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Country Reports
Somaliland, Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: Results of the Landmine Impact Survey, completed in March 2003, were released in mid-2004. In the four regions surveyed, 357 communities were affected by landmines; 45 were rated high impact and 102 medium impact. In addition, 772 suspected hazard areas were conclusively identified. In February 2004, Somaliland’s Vice-President took over responsibility for coordination of mine action, and in March a National Mine Action Policy was approved. In July 2004, Somaliland officials indicated they were prepared to sign the Geneva Call “Deed of Commitment” on a comprehensive ban on antipersonnel landmines. According to the information provided the three mine clearance operators, in 2003 they cleared a total of 267,780 square meters of mined land and about 52 million square meters of battle area, destroying 1,575 antipersonnel mines, 683 antivehicle mines, and 40,171 UXO.

Key developments since 1999: The House of Representatives passed a resolution calling for a unilateral ban on landmines in 1999 and the President endorsed the resolution. A comprehensive Landmine Impact Survey began in Somaliland in May 2002 and was completed in March 2003. It identified 357 mine-affected communities and another 772 suspected hazard areas. Mine clearance and mine survey activities expanded significantly in Somaliland in 1999 and 2000. Three NGOs have been clearing mines since 1999 and 2000. According to their information, from 1999 through 2003, they cleared a total of 2.9 million square meters of mined land and about 92 million square meters of battle area, destroying 47,613 antipersonnel mines, 1,213 antivehicle mines, and 59,168 UXO. Mine action coordination in Somaliland was seriously disrupted in 2002. As of November 2002, some 7,517 stockpiled mines had been destroyed. Officials indicated in early 2003 that there were plans for the destruction of all stockpiles, but no further destruction has been reported. Since 2001, there have been at least 349 new mine/UXO casualties in Somaliland.

Mine Ban Policy

Somaliland proclaimed independence in 1991, with the fall of the government of Siyad Barre. Although it is not recognized by the international community as an independent state, and therefore cannot accede to the Mine Ban Treaty, as early as 1997, Somaliland authorities expressed their commitment to the ban treaty. On 1 March 1999, its House of Representatives passed a resolution in favor of a total ban of landmines. The President endorsed the resolution.[1] Official statements in support of the Mine Ban Treaty were also made in public events in 2000 and 2002.[2] However, no legally binding measures to prohibit use, production, trade or stockpiling of antipersonnel mines have been taken.

Because Somaliland considers itself to be a state, authorities have been reluctant to sign the Geneva Call “Deed of Commitment” for non-state actors, pledging commitment to a total prohibition on antipersonnel landmines. However, in 14 June 2004 meetings between Somaliland officials and Geneva Call, Somaliland agreed, in principle, to sign the deed.[3] In July 2004, Somaliland officials wrote that “our government is ready to sign the document in the presence of the Geneva Call and indeed the world,” and indicated a delegation would travel to Geneva for that purpose in August.[4]

Production and Stockpiling

Somaliland does not produce landmines and there have been no indications that it has exported or acquired new landmines since proclaiming independence. Officials have acknowledged the existence of stockpiles of antipersonnel mines, but have not provided information on numbers or types.

On 14 November 2002, the Ministry of Defense handed over 2,382 antipersonnel landmines and 16 antivehicle mines from central military stores to the Danish Demining Group (DDG), which publicly destroyed the mines on 17 November 2002.[5] DDG had already reported earlier in 2002 the destruction of 5,135 landmines received from the Ministry of Defense and the army.[6] In 2000, DDG told a mine ban advocacy workshop that it had been destroying antipersonnel mines confiscated by local police from individuals or militias.[7]

HALO Trust also entered into an agreement with the Ministry of Defense to help destroy stockpiled mines across the country. In 2002, HALO told Landmine Monitor that mines held by villages and individuals were less in number than mines held in the military camps, but posed a far greater risk.[8]

Somaliland officials told Landmine Monitor in early 2003 that there were plans for the destruction of all existing stockpiles.[9] However, no stockpile destruction has been reported since November 2002, and no timetable has been announced.

