The initial US government funding estimates for fiscal years 2004 and 2005, of $75.5 million and $93.6 million, respectively, are likely to significantly increase because of additional resources provided in supplementary funding and a broader increase in US foreign assistance related to the clearance of mines, explosive remnants of war, and abandoned ammunition. The landmine policy announced in February 2004 pledged, “Funding for the State Department’s portion of the US Humanitarian Mine Action Program will be increased by an additional 50 percent over [fiscal year 2003] baseline levels to $70 million a year.”
Supplemental assistance to Afghanistan and Iraq contains very significant funding that include a mine action component as a necessary precondition for the implementation of larger development programs, such as road building and the restoration of electric power. The 2004 supplemental bill provides $100 million to the Department of Defense to secure and destroy conventional munitions in Iraq. Another $61 million is allocated to the State Department for munitions clearance in Iraq and another $23 million is provided to the US Agency for International Development (USAID) for road building in Afghanistan. Moreover, the US Department of Defense awarded a $317 million contract to the US Army Corps of Engineers in fiscal year 2003 to secure and destroy abandoned enemy ammunition in Iraq, whose vast quantities and widespread presence constitute a major humanitarian threat there.
While Landmine Monitor relies on official US sources for its mine action figures, in some official publications and public remarks by officials, the US government cites different figures for its mine action funding than those presented by Landmine Monitor. According to the Department of State, the US has provided over $900 million in mine action funding since fiscal year 1993. At the intersessional meeting in June 2004, the head of the State Department’s office responsible for mine action funding stated, “This year alone, our country will -- including special supplementary funds for Iraq and Afghanistan -- provide nearly $200 million to support Humanitarian Mine Action.”
The annual totals for fiscal years 1993 to 2004 provided by the Department of State reflect the difference: approx. $191.9 in 1993-1998; $82.2 million in 1999; $110.7 million in 2000; $91.1 million in 2001; $106 million in 2002; $118.1 million in 2003; and, approx. $200 million in 2004.
There are a number of reasons for this difference. One factor is the addition of emergency wartime supplemental funding noted above. Another factor is that mine action assistance figures cited by Landmine Monitor do not include annual funding of approximately $10-11 million dedicated for war victims assistance programs, which are accounted for separately in Landmine Monitor under the survivor assistance section. Additionally, Landmine Monitor’s knowledge is limited regarding some programs within the US government, like those within USAID and the Centers for Disease Control, that have some element of mine action included within a larger international assistance program, but are not identified as such or do not receive specific mine action appropriations.
The countries receiving State Department NADR and Defense Department OHDACA mine action funding, as well as the mine action-specific supplemental funding for Afghanistan and Iraq, in fiscal year 2003 is detailed in the following table:
Mine Action Funding by Country, Fiscal Year 2003
An additional $8.5 million of State Department NADR funding was allocated to global programs which include activities such as landmine impact surveys, cross-cutting initiatives and research and training. Also in fiscal year 2003, the US supported mine action programs in six countries through the Slovenian International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims’ Assistance: Albania, Armenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia FYR, and Serbia and Montenegro. Since 1998, the US has provided $52 million in matching contributions and $10.6 million in unilateral contributions to the trust fund. In addition, the US Department of State funds and operates the world’s only Quick Reaction Demining Force, based in Mozambique, which has been deployed to Sri Lanka, Sudan, and Iraq.
In fiscal year 2003, US mine action assistance was applied to the following types of activities in programs in these countries (see individual country reports for details):
The State Department’s Office of Humanitarian Demining Programs was incorporated into the newly formed Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement on 6 October 2003. In addition to administering the State Department’s humanitarian mine action assistance program and the Public-Private Partnerships program, the new office also manages programs related to eliminating small arms and light weapons. The mine action policy coordination group met on 13 March 2003 and 11 December 2003.
