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BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, Landmine Monitor Report 2005

Bosnia And Herzegovina

Key developments since May 2004: In December 2004 Bosnia and Herzegovina amended the criminal code to apply penal sanctions for violations of the Mine Ban Treaty. BiH’s mine action strategy was revised in 2004, and integrated with national development goals. The new strategy aims to reduce by 40 percent the total mine-suspected area by the end of 2008, two months before the Article 5 deadline. Illegal caches of antipersonnel mines continued to be discovered. At the end of December 2004, it was estimated that some 2,300 square kilometers, about 4.4 percent of the country, was affected by mines and unexploded ordnance. In 2004, 4.3 square kilometers of land was demined. A further 2.3 square kilometers was reduced by technical survey, a large increase on 2003. Both national and international funding of mine action in BiH increased in 2004, totaling US$28.6 million (compared with $17.46 million in 2003). International donors contributed $18.8 million to the total. A new mine risk education strategy was developed, including integration with other aspects of mine action, marking of minefields, and strengthening the delivery and coordination of mine risk education. BiH standards for mine risk education were adopted. The downward trend in mine/UXO casualties continued in 2004. At the First Review Conference, BiH was identified as one of 24 States Parties with the greatest needs and responsibility to provide adequate survivor assistance. In June 2005, BiH presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors.

Mine Ban Policy

Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH)[1] signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified it on 8 September 1998, and became a State Party on 1 March 1999. On 29 December 2004, parliament approved Article 193A, which is an amendment to the criminal code, applying penal sanctions for violations of the treaty.[2] The law forbids the development, production, storage, transportation, offer for sale, or purchase of antipersonnel mines. The penalty for such offences is between one and ten years’ imprisonment. If death or injury occurs to people or animals, or if there is damage to the environment, the person or persons involved shall be punished by imprisonment of not less than five years or by a long-term prison sentence.[3]

On 6 May 2005, BiH submitted its Article 7 transparency report for calendar year 2004. The report included optional Form J with information on mine casualties and victim assistance. BiH submitted five previous Article 7 reports.[4]

BiH attended the First Review Conference of the Mine Ban Treaty in Nairobi in November-December 2004. The Minister of Civil Affairs, Safet Halilovic, said that “BiH is a perfect witness to the great achievements of the Ottawa process and the global mine ban movement,” and noted the “significant results in [the] past several years in [the] process of gradually taking the ownership of overall mine action activities and building, strengthening and advancing [the] expertise of our capacities....”[5] At the conference, BiH supported a joint proposal for a mine-free region in South Eastern Europe by 2009.[6] BiH also attended the intersessional meetings in Geneva in June 2005, where it made statements to the Standing Committees on mine clearance, victim assistance and stockpile destruction.

With regard to State Party discussions on interpretation and implementation of Article 1 of the Mine Ban Treaty, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in April 2003 stated that BiH “neither participates nor supports participation, and will not participate in joint military operations with any forces planning, exercising or using antipersonnel mines.” The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has also stated that BiH will not allow the storage or transit of antipersonnel mines belonging to other countries in or through its territory.[7] BiH has not expressed its views with regard to issues related to Article 2 (mines with sensitive fuzes and antihandling devices) or Article 3 (permissible number of mines retained for training).

On 3 November 2004, BiH attended the inaugural meeting in New York of the Forum of Mine-Affected Countries (FOMAC), a group of high level representatives from mine-affected countries.  FOMAC was formed to encourage cooperation between mine-affected countries.[8]

BiH is a State Party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons and its Amended Protocol II. It attended the Sixth Annual Conference of States Parties to the Protocol in November 2004, but had not submitted a national annual report as of July 2005.

Production, Transfer and Use

BiH inherited the mine production facilities of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in Gorazde, Vogosca, Bugojno and Konjic. The Demining Commission has stated that production of antipersonnel mines had ceased by 1995.[9] BiH has reported on the conversion of these production facilities.[10] There were no reports of use of antipersonnel mines in 2004 or the first half of 2005. In the past, Landmine Monitor has noted occasional use of mines in criminal and terrorist activities.

Illegal stores of mines continued to be discovered in 2004 and 2005. Bosnia and Herzegovina has not reported on these seizures and discoveries of antipersonnel mines, or on their destruction, in its Article 7 reports. The Dayton Agreement allows international military forces to search for and collect illegally held weapons, including mines. Once mines come into their possession they stay under international control until final destruction. The European Force (EUFOR) took over from the Stabilization Force (SFOR) on 2 December 2004.

On 26 May 2004, SFOR and police discovered a cache of illegal weapons in a private house in the Lopare area, which included a large number of antipersonnel and antivehicle mines and about 100 detonators. The police arrested the owner of the house.[11] During Operation Gordian Knot in June 2004 in Doboj region, Slovenian peacekeepers discovered the biggest cache of illegal weapons in the last five years, including 120 antivehicle and antipersonnel mines.[12] In September 2004, members of SFOR, the Republika Srpska (RS) army, and police found a large underground warehouse containing landmines and other arms in a difficult-to-reach part of Prosara mountain, near the village of Jablanica.[13] On 12 November 2004, SFOR troops, in a joint operation with RS police in Bijelijina, arrested a man for the illegal possession of weapons, including eight boxes of landmines. The man was reported to be the former deputy commander of the wartime Panthers paramilitary unit.[14] In April 2005, EUFOR soldiers collected a large quantity of weapons, including 53 antipersonnel mines, in the areas of Bihac and Kiseljak in northwest BiH.[15]

The collection of mines and other weapons from the population through SFOR/EUFOR’s Operation Harvest continued in 2004, with 3,231 mines of all types collected in 2004, and 320 mines of all types collected 1 January to 26 May 2005.[16]

Stockpiling and Destruction

BiH declared completion of its stockpile destruction in November 1999, with a total of 460,727 mines destroyed. Destruction was carried out at various locations by the two Entity Armies with SFOR assistance. The stockpile consisted of 19 types of mines.[17] The number of destroyed mines was amended to 460,925 in BiH’s May 2004 Article 7 report, and to 461,634 in its May 2005 report.[18] No explanation has been given for the changes.

In addition, in reporting on stockpiled mines destroyed after entry into force, BiH has included a line for “demining” by NGOs, commercial firms and civil protection units. It is unclear if these are stockpiled antipersonnel mines destroyed by these agencies, or mines cleared from the ground and destroyed by them. The number in the May 2004 Article 7 report is 29,751, and in the May 2005 report, 33,788.[19]

Thus, in total, the May 2004 Article 7 report indicates that 490,676 antipersonnel mines had been destroyed up to 31 December 2003, and the May 2005 Article 7 report indicates that 495,422 antipersonnel mines had been destroyed up to 31 December 2004.[20]

In 2003, SFOR found very large additional quantities of antipersonnel mines among old munitions, after the Entity Armies requested assistance with downsizing the 500 military storage sites and dealing with old munitions in storage. An SFOR publication reported that several hundred thousand antipersonnel mines were awaiting destruction at these sites.[21] By March 2004, 2,574 antipersonnel mines, 31,920 antivehicle mines and 302,832 detonators had been destroyed.[22]

The BiH government has not formally reported the existence of these newly discovered stocks of antipersonnel mines, has not provided details on numbers and types of mines, and has not made known the timetable for destruction of the mines.

Starting in late 2005, a joint EUFOR–BiH government commission is to begin a project of thorough inspections of BiH Armed Forces weapons storage sites in order to finally confirm their status. This is the first time that BiH state government members have been involved in a joint commission of this type, and is one of a number of joint exercises preparing the BiH government for the final takeover of complete responsibility for weapons site inspection, which is expected by the end of 2006.[23]

Mines Retained for Research and Training

BiH reported that at the end of 2004, it retained 2,755 antipersonnel mines for permitted training and development purposes, including 2,058 active mines and 697 fuzeless mines. This is an increase of 103 mines compared with 2003 when 2,652 mines were retained (2,195 active and 457 fuzeless). In its May 2005 Article 7 report, BiH explains that the number is higher because “mines kept by other demining companies” were not included in the previous report.[24]

The total number of mines, all of which are active, retained by these companies is reported as 1,186, although that appears to include 42 antivehicle mines. No information is provided about who the other demining companies are, or how many mines each holds in what location.

