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Country Reports
Sudan, Landmine Monitor Report 2004


Key developments since May 2003: Sudan ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 13 October 2003 and the treaty entered into force on 1 April 2004. There continue to be allegations of use of antipersonnel mines by militia associated with the government of Sudan in southern Sudan. It appears that landmine use is not among the atrocities being committed in Darfur. In the Nuba Mountains, a total of 444,449 square meters of land was cleared in 2003, a significant expansion from 2002, when 50,000 square meters were cleared. Sudan reported that 131,381 people received mine risk education in 2003-2004. A number of survey and assessment initiatives have taken place, in government and SPLM/A areas. In June 2003, an orthopedic workshop opened in Kassala. According to donor reports, funding for mine action in Sudan increased from $5.1 million in 2002 to $9.5 million in 2003. In May 2004, the SPLM/A announced the formation of a “New Sudan Authority on Landmines” to coordinate mine action in its areas. In August 2004, the government and SPLM/A reached agreement on a mine action strategy for all of Sudan, with UN support, pending a future peace agreement. The peace process, including agreements not to use landmines, is seriously threatened by the conflict and humanitarian crisis in Darfur. In 2003, the NMAO recorded 79 new mine/UXO casualties.

Key developments since 1999: Every year since 1999 Landmine Monitor has reported serious allegations about use of antipersonnel mines by government forces, the SPLM/A and other rebel groups. The government has consistently denied any use, while SPLM/A has acknowledged some use. In October 2001, the SPLM/A signed the Geneva Call “Deed of Commitment” banning antipersonnel mines. Cease-fire agreements signed in January and October 2002 prohibit the use of landmines. Sudan ratified the Mine Ban Treaty on 13 October 2003. The Nuba Mountains cease-fire agreement has been considered a model of cross-line mine action in Sudan. The Sudan Landmine Information and Response Initiative was formed in 2001. The UN established a National Mine Action Center in Khartoum in September 2002 and a Southern Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office in Rumbek in February 2003. Mine clearance and mine risk education activities expanded in 2002 and 2003, in the wake of the cease-fire agreements. A number of surveys and assessments have been carried out in both government and rebel areas. According to donor information, funding for mine action in Sudan has increased from a few hundred thousand dollars in 1999 and 2000, to $2.2 million in 2001, $5.1 million in 2002, and $9.5 million in 2003. In April 2003, the NMAO recruited a Victim Assistance Associate to develop a plan of action for victim assistance. NMAO has received incident reports on more than 2,667 mine/UXO casualties.


Sudan has been engulfed in a civil conflict in southern Sudan since 1983, with some 20 of 26 states affected by war. As part of the peace process underway since 2002, the government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed the Nuba Mountains Cease-fire agreement in January 2002. They have renewed it every six months, most recently in July 2004, while attempting to reach a comprehensive peace agreement. Further peace talks, held in Kenya, resulted in the signing in October 2002 of the Machakos Memorandum of Understanding on Cessation of Hostilities, which was renewed most recently for another three months on 1 September 2004. Both agreements prohibit the government of Sudan and the SPLM/A from using landmines. The Nuba Mountains agreement has been considered a model of cross-line mine action in Sudan, which could be replicated in other places in the country.[1]

On 26 May 2004, the government and the SPLM/A reached an agreement on three remaining protocols of a series of six that together constitute a framework for negotiations for a comprehensive peace agreement. However, discussions on a formal cease-fire broke down in July and the outcome of the entire north-south peace process has been put into doubt with the conflict and humanitarian crisis now engulfing the Darfur region on Sudan’s western border with Chad. There have been allegations of violations of the cease-fire agreements by both sides in the conflict.

The Darfur conflict has historical roots but escalated in early 2003, with expanded military operations by two rebel groups, the Sudan Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/M) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM). In response, government-supported “Janjaweed” militia in Darfur began attacking civilian populations from which the rebel groups had come. Tens of thousands of Sudanese have already died at the hands of the Janjaweed militia and hundreds of thousands more are at risk from both the fighting and starvation and disease. More than 1.2 million are internally displaced in Darfur and an additional 200,000 are refugees in neighboring Chad. Despite its denials, the government of Sudan is widely seen as not only supporting, but also directing the attacks by the militias that they are said to have formed.[2] In its Resolution 1556 of 30 July 2004, the UN Security Council demanded that the “Government of Sudan fulfill its commitments to disarm the Janjaweed militias....”[3] A humanitarian cease-fire for Darfur signed in Chad in April 2004 (but scarcely respected) also prohibits the use of mines by all parties to the conflict. Only one mine incident has been reported in Darfur.

In addition to the civil war in southern Sudan and the Darfur crisis, there is military activity on the Sudan/Uganda border, where Ugandan Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebels fight on both sides of the border. The LRA is a known user of landmines. There are also reports of cross-border military activity along the Sudan/Ethiopia border; last year Landmine Monitor cited reports of mine use around the border town of Akobo, in Upper Nile.[4]

Mine Ban Policy

After participating fully in the Ottawa Process, Sudan signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 4 December 1997. However, it did not ratify until 13 October 2003. The treaty entered into force for Sudan on 1 April 2004. In explaining the delay in ratification, Sudan had said, “War in the country is the main obstacle,” noting that ongoing use of mines by rebels made it “very difficult for the Government to achieve success in fulfilling its obligations” under the treaty.[5]

On 23 May 2004, the National Mine Action Office (NMAO) convened a workshop in Khartoum to discuss implementation of the Mine Ban Treaty. At the June 2004 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Sudanese officials told Landmine Monitor that plans were already underway for the incorporation of implementation measures as required by the Mine Ban Treaty in Sudan’s new constitution and laws.[6] Sudan’s initial Article 7 transparency report is due by 28 September 2004 and Sudanese officials indicated in June that work on the report had already started, with help from the UNMAS, UNDP and UNICEF.

At the Fifth Meeting of States Parties held in Bangkok, Thailand in September 2003, Sudan reiterated the country’s ongoing commitment to the ban treaty, and commended the support from donors to mine action in the country, noting with appreciation the partnership between government, civil society and the UN.[7] Sudan attended all four previous annual Meetings of States Parties, and has also participated in all intersessional Standing Committee meetings since their inception in 1999. Sudan has voted in favor of every pro-ban UN General Assembly resolution since 1996, including UNGA Resolution 58/53 in December 2003.

Sudan has been active regionally on the landmine issue, participating in workshops on landmines held in Kenya (March 2004), Mali (February 2001), and Djibouti (November 2000).

Sudan is not a party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons.

Non-State Actor Ban Policy

In an official ceremony in Geneva, SPLM/A signed the Geneva Call “Deed of Commitment” to ban antipersonnel landmines and cooperate in mine action, on 4 October 2001.[8] At a Mine Ban Workshop held in Natinga, South Sudan, 29 September-1 October 2003, SPLM/A reiterated its commitment with a resolution further clarifying its position: “One of the main points raised was the need to be clear about what we are talking about. We are talking about the need to stop use in all situations, the use of antipersonnel mines and victim activated improvised explosive devices. This means that no victim activated explosive devices are to be used or produced or transferred. It means no antipersonnel mines are kept for use and, and it should be recognized that only antipersonnel mines rendered inoperable are to be used for training in mine clearance or other activities. While the SPLM/A and the people of South Sudan are no longer using antipersonnel mines, it does not mean they can give these mines to others to use. All antipersonnel mines and victim activated improvised explosive devices are to be destroyed.”[9]

At the workshop, Commander Aleu Ayieny Aleu also noted, “As freedom fighters, we first considered mines as good weapons because we did not know the consequences of their use. Then we started to realize that mines are not of strategic or tactical importance. As an active commander, I saw what they did to my own soldiers.” Aleu challenged other fighters at the meeting, “I do not think any one of you here can tell me of a single objective denied to the government forces by landmines. Not one.”[10]

The workshop also developed recommendations for practical implementation of the ban policy by the military, including that direct orders should be given to commanders and soldiers that under no circumstances are mines to be used, that a mine ban curriculum should be introduced in training courses at the SPLM/A Institute of Strategic Studies, and that a training manual for the military should be developed to include guidelines for implementing the SPLM/A obligations to ban antipersonnel mines, as well as abstracts on International Humanitarian Law. At the civilian level it was recommended that ban laws, including penal sanctions for both civilian and military violations, be introduced by the National Liberation Council.