Concurrent with the formation of the Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, a set of “revitalized goals” for how the US as a donor treats requests for humanitarian mine action assistance from affected countries and the “measurable goals” by which programs are evaluated have been articulated. During the review process leading to the new landmine policy, President Bush directed the State Department to develop a new strategic plan for the US Humanitarian Mine Action Program. The US humanitarian mine action strategic plan will serve to advance humanitarian interests and protect the US by promoting regional security. It uses four factors to determine to whom and to what degree the US provides assistance: humanitarian need, foreign policy interests, efficiency and transparency of the recipient’s national mine action program, and the recipient’s commitment to demining.
Initiated in late 1997 this program has developed a network of public-private partnerships to bring new energy, ideas, and resources to the efforts to make the world safe from landmines, other types of weapons, and remnants of war. The partnership program, which numbers over 50 participants, including US and foreign organizations, promotes the entire spectrum of humanitarian mine action. Partners include civic associations, charitable foundations, corporations, non-governmental and international organizations, and educational groups from middle school through university-level.
According to the State Department’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, which administers the Public-Private Partnership program, in the last five years, several hundred thousand US citizens have contributed more than $14 million to mine action programs around the world, including through partner organizations. There is also a competitive grant process whereby these partners can apply for funding for their proposals and programs. Some public-private partnerships include the United Nations Association of the USA (UNA-USA) and its Adopt-A-Minefield program, Warner Bros., DC Comics, the HALO Trust, the Polus Center for Social and Economic Development, Global Care Unlimited, Grapes for Humanity (a Canadian NGO), Marshall Legacy Institute, Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF), Landmine Survivors Network (LSN), Humpty Dumpty Institute, Roots of Peace, People-to-People International, Clear Path International, and Freedom Fields USA, to name a few.
Some examples of fundraising in 2003 by partner organizations from private sources in the US include: UNA-USA Adopt-A-Minefield received $3,632,545 of which $423,796 was from the Department of State; the HALO Trust raised $660,787 from private sources in the US; People-to-People International raised $126,987 from private sources; in Grapes for Humanity’s first year of operation $150,000 was raised in the US with the proceeds going to projects in Nicaragua, Honduras, Angola, and Ethiopia, and the Children of Armenia Fund is raising $400,000 to fund a team of six mine detecting dogs with a 3-to-1 dollar match by the United States government and the International Trust Fund.
Department of Defense Humanitarian Demining Research and Development
Since the beginning of the program in 1996, a total of $129 million has been allocated by the Department of Defense to test, develop, and validate equipment and technologies to assist deminers engaged in humanitarian mine action. In fiscal year 2003, a total of $12.6 million was provided for these purposes. Demining equipment and technologies were developed and tested at several locations worldwide. Mechanical mine/vegetation clearance equipment was tested in Angola, Djibouti, Georgia, Honduras, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. Site surveys and equipment needs assessments were conducted in Angola, Azerbaijan, Honduras, and Mozambique.
Over the life of the program, the Department of Defense has tested demining equipment and technologies in Afghanistan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chile, Croatia, Cuba (at Guantánamo Bay), Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, Israel, Jordan, Kosovo, Laos, Lebanon, Namibia, Nicaragua, and Thailand. It goal is to provide equipment for “the international demining community to assess equipment capabilities in actual demining conditions. Equipment developed under this program also has many uses for military applications as several pieces of equipment are being evaluated under the Joint Area Clearance Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration.”
The number of US military mine casualties increased markedly in 2003. A total of 15 military personnel were killed and 37 injured in 2003 by landmines, based on an analysis of media reports and official casualty announcements of the incidents. In Afghanistan, seven US military personnel were killed and five injured in mine incidents. At least seven US soldiers were killed and 30 injured in 2003 in landmine incidents in Iraq. One US Army Special Operations soldier was killed and two others injured in a training accident with a Claymore directional fragmentation mine in Puerto Rico in January 2003. An additional six were killed and nineteen injured in UXO incidents in Iraq.