Transfer and Use

In December 2003, Puntland forces seized the town of Las Anod in the Sool region, which is claimed by both Somaliland and Puntland.[10] As of mid-2004, armed forces continued to face-off around Las Anod. Members of international agencies have expressed concern to Landmine Monitor about possible use of landmines by both sides.[11] Both Somaliland and Puntland authorities deny that their forces have deployed any antipersonnel mines.[12]

On 21 January 2004, Boqor Osman Mohamoud, a traditional leader from Eastern Somaliland, was arrested and charged with spreading false information through newspaper reports. This information allegedly included a report that neighboring Djibouti had provided arms, including landmines, to a faction opposed to Puntland’s leader and that these arms had transited through Somaliland.[13]

Landmine Problem, Survey and Assessment

Somaliland is heavily mined, following a long history of border conflict with neighboring Ethiopia, including a 1977-78 border war, and the persistent feuding of internal warlords. Between 1981 and 1991, the Somali National Movement waged an armed insurrection against the Siyad Barre regime. From 1988-91 alone, the UN Development Programme (UNDP) estimated that between 400,000 and 800,000 landmines were deployed in Somaliland. Landmines were also used in 1994-95, when militias opposed to the regime of the Somaliland president and loyalist forces fought fierce battles in and around Hargeisa. At least 24 types of antipersonnel mines from ten countries have been identified in Somaliland.[14]

A number of landmine surveys were carried out between 1999 and 2001 by HALO Trust, DDG and CARE. In March 2001, the Somaliland Mine Action Center (SMAC) reported the existence of 402 mined areas.[15] However, the location and extent of mined areas in Somaliland remained inconclusive. Following a Survey Action Center (SAC) advance Survey Mission to Somaliland in 2001, SAC contracted DDG to undertake a comprehensive Landmine Impact Survey (LIS).

Work began in March 2002, and the LIS was completed in March 2003, with the exception of Sanag and Sool regions, and the Boohoodle District of Togdheer region, which were excluded for security reasons. UNDP hopes to survey the remaining areas, if security conditions permit, following the LIS in Puntland; (see Somalia report for further information). In an update given at the Mine Ban Treaty Standing Committee meetings in Geneva in February 2004, UNDP said: “A land dispute has prevented any survey of Puntland and the Sool and Sanag regions.”[16]

Preliminary results from the LIS, reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2003, indicated that in the four regions surveyed (Awdal, Galbeed, Sahil, and Togdheer), 357 communities were affected by landmines, with 45 rated high impact, 102 medium impact, and 210 low impact. The LIS also showed an acute need for clearance around water reservoirs.[17] The full report, released in mid-2004, indicated that in addition to those communities, 772 suspected hazard areas (SHA) had been conclusively identified. It stated that only 231 of the 588 communities in the surveyed areas were not affected by landmines.[18] Further the report stated, “The land contaminated by mines and/or unexploded ordnance (UXO) directly impact the safety and livelihoods of an estimated 1.34 million people, and has led to the death or injury of 276 people in the last two years.”[19]

The LIS indicated that suspected hazard areas could be divided into road (574) and non-road (198) types, and that non-road SHAs include former military camps, UXO stockpiles and minefields that “deliberately impact the livelihood of certain groups such as nomads.” It stated that while the “most prevalent resource blockages” are of roads and pastureland, the “most serious blockages in terms of safety and socioeconomic security are of drinking water sources and irrigated cropland.” The LIS also reported that 126 communities engaged in locally initiated mine action.[20]

According to SMAC, a number of technical surveys have been planned as a follow- up to the LIS, as a high priority for 2004. As of August 2004, DDG had carried out technical surveys in 26 impacted communities in Galbeed, Sahil and Togdheer, identifying 61 minefields.[21] By August 2004, the HALO Trust had carried out technical survey in 90 communities in the regions of Awdal, Saahil, Togdheer, Galbeed and Sool regions, of which 68 have been classified as high impact communities.[22]