In May 2004, the SPLM/A announced the formation of a New Sudan Authority on Landmines (NSAL), under the office of the SPLM/A chairman.[11] It is to develop “national policies on landmines,” develop technical guidelines and memoranda of understanding with international partners, promote national and international support of mine action, carry out cross-conflict coordination and negotiations on issues related to landmines, prioritize mine action, and supervise the “SPLM Mine Action Directorate (NSMAD).” Among its tasks, NSMAD is to develop “New Sudan’s” mine action capacity, raise funds for mine action, supervise adherence to mine action policies and programs, and implement tasks and programs developed by NSAL. The executive director of the NSMAD is Cdr. Aleu Ayieny Aleu.

Production, Trade and Stockpiling

Sudan has repeatedly stated that it does not produce, import, or export antipersonnel mines, or possess stockpiles—except for a small stock for training and demonstration purposes. It has also said that all mines collected during demining and those taken from rebel forces are destroyed.[12] The assertion of no stockpiles is at odds with allegations of use of antipersonnel landmines as reported in this and all previous editions of Landmine Monitor Report.

The Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan rebel movement, is reported to stockpile landmines inside Sudan. In 2002, Uganda and Sudan signed a protocol to allow the Ugandan army to pursue LRA units within Sudanese territory.” The Ugandan government later claimed it had seized weapons, including landmines, in operations inside Sudan.[13] In a 2003 interview, a captured LRA fighter, bodyguard to a senior officer, alleged that “weapons given to LRA by Khartoum include: B-10, SPG-9, Milan for destroying tanks,107mm anti-aircraft guns, anti-personnel and anti-tank mines.”[14]


Antipersonnel mines have been used extensively in Sudan’s two-decade long civil conflict with the SPLM/A in southern Sudan and in the three so-called conflict areas in northern Sudan: the Nuba Mountains, Abyei and Blue Nile. Mines have also allegedly been used in recent years along Sudan’s borders with Chad, Eritrea, Libya and Uganda.[15]

All past issues of Landmine Monitor have cited serious allegations of mine use by all forces fighting in Sudan.[16] The warring parties have generally denied use and accused others of laying mines, although on several occasions, SPLA officials have admitted, implicitly or explicitly, to some use of mines.[17] Observers have noted that the problem is compounded by militias and proxy forces who use mines, and who may not feel obligated to abide by the formal agreements signed by Khartoum or the SPLA.[18]

During this reporting period, the military stand down and cease-fires have resulted in little direct fighting between SPLA and Sudanese government forces, thus little reason for mine warfare. None of the international and regional parties monitoring the cease-fires and memoranda of understanding in Sudan have publicly reported any use of antipersonnel mines.[19] These include: the Joint Military Commission (JMC) in the Nuba Mountains; the US-sponsored Civilian Protection Monitoring Group, based in Rumbek; the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), the East African regional body sponsoring current peace talks; and its Verification and Monitoring Team (VMT). Landmine Monitor has found that few are willing to speak openly about possible on-going use of landmines in light of the fragile peace process, and the various mine-related agreements. The 2002 Memorandum on Mine Action explicitly prohibits exchange of information prior to the signature of a comprehensive ceasefire agreement.

However, Landmine Monitor has received allegations in 2004 of continuing use of antipersonnel mines by government-supported militias in Upper Nile. In April 2004, the head of the Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Commission (SRRC) told Landmine Monitor that mines were still being used to defend the oil fields south of Bentiu in Western Upper Nile. He also alleged that mines were used in the latest fighting in the Shilluk kingdom around Malakal in Upper Nile.[20] The fighting in the Shilluk kingdom follows the re-defection of the former Sudanese government Transport Minister, Lam Akol, to the SPLA in October 2003. Troops of the South Sudan Defense Force (SSDF) loyal to the government under the command of Gabriel Tanginya have been trying to regain control of the area.[21] Following a raid by these forces on the SPLA headquarters in Popwojo on 6 March 2004, SPLA reported finding 36 Chinese-made Type 72 antipersonnel mines planted outside the headquarters.[22] Senior relief officials warned relief workers that the nearby airstrip was reportedly mined, and reported this incident to the VMT cease-fire monitoring team in Leer.[23]

There are also concerns about possible mine use by the SSDF militias and unknown parties in the conflict in Darfur that began in February 2003. This area has been largely cut off from international observers. Refugees have not reported the use of mines among the numerous atrocities taking place in Darfur, but various agencies and monitoring teams have privately expressed concerns about mine use. These observers are constrained from speaking publicly out of security concerns.[24] Only one mine incident has been reported in Darfur. In February 2004, a driver for Save the Children-UK lost a leg and another person was slightly injured when their vehicle hit a mine in north Darfur.[25]

An SLA commander in North Darfur told Human Rights Watch that the SLA had captured a Sudanese government cache of landmines when it overran a government army position in early 2004. The SLA said it buried the landmines deep in the ground in a remote area of North Darfur to prevent their use. It reported that there had been no deaths or injuries of people or animals in North Darfur on account of landmines as of the date of the interview in mid-2004.[26] At the May 2004 workshop in Khartoum on Mine Ban Treaty implementation, a military official stated that “the Army did not use any type of landmines in Darfur while...Eritrea has trained the Darfur rebel groups on the use of landmines.”[27]

Sudanese officials continue to deny use of landmines anywhere in the country. At the June 2004 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, a Sudanese delegate strongly denied any new mine use either by the government or the SPLA. He said antipersonnel mines had been planted long before 1997 to protect government facilities, and insisted the SPLA had not used mines since signing of the Geneva Call Deed of Commitment in October 2001.[28] However, in a July 2003 response to Landmine Monitor, the government stated that, despite signing the Deed of Commitment, “it didn’t stop rebel factions from planting mines in rural areas and along main roads.”[29] In January 2003, the Sudanese Army reported in a press release that the SPLA planted landmines in the road between Rubkona and Leer in the Western Upper Nile oil field area.[30]

Sudan could be at risk of violating the Mine Ban Treaty by virtue of close military cooperation with militia of the SSDF, the ‘Janjaweed,’ or other forces that use antipersonnel mines. The Mine Ban Treaty prohibits not just use of antipersonnel mines, but assistance in any way with the use of antipersonnel mines. Under Article 1 of the Mine Ban Treaty, a State Party may not “under any circumstance...assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engage in any activity that is prohibited to a State Party under this Convention.” Moreover, since Sudan has become a State Party to the Mine Ban Treaty, it has a legal obligation to prevent and suppress any activity prohibited by the treaty.

Landmine Problem, Survey and Assessment

According to a June 2003 UN Landmine and UXO (unexploded ordnance) safety leaflet for Sudan: “Landmines have been an integral part of the conflict and it is apparent that the GoS [Government of Sudan], SPLA and others have all laid significant quantities of mines in the past ... As a result of this conflict, landmines have affected Bahr al-Ghazal, Eastern Equatoria, Jonglei, Lakes and Western Equatoria in southern Sudan. The country’s borders with Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya and Uganda are also considered to have a serious threat from mines. In this type of fast-moving warfare, records are rarely kept, and those that may exist are often inaccurate or out of date. It is therefore impossible at this stage to objectively and accurately determine the extent of the mine-contaminated area in Sudan and its impact on the local population.”[31]

At the June 2004 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, the Sudan delegation stated that 21 of 26 states are contaminated by mines and unexploded ordnance. Eleven of those contaminated comprise arable land. “Landmines have left nearly 10 million hectares [100,000 square kilometers] of arable land out of use by the population. Roads have been abandoned and railways carriages halted.”[32] It is believed that there are almost four million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and half a million refugees who will be returning to areas that are highly infected with mines.[33]

The landmine situation in Sudan has not been comprehensively surveyed, including rebel-controlled parts of southern Sudan and other areas such as the Nuba Mountains, southern Blue Nile and the Red Sea Hills.[34] Previous Landmine Monitor reports provided details on some initial assessments carried out in the Nuba Mountains following the January 2002 cease-fire.[35] During this reporting period, a number of survey and assessment initiatives have taken place.