Landmine Monitor has also identified 22 mine casualties among US military personnel in 2001 and 2002, five killed and 17 injured. In 2002 there were 15 mine casualties; five were killed and seven injured in Afghanistan, and three were injured in a mine incident in Kuwait. In 2001, seven mine casualties were reported, none fatal, five in Afghanistan and one each in South Korea and Kosovo.
Casualties continue to be reported in 2004, particularly in Iraq. In April and July 2004, two US soldiers were killed when their vehicles hit landmines. There were eight other cases where relatives say that a US soldier was killed by a landmine.
The number of casualties attributed to improvised explosive devices (IED) in Iraq and Afghanistan is much higher. The US military uses the term IED to describe nearly all explosive devices encountered by US forces. In reporting casualties, US military officials make no distinction made between target-activated or command-detonated IED. One source estimates that 200 US military personnel have been killed by IEDs in Iraq from the beginning of the fighting until the end of June 2004. The number of injured is not known. In addition to the military casualties, two US civilian contractors were killed and one was wounded when their car hit an IED in November 2003. Target-activated IEDs are prohibited by the Mine Ban Treaty.
Between 1990 and 2000, 14 US military personnel were killed by landmines and 89 were injured. The majority of these casualties occurred in the 1991 Persian Gulf War (12 killed and 69 injured). There were 22 other landmine casualties (two killed and 20 injured) elsewhere, including two in Egypt, ten in Germany, seven in South Korea, and three in the US During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, more US casualties were caused by cluster munition UXO and other unidentified UXO (22 killed and 74 injured) than were caused by landmines.
The primary vehicle for US government funding for landmine survivor assistance is the Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund (LWVF) administered by the US Agency for International Development (USAID). Expenditures for landmine survivors are not separated out from those for war victims overall, thus it is not possible to give a precise value to US spending on mine survivor assistance programs. The LWVF supports programs for the physical rehabilitation and socio-economic reintegration of those with landmine and other war-related injuries. Since 1989, the LWVF has provided more than $116 million in support for victims of war in 30 countries. Between 1999 and the end of fiscal year 2003, $51.9 million was provided, including $11.9 million in 2003. The estimated budget for fiscal year 2004 is $11.93 million.
Leahy War Victims Fund
The LWVF is dedicated to improving the mobility, health, and social integration of adults and children who have sustained physical disabilities as a direct or indirect result of war or civil strife. Related services, such as gaining access to education and employment opportunities are also funded to promote the economic and social reintegration of the victims.
Funding for survivor assistance is also provided through the Slovenian International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims’ Assistance. In calendar year 2003, approximately $1.5 million of US Department of State funding was spent on mine survivor assistance programs in the Balkans via the ITF. Landmine Monitor has identified 23 organizations in the United States that fund or operate survivor assistance programs in mine-affected countries: ADRA International, American Red Cross, American Refugee Committee, Clear Path International, Center for International Rehabilitation, Children of Armenia Fund, Grapes for Humanity, Health Volunteers Oversees, International Institute for Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Landmine Survivors, International Rescue Committee, Julia Burke Foundation, Kids First, LSN, Peace Trees Vietnam, People to People International, Polus Center for Social and Economic Development, Project RENEW (VVMF), Prosthetics Outreach Foundation, Refugee Relief International, Save the Children-USA, United Nations Foundation, VVAF, and the World Rehabilitation Fund.
Some rely entirely on private charitable sources; however, most are using a mix of private and public funds in their programs. Many are also associated with the US Department of State’s Public-Private Partnership Program for mine action. The biggest source of public funds is USAID through the LWVF. Some organizations in the US raise funds and then pool resources at an international level to support programs that may or may not be administered from the original US group.
No legislative action has occurred on the “International Disability and Victims of Warfare Civil Strife Assistance Act of 2003” introduced in the US Congress on 27 March 2003. This was essentially a reintroduction of similar legislation, the “International Disability and Victims of Landmines, Civil Strife and Warfare Assistance Act of 2001.”