Excluding the newly reported mines held by demining companies, the number of active mines retained decreased from 2,195 at the end of 2003, to 872 at the end of 2004, with 738 held by the RS Army and 134 by the Federation Army.[25] The number of fuzeless mines increased from 457 to 697.

BiH has not yet reported in any detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of its retained mines―a step agreed to by States Parties in the Nairobi Action Plan that emerged from the First Review Conference. In June 2005, a BiH representative simply told the meeting of the Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction that the retained antipersonnel mines “are necessary for the training in mine detection, mine clearance and mine destruction techniques.”[26]

Landmine and UXO Problem

Bosnia and Herzegovina remains one of the most mine-affected countries in Europe; there is also contamination caused by unexploded ordnance (UXO). At the end of December 2004, the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Center (BHMAC) estimated that the total area potentially contaminated was some 2,300 square kilometers―approximately 4.4 percent of the total landmass of BiH.[27] This is a decrease from the April 2004 estimate of 2,780 square kilometers.[28]

The BHMAC database has recorded 18,600 minefields since 2003, despite ongoing mine clearance and decreasing estimates of the area of contamination.[29] This number is said to represent only about 60 percent of all minefields; BHMAC notes that the main problem is the reliability of records made during the 1992–1995 war which do not always give a precise location of where mines were laid, or the pattern of their emplacement.[30]

Mine and UXO-suspected Areas at 31 December 2004 (square kilometers)[31]

Suspected hazardous area
Priority 1
Priority 2
Priority 3
Federation BiH
Republika Srpska
Brcko District
Total BiH

Priority 1: land in regular civilian use, or required for refugees or infrastructure renewal

Priority 2: areas close to Priority 1 land, and agricultural and forestry land

Priority 3: all remaining areas

The landmine problem in BiH arose from the conflict of 1992-1995 during the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The resulting mine contamination is described as generally low density and random. Mines were used extensively along confrontation lines, which moved frequently. Most minefields are in the zone of separation between the two entities, which was created at the end of the conflict; this is 1,100 kilometers long and up to four kilometers wide. In southern and central BiH, mines were often used randomly, with little record-keeping. New minefields are discovered each year. Some of the affected territory is mountainous or heavily forested. Brcko District, a fertile agricultural belt, is considered one of the most heavily contaminated areas.[32]

There were large population movements during the war, and returning refugees and internally displaced persons are particularly at risk from mine/UXO contamination.

Mine Action Program

The Demining Law of February 2002 established the Demining Commission under the BiH Ministry of Civil Affairs, and introduced state-level responsibility and coordination of mine action, previously held by the Mine Action Centers of the two entities. The commission represents BiH in its relations with the international community on mine-related matters and oversees BHMAC operations. The Demining Law also regulates the implementation of demining operations in accordance with the national mine action strategy as approved by the Demining Commission.

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) continued its previous assistance to BiH with the initiation in 2004 of a new, five-year $11.8 million Integrated Mine Action Program (IMAP). The program aims to establish “a clear link between mine clearance priorities and national/local long-term economic development” and to reverse the “slowing rates of mine clearance that have been witnessed as a result of shortfalls in donor funding.”[33] IMAP includes clearance of mined land for economic benefit and for returnees, capacity-building to allow BiH to take full ownership of mine action within 18 months, and transformation of the BiH Armed Forces into the long-term national capacity needed to “undertake mine action in a consistent manner.” IMAP is funded by Canada, Netherlands, Sweden and the UK.[34]

In June-July 2004, BiH’s mine action strategy was revised. The new Mine Action Strategy for 2005–2009 was approved by the Council of Ministers on 12 October 2004. It recognizes that “a coherent strategy of mine action...is a precondition for the reconstruction of the country... [because] mine contamination obstructs numerous economic and natural resources” as well as having a “devastating” impact on the quality of life of BiH citizens. An overall purpose of the new strategy is that mine action should be “harmonized with overall national development.” The strategy states that mine action is present as a sector within BiH’s 2004 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PSRP).[35]

However, by integrating mine action with overall national development goals, a divergence arises between BiH’s obligations under the Mine Ban Treaty and its long-term goals for poverty reduction. The treaty obliges BiH to ensure the destruction of all antipersonnel mines in mined areas as soon as possible, but no later than 1 March 2009. In contrast, BiH’s Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and its PSRP introduce the later dates of 2015 and 2020 in relation to mine clearance. The UNDP report, MDG Update Report for Bosnia and Herzegovina, includes the target of clearing 80 percent of known minefields by 2015, and the PRSP mid-term target of clearance of 20 percent by the end of 2007.[36] Dealing with the mine-threat is set out as an adaptation of Global Goal VII, target 11, which states: “by 2020 achieve a significant improvement in the lives of those living in slums or highly challenging conditions.”[37]

The Mine Action Strategy aims to “result in a 39,5% reduction (790,04 km2) of the current suspect area by the end of 2008.”[38] The strategy states that its connection with “the realization of the ambitions contained in Article 5 of the Ottawa Convention” is of “special significance...Progress towards these objectives will be analyzed annually by the Demining Commission and reported by the Ministry of Civil Affairs to the Council of Ministers of BiH.”[39] Measures to reduce the risk from, and socioeconomic impact of, mines must be balanced with the limitations of available capacity and financing. The “basic aim is the reduction of risk and its associated socio economic impact to an acceptable level.”[40]

It is planned to significantly reduce the mine-risk in suspected hazardous areas affecting high and medium impacted communities by targeted clearance, combined with intensive marking of the remaining locations where a risk is suspected. Humanitarian demining will be supported by mine risk education at the community level and in all schools, prioritizing high and medium impacted communities. The capacities of the Army and Civil Protection agencies will be used more intensively, with BHMAC more involved in the efficient direction of their resources.[41]

Between 2005 and 2008, the greatest reduction of mined and mine-suspected areas will be in highly impacted communities, with a planned reduction of 34 percent (214 square kilometers), thereby eliminating Priority 1 land from these communities. There will also be 50 percent reduction (337 square kilometers) of mined and mine-suspected areas in medium impacted communities. In low impact communities, the reduction will be 77 percent (239 square kilometers).[42]

Mine clearance is planned for 21 square kilometers, conducted only on Priority 1 areas and concentrated on highly impacted communities (4.5 square kilometers in 2005; five square kilometers in 2006; 5.5 square kilometers in 2007; six square kilometers in 2008).[44]

Systematic survey to reduce suspected hazardous areas is planned for 716 square kilometers (170.8 square kilometers in 2005; 177.89 square kilometers in 2006; 184.23 square kilometers in 2007; 183.48 square kilometers in 2008). Systematic survey will be conducted as a specific activity during general survey, allowing up to 80 percent reduction of new suspected hazardous areas. General survey will focus on new areas, and is planned to cover a total of 511 square kilometers in 2005-2008 (115.1 square kilometers in 2005; 124.6 square kilometers in 2006; 133.5 square kilometers in 2007; 136.8 square kilometers in 2008).[45]

Technical survey is planned for 53 square kilometers, to further reduce the perimeters of suspected areas (6.5 square kilometers in 2005; 11.7 square kilometers in 2006; 16.5 square kilometers in 2007; 18 square kilometers in 2008). In 2005, technical survey will be carried out in Priority 1 and 2 areas. It is planned that the ratio of survey in Priority 1 and 2 areas in 2005 will be 85:15 percent, reducing to 50:50 in 2008.[46]

Permanent marking will be carried out over an area of 140 square kilometers (35 square kilometers each year for four years), in cooperation with municipal, canton and entity authorities. Urgent marking (76,512 signs on 510 square kilometers) will be carried out by BHMAC, accredited demining organizations and organizations dealing with mine risk education. Marking will be focused on Priority 2 and 3 areas in high and medium impacted communities and is due to be completed by 2009. It is planned that quality assurance will increase as the level of humanitarian demining increases.[47]

According to the new strategy, “countering the threat at the level of the local community and the individual has a central position in the planning and conduct of mine action.”[48] Emphasis is placed on the need for better task assessment and planning, improved priority-setting, and improving mine risk management through community-based plans that integrate clearance activities with mine risk education.[49]