The Sudan Landmine Information and Response Initiative (SLIRI) was created in 2001 with funds from the European Commission contracted through Oxfam Great Britain, to initiate cross-lines information gathering and develop plans for mine action. Since then, SLIRI has established fifteen Sector Operation Centers (SOCs) with special software for data collection and analysis. This includes seven in government-controlled areas in Kadugli, Malakal, Juba, Wau, Tokar, Damazin and Kassala, and eight in SPLM-controlled areas in southern Sudan in Chukdum, Panyagor, Rumbek, Tombura, Yambio, Yei, in Kauda in the Nuba Mountains, and Kurmuk, in Southern Blue Nile. With the completion of phase one in November 2003, Oxfam handed SLIRI over to Landmine Action (another UK-based NGO) to manage the second phase of the initiative.[36]

Landmine Action began working in the Nuba Mountains in March 2002 with an assessment of the scale of the likely mine and UXO problem in the region. This initial technical assessment was carried out by MAG. Landmine Action established a deminer training facility in Tillo (near Kadugli) in late 2002 and had trained the first 26 deminers by February 2003. As part of its prioritization process, Landmine Action visited 48 villages in order to verify SLIRI’s mine incident data, in a three-stage process called the Accelerated Village Data Confirmation program.[37] SLIRI states that the resulting information from the 48 villages is the first comprehensive body of verified information on the scale of the landmine problem in the Nuba Mountains. Only seven of the villages were not directly affected by landmines, and even those suffered indirect effects, largely economic, such as lack of trade access.

Since SLIRI was created, more than 2,500 mine incidents have been reported and entered into the SLIRI database.[38] The Mine Action Coordination Office in Kadugli is using the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA) to collate and analyze data and produce Mine Threat Assessment mapping of areas suspected to contain mines.

The Swiss Federation for Mine Action (FSD) route survey teams began operational work in January 2004 and by July 2004 had surveyed more than 1,000 kilometers in southern Sudan, and identified a total of 81 dangerous areas (equivalent to 425 kilometers of road). Between January and March 2004, FSD route survey teams, in collaboration with the World Food Programme (WFP) and UNMAS, assessed routes of humanitarian priority as part of the road reconstruction process. FSD found that more than 500 kilometers of roads previously suspected of mine contamination could safely be used for humanitarian relief transportation. The survey is ongoing and FSD has been contracted to increase its survey capacity by an additional four teams, as well as to expand its activities into northern Sudan.[39]

FSD also won a tender for the survey part of the clearance of the road from Lokichokio, the UN base camp in northern Kenya to Juba in Sudan. The survey began in March 2004 and identified 120 dangerous areas in SPLA-controlled areas near the main towns of Yei, Kapoeta and Torit of Western and Eastern Equatoria. Mechem, a South African company, will do the clearance work.[40]

Mechem, under contract with UN Operational Services, began surveying the route being upgraded between Lokichoggio and Rumbek in March 2004.[41]

In its report for the first quarter of 2004, the Sudan Emergency Mine Action Programme reported that as of 15 March 2004, survey and assessment information entered into the IMSMA system indicated 155 communities affected by mines, and 276 dangerous areas covering 4,270 square kilometers of land.[42] The report states that it does not include information on contamination in other areas in southern Sudan or in Darfur, Kassala, and Blue Nile. The report notes that one problem encountered during the quarter included, “The seemingly restraining and reluctance to cooperate attitude of HAC [GoS Humanitarian Action Center] to allow access to NMAO staff to conduct assessments and investigations in various GoS controlled areas.”

Contaminated Areas Identified as of 15 March 2004[43]

Number of Communities Contaminated
Number of Dangerous Areas
Estimated Size of Dangerous Areas (SqKm)
Bahr El Ghazal
Upper Nile
South Kordofan
West Kordofan

In June 2004, following two assessment missions, the US-based Survey Action Center submitted a proposal for a pilot Landmine Impact Survey in two states considered relatively stable in terms of population movement and security. This would represent the first stage of a comprehensive LIS, to be expanded to other states in Sudan.[44]

DanChurchAid (DCA) conducted a Mine Risk Education (MRE) needs assessment in the Nuba Mountains for UNICEF from November 2003 to March 2004. It targeted children, adolescents, adults and mine/UXO survivors. One of the major findings of this assessment was that 17 percent of the casualties in the Nuba Mountains are caused by antipersonnel landmines, compared to 45 percent for UXO and 38 percent for antivehicle mines.[45]

Save the Children–USA conducted another MRE assessment in the Nuba Mountains area in November 2003.[46]

Coordination and Planning

In September 2002, the Sudanese government established the National Mine Action Office (NMAO) in Khartoum, with assistance from the UN Mine Action Service (UNMAS). A regional mine action office was set up in mid-2003 at Kadugli in the Nuba Mountains. In February 2003, SPLM together with UNMAS established a Southern Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office in Rumbek.[47] UNICEF has supported NMAO with mine risk education experts, and a new MRE advisor joined NMAO in April 2004.

As of March 2003, NMAO had installed the IMSMA database in Khartoum, and in sub-offices in Kadugli and Rumbek. NMAO has also installed an IMSMA read-only version for the Sudanese Red Crescent in Kassala, SLIRI in Kadugli and Yei, and Norwegian People's Aid in Yei.[48] The slow pace of peace negotiations has affected the pace of information gathering. There has been little coordination between the national NMAO in Khartoum and the sub-offices in Rumbeck and Kadugli.[49]

The Humanitarian Aid Commission, under the auspices of the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, is the government focal point for mine action coordination and is represented on NMAO. A proposal for the establishment of a National Authority to deal with landmines has been submitted to the Council of Ministers.[50]

On 9 May 2004, the SPLM passed a decree creating the New Sudan Authority on Landmines (NSAL) and the New Sudan Mine Action Directorate (NSMAD). The New Sudan Authority on Landmines works under the Office of the SPLM/A Chairman, and is comprised of 17 commissioners and directors in charge of various secretariats and departments concerned with, among other issues, landmine policies, cross-conflict coordination and negotiations. The New Sudan Mine Action Directorate is the implementing arm of the NSAL.[51] The SPLM representative on the National Mine Action Office is the Executive Director of the NSMAD.

The UN Development Programme has established a mine action capacity building program, targeting both the government and SPLM, to complement the efforts of UNMAS, which is the lead UN mine action agency in Sudan. The UNDP program is aimed at the development of a sustainable mine action structure, and a national mine action strategy that will support national development plans.[52]

The Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines (Sudan CBL) is the civil society network responsible for the coordination of mine action in government-controlled areas of Sudan.[53] There were 33 national and international NGOs in the Sudan CBL as of March 2004, an increase of six groups since the last reporting period. The Sudan CBL convened a workshop in Khartoum in December 2003 to address planning for the post-ratification and post-peace period in Sudan. Participants included officials from HAC, the Army, UN and NMAO. DanChurchAid is playing a role in coordinating and capacity building, as well as cross-line mine action.

At a January 2004 meeting in Nairobi, Kenya, the Sudanese government, the SPLM and the United Nations reached agreement on a policy framework for mine action in Sudan. This followed from a process facilitated by the Memorandum of Understanding, signed in Geneva in September 2002 by the government, SPLM and UNMAS, regarding UN mine action support to Sudan. Central to the policy framework is a “one country” approach, with a National Mine Action Authority having a special mandate for policy and legislation on landmines.[54]

In August 2004, UNDP and UNMAS hosted a series of meetings involving various mine action stakeholders to formulate the “Mine Action Strategic Framework for Sudan.” Participants at the meetings included representatives from the National Mine Action Authority, National Mine Action Office, the Southern Sudan Mine Action Authority, Southern Sudan Mine Action Directorate, Sudanese civil society, international and local NGOs, international institutions, United Nations agencies and international donors. In its summary of the goals of the meetings, the UN stated, “The current mine action strategy for Sudan is dated January 2003 and it was also drafted with limited stakeholder participation. The rapidly changing political environment and developments within the mine action programme have overtaken the original strategy and it is recommended that it is revised as a matter of urgency. This will also facilitate the formulation of feasible project proposals linked to a realistic national mine action strategy and work plan and increase donor interest as well.”[55] On 27 August 2003, it was announced that agreement had been reached on a strategy to clear Sudan’s landmines, with UN support, pending a comprehensive peace agreement.[56]

Sudan prepared a mine action matrix for the June 2004 intersessional meetings in Geneva, which indicated six government agencies, four international institutions, five international NGOs, 12 local NGOs and eight demining agencies actively involved in mine action operations and programs.[57]