 US Department of State (DOS), Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, “Fact Sheet: New United States Policy on Landmines: Reducing Humanitarian Risk and Saving Lives of United States Soldiers,” 27 February 2004.
 This eliminates the 1998 US commitment to cease using antipersonnel mines, except those contained in “mixed systems” with antivehicle mines, everywhere in the world except for Korea by 2003. If this commitment were maintained, 8.4 million antipersonnel mines would not be eligible for use anymore, except in Korea.
 Email to Landmine Monitor (HRW) from Richard Kidd, Director, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, Department of State, 20 August 2004.
 Under the policy, the US will immediately cease the use of low metal content non-self-destructing antivehicle mines and destroy these mines within one year.
 Email from Richard Kidd, Department of State, 20 August 2004.
 Documents on the new US landmine policy can be found at www.state.gov/t/pm/wra/c11735.htm, accessed 12 October 2004.
 US Campaign to Ban Landmines, “Mine Ban Advocates Denounce White House Decision to Retain Landmines and Abandon Mine Ban Treaty,” Press Release, 27 February 2004.
 ICBL, “Nobel Laureates Condemn US Decision to Keep Antipersonnel Mines,” Press Release, 1 March 2004.
 Human Rights Watch, “Bush Administration Abandons Landmine Ban: Reversal Means US Can Use Mines Indefinitely, Anywhere,” Press Release, 27 February 2004. See also, Human Rights Watch Position Paper on “Smart” (Self-Destructing) Landmines: www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/7681.htm, accessed 12 October 2004, and New US Landmine Policy: Questions and Answers, at www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/02/27/usint7678.htm, accessed 12 October 2004.
 Under the 1996 policy, the US would no longer use non-self-destructing mines, except in Korea. It would no longer produce non-self-destructing mines and would destroy most of its stockpile of these mines, but it would maintain the right to use self-destructing/self-deactivating mines anywhere in the world, until an international ban took effect. The US would also retain the right to continue producing self-destructing/self-deactivating mines. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Statement by the President, 16 May 1996.
 Other major elements of the policy announcement were that the US would observe a permanent ban on the export of antipersonnel mines (moving beyond the existing temporary moratorium), and that the US would cap its antipersonnel landmine stockpile at the current level of inventory. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Statement by the Press Secretary, 17 January 1997.
 Chief among these were a geographic exception for continued use of antipersonnel mines of all types in Korea; a change in the treaty’s definition of antipersonnel mine so that US antipersonnel mines contained in “mixed” systems with antivehicle mines would not be banned; and an optional nine-year deferral period for compliance with the treaty’s key prohibitions.
 US government officials have been physically present at some intersessional meetings and at the First and Second Meetings of States Parties in September 2000, but not as part of an official registered delegation.
 “Statement by the Delegation of the United States,” Organization of American States AG/RES.2003 (XXXIV-O/04), “Americas as an AP Landmine-Free Zone,” 8 June 2004.
 UN Office in Geneva, Press document: “Conference on Disarmament Hears Statement by United States on Landmines and Fissile Material,” 29 July 2004.
 Statement by Amb. Paul Meyer, Canada, to the Conference on Disarmament, 29 July 2004.
 Of these, 27,967 were antipersonnel mines and 89,667 were antivehicle mines. The Marine Corps used a small number of artillery-delivered self-destructing/self-deactivating antipersonnel and antivehicle mines, 432 of each. US General Accounting Office, “GAO-02-1003: MILITARY OPERATIONS: Information on US Use of Land Mines in the Persian Gulf War,” September 2002, pp. 8-9.
 Ibid, p. 10.
 Kuwait Ministry of Defense, Headquarters Land Forces Command, “Monthly Ammunition and Explosive Destroyed/Recovery Report,” Annex A, 21 December 2002.