The cost of implementing the strategy is estimated as KM245 million ($162.5 million) for 2005-2009. This is presented as a reduction of KM127 million ($84 million) from the previous strategy.[50] However, at the Fifth Meeting of States Parties in September 2003, the cost of making BiH free from the effect of mines by 2020 was stated to be $334 million, from which the new estimate of cost is a reduction of $89 million.[51]

The new strategy plans for the following expenditures:

  • humanitarian demining: KM179,988,000 ($113,806,410, 74 percent);
  • coordination, quality assurance, survey: KM41,708,000 ($26,371,968, 17 percent);
  • mine risk education: KM9,855,000 ($6,231,316, 4 percent);
  • victim assistance: KM11,200,000 ($7,081,760, 4 percent);
  • policy, advocacy, capacity-building: KM2,503,000 ($1,582,647, 1 percent).[52]

The total contribution from BiH (central and local government, entities, organizations) is estimated at KM76.3 million (31 percent) over the 2005-2009 period. The funding sought from international donors is KM124.5 million, and it is hoped that additional, unspecified sources will provide the balance of KM44.6 million. The BiH contribution declines from 37 percent in 2005 to 28 percent in 2009, and international donations decline from 63 percent to 38 percent. The strategy assumes that “missing” funding increases, from zero in 2005, to 34 percent in 2009. The Council of Ministers planned to convene a donors’ conference before the end of 2005.[53]

BiH reported in May 2005, as in previous years, that it possesses mine clearance resources in excess of the funds available to employ these resources; with full funding, it estimated that it could clear 31 square kilometers every year.[54] For 2004, the final downward-revised plan was to clear 9.9 square kilometers,[55] a significant reduction on the 20.2 square kilometers announced in February 2004. This reduced goal was not met: only 4.3 square kilometers were demined in 2004,[56] substantially less than in 2003.

Resources employed during 2004 included 28 of 38 accredited demining organizations (a decrease from 37 in 2003); 1,758 accredited deminers (a decrease from 1,771 in 2003); 91 accredited mine detection dog teams (unchanged from 2003); 38 accredited machines (a decrease from 42 in 2003). BHMAC employed 36 quality controllers to inspect the demining task sites and 39 surveyors carried out general surveys.[57] Compared with 2003, eight more demining organizations were accredited for technical survey and two for mechanical ground preparation.[58]

BHMAC states that mine action in BiH “is conducted in accordance with all appropriate international conventions and standards.” There are 15 national standards in BiH for different aspects of mine action.[59]

The new mine action strategy recognizes the need for more efficient task assessment and planning.[60] A Task Assessment and Planning (TAP) pilot project was carried out by BHMAC survey teams in 2003 as follow-up to the Landmine Impact Survey, in order to provide the local data needed to prioritize mine action. The first full TAP, carried out by Norwegian People’s Aid in the community of Ulice-Brcko, has “shown very good results in the elimination of the mine risk in the first phase.”[61] The second phase was continued in 2005, with 250,000 square meters scheduled for clearance and 900,000 square meters for technical survey.[62]

By the end of 2004, 33 TAPs had been completed, including those started in 2003. It was planned to create 25 more TAPs in 2005; eight in Republika Srpska, two in Brcko District and 15 in the FBiH. By May, 12 of them had been funded and were ready to be implemented.[63] Data from TAPs is used to produce local mine action plans. During 2004, 15 integrated mine action plans were prepared by BHMAC regional offices for high impacted communities, covering a total suspected area of 15,324,547 square meters.[64]

The national mine action plan for 2005 also aimed to complete the amending process for the Demining Law, in order to comply with international legislation concerning mine action and the revised mine action strategy, and adopt new regulations for accreditation of demining agencies. Re-accreditation of demining agencies was to be completed by the end of 2005.[65]

Evaluation of Mine Action

A study of the role of indigenous organizations in mine action, published in 2005 by the Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD), included a case study on Bosnia and Herzegovina.[66] The case study found, among other things, that the “overall performance of the Bosnian mine action program has been disappointing in many respects, including perceptions of widespread corruption, and the program has lost significant amounts of donor goodwill and potential funding.” It also concluded that the program “continues to feature excess capacity among demining organizations, which at current funding levels are operating at perhaps one-third their collective capacity.” The study noted that “the core institutions remain weak, particularly in the policy coordination and planning functions within both the Demining Commission and BHMAC, and the survey function within BHMAC.” It did, however, find that some of the local demining companies and NGOs “appear to be capable and, collectively, have significantly more capacity than has been used in recent years.”[67]

Survey and Assessment

In 2004, BHMAC carried out general survey on 83 square kilometers of land (7.73 square kilometers more than in 2003, but much less than the planned 148 square kilometers).[68] The total area surveyed since 1998 is 447.97 square kilometers. BHMAC noted in its planning for 2004 that the 39 surveyors employed were insufficient, and “seasonal adjustments” would be needed to reinforce the teams.[69]

Systematic survey is used by BHMAC to establish the location, size and boundaries of mine-contaminated areas, level of risk and impact on the population. In 2004, BHMAC teams conducting systematic survey reduced the mine-suspected area by 466 square kilometers.[70]

Results of the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) completed in December 2003 were entered in the IMSMA database. However, BHMAC does not use IMSMA for mine action planning, preferring its own database. BHMAC’s 2004 trial of IMSMA in one regional office was not completed as of mid-2005. The LIS identified 1,366 municipalities as being mine-affected out of the 2,935 municipalities surveyed, of which 154 were categorized as high impact, 696 as medium impact, and 516 as low impact. A total of 2,134 areas of suspected mine/UXO contamination were identified.[71]

Fencing and Marking

The BHMAC Mine Action Plan for 2004 stated that “Permanent marking would be based on locations of 2nd category of priority and partially 3rd category [land].”[72]

BHMAC reported that, during 2004, 7,790 square meters of permanent fencing with 248 signs were installed in 19 locations in Sarajevo Canton. In Zvornik Municipality, the NGO Anti-Mine Initiative marked 1,055 square meters of suspect area with permanent fencing and 158 signs. UNDP provided the material for 23,000 square meters of permanent marking, fencing and signs.[73]

The new mine action strategy calls for permanent marking on suspect locations that will not be subject to reduction or clearance before 2009.[74]

Mine and UXO Clearance

The Mine Ban Treaty requires that BiH destroy all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 March 2009.

The Article 7 report of May 2005 records a total 6,612,716 square meters of land “cleared and technically surveyed” in 2004.[75] This is similar to 2003 (6,411,947 square meters) but substantially less than BHMAC’s original plan to clear 20.2 square kilometers and its revised plan to clear 9.9 square kilometers during the year. The BHMAC report for 2004 records that the total cleared was made up of 4,295,314 square meters demined and 2,317,402 square meters reduced by technical survey.[76] BHMAC’s database records clearance of 3,016 antipersonnel mines in 2004 (1,495 in 2003), 210 antivehicle mines (156 in 2003) and 1,523 UXO (1,066 in 2003); there were also 108 houses cleared.[77]

From 1999 to the end of 2004, some 36 square kilometers of land were cleared in BiH.