Mine Clearance

In 2003 and 2004, mine clearance activities in Sudan have been concentrated in the Nuba Mountains. The Nuba Mountains Cease-fire Agreement of January 2002 provided the platform needed to encourage concerted mine clearance.[58] Progress in mine clearance in the Nuba Mountains has been significant. The Sudan Emergency Mine Action Programme reported that the amount of land cleared had gone from virtually nothing in 2000, to 50,000 square meters in 2002, to almost 450,000 square meters cleared in 2003.[59]

In June 2004, Sudan reported vastly larger statistics for mine clearance in the country, citing 3,112,521 square meters of land cleared and 15,171,400 reduced in 2003. It also cited 608,332 square meters cleared, and 2,184,025 reduced, as of June in 2004.[60]

The Joint Monitoring Mission/Joint Military Commission (JMM/JMC) of the Nuba Mountains organized a celebration in May 2003 in recognition of combined demining efforts, and to announce the clearance of the road between Mirri Barra and Farig Eldorop (more than 13 kilometers).[61] Direct benefits from this clearance activity included the return of 45 families and the installation of hand pumps for safe drinking water.[62]

DanChurchAid has been working in the Nuba Mountains with two national NGO partners, the Sudan Association for Combating Landmines (JASMAR) on the government side and Operation Save Innocent Lives (OSIL) on the SPLM/A side. DCA has provided training to demining teams from these NGOs, and deployed them for demining and mine risk education needs assessment activities in their respective areas. JASMAR has two teams in operation ¾ one with 14 members trained in 2003 and a second with 20 members which completed training in February 2004.[63] JASMAR reported to Landmine Monitor that its teams had cleared 14,940 square meters of land and 96 antipersonnel landmines from June 2003 to March 2004.[64] According to NMAO, the total area cleared by JASMAR and OSIL in 2004 (to the end of March) was 16,903 square meters.[65]

In its own annual report for the period April 2003–March 2004, OSIL reported that it had “made safe an area totaling 906,675 square meters,” removing 122 antipersonnel mines, 24 antivehicle mines and 6,726 UXO.[66] Areas cleared included roads and pieces of land in Yei County, Western Equitoria, Magwi and Kapoeta Counties in Eastern Equatoria, and the Nuba Mountains region. "No one knows how many landmines remain uncleared from the ongoing conflicts. Similarly, the total number of victims is difficult to assess with any degree of certainty. What is certain is that landmines continue to claim human victims, livestock and wildlife," OSIL noted.

In February 2004, SLIRI announced that the total area cleared with its local partner Nuba Mountains Solidarity Abroad had reached 5,651 square meters.[67] Landmine Action–UK and SLIRI worked on a community-led minefield clearance prioritization process in the 48 villages where SLIRI had recorded landmine incidents (see above). In the process, a two-day workshop session was held with the local community leaders to establish their top priorities for mine clearance. According to Landmine Action, this is the first time such an approach has been used in the Nuba Mountains, and possibly Sudan. In 2003, work began on the first clearance task selected from the community leaders’ priority list: the village of Korongo Abdullah and 4.26 miles of road leading from the village to Tuma. By the end of December, approximately 6,000 square meters had been cleared and by April 2004, over 10,000 square meters, including the road.[68] UNMAS approved the prioritization.

NMAO indicated that clearance of sections of the Loki Choggio−Juba road (approximately 400 kilometers) started in March 2004, just before the onset of rains severely hampered operations.[69]

Mechem’s road survey work, which began in southern Sudan in March 2004, includes clearance capacity. This South African-based group takes an integrated approach to demining, using vehicle-mounted detection systems, dog teams and manual deminers to remove ordnance found while surveying.[70]

In March 2004, Norwegian People's Aid established a new mine action program in southern Sudan, which complements its existing aid and development work. The program is based in Yei. Clearing roads is NPA’s priority for mine action in the region, to allow safe passage of refugees, IDPs, and truckloads of food and supplies.[71] By 1 June 2004, NPA had trained a team of 45 manual deminers and two survey teams consisting of 10 surveyors, but NPA was still awaiting accreditation from NSMAD, so was not yet fully operational.[72]

Before the peace negotiation process, in government-controlled areas the Sudanese military only conducted mine clearance to meet military objectives. Prior to 2002, OSIL was the main non-governmental agency involved in mine clearance in Sudan. Between September 1997 and April 2003, according to a June 2003 media report, OSIL cleared 10.5 million square meters of land, destroying 3,512 antipersonnel landmines, 732 antivehicle mines and 116,930 UXO.[73] The UK-based Mines Advisory Group has been instrumental in developing the capacity of, and providing technical support to, OSIL staff since 1998.[74]

Mine Risk Education

Organizations working in mine risk education in Sudan have included DCA, Friends of Peace and Development Organization (FPDO), HAC, the International Save the Children Alliance, MAG, OSIL, JASMAR, Oxfam, Sudan Integrated Mine Action Services (SIMAS), SLIRI, SPLA, Sudanese Red Crescent (SRC), UNICEF and various members of Sudan CBL.

The GoS reported that MRE reached 131,381 people in 2003-2004,[75] a decrease in comparison to the approximately 200,000 people reported in 2002.[76] UNICEF however reports that a total 155,727 people attended MRE sessions between 1999 and 2004.[77] While some resources have been redeployed to the Nuba Mountains where the cease-fire agreement is theoretically stronger, MRE in southern Sudan came to a virtual standstill during the reporting period. An SPLA official told Landmine Monitor in April 2004, “Whenever we go to the field we meet locals who talk about the need for mine awareness. Around Kapoeta people have no idea, they drive their cattle through minefields, the children play with UXOs. We’ve had numerous workshops on MRE and we have trained trainers but there is no funding. No MRE has been carried out since this town was captured in 2002. It’s UNICEF’s global mandate to conduct mine awareness but for some reason they haven’t been doing it in south Sudan.”[78]

Since November 2002, UNICEF has been supporting the NMAO with MRE experts. From 25 September to 4 October 2003, UNICEF conducted a workshop for 30 participants in order to develop a standard MRE curriculum for Sudan.[79] A new UNICEF MRE advisor joined the NMAO in April 2004. The Sudanese delegation at the June 2004 Standing Committee meetings in Geneva indicated that 251 people now work in MRE in Sudan.[80]

In September 2004, MAG began a community focused MRE project in southern Sudan to train two teams of Community Liaison Officers and Peer Educators and operate around the towns of Yei and Kapoete.[81] MAG works in Sudan in support of local partners, notably JASMAR and OSIL and is working towards providing country-wide support.

Prior to 2002, the organization most active in delivering MRE in southern Sudan was OSIL. Since 1999, OSIL has been conducting MRE along with clearance in areas including Yei and Nimule (Ugandan border), Kajo-Kaji, Kurmuk, Rumbek, Torit, Magwi and Pageri, in southern Sudan and Kurmuk in Southern Blue Nile. OSIL has received training, technical assistance and funding for this work from a variety of international groups and donors.[82]

In June 2004, the government reported that the Sudanese Red Crescent was providing MRE for IDPs and refugees in Kassala Province, and for returnees and the local community in the Nuba mountains; Friends of Peace and Development Organization was conducting MRE in four IDP camps in Great Khartoum; DanChurchAid was conducting MRE in support of its clearance teams in the Nuba Mountains; and, the Humanitarian Aid Commission was providing MRE training to government representatives and NGOs.[83]

DCA has been conducting MRE training in the Nuba Mountains since May 2003, working in partnership with JASMAR and OSIL. JASMAR and OSIL delivered MRE to communities in Keiga Elkheil during the demining operation led by DCA, as part of Mine Action Support Teams (MAST).[84]

Save the Children-USA provided MRE ¾ using radio, posters, T-shirts and drama ¾ to 39 villages in the Nuba Mountains, covering the localities of Kadugli, Talodi, Rashad and Abu Gibeha. This project started in November 2003 and was due to finish in August 2004.[85]

A number of MRE assessments also took place during the reporting period. At the beginning of 2004, DCA conducted a cross-line MRE needs assessment in the Nuba Mountains, in collaboration with JASMAR and OSIL. The assessment covered 240 villages[86] and involved NGOs from other sectors.[87] Adult men were found to be the most at risk, but some females admitted that they had been to dangerous areas. Children in families fleeing the war had a higher tendency for risk behavior. The assessment suggested four parallel curricula targeting children, adults, IDPs/refugees, and NGO and UN workers.[88]

The Sudanese Red Crescent conducted Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Behavior (KAPB) assessments in Kassala, Blue Nile, Upper Nile, Bahr Al Jabal in southern Sudan and in the Nuba Mountains (Dilling and Lagawa).[89] The assessments took place in the later half of 2003. The reports should be ready by the end of September 2004.[90]

Save the Children-USA commissioned a KAPB assessment in the Nuba Mountains. This assessment stated that economically active adult males and children constitute 49 percent of the people at risk of mines/UXO in that area. Farming is reported to be the most dangerous activity in the area.[91]

Mine Action Funding

According to information provided to Landmine Monitor, in 2003, eight donor governments and the European Commission provided about US$9.5 million for mine action in Sudan.[92] In addition, the British NGO Landmine Action received about £360,000 (US$588,000) from private sources for its work in Sudan in 2003 and 2004.[93] Landmine Monitor identified US$5.1 million in mine action funding in 2002.