Coordination and Planning

In February 2004, the Vice-President of Somaliland, Ahmed Yassin, took over coordination of mine action from the Ministry of Resettlement, Rehabilitation and Reconnstruction (MRR&R). Two main bodies have been responsible for mine action activities in Somaliland since 1997: the National Demining Agency (NDA), established under MRR&R, and the Somaliland Mine Action Center, an autonomous organization established and supported by the UNDP. Both SMAC and NDA are now required to report directly to the Vice-President, who by presidential decree of 11 March 2004 has been given oversight responsibility for all mine action.[23]

This change in overall coordination evolved out of a period of disagreement and discussion. The relationship between SMAC and NDA was never clearly defined, and claims of overlapping responsibilities became a major source of friction. Following extensive discussions between UNDP, MRR&R and other agencies in 2002 and 2003, SMAC became a unit within MRR&R responsible for mine action coordination, and NDA became the mine clearance unit. As reported by Landmine Monitor in 2003, this process has caused SMAC some financial insecurity. In an update at the intersessional meetings in February 2004, however, UNDP stated: “UNDP continues to support Somalia Mine Action Centre in Somaliland through institutional support and capacity building. A National Policy for Humanitarian Mine Action has been drafted and UNDP is assisting further development of this paper.”[24]

Following the completion of the LIS, SMAC held a workshop from 14-18 November 2003 to reformulate its strategic plan of action, which it first developed in February 2002, in consultation with other mine action organizations.[25] A draft National Mine Action Policy was then presented to the President’s Cabinet of Ministers on 23 February 2004, and was accepted on 27 March 2004. The policy clarifies lines of responsibilities between SMAC and the National Demining Agency, and also endorses the 1 March 1999 House of Representatives resolution supporting a comprehensive ban on antipersonnel mines.[26]

Mine Clearance

Three international humanitarian NGOs remained active in mine clearance activities in Somaliland since 1999: HALO Trust, Danish Demining Group and the Santa Barbara Foundation (SBF).[27] In 2003, according to SMAC, the three organizations cleared a combined total of 52,230,837 square meters of mined land and battle area, destroying 1,568 antipersonnel mines and 683 antivehicle mines, as well as 371,695 UXO.[28] SMAC’s data states:

  • HALO cleared 50,449,663 square meters of land (including mined areas and battle areas), destroying 460 antipersonnel mines, 120 antivehicle mines and 331,937 UXO (this includes items such as bullets).[29] It also carried out a technical survey of 3,308,895 square meters of land. Of the area cleared, 150,807 square meters were verified by SMAC (two minefields in Hariirad and Gorya Awal of the Awdal Region).
  • DDG cleared 72,000 square meters of mined land, as well as 1,682,327 square meters of battle area clearance, destroying 1,104 antipersonnel mines, 540 antivehicle mines and 39,741 UXO. SMAC verified this clearance. DDG surveyed three additional sites.
  • SBF, under contract to the Somaliland Road Authority, cleared 26,847 square meters of land, destroying four antipersonnel mines, 23 antivehicle mines and 17 UXO.

The data from SMAC differs from that provided by the individual organizations.[30] According to the information provided by the three operators, in 2003 they cleared a total of 267,780 square meters of mined land and 51,982,602 square meters of battle area, destroying 1,575 antipersonnel mines, 683 antivehicle mines, and 40,171 UXO. From 1999 through 2003, they cleared a total of 2,946,759 square meters of mined land and 91,639,528 square meters of battle area, destroying 47,613 antipersonnel mines, 1,213 antivehicle mines, and 59,168 UXO.

This includes: 53,576 square meters of mined land in 1999; 1,810,740 square meters in 2000; 384,303 square meters in 2001; 1,923,868 square meters in 2002; and 267,780 square meters in 2003.