 See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 345. Army engineer units were deployed to Albania with antipersonnel mines and their delivery systems (MOPMS and Volcano mixed mine systems) as part of Task Force Hawk to support operations in Kosovo. Similar units were also deployed to Afghanistan. Major Scott C. Johnson, “Strategic Mobility, the Force Projection Army, and the Ottawa Landmine Treaty: Can the Army Get There?” A student monograph submitted to fulfill the requirements of the School of Advanced Military Studies, US Army Command and General Staff College, 15 February 2001.
 Two publications have alleged US use of antipersonnel mines in Afghanistan. Richard Matthew and Ted Gaulin, “Time to Sign the Mine Ban Treaty,” Issues in Science and Technology, Spring 2003, p. 72, states that “special forces units...regularly deployed self-deactivating APLs and antitank systems to augment their defenses.” Michael Byers, “The Laws of War, US-Style,” London Review of Books, Vol. 25: 4, 20 February 2003, states, “In 2001, Canadian soldiers operating in Afghanistan were ordered by their American commander to lay mines around their camp. When they refused to do so, US soldiers–who were not subject to the restrictions–laid the mines for them.”
 Dept. of the Army, Field Manual 20-32, Mine/Countermine Operations, 29 May 1998, Chapter 4.
 Landmine Monitor (HRW) conducted several interviews in 2002 and 2003 with US and international military personnel, US civilian officials, and international mine action personnel who have visited US air bases at Bagram and Kandahar. In both locations, US defensive positions on the perimeter of these facilities are behind Soviet-era minefields.
 Email from John Stevens, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, US Department of State, 23 September 2004. The State Department also reports that “due to US demining operations, those legacy minefields have been significantly reduced... For example, 15 square kilometers of Bagram’s Soviet-era minefields have been cleared.”
 According to Arms Control Today, in response to email questions, US Central Command Public Affairs stated that US forces did not use or deploy antipersonnel mines in Iraq. Wade Boese, “US Military Did Not Use Landmines in Iraq aWar,” Arms Control Today, July/August 2003.
 US Department of Defense, “Background Briefing On Targeting,” 5 March 2003.
 US Central Command, “CENTCOM Operation Iraqi Freedom Briefing,” 31 March 2003. Since 1996, US policy and doctrine restricts the use of Claymore mines with victim-activated tripwires to Korea. Pentagon officials have not replied to questions about the status of target-activated Claymores under the new US landmine policy announced in February 2004.
 US DOS, “Fact Sheet: Frequently Asked Questions on the New United States Landmine Policy,” 27 February 2004.
 Letter from Dr. George R. Schneiter, Director, Strategic and Tactical Systems, Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, to Human Rights Watch, 21 March 2000. The fact that antitank mines were also to be removed was disclosed at a Defense Department News Briefing on 20 January 1998. Beginning in 1961, the US emplaced approximately 50,000 antipersonnel and antivehicle mines along the perimeter of its facilities at Guantanamo Bay. Quality assurance and quality survey of the clearance were completed in May 2000.
 Low metal content M14 mines remaining in the US Stockpile were made compliant with CCW Amended Protocol II by the permanent attachment of metal washers. CCW Article 13 Report, Form C, 27 November 2003.
 Information provided by the US Armed Services in the Spring/Summer of 2002 cited in US General Accounting Office, “GAO-02-1003: MILITARY OPERATIONS: Information on US Use of Land Mines in the Persian Gulf War,” September 2002, Appendix I, pp. 39-43.
 US DOS, “Frequently Asked Questions,” 27 February 2004.
 Written responses to questions submitted by Landmine Monitor (HRW) to Department of Defense members of the US Delegation to the Eighth Session of the CCW Group of Government Experts, Geneva, 6 July 2004. According to the US Army’s Field Manual on Mine Warfare, up to 10 percent of the mines fail to arm properly.