Canada [94]
to UNMAS US$800,800 for emergency mine clearance, $173,000 for development of a cross-line partnership to support emergency mine action in Sudan, $100,000 for information management and coordination for emergency mine action, US$ 72,800 for victims trauma training, $2,500 to Sudan Campaign to Ban Landmines
DKK 4,000,000
to DCA for survey, mine clearance and capacity building
European Commission
€3,546,261 ($4,012,600)
Including €2,000,000 for Landmine Information Response Initiative by Landmine Action, €500,000 to UNMAS for a technical survey and €1,046,261 for emergency mine action in Nuba Mountains
€200,000 to UNMAS for the National Mine Action Office, and €200,00 to UNMAS for technical survey teams
via UNMAS for emergency mine action
NOK4,440,000 ($626,950)
NOK3 million to Danish Church Aid for mine action in Nuba Mountains, and NOK1.44 million to NPA for mine action
for support to the UNMAS in the Nuba Mountains
United Kingdom
£1,000,000 ($1,634,100)
United States [95]
$ 896,000

UNICEF and DCA jointly funded the Mine Risk Education needs assessment in the Nuba Mountains (US$83,000), while UNICEF provided US$10,000 to SRC, US$113,000 to SC-USA and US$57,000 to FDPO for mine risk education.[96]

The UN is seeking US$30 million for 2004 through a consolidated appeal for mine action in the north, south and Nuba Mountains region, with a focus on route clearance projects.[97]

Prior to 2001, funding levels reflected the limited mine action activities that existed in Sudan. Between 1997 and 2000, OSIL received US$299,000 start-up funding for clearance and mine risk education from DCA, UNICEF and Christian Aid. In addition, the Mines Advisory Group received US$120,000 through the Basel Mission for training and equipping of OSIL teams. From 1999 to 2000, the Sudanese Red Crescent received $75,000 from Oxfam, Save the Children-Sweden, UNHCR and UNICEF for mine risk education.

According to information provided by donors, in 2001 six donors committed US$2.2 million for mine action in Sudan. In 2002, at least 12 donors provided US$5.1 million for mine action.[98] A significant commitment of funds occurred in 2001-2002 with the creation of the consortium SLIRI. The EC pledged €1.5 million (US$1.75 million) to Oxfam GB for the first year of the initiative. The EC also provided €1,052,985 (US$1.03 million) of “Rapid Response Mechanism” funding to Landmine Action in 2002-2003.[99]

Landmine Casualties

There is no comprehensive data collection mechanism in Sudan. The government acknowledges that mine/UXO casualties are “vastly underreported.”[100] In 2003, NMAO recorded 79 new mine/UXO casualties (28 killed, 49 injured and two unknown); at least 13 casualties were children. The majority of casualties were civilians (91 percent). Antivehicle mines caused 34 casualties (43 percent), antipersonnel mines 16 (20 percent), UXO 19 (24 percent), and the cause of ten casualties was unknown. In 2002, the ICRC reported 127 mine casualties from southern Sudan treated at four ICRC-supported hospitals, while the NMAO database records 46 new casualties for the same period.[101]

In October 2003, eight people were killed and two others injured when their vehicle hit a mine. Of those killed, five were women; one was a double amputee from a mine incident in 1998. She had just returned to the Nuba Mountains from the ICRC hospital in northern Kenya after re-amputation surgery and the fitting of new limbs.[102]

Casualties continued to occur in 2004. NMAO registered nine new mine/UXO casualties to 30 June; three people were killed and six injured.[103] In February 2004, a driver for Save the Children-UK lost a leg and another person was slightly injured when their vehicle hit a mine in North Darfur. No other mine incidents have been reported in Darfur.[104]

The total number of mine casualties in Sudan is not known; although estimates range as high as 10,000 mine/UXO casualties.[105] NMAO in Khartoum and the Southern Sudan Mine Action Coordination Office are collecting and collating mine/UXO casualty data through the use of IMSMA, which became operational in May 2003.[106] By June 2003, NMAO had received incident reports on a total of 2,667 mine/UXO casualties since 1998 from Khartoum, Kadugli, Juba, Malakal and Kassala.[107] However, the majority of these casualty reports have not been entered into the IMSMA system due to incomplete information. The main sources for the casualty incident reports were hospitals and health clinics; therefore most reports only contain the name of the person killed or injured, and the injuries sustained.[108] NMAO has reportedly registered 1,090 casualties.[109] However, statistics from the IMSMA database to 30 June 2004 report 895 mine/UXO casualties, including 285 killed, 599 injured, and the status of 11 casualties is unknown. Of the total recorded casualties, 304 occurred between 1998 and June 2004.[110] In 2002, the government reportedly stated that between 1989 and 2001, landmines caused 1,135 casualties in the Nuba Mountains.[111]

In July 2003, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Ministry of Health conducted a health survey in five states: South Kordofan, Upper Nile, Blue Nile, Bahr El Jabal and Kassala. As part of the survey, 500 IMSMA forms were distributed in each state to gather information on mine survivors.[112] The Sudanese Red Crescent obtained information on 649 landmine/UXO casualties in the five states.[113] An analysis of the data indicates that 50 percent of the incidents occurred in the Nuba Mountains and Juba area; 30 percent of casualties were killed; 84 percent of casualties were male; only 65 percent were adults; eight percent of casualties were under the age of ten; 16 children were involved in military activities at the time of the incident; 60 percent of casualties were caused by antipersonnel mines; about 12 percent of incidents occurred near the village; 71 percent died at the site of the incident, and 12 percent died on the way to a health facility; more than 20 percent of casualties took five hours or more to reach the first medical facility; and more than half of the survivors either lost or changed jobs.[114]

In 2002, SLIRI was established, in part, to create a comprehensive data collection mechanism to register landmine casualties in Sudan.[115] Since then, more than 2,500 incidents have been entered into the SLIRI database, covering recent and old incidents.[116] SLIRI collects data in seven areas around their field office locations, including Kadugli in Nuba Mountains, Malakal in Upper Nile, Juba in Bahr El Jabal, Wau in Bahr El Ghazal, Tokar in Red Sea, Damazin in Southern Blue Nile, and Kassala in Kassala State. SLIRI maintains a database separate from NMAO but has started to exchange data and coordinate more closely.[117] The Nuba Mountains SLIRI team conducted a survey in 48 villages, where returnees have settled; it indicated that between 1998 and 2003 there had been 387 mine/UXO casualties in the area. In addition, 170 mine casualties were reported in the government-controlled areas of Blue Nile, and some 434 incidents in the Bahr Elghazal area.[118]

Survivor Assistance

Survivor assistance reportedly forms a core component of the mine action strategy in Sudan. According to the government of Sudan, the aim is to develop a sustainable national capacity to provide assistance.[119] In April 2003, the National Mine Action Office recruited a Victim Assistance Associate to develop a plan of action for victim assistance. The VA Associate is working with UN agencies and local NGOs to develop programs to assist mine survivors; 12 victim assistance related projects are listed in the 2004 UNMAS Portfolio of Mine Action projects.[120]

Years of conflict seriously damaged the healthcare system in Sudan, and for many people living in remote areas, the nearest medical facilities are long distances away. In general, the assistance available for landmine casualties, from both the government and NGOs, is irregular and not sufficient to address the size of the problem. In the Nuba Mountains there is reportedly only one doctor for every 300,000 people, and health workers are often insufficiently trained or equipped to treat trauma patients.[121] There is a lack of emergency transport: many mine casualties are transported on animals, carts, bicycles or homemade stretcheRs to the nearest public health facility. In Kassala, 84 percent of registered casualties were transported more than 50 kilometers to the nearest facility. The government acknowledges that mine/UXO survivors are vulnerable and one of the most neglected minorities, due in part to a lack of information on the extent of the mine/UXO problem in Sudan, and a lack of resources.[122]