SBF reported that in 2003 it cleared 32,000 square meters of land, destroying 11 antipersonnel mines, 23 antivehicle mines and 49 UXO. From 1999 to 2003, it reported clearing 1,432,000 square meters of land, destroying 472 antipersonnel mines, 37 antivehicle mines, and 1,890 UXO.[31]

Saint Barbara Foundation Clearance in Somaliland[32]


According to DDG, it cleared 71,800 square meters of land in 2003, as well as 1,682,327 square meters of battle area, destroying 1,104 antipersonnel mines, 540 antivehicle mines, and 39,741 UXO.[33] It was involved in clearance of Dubato Village, two minefields around Hargeisa airport, the Hargeisa military workshop site, and Gassium, a former Somali National Army military camp. DDG’s operations include assessment, mine and UXO clearance, capacity building and providing technical advice to local NGOs. In addition, DDG initiated a quick response EOD program that has visited 459 communities and assessed 1,100 individual sites.[34]

Danish Demining Group Clearance in Somaliland[35]

Sq m. Cleared
BAC (Sq. m.)

HALO Trust reported that in 2003, it cleared 163,980 square meters of mined land and 50,300,275 square meters of battle area. It destroyed 460 antipersonnel mines, 120 antivehicle mines, and 381 UXO.[36] It also did a technical survey of 3,308,895 square meters of land. For 2004, through 30 April, HALO reports technical survey of 79,103,760 square meters, clearance of 84,560 square meters, and battle area clearance of 10,424,030 square meters, destroying 118 antipersonnel mines, 20 antivehicle mines, and 2,215 UXO.[37]

HALO Trust Mine Action in Somaliland[38]

Sqm. Surveyed
Sqm Cleared

In addition to the mine action NGOs, a police Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) team, trained for rapid response work, destroyed 10,456 UXO in 2003.[39] In September 2003, UNDP, which contracted Mines Advisory Group in 2001 to begin the EOD training program, stated, “the establishment of EOD teams in Somaliland has been very cost effective and highly successful from a national ownership perspective.”[40]

In 2002, DDG, HALO and SBF cleared a total of 1.92 million square meters of mined land (including a reported 1 million by SBF) and more than 20 million square meters of battle area clearance. HALO and SBF destroyed 255 antipersonnel mines, 184 antivehicle mines, and 783 UXO.

In 2001, information provided by HALO, DDG and SBF indicated a total of 384,303 square meters of demined land, plus an additional 19,116,000 square meters of battle area cleared, and that 334 antipersonnel mines, 253 antivehicle mines, and 1,614 UXO had been destroyed. According to SMAC, 1.5 million square meters of land in 35 areas had been demined and turned over to local communities.[41]

In 2000, DDG completed clearance around Hargeisa International Airport, destroying 40 antipersonnel mines, 895 UXO and 48 S-24 bombs, as well as clearance around six destroyed bridges on the main road to the port Berbera. HALO conducted an extensive mine detection dog trial, while SBF cleared 240,000 square meters of land.[42]

According to the UN, between 1999 and 2002, demining organizations in Somaliland destroyed 14,596 landmines and 220,874 UXO and cleared 92,735,677 square meters of land.[43]

Mine Risk Education

The mine risk education (MRE) projects that have been implemented in Somaliland (and Somalia) have been rather ad hoc and limited. UNICEF and Handicap International (HI) have been the main players, in collaboration with SMAC, with demining groups like DDG and SBF undertaking some risk education as part of their overall mine action work.[44]

Following a national workshop in October 2001, an MRE policy document was formulated and presented by UNICEF, NDA and SMAC to the MRR&R for adoption by the government. This policy still had not been adopted by mid-2003, when UNICEF told Landmine Monitor that efforts were being made to link the suggested MRE policy framework to the draft national mine action policy for Somaliland under discussion.[45]

In October 2003, UNICEF and HI held another workshop in Hargeisa to present their MRE strategy and a joint project for its implementation.[46] It was attended by about 30 participants representing key local and international stakeholders working in the field of mine action in the region. In July 2004, HI reported that it had secured funding from UNICEF and Ireland for an MRE program in Somaliland that should begin in October.[47]

In September 2002, UNICEF and HI conducted a KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices) survey in three regions of Somaliland: Awdal, Galbeed and Togdheer. The KAP survey established that 29 percent of the population was not able to identify potential risk.[48] UNICEF also noted: “An overwhelming percentage of people expressed the desire to receive information on landmines/UXO, in particular on how communities live safely in their mine-contaminated area and how, and to whom, landmines/UXO should be reported.”[49]