 The time when these mines are armed and when they self-destruct or fully self-deactivate can be as long as 19 weeks. Mines can also be damaged during delivery; according to the US Army’s Field Manual on Mine Warfare, two-to-five percent of self-destruct mechanisms fail and up to 10 percent of the mines fail to arm properly. This means that a proportion of these US mines would always remain intact on the surface of the ground without any indication whether the mine is live or not. From a deminer’s perspective, all mines encountered must be treated as though they are live. The mines must be cleared one-at-a-time using the same procedures used to clear all mines. The humanitarian impact is still present regardless of whether the mine has a self-destruct mechanism.
 US GAO, “Land Mines in the Persian Gulf War,” September 2002, pp. 24, 27, 29.
 US DOS, “Frequently Asked Questions,” 27 February 2004. The US used to stockpile mines in Italy, Norway and Spain, but had to remove the mines due to their Mine Ban Treaty obligations. Other Mine Ban Treaty States Parties have said any stockpiled US mines are not under their jurisdiction or control.
 Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs), News Release: “Destruction of Last Non-Self-Destructing Anti-Personnel Landmines in US-Based Stockpile,” 25 June 1998.
 Dept. of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army, Conventional Munitions Demilitarization,” February 2004, p. 542-544.
 Germany, Article 7 Report, Form D.2, 16 April 2002.
 US DOS, “Fact Sheet: New US Policy on Landmines,” 27 February 2004.
 US Army, SARD-ZCA, Enclosure titled “Historical Quantities and Value of AP Land Mine Procurements,” to “Information Paper, Subject: Mines,” 21 July 1992.
 US DOS, “Fact Sheet: New US Policy on Landmines,” 27 February 2004.
 US DOS, “Fact Sheet: Landmine Policy White Paper,” 27 February 2004.
 The US government fiscal year is 1 October to 30 September (e.g., FY 2003 is 1 October 2002 to 30 September 2003).
 According to US government comments on this report in draft form, this figure was reported to be “about $227 million.” Email from John Stevens, Department of State, 23 September 2004. The $250 million figure is derived from: Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5,” February 2004, pp. 1096-1101; Department of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” February 2004, pp. 406-411; Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5,” February 2004, p. 74-79, 1079-1087; Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 1,2, and 3,” February 2004, p. 463.
 Unless otherwise noted, all information on the Spider Program is sourced from: Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5,” February 2004, pp. 1096-1101; Department of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” February 2004, pp. 406-411.
 According to US government comments on this report in draft form, the figure is “about $86 million.” Email from John Stevens, Department of State, 23 September 2004.
 Unless otherwise noted, all information on the IMS Program is sourced from: Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 4 and 5,” February 2004, p. 74-79, 1079-1087; Office of the Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller), “Descriptive Summaries of the Research, Development, Test and Evaluation Army Appropriation, Budget Activities 1,2, and 3,” February 2004, p. 463.
 According to US government comments on this report in draft form, this figure is $115 million. Email from John Stevens, Department of State, 23 September 2004.
 According to US government comments on this report in draft form, this figure is $234 million. Email from John Stevens, Department of State, 23 September 2004.
 Department of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” February 2004, pp. 386-392. This procurement includes $16 million in supplemental funding from the Emergency Wartime Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2003.
 US Army Field Support Command, “Sources Sought Amendment: M18A1 Claymore Antipersonnel Mine; M18A1E1 Claymore Antipersonnel Mines, a Variant that uses a Non-Electrical Initiation System; its Trainer (MM68E1); and the M5 Modular Crowd Control Munition (MCCM),” 12 May 2004.
 Dept. of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” February 2004, p. 388.
 The US Army has bought a total of 191,000 M87A1 Volcano antivehicle mine canisters. The Volcano system once was produced with antipersonnel mines, but this was changed in 1996. It is described by the US Army as “Ottawa compliant” and has been developed to “replace the use of hand emplaced conventional minefields.” Department of the Army, “Committee Staff Procurement Backup Book, FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Procurement of Ammunition, Army,” February 2004, pp. 393-394.