Southern Sudan and the Nuba Mountains maintain only very basic healthcare facilities mostly run by outside agencies including the ICRC, German Emergency Doctors, Médecins Sans Frontières, Norwegian People’s Aid, and Save the Children. However, all reportedly suffer shortages of doctors and medical supplies.[123] In July 2002, WHO, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, started a training program for over 200 medical assistants, nurses, and first aid staff to treat landmine casualties in the Nuba Mountains.[124]

The ICRC’s medical assistance activities in Sudan since 1999 included upgrading facilities, war-surgery seminars, clinical training, and first aid training. It provided food, medical supplies, surgical instruments, medicines, and comprehensive medical and surgical care to the war-wounded and other surgical emergencies, including landmine casualties at its two referral hospitals, the ICRC surgical hospital in Lopiding in northern Kenya, and the government-run Juba Teaching Hospital in southern Sudan, and ad hoc support to other hospitals and clinics. The ICRC airlifts emergency cases from Sudan to the hospital in Lokichokio. Since 1999, ICRC-supported hospitals have treated 205 landmine casualties from southern Sudan: seven in 2003; 127 in 2002; 45 in 2001; 19 in 2000; and seven in 1999.[125] In January and February 2004, three mine casualties were admitted to Lopiding Hospital.[126]

In the government-controlled areas, there are three prosthetic/orthotic workshops: the National Authority for Prosthetics and Orthotics (NAPO) in Khartoum; the Norwegian Association for the Disabled Center in Juba; and a workshop in Kassala which opened in June 2003. Access to rehabilitation facilities is restricted due to long distances, poor roads, security concerns, and poverty. There are no facilities in southern Sudan.[127]

In 2003, the ICRC supported six physical rehabilitation centers and smaller workshops in Sudan. Since 1999, the ICRC has provided assistance to NAPO in Khartoum, and worked with the authorities to set up satellite centers in Kassala, Dongola, Nyalla and Damazin. In addition to upgrading facilities, improving the quality of services, covering the cost of transport, accommodation and treatment, providing materials and components, and on-going training for orthopedic technicians and physiotherapists, the ICRC also trains hospital staff from Juba, Kassala and Dongola in physiotherapy for amputees. The ICRC also provides training and materials to the Juba orthopedic center. Since 2000, the orthopedic center has fitted 3,334 prostheses (at least 389 for mine survivors), and produced 2,427 orthoses and more than 980 crutches; in 2003, 930 prostheses were fitted (114 for mine survivors), and 683 orthoses (one for a mine survivor) and 364 crutches were produced. Four technicians are currently undertaking a three-year course in prosthetics and orthotics at the Tanzanian Training Center for Orthopedic Technologists.[128] From July 2003, the treatment is free-of-charge for mine/UXO survivors in all NAPO branches;[129] previously military personnel received free services and civilians were charged 50 percent.

To facilitate the physical rehabilitation of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities in southern Sudan, the ICRC has provided transport to its prosthetic/orthotic center at the Lopiding Hospital in Lokichokio, northern Kenya, since 1992. All treatment is provided free-of-charge. Since 2000, the orthopedic center has fitted 1,555 prostheses (370 for mine survivors), and produced 697 orthoses (at least two for mine survivors) and more than 4,213 crutches, and distributed more than 96 wheelchairs; in 2003, 462 prostheses were fitted (125 for mine survivors), 169 orthoses (one for a mine survivor) and 1,338 crutches produced, and 49 wheelchairs distributed. In addition, every year up to ten Sudanese are trained to run small orthopedic repair workshops in southern Sudan.[130]

In 2000, the NGO Help Handicapped International started the Jaipur Foot Center in Khartoum, in cooperation with the Ministry of Health; more than 1,200 people have reportedly been assisted.[131]

The Sudanese Association for the Care and Rehabilitation of War Victims (ABRAR) supports landmine survivors as part of its program to assist war victims. ABRAR provides physiotherapy, psychosocial support and legal aid. ABRAR also advocates for a disability policy and legislation to support the victims of war. In 2003, ABRAR provided health support to 200 survivors, distributed mobility aids to 80 survivors at its rehabilitation center, organized social activities for 115 families of mine survivors, and 340 benefited from computer training and other vocational training, including electronics, mechanics and sewing; 285 mine survivors were assisted in 2002. A sports program for mine/UXO survivors has also been developed. The programs are supported by Canada, the Japanese Embassy, a German NGO, People in Motion, and private donations from within Sudan. Landmine Survivors Network (LSN), through its office in Jordan, supports ABRAR by sharing experiences, knowledge and technical advice to establish a peer support program.[132]

There are limited opportunities for economic reintegration. Ten mine survivors graduated from a course in computer maintenance at the Elaman Elmahadi University, and the University of Sudan has agreed to provide five mine/UXO survivors a year access to free courses. Plans are also being developed to establish a vocational training center for mine/UXO survivors, and a women’s development center for mine survivors and their families. The National Vocational Training Institute offers training in various skills;[133] however, it is not clear if these programs are available to persons with disabilities.

Other organizations assisting persons with disabilities in Sudan include Action on Disability and Development, Medical Care Doctors International, Peace and Tolerance International Organization, and Sudan People Support Association.[134]

A mine survivor from Sudan participated in the Raising the Voices training program in 2002.

Disability Policy and Practice

Landmine survivors reportedly have access to free medical treatment in the public and NGO hospitals in Sudan, and a Presidential decision protects the jobs of government employees who are disabled by landmines.[135] There are no other laws that protect the rights of mine survivors in Sudan. The Ministry of Welfare and Social Development is the focal point for issues relating to people with disabilities.[136]

The VA office in NMAO is developing capacity in national NGOs through links with international organizations, particularly through advocacy for the proposed convention of the rights of persons with disabilities.[137]