The Somali Environmental Review (SOMER), a local NGO, conducted some self funded MRE in the Goldogob Region of Puntland, in particular in Goldogob town. This has included some gathering of UXO that was then picked up and destroyed by police EOD Teams. UNDP indicates that a few thousand people benefited from this program.[50]

In 2002, Landmine Monitor reported that SMAC and HI had completed MRE projects in refugee camps in Djibouti and Ethiopia, for Somaliland refugees planning to return home under a UNHCR voluntary repatriation program.

From 2000 to 2002, SBF delivered MRE to approximately 2,250 adults and children in and around Burao in the Toghdeer region. Sessions were given in local schools, parallel to other mine action activity being undertaken in an area. SBF used local demining personnel to deliver the MRE lessons.[51] SBF stated that following the training programs, reporting of hidden landmines and UXO increased significantly.[52]

In 2000, Landmine Monitor reported on MRE activities being undertaken by international, national and local organizations, including CARE, DDG, MineTech, SMAC, Somaliland Relief and Rehabilitation Association, and a volunteer youth group that used circus performances to promote mine awareness.[53]

Mine Action Funding

Donors generally report funding to “Somalia,” but to date nearly all mine action activities have taken place in Somaliland.

According to information provided to Landmine Monitor, it appears that at least seven donors provided at least US$2.1 million for mine action in Somaliland in 2003.[54] Norway gave NOK4.9 million (US$690,500), including NOK2.9 million to HALO Trust and NOK2 million to DDG for mine action in Somaliland. The Netherlands provided US$457,445 for mine clearance in Somaliland. The United States provided $450,000 for “Somalia.”[55] Denmark contributed DKK2 million (US$304,000) to DDG for Somaliland. Canada gave US$47,320 for the Somaliland Landmine Impact Survey.[56] Finland provided €137,726 (US$158,509) to HALO Trust for mine clearance in Somaliland and Puntland. HALO also received an unknown amount from Ireland for demining in “Somalia.”[57] Switzerland reports that it had mine action personnel involved in Somaliland in 2003-2004.[58] For 2003, DDG reported allocating US$1 million for mine action activities in Somaliland; funds came from the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish governments.[59]

The $2.1 million total is a sharp decrease from 2002, when eight donors reported providing about US$5.55 million for mine action in Somaliland — Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, France, European Community, United States, Sweden and Denmark. In 2001, US$4.4 million was reported from seven donor countries (including all of the above, except France). According to the UN, the annual budget for mine clearance in Somalia — including Somaliland — for 2000 was US$4.5 million, coming from the United States, European Community, Denmark and Germany.[60] As reported in Landmine Monitor Report 2000, funding for mine action totaled only some US$546,000 in 1998, but increased dramatically to about US$6.65 million in 1999 and early 2000.

Landmine/ UXO Casualties

In 2003, the SMAC recorded 50 mine/UXO casualties between July and December, including 13 people killed and 37 injured; 23 were children. Of the total casualties, 12 were female. Antipersonnel mines caused 14 casualties, antivehicle mines caused six, and UXO caused 30.[61] One new mine survivor was identified by the Landmine Impact Survey in January 2003.[62] Comprehensive data on new mine/UXO casualties was not available. Although the SMAC had been collecting and recording casualty data using the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA), this activity was severely limited after 2001 due to the loss of UNDP funding. Systematic collection of data was abandoned and did not resume until July 2003. There is no requirement or procedure for reporting incidents to the police or to mine action officers.