Area Cleared of Mines/UXO 1999-2004 (square meters)[78]


The categories of land cleared in 2004 were repatriation areas (42 percent), infrastructure (25 percent), housing (seven percent), agriculture (17 percent), industry (two percent), and “other” (seven percent).[79] This increases further the prioritization in 2003 of land cleared for repatriation (28 percent in 2003). In 2004, operations were started on 303 demining and technical survey sites.[80]

In 2004, in the Federation entity, 2,844,055 square meters were cleared by demining and 1,448,813 square meters by technical survey; in Republika Srpska, 1,008,904 square meters were cleared by demining and 180,693 square meters by technical survey; in Brcko District, 442,355 square meters were cleared by demining and 687,896 square meters by technical survey.[81] In all three areas, demining achievements in 2004 were significantly less than in 2003.[82]

The International Trust Fund for Demining and Mine Victims Assistance (ITF) reported to BHMAC that the average cost of its contracted demining operations in 2004 was $1.788 per square meter (€1.562 per square meter for contracts concluded in euros).[83] The average cost of demining by military teams was calculated to be KM3.49 ($2.30 or €1.85) per square meter.[84]

For quality assurance in 2004, there were 4,100 inspections conducted on 334 demining working sites (688 more than in 2003).[85]

During 2004, landmine and UXO accidents killed three deminers and injured five others.[86] In May 2005, a deminer from the RS military demining unit was killed while clearing a minefield containing antipersonnel mines near Zvornik in northeast BiH.[87]

BHMAC investigates accidents during mine action operations where casualties occur. All deminers in BiH are insured, at levels required by the Demining Law, except for deminers employed under ITF contracts, which are insured at different levels.[88]

NGOs and Commercial Demining Companies

In 2004, NGOs demined a total of 1,384,082 square meters and technically surveyed 1,598,088 square meters. Commercial companies demined 1,565,007 square meters and technically surveyed 318,274 square meters. Both groups demined substantially smaller areas than in 2003.

ITF reports that in 2004 it funded the clearance of 2,595,016 square meters and technical survey of 1,100,016 square meters, carried out by eight NGOs and eight commercial companies.[89]

Norwegian People’s Aid (NPA) released for use over 1.6 square kilometers of land through clearance and technical survey, using a mix of manual deminers, machines and mine detection dogs.[90] NPA had 131 employees in BiH, four machines, seven manual teams, 12 dogs, two explosive ordnance (EOD) teams, and a two-person community liaison team in Sarajevo.[91] The Greek NGO International Mine Initiative demined 119,069 square meters and technically surveyed 157,014 square meters, during which it destroyed 119 antipersonnel mines, one antivehicle mine and 244 UXO.[92] In March 2004, the Italian NGO Intersos started a clearance project on sites around Mount Trebevic, including the bobsleigh track, and other areas around Sarajevo.[93] In 2004, Intersos cleared 45,269 square meters and carried out technical survey of 75,987 square meters; 167 antipersonnel mines and 62 UXO were found.[94] The German NGO HELP ceased demining operations in BiH in 2003.[95]

Bosnian NGOs involved in mine clearance in 2004 included UG ZOM, Udruzenje za Eliminaciju Mina (UEM), STOP Mines and Pro Vita. BHMAC reports that UG ZOM cleared 16,242 square meters and technically surveyed 41,698 square meters, destroying 1,031 antipersonnel mines, four antivehicle mines and 57 UXO. It has a staff of 16 people, including 12 deminers.[96] UEM began work in 2004 and cleared 21,932 square meters and technically surveyed 24,560 square meters, destroying seven antipersonnel mines and 19 UXO, in the Sarajevo suburb of Duboki Potok; UEM used manual clearance, with explosive detection dogs subcontracted from UXB Balkans. UEM has two teams comprising 16 deminers. The land cleared by UEM was a reservoir serving the local community, a section of power line and agricultural land.[97] In 2004, STOP Mines cleared 88,096 square meters, and found 29 antipersonnel mines and 23 UXO.[98] Pro Vita, based in Mostar, cleared 265,782 square meters and technically surveyed 66,488 square meters. The Bosnian commercial company Vilakol, based in Mostar, cleared 210,920 square meters working in 10 municipalities; 60 mines and 122 UXO were found.[99]

Entity Armies and Civil Protection

In 2004, BiH Armed Forces conducted demining and technical survey of 1,061,674 square meters on 68 sites in BiH, compared with 1,314,610 square meters in 2003. The reduction is attributed to internal reorganization and downsizing of demining teams (from 43 to 38). This reduced the overall quantity but new working practices were said to have increased productivity.[100] The Armed Forces had 38 manual demining teams, seven mechanical teams and five dog teams.[101]

SFOR maintained Entity Armies’ demining machines, organized training of the explosive detection dogs and their handlers, and of deminers. These activities were taken over by EUFOR in December 2004. Accident insurance for Army deminers was provided throughout 2004. SFOR also supplied demining equipment, metal detectors and marking material.[102]

Civil Protection demining teams in the two Entities cleared 549,851 square meters and technically surveyed 239,551 square meters in 2004. The total 789,402 square meters is more than 2003, but less mine clearance was carried out.[103] A total of 222 antipersonnel mines, 94 antivehicle mines and 150 UXO were destroyed, and 30 houses were cleared.

Several BiH companies produce equipment used in mine clearance. In 2004, the Famos-Koran company in Pale (RS) made and delivered a demining machine and serviced other demining machines.[104] The TRZ company in Hadzici produces protective clothing for use by deminers; their main export markets are Croatia, Italy and Greece.[105]

Mine Risk Education

In total, 27 organizations implemented mine risk education (MRE) in BiH in the reporting period.[106] BHMAC reported that 117,454 people received MRE during 2004, through the activities of the BiH Red Cross (FBiH: 41,217, RS: 41,713), Genesis (19,361), Anti Mine Initiative (672), Spirit of Soccer (85), Federation Civil Protection (100), Handicap International (341), Intersos (463), Norwegian People’s Aid (318), Drina Srebrenica (352), SFOR/EUFOR (12,584) and BHMAC (230). The entity/cantonal ministries of education, UNICEF, International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and Pokretno Pozoriste also supported the design or delivery of MRE during 2004.[107]

All MRE activity is coordinated through BHMAC, assisted by UNICEF. In March 2004, an MRE strategy was developed, following the Cranfield mine action strategic planning model. The intention is that MRE strategy should complement and be integrated into the overall mine action strategy for BiH. It also seeks to reduce mine-risk by promoting permanent marking of minefields, strengthening educational structures to implement MRE, and improving coordination with community bodies and the media.[108] UNICEF sought to strengthen the coordination role of BHMAC, and develop tools and procedures such as national MRE standards, accreditation procedures and a national MRE curriculum. Management tools were developed to improve allocation of resources, improve management of a national program, and to increase synergy between actors and activities.[109]

UNICEF identified male residents of mine-affected areas involved in farming as the most at-risk group. More than one-third of all mine casualties admit to consciously taking risks. Other groups at particular risk include children playing, forestry workers, construction workers, and displaced persons returning to areas they left during the war. Children under 18 years accounted for 20 percent of new casualties reported in 2003 and 16 percent in 2004. These are the groups targeted for MRE by the various implementing organizations.[110]

In view of BHMAC’s limited resources, UNICEF plans to continue providing technical assistance and programming for the coming years. UNICEF has also worked with Handicap International on policy development and coordination for the entity ministries of education, including an inter-entity strategy for school-based MRE.[111] In addition, UNICEF has assisted the direct delivery of MRE at a local level; projects during 2004 included theater and peer education, and strengthening community-based mine risk management and education.

ICRC and Red Cross network’s MRE program in BiH continues to be modeled on the Safer Village model, incorporating data collection and assessment, community level action, and coordination with all actors in mine action. The Red Cross especially targets the most at-risk group of males (aged 19-39), through programs for farmers, hunters, fishermen and woodcutters in three residency categories (residents, internally displaced and returnees). In response to an increase in mine incidents involving returnees in 2003, the Red Cross launched additional efforts to target this category.[112]

In 2004, ICRC restructured and reduced its MRE program in response to BHMAC’s increased MRE capacity. ICRC will not completely withdraw from MRE in BiH, but recognizes that national capacity is now capable of undertaking the roles international organizations have had since 1995. The new roles of ICRC, Red Cross Societies and BHMAC were to be formalized in a memorandum of understanding in 2005. As of April 2005, the Red Cross Societies of BiH had three MRE coordinators financially supported by ICRC.[113]

BHMAC developed MRE standards with the support of UNICEF during 2004, based on the International Mine Action Standards (IMAS).[114] Accreditation procedures for MRE organizations were being developed. BHMAC passed responsibility for training of MRE instructors to the Federal Administration of Civil Protection. Since 2004, the Federal Administration organized eight basic training sessions where 200 MRE instructors were trained.[115]

The entity Red Cross Societies have 96 volunteers (61 in FBiH and 35 in RS) working in local communities and schools, targeting high and medium risk areas. In 2004, a total of 3,788 municipalities received MRE. The work focused on farmers, foresters, hunters, fishermen/anglers, climbers, children, returnees, local authority workers, and those who live or work in the countryside or small villages, as well as on collecting data on mine and UXO casualties.[116]