[1] Interview with Noel Mulliner, Deputy Chief (Operations), UNMAS, Khartoum, 15 May 2003. The original model for cross-line mine action was drawn up for the South, but moved to the Nuba Mountains because of lack of progress in achieving a cease-fire in the South.
[2] For more information on the Darfur crisis, see Human Rights Watch, “Darfur Destroyed: Ethnic Cleansing by Government and Militia Forces in Western Sudan,” May 2004, available at www.hrw.org/campaigns/darfur, accessed 12 October 2004. HRW has said the government-supported Janjaweed attacks constitute crimes against humanity. The US government on 9 September 2004 concluded that “genocide has been committed in Darfur and that the government of Sudan and the Janjaweed bear responsibility—and genocide may still be occurring.” “U.S. Calls Killings in Sudan Genocide,” Washington Post, 10 September 2004 (quoting Secretary of State Colin Powell).
[3] “Report of the Secretary-General on the Sudan,” UNSC 1556 (2004), 30 July 2004.
[4] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 536. The situation in Sudan and the Horn of Africa is extremely complicated, with frequently shifting alliances. In December 2003, Sudan, Ethiopia and Yemen formed an “anti-terror axis” to fight against “extremist elements” operating in the Horn of Africa, noting groups in Somalia. See “Ethiopia: Horn anti-terror axis formed,” IRIN (Addis Ababa), 29 December 2003.
[5] Statement by Sudan, Standing Committee of Experts on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 7 May 2001, pp. 3-4.
[6] The delegation said following a full peace agreement in the Sudan, a new constitution would be formulated and new laws would be in force, including the incorporation of the Mine Ban Treaty. Interview with Sudan Delegation to intersessional Standing Committee meetings: Elsadig Almagly, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Brig. Isam Mahran, Ministry of Defense, and Hasabu Mohamed Abdul-Rahman, Deputy Director, Humanitarian Aid Commission, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[7] Statement by Dr. Sulafadin Salih, Commissioner, Humanitarian Aid Commission, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Bangkok, Thailand, 17 September 2003.
[8] In 2002, Landmine Monitor reported that SPLM/A had also signed the “Deed of Commitment” on 19 August 2001 in southern Sudan. Geneva Call has now told Landmine Monitor that in August 2001 the SPLM/A expressed its intent to sign, but the only Deed considered to be official is the one signed in October. Email from Geneva Call, 18 August 2004.
[9] “Recommendations of Workshop Discussions,” Mine Ban Education Workshop in Southern Sudan, New Site, Kapoeta County, Southern Sudan, 29 September – 1 October 2003, available at: www.genevacall.org/resources/testi-referencematerials/testi-nsastates/sud01oct03(mbess).pdf, accessed 12 October 2004. The workshop was jointly organized by Geneva Call and the SPLM/A.
[10] Comments by Cdr. Aleu Ayieny Aleu, Executive Director, Operation Save Innocent Lives, to the Mine Ban Education Workshop in Southern Sudan, 29 September – 1 October 2003.
[11] “Formation of New Sudan Authority on Landmines,” General Headquarters, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Sudan People’s Liberation Army, Ref. No. SPLM/SLMA/A-1, 9 May 2004.
[12] See Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 223; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 575; and, Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 535. In June 2004, Sudanese officials said a “small number” of mines exist for training, but that the number is unknown as the mines are scattered around the country; the information is being collected for the Article 7 report. Interview with Sudan Delegation, 23 June 2004.
[13] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 477; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 502.
[14] “Kony: Is Sudan Being Honest?,” New Vision (Kampala), 10 September 2003. See also, “Ugandan president says Sudan tried to overthrow him with rebel backing,” Agence France-Presse (Nairobi), 29 August 2004.
[15] In January 2004, a joint UNHCR−National High Commission for Demining mission to collect information on mines/UXO in refugee settlement areas along the Chad−Sudan border were told by local military that the Sudanese had allegedly laid mines around a crashed helicopter in Chad. “Rapport de la mission conjointe HCR-HCND du 3 au 20 janvier 2004,” Fadoul Ahmat and Abdoulaye Arabi, January 2004. See Chad report in this edition of Landmine Monitor.
[16] For descriptions of use and denials of use see: Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 535-537; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 576; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 224-227; Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 183-186; Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 172-173.
[17] In a March 2003 interview with Landmine Monitor, a senior SPLA official conceded that there may have been limited mine use by the SPLA, due to lack of dissemination of the ban message, but also said they have not yet found anyone actually using mines. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 536. In March 2002, the SPLA provided Landmine Monitor with sketch maps indicating some 49 known or suspected minefields in the Nuba Mountains, alleging that the Sudanese Army laid all but three. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 576.
[18] Interview with Telar Deng, New Sudan Council of Churches, Nairobi, 29 January 2001; interview with Cdr. Aleu Ayieny Aleu, Director, Operation Save Innocent Lives, Nairobi, 25 February 2001.
[19] In October 2003, when an antivehicle mine blew up a vehicle killing eight people, the SPLM/A accused the government of planting mines in the road between Umsirdibba and Kauda in the Nuba Mountains, and thus violating the Nuba Mountains Cease-fire agreement. The government spokesman denied this allegation and referred the case to the JMC, which investigated and declared it to have been an old mine. See, “SPLM alleged the Government for the Explosion in Nuba Mountains,” Alayam (daily newspaper), 8 October 2003.
[20] Interview with Thomas Dut, Secretary General, Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Commission, Old Fangak, Upper Nile, Sudan, 6 April 2004. SRRC represents a merger between the Sudan Relief and Rehabilitation Association and former rival rebel umbrella group, Relief Organization of South Sudan. Landmine Monitor has previously reported use of mines at the oil fields. See Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 535-536.
[21] Interview with Cdr. Lam Akol, SLPM, Nairobi, 14 March 2004. The troops of Gabriel Tanginya are part of the South Sudan Defense Forces, organized in 1997 of former southern rebels pursuant to their peace agreement with the Sudanese government. See HRW, Sudan, Oil and Human Rights, 2003.
[22] Interview with Cdr. Aut Jago, SPLA, Old Fangak, Upper Nile, Sudan, 29 March 2004.
[23] Noted taken in Landmine Monitor Upper Nile mission of interviews with Shilluk leader, Cdr. Lam Akol; Cdr. Aut Jago; various relief and monitor workers, Old Fangak, 6 April 2004.
[24] In August 2004, Amnesty International denounced the Khartoum government for detaining people who reportedly talked to foreign journalists and members of foreign government delegations about the crisis in Darfur.
[25] Interview with Ismail Adam, North Darfur Area Manager, Save the Children-UK, 27 May 2004.
[26] Human Rights Watch interview with SLA Commander, North Darfur, 24 July 2004.
[27] Brig. Isam Mahran, Deputy Chief, Army Corps of Engineering, presented a paper entitled, "The Position of the Armed Forces from the Ottawa Convention and its Role in the Post-peace period," at a workshop on implementing the Mine Ban Treaty, Khartoum, 23 May 2004.
[28] Interview with Sudan Delegation, 23 June 2004.
[29] Response to Landmine Monitor from the Ministry of Humanitarian Affairs, Humanitarian Aid Commission, received by fax from the Embassy of the Republic of Sudan, Washington, DC, 31 July 2003. Translation by Landmine Monitor.
[30] “The Peace Advisory requests SPLA to return to the negotiations,” Alayam, 28 January 2003.
[31] United Nations, “Landmine and UXO Safety – Sudan,” handout, July 2003.
[32] Statement by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Action, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 22 June 2004.
[33] Statement by Sudan, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, 17 September 2003.
[34] Landmine Monitor Report 1999 (pp. 171-172) provides details of the types of antipersonnel mines identified in Sudan from Belgium, China, Egypt, Israel, Italy, United States and the former Soviet Union.
[35] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 173-175; Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 186; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 228; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, pp. 577-578; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 537.
[36] SLIRI Briefing for the Members of the European Parliament, Khartoum, February 2004.
[37] Email from Dylan Matthews, Program Officer, Landmine Action, 18 June 2004.
[38] Interview with Mohamed Fawz, Program Coordinator, SLIRI, Khartoum, 21 April 2004.
[39] FSD Statement, 18 March 2004.
[40] Interview with Jim Pansegrouw, Chief Technical Advisor, National Mine Action Office, Khartoum, 22 April 2004.
[41] Interview with JP Botha, Project Manager, Mechem, Kapoeta, April 2004.
[42] Emergency Mine Action Programme-Sudan, “Quarterly Report: January–March 2004.”
[43] Ibid.
[44] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004, pp. 6-7.
[45] Uliks Hasanaj and Rune Hjarno Rasmussen, “MRE in the Nuba,” assessment report for UNICEF and DCA, submitted in March 2004.
[46] Hadyat Eltayeb, Hagir Kheir and Nasser Eldin A. Mageed, “Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Behavior on Mine Risk Education,” Save the Children–USA, March 2004.
[47] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, pp. 538-539.
[48] Interview with Mohamed Kabir, Information Management Officer, NMAO, Khartoum, 14 April 2004.
[49] Interview with Malik Ruben, Director, SLIRI South, Lokichoggio, 9 April 2004.