 Of this total, 4.14 million were non-self-destructing mines and approximately 80,000 were self-destructing mines. The remaining 1.36 million were Claymore mines. These figures do not include direct commercial sales. A total of 16 of these countries are considered to be mine-affected. Human Rights Watch obtained this information in August 1994 through a Freedom of Information Act request to the Defense Security Assistance Agency and US Army Armament, Munitions, and Chemical Command concerning US landmine deliveries under the Foreign Military Sales Program and Military Assistance Program.
 Australia, Austria, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Greece, Honduras, Japan, Jordan, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Thailand, Tunisia, Venezuela. While it has not formally submitted a transparency measures report, a portion of Turkey’s 3 million antipersonnel mine stockpile will likely also be of US origin.
 Mine threat files maintained by demining organizations and mine action centers in mine-affected countries contain information on the types of mines encountered. Human Rights Watch has cross-referenced this primary source data with secondary sources such as annual editions of Jane’s Mines and Mine Clearance and databases compiled and maintained by the Canadian, French, and US militaries.
 Romania, Article 7 Report, Form D.2, April 2004. Four types were transferred: MAI-75 (1,300), MAI-68 (1,300), MAI-6 (620), and MAI-2 (45).
 Ecuador, Article 7 Report, Form D.2, 31 May 2002.
 Canada, Article 7 Report, Form D.2, 24 April 2002.
 US DOS, “Congressional Budget Justifications: Foreign Operations, Fiscal Year 2005, Nonproliferation, Antiterrorism, Demining, and Related programs (NADR) appropriation,” 10 February 2004, pp. 154-158.
 US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, “Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Program of the Department of Defense for Fiscal Year 2003,” Report to Congress submitted on 1 March 2004, pp. 4-6; Defense Security Cooperation Agency, “FY 2005 Budget Estimates, Overseas Humanitarian, Disaster, and Civic Aid (OHDACA),” February 2004.
 US DOS, “FY 2005, NADR appropriation,” 10 February 2004, p. 159.
 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), “FY 2005 Budget Justification Materials, RDT&E, Program Element 0603920D8Z, Humanitarian Demining,” February 2004.
 Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004.
 US DOS, “Fact Sheet: New US Policy on Landmines,” 27 February 2004.
 Section 1121 of the “Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Act for Defense and for the Reconstruction of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004.”
 Email from John Stevens, Department of State, 23 September 2004.
 In some cases, US documents match closely. The National Annual Report for CCW Amended Protocol II submitted by the US in November 2003 states, “In Fiscal Year 2003, US humanitarian mine action assistance totaled over $85 million, including more than $12 million for research and development, and $7.5 million from USAID’s Leahy War Victim Fund for survivor assistance. Fiscal Year 2004 funding is expected to be approximately the same.” CCW Article 13 Report, Form B, 27 November 2003.
 US DOS, “Fact Sheet: New US Policy on Landmines,” 27 February 2004.
 Statement by US, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk, Education, and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 22 June 2004.
 Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the US DOS, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, 25 June 2004. The information noted that the figures for fiscal year 2004 remain tentative until all projects are completed and accounts reconciled.
 The Leahy War Victims Fund (LWVF), which in part provides aid to mine survivors, is the primary source for US government funding in this area. Since 1989, the LWVF has provided more than $116 million in support for victims of war in 30 countries. The approximate fiscal year 2004 budget is $11.9 million. For details see survivor assistance section below.
 US Defense Security Cooperation Agency, “Humanitarian and Civic Assistance Program of the Department of Defense for Fiscal Year 2003,” Report to Congress submitted on 1 March 2004, pp. 4-6; US DOS, “FY 2005, NADR appropriation,” 10 February 2004, pp. 154-158. Note that these figures do not include all of the supplementary and emergency funding that may include some mine action component.