The Landmine Impact Survey recorded 129 new mine/UXO casualties (51 killed and 78 injured) in 2002 and 142 new mine/UXO casualties (40 killed and 102 injured) in 2001.[63] In 2001, the SMAC recorded 107 mine/UXO casualties, including 60 children.[64]

Casualties continue to be reported in 2004 with 31 new mine/UXO casualties recorded by the SMAC as of the end of June, including eight people killed and 23 injured; eleven were children. Of the total casualties, ten were female.[65] However, data collection between April and June was again restricted due to the loss of funding.[66]

The most comprehensive information on mine casualties in Somaliland is the Landmine Impact Survey. The LIS identified 276 mine/UXO casualties (92 killed and 184 injured) in the two years preceding the end of the survey, including 151 children under the age of 14 years (55 percent). Of the total “recent” casualties, 213 were male (77 percent), and only two were military personnel. The majority of casualties occurred while engaged in daily activities, including herding (178 casualties or 64 percent), traveling (28 casualties or 10 percent) and playing (26 casualties or 9 percent).[67] The Somaliland Mine Action Center database contains an additional 2,651 less recent mine/UXO casualties (1,114 killed and 1,537 injured) identified by the Landmine Impact Survey.[68] The Survey covered four of the six Administrative Regions of Somaliland. The highly mine-affected region of Sool has not been surveyed and the number of mine casualties is not known.[69]

Survivor Assistance

Public health facilities with the capacity to assist landmine casualties in Somaliland are reportedly minimal. Hospitals are poorly equipped and poorly staffed. Mine casualties are often treated at the Hargeisa General Hospital or at the surgical hospital in Berbera equipped by the International Committee of the Red Cross. Berbera hospital, however, is located on the northern coast of Somaliland and is far from regions where landmines are most prevalent. Generally, first aid is available and there is transport to take casualties to the nearest medical facility. However, the average travel time to a suitably equipped hospital is over six hours.[70] The Hargeisa General Hospital, the largest hospital in Somaliland, treated seven landmine and ten UXO casualties between March and November 2003; two were female and nine were children.[71]

Mine clearance organizations (HALO, DDG and SBF) train paramedics to work with their mine clearance teams and have medical equipment and ambulances for use in emergencies.[72]

The majority of people in Somaliland are nomads, since mobility is essential for their livelihood, but no training or reintegration programs for landmine survivors have been identified.

The Landmine Impact Survey reported that of 179 “recent” survivors, 141 (79 percent) received some form of emergency medical care but only four (2 percent) had received rehabilitation; 24 survivors (13 percent) received no care. No survivors reported receiving vocational training. Of the total survivors, 47 required an amputation, 18 were fully or partially blind, and the remaining 119 suffered other injuries.[73]

The Somaliland Red Crescent Society (SRCS) runs a lower limb prosthetic and component manufacturing center in Hargeisa, funded primarily by the Norwegian Red Cross. Since 1999, the center has also operated a mobile clinic that makes periodic visits to regions outside of Hargeisa. In 2003, the center produced 183 prostheses and 58 orthoses, and repaired 210 orthopedic devices; 80 mine survivors benefited, including 22 women, and two children.[74] In 2002, the SRCS center assisted 291 people (93 mine survivors) with mobility devices, and produced 165 prostheses and 50 orthoses, and repaired 109 prostheses. Between 1994 and July 2002, the center provided 1,246 mobility devices; 448 were for landmine survivors.[75]

Handicap International supports the Disability Action Network (formerly Action NordSud) rehabilitation center in Hargeisa. The center provides physiotherapy treatments and produces low-cost prostheses, crutches and wheelchairs. Since 2001, the center has assisted at least seven mine survivors and eight UXO survivors. HI provides training for physiotherapy assistance and orthopedic assistants. HI also supports local associations providing socio-economic reintegration activities for persons with disabilities and raises awareness on disability issues.[76]