[50] Interview with Gamal Gorashi, Government Representative to NMAO, Khartoum, 10 April 2004.
[51] “Formation of New Sudan Authority on Landmines,” General Headquarters, Sudan People’s Liberation Movement and Sudan People’s Liberation Army, Ref. No. SPLM/SLMA/A-1, 9 May 2004, available at www.genevacall.org/resources/testi-referencematerials/testi-nsastates/sud09may04(na).pdf , accessed 10 August 2004.
[52] UNDP update to the intersessional Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, February 2004; interview with Jim Pansegrouw, NMAO, 22 April 2004.
[53] Interview with Dr. Hussein Elobeid, Coordinator for Sudan CBL, Khartoum, 28 March 2004.
[54] Interview with Gamal Gorashi, NMAO, 10 April 2004.
[55] UNDP Sudan and UNMAS Sudan, “National Mine Action Strategy (NMAS) Process,” Nairobi, Kenya, 17-27 August 2004.
[56] “Sudan agrees on landmine clearance with southern rebels,” MENA (Nairobi), 27 August 2004. See also, UNMAS, “Towards a New Mine Action Strategy for Sudan,” Press Release, 18 August 2004.
[57] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004, p. 16.
[58] According to UNMAS in August 2002, “The UN Technical Advisor (TA) has been actively working with JMC, Government of Sudan and with SPLA to gather reliable information regarding the presence of mines in the area. Many areas previously thought to contain a mine hazard are now being discredited based on local knowledge and activity. All such information is being recorded in IMSMA.” See, UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: July-August 2002.”
[59] Summary table of mine action from 2000-2004, in Sudan Emergency Mine Action Program, “Quarterly Report: January–March 2004, p. 11.
[60] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004, p. 12.
[61] Brig. Gen. J. E. Wilhelmsen, Chairman, JMC, addressing the medal parade, Nuba Mountains, 14 May 2003.
[62] Landmine Monitor visit to Farig Eldorop village, 14 May 2003.
[63] Ibid.
[64] Interview with Abu Osama, Director, JASMAR, Khartoum, 1 April 2004.
[65] Interview with Mohamed Kabir, NMAO, 14 April 2004.
[66] “Sudan: Joint Clearance of Landmines in the South,” IRIN, 10 August 2004.
[67] SLIRI Briefing for the Members of the European Parliament, Khartoum, February 2004.
[68] Email from Dylan Mathews, Landmine Action, 18 June 2004.
[69] Interview with Jim Pansegrouw, NMAO, 22 April 2004.
[70] Landmine Monitor field trip, Kapoeta, April 2004.
[71] NPA Statement, March 2004.
[72] Sudan update provided by Aksel Steen, Advisor, NPA, Oslo, 24 June 2004.
[73] “The Foreseen Arch-Enemy of a Post-War Sudan,” All Africa News Agency, Nairobi, 30 June 2003.
[74] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 177; Landmine Monitor Report 2000, p. 187; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 229; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 579.
[75] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[76] Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 542.
[77] Email from Jennifer Mason, MRE Coordinator, UNICEF Sudan, 20 September 2004.
[78] Interview with Dor Abur, Liaison Officer, SPLA, Kapoeta, 11 April 2004.
[79] Interview with Khalid Abdin, MRE Associate, NMAO, Khartoum, 14 April 2004.
[80] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[81] Email from Tin Carstairs, Director for Policy, Mines Advisory Group, 5 October 2004.
[82] Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 177; Landmine Monitor Report 2001, pp. 229-231; Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 580; Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 542.
[83] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[84] Interview with Abu Osama, JASMAR, 1 April 2004.
[85] Interview with Seif Abdelrahman, Program Manager, Save the Children-USA, Khartoum, 5 November 2003.
[86] Interview with Khalid Abdin, NMAO, 14 April 2004.
[87] “One step ahead: Significant progress on the MRE Needs Assessment in Nuba Mountains, Sudan,” DanChurchAid, available at: www.dca.dk, accessed on 7 April 2004.
[88] “MRE in the Nuba,” Report for UNICEF and DCA, March 2004.
[89] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, 22 June 2004.
[90] Email from Jennifer Mason, UNICEF, 16 August 2004.
[91] Hadyat Eltayeb, Hagir Kheir and Nasser Eldin A. Mageed, “Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Behavior on Mine Risk Education,” Save the Children-USA, March 2004.
[92] Unless otherwise noted, information comes from the individual country reports in this edition of Landmine Monitor Report. In some cases, the funding was for the country’s fiscal year, not calendar year 2003. Landmine Monitor has converted the currencies and rounded off numbers.
[93] Email from Dylan Mathews, Landmine Action, 20 July 2004. For its demining work in the Nuba Mountains for 2003–2004, Landmine Action received £250,000 from Comic Relief (UK), £65,000 from Jersey Overseas Aid, and, £44,992 from the Co-operative Bank. The Co-operative Bank funding came from its “Customers who Care” cluster bombs and explosive remnants of war campaign.
[94] Mine Action Investment Database, available at: www.mineaction.org, (accessed 5 May 2004). Conversion to US dollars by Landmine Monitor at C$ = US$1.374.
[95] US Department of State, “Congressional Budget Justifications: Foreign Operations, Fiscal Year 2005, Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) appropriation,” 10 February 2004, pp. 154-158.
[96] Interview with Khalid Abdin, NMAO, 14 April 2004.
[97] “U.N., Land Mine Action Groups Seek $30 Million For Sudan Programs Next Year,” UN WIRE, 10/2003.
[98] Details of this funding can be found in Landmine Monitor Report 2003, p. 538. Donors included Canada, Denmark, EC, Germany, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA.
[99] Email from Dylan Mathews, Landmine Action, 20 July 2004.
[100] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 23 June 2004.
[101] ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2002,” Geneva, July 2002, pp. 25-26; information provided to Landmine Monitor (HI) in email from Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, Victim Assistance Associate, NMAO, 28 July 2004.
[102] Email from Cdr. Aleu Ayieny Aleu, OSIL, 8 October 2003; Angela Stephens, “Land Mine Accident Indicates Lurking Dangers in Sudan,” UN Wire (Sudan), 15 October 2003.
[103] Email from Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 28 July 2004.
[104] Interview with Ismail Adam, Save the Children-UK, 27 May 2004.
[105] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[106] UN Emergency Mine Action Project in Sudan, “Quarterly Report: April to June 2002;” Shaza N. Ahmed and Khalid Salih, “Victim assistance in Sudan: a new integrated approach to mine action,” UNMAS Landmine Survivors & Victim Assistance Newsletter, March 2004, p. 5.
[107] Interview with Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 3 July 2003.
[108] Email from Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 29 July 2004.
[109] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[110] Email from Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 28 July 2004.
[111] “Sudan: Food deliveries vital for Nuba ceasefire,” IRIN, 27 May 2002.
[112] Interview with Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 14 April 2004.
[113] Interview with Mohamed Kabir, NMAO, 14 April 2004.
[114] Victim Data Analysis by Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, March 2004.
[115] UN Emergency Mine Action Project in Sudan, “Quarterly Report: April to June 2002.”
[116] Interview with Mohamed Fawz, SLIRI, 21 April 2004.
[117] Email from Mohamed Fawz, SLIRI, 2 August 2004. It is not clear to Landmine Monitor if there is any overlap in the data reported by the NMAO and SLIRI.
[118] SLIRI Newsletter, Issue No. 2, March-May 2003.
[119] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[120] Interview with Chris Clark, UNMAS, 2 April 2003; UN Emergency Mine Action Programme, “Monthly Report: April 2003;” email from Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 28 July 2004.
[121] “The Key to Peace: Unlocking the Human Potential of Sudan,” Interagency Paper, May 2002, p. 27, prepared by Save the Children, Christian Aid, Oxfam, CARE, IRC, and TEARFUND; interview with Hasabo Mohamed Abdolrahman, Head of Peace Administration, HAC, 17 March 2002.
[122] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[123] Landmine Monitor field work, March-April 2002; interview with Abdelaziz Adam el Helu, SPLA Nuba Commander, 22 April 2002.
[124] “WHO trains health workers in Nuba Mountains,” Khartoum Monitor, 20 June 2002.
[125] ICRC Special Reports, “Mine Action 2003,” Geneva, August 2004, pp. 26-27; “Mine Action 2002,” July 2002, pp. 25-26; “Mine Action 2001,” July 2002, p. 21; “Mine Action 1999,” August 2000, pp. 22-23.
[126] Interview with Margaret Staff, Head Nurse, ICRC Lopiding Hospital, 9 April 2004.
[127] ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2003,” Geneva, August 2004, p. 27.
[128] ICRC Special Reports, “Mine Action 2003,” Geneva, August 2004, p. 27; “Mine Action 2001,” July 2002, p. 21; “Mine Action 2000,” July 2001, p. 18; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2003,” Geneva, 9 March 2004, p. 26; “Annual Report 2002,” June 2003, p. 10.
[129] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[130] ICRC Special Reports, “Mine Action 2003,” August 2004, p. 27; “Mine Action 2001,” July 2002, p. 21; “Mine Action 2000,” July 2001, p. 18; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Programs, “Annual Report 2003,” 9 March 2004, p. 26; “Annual Report 2002,” June 2003, p. 10.
[131] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Mahendra Gafurchand Mehta, Trustee, Help Handicapped International, Mumbai, 20 August 2004.
[132] Report to Landmine Monitor from ABRAR, 1 April 2004; report to Landmine Monitor from Najat Salih, Executive Director, ABRAR, March 2003; presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[133] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[134] Ibid.
[135] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, Socio-Economic Reintegration and Mine Awareness, Geneva, 7 May 2001.
[136] Presentation by Sudan, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance, 23 June 2004.
[137] Email from Shaza Nagmeldin Ahmed, NMAO, 28 July 2004.