 US DOS, “FY 2005, NADR appropriation,” 10 February 2004, p. 159.
 CCW Article 13 Report, Form B, 27 November 2003.
 As the Landmine Monitor Report 2004 went to press, the US Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement provided a pre-print copy of the 5th edition of “To Walk the Earth in Safety: The US Commitment to Humanitarian Mine Action.” This report details US humanitarian mine action efforts in over 40 countries. Please consult this publication for additional details of US funded programs. See www.state.gov/t/pm/wra.
 US DOS, Office of the Spokesman, “Media Note: Formation of Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement,” 6 October 2003.
 Statement by Richard Kidd, US DOS, Mine/UXO Workshop, Kunming, 27 April 2004.
 Information provided to Landmine Monitor by the US DOS, Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement, 16 August 2004.
 For an inclusive list of all partner organizations, see: US DOS, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, “Synopsis of Public-Private Partnerships,” 20 April 2004.
 All information in this paragraph was provided to Landmine Monitor by the partner organizations, August 2004.
 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), “FY 2005 Budget Justification Materials, RDT&E, Program Element 0603920D8Z, Humanitarian Demining,” February 2004. For more information see: www.humanitarian-demining.org .
 Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), “FY 2004-2005 Budget Justification Materials, RDT&E, Program Element 0603920D8Z, Humanitarian Demining,” February 2003.
 Landmine Monitor Analysis of media reports and official Department of Defense casualty reports. See also: “Afghan Land Mine Injures US Soldier,” Associated Press, 4 January 2003; “American Soldier Loses Foot in Mine Explosion,” American Forces Press Service, 10 January 2003; “GI Loses Foot in Afghan Land-Mine Blast,” Fox News, 19 February 2003; “US probes Afghan mine blast,” BBC, 20 February 2003; “US troops kill one, detain seven in Afghan raid,” Reuters, 22 April 2003.
 Frank Griffiths, “US soldier in Puerto Rico dies,” Associated Press, 27 January 2003.
 DoD casualty reports; CENTCOM news releases; Landmine Monitor analysis of media reports.
 DoD casualty report.
 Official casualty reports issued by the Department of Defense only speak of hostile or enemy action.
 Telephone interviews with military public affairs officers from the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Washington, DC) and Central Command (Tampa, Florida, Baghdad, Iraq, and Kabul, Afghanistan), 10 June 2004.
 Main Action Information Center, James Madison University, “Landmine Situation in Iraq,” 22 June 2004. This source also attributes 100 fatalities among coalition forces to landmines and UXO.
 “Two from Knox firm die in Iraq,” Knoxville News-Sentinel, 4 November 2003.
 US GAO, “US Use of Land Mines in the Persian Gulf War,” September 2002, pp. 11-20, p. 20, footnote 13. Official casualty data was provided to the GAO by the US Army Safety Center.
 USAID, Office of Democracy and Governance, “Congressional Budget Justification FY 2005, Special Programs to Address the Needs of Survivors,” 932-005, February 2004.
 There are global programs as well: Prosthetics and Orthotics Training and Technologies through International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics (ISPO)- schools in Cambodia, El Salvador, Pakistan, Tanzania, Vietnam ($3,654,339). A similar program through WHO ($1,190,848). Provision of wheelchairs - Afghanistan (HI $207,984), Albania (Albania Disability Rights Foundation $387,950), Honduras, Nicaragua Guatemala (Polus Center for Social and Economic Development $1,030,000), Philippines (HI $750,000), worldwide (Motivation Charitable Trust $2.373.515).
 All subsequent descriptive summaries of WVF programs taken from United States Agency for International Development, “Patrick J. Leahy War Victims Fund, Portfolio Synopsis,” Spring 2004. Available at: www.dec.org/pdf_docs/PDACA160.pdf, accessed 12 October 2004.
 Email from John Stevens, Department of State, 23 September 2004.