[1] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 208-209, and Landmine Monitor report 2001, p. 264, for further details about Somaliland’s commitment to the ban treaty internationally and regionally.
[2] Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 212; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 264; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 761.
[3] The Landmine Monitor researcher participated in the meetings.
[4] Email to Geneva Call from Edna Adan Ismail, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Somaliland, 6 July 2004. The delegation was to include the Minister herself, the Vice-President and SMAC’s manager.
[5] UNDP/UNOPS, “Annual Report: Mine Action Program in Somaliland,” December 2002.
[6] Email from Bo Bischoff, Head of Mine Action Unit, DDG, 27 July 2002.
[7] Remarks by Mohamed Ali Ismail, DDG Manager, at mine ban advocacy workshop in Hargeisa, Somaliland, 27-28 October 2000.
[8] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 852.
[9] Interviews with military officers and Ministry of Defense officials, Hargeisa, January and February 2003.
[10] “Puntland Takes Full Control of Sool,” IRIN (Nairobi), 30 December 2003. Northeastern Somalia established the state of Puntland as an autonomous region in 1998, and in 2000, the President issued a decree banning the use of antipersonnel mines.
[11] Landmine Monitor has heard allegations of mine use from members of international agencies who have contacts in the conflict area, but who have not personally traveled to the region in recent months.
[12] Email from Edna Adan Ismail, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Somaliland, 22 June 2004; email from Saleeban Haji of Puntland Mine Action Center, 23 June 2004.
[13] Various local journals (in Somali), 22 January 2004.
[14] See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 210-212, and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 213-214 for further details on the extent of the landmine problem. Mines have been found from Belgium, China, former Czechoslovakia, former East Germany, Egypt, Italy, Pakistan, former Soviet Union, United Kingdom and United States
[15] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 853.
[16] UNDP Update, intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 9-13 February 2004. The survey was rescheduled to start in August 2004. Email from John Dingley, Chief Technical Advisor, UNDP Somalia, 8 July 2004.
[17] Memo from Mike Kendellen, Director for Surveys, Survey Action Center, 27 May 2003.
[18] The results of the LIS were presented in two separate activities, one in Nairobi on 28 May 2004 with UNDP and donor governments present, and a second in Somaliland on 6 June 2004, officiated by the Vice-President, in his capacity as Chair of the Inter-Ministerial Mine Action Committee, with other officials present; email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, Manager, SMAC, 22 August 2004.
[19] “Landmine Impact Survey: Phase 1: Awdal, Galbeed, Sahil, and Togdheer Regions, Executive Summary,” Implemented by the Survey Action Center and the Danish Demining Group, p. 3, available at: http://www.sac-na.org/pdf_text/somalia_ph1/ExecSummary.pdf .
[20] Ibid.
[21] Email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, SMAC, 22 August 2004.
[22] Email from Neil Ferrao, Horn of Africa Desk Officer, the HALO Trust, 22 September 2004.
[23] Letter to agencies involved in mine action from the Vice-President (ref RSL/VP/NDA/13-01341/0304), 27 March 2004, referring to Presidential decree (ref 016/2004) of 11 March 2004.
[24] UNDP Update, intersessional Standing Committees, 9-13 February 2004.
[25] Landmine Monitor participated in the workshop in November 2003.
[26] Letter re Presidential decree (ref 016/2004) from the Vice-President, 27 March 2004.
[27] HALO and DDG have been active in Somaliland since 1999, and SBF since 2000. DDG’s mandate expires in 2006; response to LM Questionnaire by Erik Willadsen, Program Coordinator, DDG, Copenhagen, 16 April 2004. SBF is not working in Somaliland in 2004, but may return in 2005; email from Norbert Rossa, Executive Director, SBF, Bonn, Germany, 7 July 2004.
[28] Email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, SMAC, 15 August 2004.
[29] Email from Neil Ferrao, HALO, 22 September 2004.
[30] The following totals are not complete, in that Landmine Monitor has not received information from DDG for the year 2000, and has not received battle area clearance data from Santa Barbara for any year.
[31] Response to LM Questionnaire by Norbert Rossa, SBF, 28 July 2004.
[32] Ibid.
[33] Response to LM Questionnaire by DDG, 16 April 2004. In 2003, at the request of the Ministry of Defense, DDG also destroyed more than 18,000 dangerous and degraded ammunition stocks, held by the military in Burao (Togdheer region). DDG, “Somaliland Annual Report 2003,” 26 February 2004.