MRE to schoolchildren is a major component of the Red Cross program, in cooperation with the Ministry of Education. Volunteers visit schools and provide a multi-media MRE program using video, music and songs with the theme of Red Riding Hood. MRE also takes place during concerts, sports, cultural and religious events, and in children’s summer camps.[117] Mass media is considered an important means of MRE dissemination. In 2004, newspapers reported 78 items about landmines, there were 68 shows or items on television, and the mine problem was mentioned 321 times on radio. There were also 160 TV spot messages and 775 radio spot messages.[118]

The NGO Genesis provides school-based MRE in close cooperation with the Pedagogical Institute of Republika Srpska, the ministries of education and BHMAC. This project includes MRE puppet shows in primary schools, developing and piloting integrated peer education and MRE kits for teachers, and MRE community mapping workshops with school teachers. In 2004, Genesis conducted 687 sessions in which 19,361 children from five to 11 years received MRE. It distributed 13,950 MRE pamphlets targeting adolescents through 189 school libraries.[119]

For the June 2004-June 2005 school year, Genesis targeted 40 communities across Bosnia and Herzegovina. Thirteen of the communities are located in high and high/medium-risk areas, 13 in medium risk areas and 14 were not categorized by the Landmine Impact Survey, but are considered by Genesis to be in close contact with mines/UXO. Genesis has produced and broadcast 21 educational TV shows for children and adolescents. The programs, which include MRE, are puppet shows shown over six episodes, and regularly broadcast by the nine state and commercial TV stations in BiH.[120]

PRONI registered as a national NGO under the name Anti Mine Initiative (AMI) during 2004, and in June started the Mine Marking and MRE for Community Representatives project, funded by UNICEF. MRE training was given to 46 community representatives from five municipalities in northeast BiH. The training given by AMI, BHMAC and UNICEF was also attended by citizens’ associations, municipal community support officers and some NGOs. The second part of the project was to conduct permanent marking on two locations selected by BHMAC, where AMI also provided MRE information to hunters and house-to-house MRE, and surveyed the local population’s needs and priorities. The AMI project also uses the trainees as MRE contact points in the community, in the event that their community is selected for mine action.[121]

SFOR provides MRE to its own troops, EU police monitors, OSCE and embassy staff. It does not have a civilian MRE program but accompanies Entity Army deminers who carry out some MRE during the winter. During 2004, SFOR continued to contract the Moving Theatre (Pokretno Pozoriste), a Sarajevo-based NGO, to run a performance-based MRE program aimed at primary school children. SFOR interpreters accompanying clearance-monitoring teams were trained in September 2003 to conduct MRE in the winter months when demining is suspended.

Norwegian People’s Aid considers that its community liaison activities, integrated with mine clearance, fit the IMAS definition of MRE. Prior to commencing a mine clearance project, members of the task impact assessment team visit the area to explain the clearance operation and who the community representatives should contact with any concerns. Community representatives are invited to see the site area, and when the task is completed, are informed of what has been done and the boundaries of the cleared area, and any remaining suspect or known dangerous areas. Stand-alone MRE is not provided by NPA.[122]

Spirit of Soccer is a British NGO that teaches children about mine risks through playing soccer (football). In September 2004, Spirit of Soccer organized a two-day workshop with student teachers at the Faculty of Physical Education at the University of Sarajevo. The aim was to explore the potential of spreading MRE through sport. Handicap International, UNICEF, BHMAC and SFOR outlined their roles and objectives, and informed the 190 participants what is being done to tackle the mine problem in BiH. On day one, 40 physical education students participated in a soccer/MRE session, followed by discussion of the merits of teaching MRE through sport. Students then split into six groups to explore ways to promote MRE through the most popular sports among young people in southeast Europe such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, martial arts and skiing. The 40 students also completed a questionnaire, which showed that eight had never received MRE, 30 said they enjoyed receiving MRE through soccer coaching, and 37 claimed to have learnt new information on mines, especially the location of minefields and procedures when encountering a mine. Due to the success of the workshop, Spirit of Soccer feel that it can now encourage and influence the Faculty for Sports Science to include MRE training as part of the degree curriculum for all sports teachers and coaches. In 2005, Spirit of Soccer planned to implement two pilot schemes designed, organized and implemented by the students, targeting the sports of basketball and skiing.[123]

In 2004, Handicap International (HI) started a three-year project to develop sustainable MRE capacity in BiH. The project has two components, the development of sustainable school-based MRE, and of sustainable community-based MRE focused on those most at risk. The school-based MRE project includes information on mine risk education, and information on the risks from light arms and small weapons. HI implemented a survey in 2004 to assess previous experiences in MRE and to measure the level of awareness and knowledge among pupils, teachers and school directors. The survey covered 166 primary and secondary schools located in high, medium or low impacted areas. Questionnaires were filled in by 2,692 pupils, 530 teachers and 59 heads of schools. The results of this survey fed into the design of a long-term strategy for effective MRE within the school system.[124]

As a result of the survey, representatives from the Entities and Brcko District’s ministries of education and other MRE actors, supported by HI, started to develop an MRE curriculum and a school kit for primary and secondary schools. This will consist of an MRE manual for teachers and all necessary accessories for successful implementation of MRE in the school system, to be ready for use by January 2006. The number of hours that will be given over to MRE during the school year will be a minimum of two, up to a maximum of six (FBiH) or eight hours (RS), depending upon the mine impact in each community or locality.[125]

To improve the impact of MRE among the most at-risk groups, particularly males aged 18-45 years living in rural areas, the second component of the HI program will provide MRE training to NGOs, societies, religious leaders and other opinion-makers in civil society. The pilot project started in Doboj and Ilijas municipalities in 2004. Organizations involved include Civil Protection, Red Cross, police, BHMAC, municipality officials and clubs/societies representing fishermen, mountaineers and hunters.[126]

Intersos, implementing partner of UNICEF, in cooperation with the University of Rome and the University of Sarajevo, conducted sociological research with the aim of assessing behaviors and attitudes of the socio-cultural categories exposed to mine/UXO-risk. Based on the research findings, Intersos designed a project, supported by UNICEF, which started in September 2004. The project, targeting community representatives and trade union workers in six municipalities, works with the most marginalized and at-risk communities to develop local risk reduction capacities, including MRE focal points.[127]

Funding and Assistance

Landmine Monitor estimates that in 2004 a total of US$28,557,017 was donated to mine action in BiH from both national and international sources, a substantial increase from $17.46 million in 2003. The amount of funding reported by BHMAC as donated by national sources indicates that BiH reduced its previous dependency on international donors, with national sources providing approximately 33 percent of mine action funding in 2004, and international donors providing approximately 67 percent. Overall, however, both national and international contributions to mine action in BiH have increased substantially from previous years.

BHMAC reports that KM15,383,903 ($9,783,278)[128] was contributed by national sources, including the Council of Ministers (KM3,082,381, for BHMAC expenses), UG Phoenix (KM450,000, for demining), entity governments (KM11,001,166, for the Civil Protection agencies) and cantons (KM850,356, for demining activities, fencing and marking of mined areas). This is a significant increase in national funding from 2003 (KM12,863,853, $7.46 million), and almost double from 2002 (KM10,413,563, $5.06 million). BiH also exceeded its national pledge of $7.675 million, which was later revised down to $6.6 million.[129]

There is no comprehensive record of international donations to mine action in BiH. Funding may be channeled via BHMAC, UNDP, ITF and other organizations working in BiH, and may include in-kind assistance. Landmine Monitor identified 13 governments, the European Commission (EC), SFOR, UNDP and various international organizations donating approximately $18,773,739 to support mine action in BiH in 2004. This is substantially more than international funding of KM19,000,543 ($12 million) reported by BHMAC for 2004.[130] ITF alone reports allocating over $14 million to BiH for mine action in 2004.[131] Total donor funding reported by Landmine Monitor for 2003 was $10.4 million.[132]

Donors in 2004 were:

