 12 August 2004.
[117] IND, “Mine Action 2003,” February 2004, p. 9.
[118] Article 7 Report 2003, Form I, 23 April 2004.
[119] Interview with Helena Timbana, Coordinator of National Social Programs, CVM, Maputo, 31 May 2004.
[120] Email from Gilbert Hascoet, HI, 12 August 2004.
[121] Telephone interview with Patricio Bitunga, Project Coordinator, HI, 31 August 2004.
[122] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 10.
[123] Statement by Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, in meeting with the donors, reported in “Governo compartipa com 144 biliões MT,” Notícias 21 April 2004; interview with Gamiliel Munguambe, IND, 14 June 2004.
[124] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 11.
[125] Additional information inserted by Landmine Monitor, 7 July 2004; IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004.
[126] Unless otherwise noted, information comes from the individual country reports in this edition of Landmine Monitor Report. In some cases, the funding was for the country’s fiscal year, not calendar year 2003. Landmine Monitor has converted the currencies and rounded off numbers.
[127] This figure is from FY 2002/2003.
[128] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 48.
[129] IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, p. 8; Article 7 Report, Form I, 23 April 2004.
[130] Interview with Orlando Uaiene, IND, 14 September 2004.
[131] Data provided to Landmine Monitor by IND, 13 April 2000; IMSMA Database, Victim Statistics, IND, 31 January 2001; Article 7 Report, Form I, 2 July 2002; and interview with Gamiliel Mumguambe, IND, 14 May 2003. Between 1998 and 2002, a breakdown of the number of casualties killed or injured was not provided.
[132] World Rehabilitation Fund, “Mine Victim Assistance Support Visit: Mozambique Country Visit,” November 2001, p. 4.
[133] “Army Hopes to Destroy Stockpiles By Next Year,” IRIN, 26 April 2002.
[134] Interviews with Orlando Uaiene, IND, 16 July 2004 and 14 September 2004.
[135] Ibid, 16 July 2004; IND, “Mine Action 2002,” April 2003; IMSMA Database, Victim Statistics, IND, 8 July 2002; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 352; and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 77.
[136] “Mozambican peacekeeper loses hands in Lebanon mine-clearing accident,” Agence France Presse (Lebanon), 20 May 2002.
[137] NPA, “Serious AT mine accident in Mozambique,” Press Release, July 2001.
[138] Jaime Cuambe, “Acidentes com minas fazem 615 victimas no país,” (Accidents with mines cause 615 victims in the country), Notícias, 2 May 2004.
[139] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 61; and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 77.
[140] “Landmine Impact Survey – Republic of Mozambique,” September 2001, pp. 30, 35. Recent casualties occurred in the two years preceding the group interviews (roughly 1998 to 2001).
[141] WRF, “Mozambique Country Visit,” November 2001, pp. 3-5; see also HI, “Landmine Victim Assistance: World Report 2002,” Lyon, December 2002, pp. 113-114.
[142] Article 7 Report, Form J, 23 April 2004; IND, “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, pp. 9, 14-15.
[143] Presentation by IND, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 10 February 2004.
[144] “WHO, Guidelines for essential trauma care,” WHO, Geneva, 2004, p. 62; see also ICBL Working Group on Victim Assistance, “Portfolio of Landmine Victim Assistance Programs,” September 2002, p. 86.
[145] Interview with Christina Vera Sage, Coordinator of Health and Social Projects, HI Mozambique, Maputo, 8 January 1999.
[146] Presentation by IND, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 10 February 2004.
[147] Interview with Helena Timbana, CVM, 31 May 2004; Isabel Silva, Projects Officer, Jaipur Limb Campaign, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance questionnaire, 11 July 2002; Jaipur Limb, “5 Year Strategic Plan for COJ,” Campaign News, Issue 9, December 2002, p. 7.
[148] Email from Karen Mollica, Program Coordinator, Africa and the Middle East, Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Ottawa, 8 July 2003.
[149] HI, “Program Summary: Mozambique 2004,” 15 November 2003.
[150] Interview with Deizi Sitoi, Assistant to the Program Manager, POWER, Maputo, 24 May 2004; Sarah Hodge, Chief Executive, POWER, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance questionnaire, 12 July 2002; email from Sarah Hodge, Chief Executive, POWER, 6 May 2003; interview with Eileen O’Dwyer, Country Director, POWER Mozambique, Maputo, 28 May 2003; POWER, “Annual Report 2003,” pp. 8-9, 15.
[151] HI, “Landmine Victim Assistance: World Report 2002,” Lyon, December 2002, p. 115.
[152] Interview with Manuel Chaúque, Director, Landmine Survivors Network in Mozambique, Quelimane, 16 March 2004; Presentation by IND, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 10 February 2004; email from Anne Hayes, Country Program Manager, Landmine Survivors Network, 8 May 2003; Nando, Executive Assistant, Landmine Survivors Network in Mozambique, response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance questionnaire, 12 March 2002.
[153] Interview with Luis Wamusse, ADEMO, and Domingos Cambalane, ADEMIMO, Geneva, 20 September 2002.
[154] Ibid.
[155] Article 7 Report 2003, Form J; Article 7 Report, Form J, 2 July 2002.
[156] Mozambique, Our World, Volume 3, Issue 1, Fall 2001, p. 5; and World Rehabilitation Fund, “The Socio-Economic Reintegration of Landmine Survivors: Lebanon, Mozambique and Cambodia,” New York, 2003, pp. 14-17.
[157] Interview with Luis Wamusse, ADEMO, Maputo, 26 May 2003.
[158] WRF, “Mozambique Country Visit,” November 2001.
[159] IND, “The Five Year National Mine Action Plan 2002-2006,” 19 November 2001, p. 21.
[160] Article 7 Report, Form J, 23 April 2004; IND. “Annual Report 2003,” February 2004, pp. 9, 14-15.
[161] Interview with Tobias Joaquim Dai, Minister of National Defense, and Gamiliel Munguambe, Director, IND, Bangkok, 19 September 2003; “Supporting Project for Landmines Victims and Survivors,” IND, September 2003.
[162] Article 7 Report Form J, 30 October 2001; HI, “Landmine Victim Assistance: World Report 2001,” Lyon, December 2001, p. 102; see also US Department of State, “Country Reports on Human Rights Practices – Mozambique 2003,” Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, Washington, 25 February 2004.
[163] Jaipur Limb, “Soikat Ghose and Hargovind Pachauri with COJ in Mozambique,” Campaign News, Issue 9, December 2002, p. 7.