[34] DDG, “Somaliland Annual Report 2003,” 26 February 2004.
[35] Response to LM Questionnaire by DDG, 16 April 2004; DDG, “Somaliland Annual Report 2003,” 26 February 2004; previous editions of Landmine Monitor Report.
[36] Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Matthew Hovel, Caucasus and Balkans Desk Officer, HALO Trust, 3 September 2004.
[39] Information provided by SMAC.
[40] UNDP Update, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Bangkok, Thailand, September 2003.
[41] Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 853-855.
[42] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 266-267. SBF originally reported 50,000 square meters, not 240,000.
[43] “UNDP/UNOPS, “Annual Report,” December 2002. The data reported here does not include clearance activities by Rimfire (before 1999), Greenfield Associates (1999) and MineTech (1998-99). See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 213 and Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 215-216, for further information about these groups’ activities.
[44] UNICEF created the Mine Risk Education Advisory Group to advise the National Demining Agency and SMAC on the development of effective MRE strategies and to improve the collection and dissemination of relevant data on mine incidents. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 855.
[45] Email from Silvia Danailov, Child Protection Officer, UNICEF Somalia Support Center, Nairobi, Kenya, 16 June 2003.
[46] Ibid, 10 August 2004.
[47] Email from Sophie Bonichon, MRE Coordinator, HI, Lyon, France, 6 July 2004.
[48] UNICEF/HI, “Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Landmines and UXO,” November 2002.
[49] UNICEF Somalia Support Center, “Mines Awareness, Funding Proposal June 2003-December 2004,” undated, p. 4.
[50] Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from John Dingley, UNDP, 21 September 2004.
[51] Email from Norbert Rossa, SBF, 7 July 2004.
[52] Interview with Burkhard Von Buttlar, Program Manager, SBF, 10 February 2003.
[53] See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 216, for more details.
[54] Unless otherwise noted, information comes from the individual country reports in this edition of Landmine Monitor Report. In some cases, the funding was for the country’s fiscal year, not calendar year 2003. Landmine Monitor has converted the currencies and rounded off numbers.
[55] US Department of State, “Congressional Budget Justifications: Foreign Operations, Fiscal Year 2005, Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related Programs (NADR) Appropriation,” 10 February 2004, pp. 154-158.
[56] Email from Paul Hannon, Mines Action Canada, 22 July 2004. Information taken from the Mine Action Investment database and confirmed with the Mine Action Unit, DFAIT.
[57] Ireland gave HALO €1 million ($1.15 million) for demining in Somalia, Afghanistan, Angola and Eritrea.
[58] Federal Department of Defense, Civil Protection and Sports, www.vbs-ddps.ch, accessed on 5 April 2004.
[59] Response to LM Questionnaire by DDG, 16 April 2004. Sweden did not report funding for Somaliland or Somalia in 2003.
[60] UNDP/UNOPS, “UNDP Somalia Mine Action Progress Report, January to June 2001,” p. 4.
[61] Email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, SMAC, 5 September 2004.
[62] Landmine Monitor analysis of “recent” casualty data email from Mike Kendellen, Survey Action Center, 20 August 2004.
[64] Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 267-269.
[65] Email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, SMAC, 5 September 2004.
[66] Ibid, and 7 September 2004.
[67] “Landmine Impact Survey, Phase 1,” pp. 20-21. One casualty was recorded in 2003 and four in 2000.
[68] Email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, SMAC, 1 July 2003; “Landmine Impact Survey, Phase 1,” p. 22.
[69] Email from Mohamed Osman Ahmed, SMAC, 1 July 2003.
[71] Data from the Hargeisa Hospital compiled by Dr Suleiman Gulaid, Chief Surgeon, and provided to Landmine Monitor, 29 February 2004.
[72] Interview with Burkhard Von Buttlar, SBF, 10 February 2003.
[73] “Landmine Impact Survey, Phase 1,” pp. 21-22.
[74] Data provided by the Somaliland Red Crescent Society Rehabilitation Workshop, Hargeisa. It should be noted that these statistics are included in the information provided by the Norwegian Red Cross in the Somalia report.
[75] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 765; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 856.
[76] HI, “Program Summary: Somaliland 2004,” 3 December 2003; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 765; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 856.