  • Austria: €466,347 ($580,043) consisting of $220,286 for the Austrian NGO HOPE 87 for victim assistance, $12,438 for NPA and $347,319 via ITF;[133]
  • Belgium: €26,000 ($32,339) in-kind assistance (clearance experts to SFOR);[134]
  • Canada: C$2,647,229 (US$2,033,671) consisting of $920,319 for CIDC, $998,694 to UNDP IMAP via ITF, and $114,658 for UNICEF;[135]
  • Finland: €170,000 ($211,446) to the Finnish Red Cross/ICRC for integrated mine action.[136]
  • France: €80,000 ($99,504) for mine clearance by UEM;[137]
  • Germany: €1,315,776 ($1,636,562) through ITF for clearance and technical survey;[138]
  • Italy: €500,000 ($621,900) to UNDP IMAP;[139]
  • Luxembourg: €147,632 ($183,625) to HI for MRE;[140]
  • Netherlands: $775,663 consisting of €499,500 ($621,278) to UNDP IMAP and KM244,159 ($154,385) to the Jesuit Refugee Service for victim assistance;[141]
  • Norway: NOK16,665,000 ($2,472,588) to NPA through ITF for demining;[142]
  • Sweden: SEK5 million ($680,457) to BHMAC for demining;[143]
  • Switzerland: CHF182,250 ($135,000) to NPA through ITF;[144]
  • US: $3,599,598 consisting of $3 million through ITF and KM948,259 ($599,598) for LSN-BiH for victim assistance;[145]
  • EC: €3,817,000 ($4,747,585) for clearance, technical survey, capacity-building, LIS, and replacement of Civil Protection equipment;[146]
  • SFOR: €150,000 ($186,570) insurance for Armed Forces demining teams.[147]
  • Adopt-A-Minefield (USA): $29,189 consisting of $17,700 to LSN-BiH and KM18,170 ($11,489) to STOP Mines for victim assistance.[148]

ITF reported allocating $14,059,299 to BiH for mine action in 2004, representing 56 percent of ITF 2004 expenditure.[149] Donations reported by ITF and not included in the donor reports above, include Adopt-A-Minefield $117,296 for demining activities; Ireland $154,726 for demining; Marshall Legacy Institute $30,000 for the mine detection dog center; UNDP $600,703 for demining.[150] These amounts are included in the Landmine Monitor estimate of total funding.

BHMAC reported that UNICEF provided $1,079,113 to mine action activities in 2004.[151]

Despite the increase from previous years, total funding from national and international sources remains far short of the budgetary requirements forecast by the government. BHMAC estimated that $51.17 million was required for its mine action plan for 2004, of which it was anticipated that BiH national sources would provide $7.675 million (15 percent) and international donors would contribute the balance of $43.49 million.[152] In February 2004, the estimated funding required was revised to about $50 million.[153]

Landmine/UXO Casualties

In 2004, 43 landmine and UXO casualties were recorded including 16 people killed (three were deminers) and 27 injured; six were children.[154] This represents a 20 percent decrease from the 54 new mine/UXO casualties (23 people killed and 31 injured) recorded in 2003.[155] Of the new casualties in 2004, 35 were civilians and eight were deminers; 34 casualties occurred in FBiH and nine in RS.

New mine/UXO casualties continue to be reported in 2005 with six people killed and four injured to 1 July.[156] On 5 May 2005, a 32-year-old deminer from the RS military demining unit was killed while demining a field near the town of Zvornik in northeast BiH.[157]

Since 1996, the ICRC and the BiH Red Cross network throughout the country have collected mine casualty data and provided up-to-date information on landmine and UXO incidents. As of 1 July 2005, the ICRC/RCS database contained information on 4,878 mine/UXO casualties (959 people killed and 3,919 injured) since 1992. ICRC records indicate that mine/UXO casualties in BiH have declined each year since 2000.[158]

In 2005, control of the mine/UXO casualty database passed from ICRC and the Red Cross Societies to BHMAC, but will continue to be operated by the Red Cross until BHMAC develops appropriate capacity.[159]

The Landmine Impact Survey reports significantly higher casualty figures for the period 1996 to 2001, recording 2,171 mine/UXO casualties as compared to 1,353 recorded in the ICRC database for the same period.[160]

An analysis of type of injuries indicates that, from 1992 to July 2004, there were 2,285 amputations, 415 eye injuries sustained, and 2,743 cases of fragmentation wounds to the lower or upper body. These figures do not match the total number of injured because some individuals suffered more than one type of injury.[161]

Survivor Assistance

BiH continues to need international assistance and cooperation in the healthcare sector. At the First Review Conference, Bosnia and Herzegovina was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and with “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate assistance for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[162]

Two mine survivors from BiH participated in the Survivors Summit and First Review Conference in Nairobi in November-December 2004.

In June 2005, as part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, BiH presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors. Objectives for mine victim assistance include: creating a standardized information system on mine casualties; improving coordination between organizations working on mine victim assistance through the establishment of working bodies; developing quality standards for orthopedic and medical rehabilitation; enhancing professional development, pre-qualifications and vocational training for mine survivors, and promoting the employment of mine survivors within businesses; amending existing legislation on the rights of persons with disabilities.[163]

In 2005, BiH submitted the voluntary Form J with its 2004 Article 7 Report with details of mine casualties and some of the organizations supporting survivor assistance.[164] In 2004, there were 21 government departments, NGOs, organizations and associations registered with BHMAC that deal in landmine victim assistance.[165]

The governments of FBiH and RS, the international community and local NGOs continue to work toward alleviating the medical and socioeconomic obstacles faced by landmine survivors. Each entity has responsibility for the health and social welfare of its population, with further division of responsibilities between the cantons in FBiH.[166]

Victim assistance is a sub-strategy of the BHMAC Mine Action Strategy covering 2005–2009. The priority tasks included in the strategy are: strengthening and harmonizing the legislation relating to persons with disabilities; strengthening the rehabilitation system; increasing disability awareness to improve the quality of life of persons with disabilities; facilitating the employment of persons with disabilities. BHMAC is responsible for the coordination of victim assistance through the Landmine Victim Assistance coordination group, which is composed of government departments and agencies, NGOs and organizations active in the field. The group consists of representatives of the FBiH ministries of health and labor and social policy, RS ministries of health and labor, BHMAC, UNICEF and three NGOs―STOP Mines (chair), Landmine Survivors Network and Union of Civilian War Victims. Handicap International provides technical expertise. A Board for Mine Victim Assistance, at the level of BiH, has been established to act as the overall coordinator of assistance activities. Plans include the establishment of standards for medical rehabilitation, orthopedic services, accreditation of organizations, standard operating procedures, training and the organization of controls and assessments of projects. A web page and a database will also be developed.[167]

BiH has four university clinical centers in Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Mostar and Tuzla, a network of general hospitals and district hospitals, and a public health center in every municipality. First aid posts are located in all health centers throughout the country, but there is a lack of well-equipped emergency transport.

In FBiH, there are 38 Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) centers for physical rehabilitation, funded through the FBiH Medical Fund. Victims of the war, including mine survivors, are treated free of charge. There are 22 CBR centers in RS. The Japanese government is providing computer software to the CBR centers.[168] Some hospitals, public health centers, and private centers or spas, also provide physical therapy and rehabilitation.

In BiH, there are 13 public orthopedic workshops (eight in FBiH, four in RS and one in Brcko District) and 14 private workshops. The standards of facilities and quality of care are said to vary dramatically across BiH. There are between 60 and 70 orthopedic technicians in BiH, but very few have received training to an international standard. There is no official recognition of the profession in BiH.[169] The high cost of prostheses and other assistive devices is said to limit the government’s ability to meet the needs of mine survivors and other amputees.

The US-based Center for International Rehabilitation (CIR) implemented a 12-month Prosthetic Distance Learning Education program to August 2005. The objectives were to improve the quality of services provided to landmine survivors in local facilities by developing and implementing prosthetic education distance learning programs; to build regional capacity for the implementation of recognized international prosthetic training programs; to assess the potential for expanding the distance learning program to the whole region. The program aims to train 61 students. The trainings are based on international standards with the theoretical component completed by distance learning through the CIR website. In 2004, CIR provided prosthetic training in 11 rehabilitation centers in the region for 22 rehabilitation technicians.[170]

State-run social welfare centers are located in each municipality and can assist landmine survivors at the local level. In 2004, there were 60 mental health centers in BiH and three psychiatric clinics.[171] However, psychosocial support in BiH is reportedly inadequate. One of the main issues is the lack of understanding among the general population of the rights and needs of persons with disabilities.

In 2004, 16 mine survivors from BiH were rehabilitated at the Institute of Rehabilitation of the Republic of Slovenia. As part of the rehabilitation training program, three students from BiH were enrolled in the prosthetics and orthotics technology course at the School of Health Studies, University of Ljubljana. Their studies are being funded by French and US donations to ITF. In addition, summer holidays for 13 child mine survivors were organized together with the Slovenian Red Cross at the health resort at Debeli Rtič, Slovenia.[172]

In 2004, Iceland donated 200 prosthetic devices to orthopedic centers in Sarajevo, Mostar and Tuzla.[173] In early 2004, in a partnership with the Wheelchair Foundation and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 50 wheelchairs were distributed to war-disabled, with another 450 available for distribution through the BiH Red Cross network.[174]

In 2004, the Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) ran an assistance program for young people up to 25 years-of-age injured during and after the war, and another program for mine survivors over 25 years-of-age, based in Sarajevo. The program for young people provided medical assistance, rehabilitation (including support to obtain prostheses and assistive devices), educational assistance through scholarships, summer camps, and material, psychosocial and legal support. In 2004, the program assisted 134 young people, including 65 landmine survivors; 55 received prostheses or orthopedic aids, 27 received rehabilitation services, and five had access to medical examinations. The program ended in October 2004. Also in 2004, 154 adults were assisted, including 64 mine survivors; 45 people received prostheses or orthopedic aids, and 36 received rehabilitation in a medical center. The program ended in December 2004. Under both programs, 79 people were also assisted with free medicines, derma sets and socks for prostheses, or transportation and food (especially for those traveling to Sarajevo from other parts of BiH). JRS also has a computer school and a building renovation program to assist mine survivors and other people with a disability adapt their homes.[175] The programs were supported by CORDAID.

Landmine Survivors Network (LSN) is active in 12 heavily mine-affected regions of the country. LSN employs 14 mine survivors/amputees, including 12 community-based outreach workers who work with individual survivors to assess their needs, offer psychological and social support, and educate their families about the effects of limb loss. LSN assists survivors in accessing services that provide mobility devices, health services or vocational training. If no such services exist, LSN sometimes intervenes to provide direct assistance, including covering the cost of prostheses, house repairs and emergency food aid. LSN also establishes social support groups and tracks survivors’ progress towards recovery and reintegration. In 2004, outreach workers conducted 6,215 home visits, registered another 116 survivors in their database, made first contact with 127 people, and made 254 hospital visits. The outreach workers also held 343 meetings with various service providers on behalf of their clients. In 2004, LSN provided direct assistance to 327 survivors/amputees, and made 215 successful referrals and links to services provided by the authorities or other organizations; about 90 percent of beneficiaries are mine survivors. LSN distributed 30 pairs of crutches, two wheelchairs and six pairs of orthopedic shoes. It covered approximately 15 percent of the costs of prostheses for 40 civilian survivors, with the balance covered by the relevant FBiH canton or by the RS Ministry of Health; the costs for military survivors were covered in full by the relevant authorities. LSN initiated a survey to ascertain the quality of prosthetic limbs with the aim of improving services. It also provided training in small business development to 24 survivors, and 68 survivors received start-up funds for small businesses. LSN’s economic reintegration activities focus on creating sustainable job opportunities, either through employment or self-employment. Groups of survivors also meet to teach others small business development skills. In September 2004, LSN organized the 6th annual Princess Diana Memorial sitting volleyball tournament. Six teams from both entities participated. LSN is active in promoting the rights of persons with disabilities, including through support to local NGOs working with and for disabled people.[176]

According to statistics from the ICRC, at least 415 people suffered eye injuries in landmine incidents. The Banja Luka Association for the Blind’s membership includes at least 57 mine/UXO survivors. However, it would appear that little is being done to address the needs of visually-impaired survivors. In RS, survivors who lose their sight in mine incidents receive the maximum amount of benefits available for landmine injuries; all medical services are free and free prosthetic eye replacements are available for those losing one eye.[177]

Handicap International conducts the SHARE-SEE Program (Self Help and Advocacy for Rights and Equal Opportunities in South East Europe) in BiH. The program is aimed at raising awareness, strengthening disability organizations, and promoting equal opportunities and the full participation of persons with disabilities in the community. The project is funded by HI and the US Department of State through the ITF. In 2004, 125 training workshops and 652 consultancies were held. In 2003-2004, SHARE-SEE also supported 20 regional exchanges and study visits, three international conferences, two international workshops on community services and eight national conferences, and provided development grants of between €3,000 and €8,000 ($3,700-$9,950) to groups representing persons with disabilities.[178]

The NGO HOPE 87 runs two programs for mine survivors, the Medical and Psychosocial Rehabilitation of Mine Victims in Sarajevo, and Rehabilitation and Social Integration of Young People in Sarajevo. HOPE 87 provides medical treatment at an out-patient clinic, and psychosocial support and vocational training in computer skills and languages for mine survivors and other victims of the war. Currently, 280 people (170 mine survivors) receive treatment at the HOPE 87 polyclinic. It is also a training center for the Sarajevo area in pain-management and care for mine/UXO survivors. In 2004, 95 people attended English and German languages lessons. In June 2004, HOPE 87 ran a five-day scuba diving course for 20 people at an aquatic center in Croatia; three are now working with organizations demining rivers in BiH. In June 2005, HOPE 87 introduced a new course in small and medium business management called Job Idea Creation. The programs are funded by the Austrian Development Agency and the Japan International Cooperation Agency.[179]

The NGO Udruzenje Amputiraca (Amputee Association, UDAS), based in Banja Luka, operates in RS and is active in data collection, facilitating access to prostheses and rehabilitation treatment, psychosocial support and economic reintegration. In 2004, there were 300 amputees registered in the UDAS database. Activities in 2004 included the development of sports for persons with disabilities, and workshops on crafts and sculpture. Some members of the association have been successful in starting their own business, including hairdressing, tailoring, chicken farms and mushroom production, as part of the economic reintegration project. In 2004, the UDAS budget was €38,000 ($47,264); 10 percent was provided by government authorities in Banja Luka.[180]

In 2004, the 10 mine survivors participating in STOP Mines and Adopt-a-Minefield’s May Life be Sweet income generation project achieved some success with 66 kilograms of honey produced in their beehives donated to other mine survivors and their families.[181] In September 2004, STOP Mines and Adopt-a-Minefield started a new program called Sustainable Professional Rehabilitation for Landmine Survivors in RS. The program is intended to provide capital for mine survivors who have a business idea, or an idea for a route back into employment, and already possess the background knowledge or experience. Loans are offered in three sizes; $660, $1,330 and $2,330. In January 2005, the first set of 13 loans were awarded for projects, including the supply of specialized tools for the service and repair of air conditioning units, the supply of a pedigree bull, and an edible snail farm. Start-up funding for the project has been provided in the form of a grant from the US Department of State via ITF.[182]

In FBiH, there are about 50 sports clubs for people with disabilities, including three with women’s teams in Tuzla, Sarajevo and Zenica. The Association for Sport and Recreation of Invalids in BiH provides facilities in Sarajevo, Tuzla, Gorazde, Zenica, Una Sana and Middle Bosnia. Around 10,000 people benefit from the programs, including many mine survivors.[183] In 2004 in RS, there were eight sitting volleyball clubs, specifically set up for mine/UXO survivors. In total, there are 35 sports clubs for person with disabilities in RS. An international tournament is organized every year in December to which teams from BiH and abroad are invited.[184] The BiH men’s sitting volleyball team won the Gold medal at the 2004 Paralympic Games in Athens. In 2005 the RS Ministry of Sport and Youth allocated KM100,000 (approx. $63,000) to sport activities for persons with disabilities.[185]

The NGO Eco-Sports is working with persons with disabilities on rehabilitation through sporting activities such as diving; 32 landmine survivors from the Sarajevo Canton are participating in the program. Eco-Sports receives funding from ITF.[186]

In 2004, two regional governments from Italy, Emila Romagna and Marche, allocated €3.5 million ($4.3 million) in cash and in-kind to assist in various projects in the health sector in BiH. The funding will also be used to assist the job placement of disabled young people. The project is planned for three years, and will be run in Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla, Zenica, Bihac and Banja Luka. In addition, training will be provided in state institutions to raise awareness of the needs of persons with disabilities.[187]

Disability Policy and Practice

In BiH, there are four different schemes to support persons with disabilities. In FBiH, the situation varies from canton to canton. Brcko District has it own laws on social protection, but has not enacted any specific laws on the rights and benefits of military personnel or civilians disabled by the war. There are significant variations in the level of care and support available between the entities, and between the cantons, due to different levels of economic development and resources, and between civilian and military war-disabled. Difficulties encountered by organizations providing assistance include the lack of state programs for persons with disabilities, different legislations for civilian and military victims, and poor implementation of existing laws.[188]

Civilian mine survivors must pay for their healthcare or insurance. They receive much lower and more irregular compensation for their injuries than military survivors. In some cases, civilians must pay a part of their medical costs and a portion of the costs of their prostheses, which can be prohibitive for many in a country where the average wage is around $880 per year.

The RS Ministry of Labor and War Veterans provides social support to victims of the war, including both military and civilian mine survivors. In May 2004, the RS Parliament adopted a new law on military and civilian mine casualties, implemented on 1 January 2005, which is in accordance with World Bank conditions for obtaining credits to administer social welfare. It was reported that, due to budget constraints, the law would be amended to reduce benefits available as the RS government believed it was preferable to have realistic laws that can be implemented, rather than raise expectations that cannot be met with available resources.

In FBiH, through the Ministry of War Veterans, a military mine survivor has the right to a free prosthesis every third year, free healthcare and insurance, free treatment in special rehabilitation centers, and compensation for a disability. However, the government reportedly has difficulty balancing needs with available resources. In June 2004, a new Law on War Veterans was approved.

The final version of the BiH Medium Term Development Strategy (PRSP) 2004-2007 was adopted by the Council of Ministers on 5 February 2004. The strategy incorporates 12 sectors, including healthcare, social and pension policy, and mine action. The recommendations of the PRSP are included in the revised Mine Action Strategy, which acknowledges that mine victim assistance is linked to the general healthcare and social protection systems for people with disabilities. Implementation of victim assistance depends on current reforms in social services, employment and healthcare. Realization of these reforms depends on development of data and information coordination, improvements in research, planning and the reliance on domestic capacities for victim assistance.[189]

[1] BiH is composed of two entities and an autonomous district: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), Republika Srpska (RS), and Brcko District.

[2] Official Gazette of BiH, No. 61/04.

[3] Interview with Amira Arifovic, Counselor, Division for Peace and Security, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Sarajevo, 11 May 2005.

[4] Previous reports were submitted on 17 May 2004; 1 April 2003; 20 May 2002; 1 September 2001; 1 February 2000.

[5] Statement by Safet Halilovic, Minister of Civil Affairs, Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World (First Review Conference), Nairobi, 3 December 2004.

[6] Statement by Safet Halilovic, First Review Conference, Nairobi, 3 December 2004. See also, “Mine Free Regions Initiative: The Example of Mine Free South Eastern Europe by 2009,” prepared by Slovenia, delivered to the First Review Conference, Nairobi, 1 December 2004. Supported by Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Croatia, FYR Macedonia, Norway, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia, and the European Commission.

[7] Fax from Ministry of Foreign Affairs to Landmine Monitor, 29 April 2003.

[8] United Nations, “Countries stand united in the battle against landmines,” 4 November 2004, www.un.int/angola/press_release_landmines.

[9] Interview with members of the Demining Commission, Sarajevo, 30 January 2003.

[10] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 193.

[11] “Operation harvest in the area of Lopare,” BBC Monitoring Service, 26 May 2004, www.nato.int/sfor/media.

[12] “Slovene peacekeepers in Bosnia seize biggest cache in last five years,” BBC Monitoring Service, 24 June 2004.

[13] News articles from the Centre for Security Studies website, www.css.ba.

[14] “Peacekeepers Arrest Ex-Paramilitary Commander,” 14 November 2004, www.setimes.com, accessed 22 November 2004.

[15] “EUFOR collects ‘large quantities of arms’ in Bosnian towns of Bihac and Kiseljak,” BBC Monitoring Service, 14 April 2005.

[16] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 15 June 2005; email from Maj. J. Scott, Staff Officer Countermines, EUFOR, 7 June 2005. Operation Harvest began as an SFOR initiative introduced in 1998 to collect unregistered weapons, mines, explosives and other ordnance from private holdings, in cooperation with local police, under amnesty conditions. From 1998 through February 2004, 32,907 antipersonnel mines were collected, as well as large quantities of other munitions. Destruction is carried out by SFOR (now EUFOR). Email from Maj. Michael Forster, SO Countermines, SFOR, 29 April 2004.

[17] Article 7 Report, Forms D and G, 1 February 2000 (for the period 8 March 1999-1 February 2000).

[18] Article 7 Reports, Form G, 17 May 2004 (for calendar year 2003) and 6 May 2005 (for calendar year 2004).

[19] Article 7 Reports, Form G, 17 May 2004 and 6 May 2005.

[20] Article 7 Reports, Form G, 17 May 2004 and 6 May 2005.

[21] Sgt. Kris Dlouhy, “JMA–Blasting Ahead to a safer BiH,” SFOR Informer, No. 165, September 2003.

[22] Capt. Julian Gumley, “Weapons Storage Sites in BiH,” SFOR Informer, No. 165, September 2003; email from Maj. Matt Richards, SO Countermines, SFOR, 18 March 2004.

[23] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 15 June 2005.

[24] Article 7 Report, Form D, 6 May 2005.

[25] Article 7 Report, Form D, 6 May 2005.

[26] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Standing Committee on Stockpile Destruction, Geneva, 15 June 2005.

[27] BHMAC, “Operational Plan on MRE in BiH for 2005,” p. 5.

[28] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action 2004,” p. 3.

[29] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 195. In 2002, the BHMAC database contained 18,228 minefields. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 116.

[30] BHMAC, “Humanitarian Demining Operational Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina for 2005,” p. 3.

[31] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action 2004,” p. 3.

[32] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 196.

[33] UNDP, “Integrated Mine Action Program (IMAP),” February 2004; “UN agency project aims to clear landmines from Bosnia and Herzegovina,” UN News Service, 10 March 2004.

[34] For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 198-199.

[35] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 4-5, www.bhmac.org, accessed 2 April and 10 September 2005..

[36] UNDP, “MDG Update Report for Bosnia and Herzegovina: PRSP, Europe and Beyond,” Sarajevo, September 2004, p. 44.

[37] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 5, 12, 22.

[38] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 20.

[39] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 5-6. Responsibility for implementing the strategy lies with the Ministry of Civil Affairs, instead of the Council of Ministers.

[40] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 12.

[41] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 12.

[42] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 3.

43 BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 20.

[44] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 13-14.

[45] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 13-14.

[46] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 13-14.

[47] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 13-15.

[48] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 6.

[49] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 3.

[50] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 17.

[51] Statement by Darko Vidovic, Demining Commission, Fifth Meeting of States Parties, Bangkok, 15–19 September 2003. Average exchange rate for 2004: KM1 = $0.6323, used throughout this report for 2004 data. Central Bank of Bosnia-Herzegovina at 10 August, 2005.

[52] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 17.

[53] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” pp. 17-18.

[54] BHMAC, “Humanitarian Demining Operational Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina for 2005,” p. 6.

[55] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” p. 13.

[56] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 2.

[57] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 4-5, 12-13.

[58] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 4. The 38 accredited organizations included three Entity Armed Forces, three Civil Protection agencies, 15 NGOs (nine local and six international) and 17 commercial companies.

[59] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 5. The standards are available on the BHMAC website: www.bhmac.org.

[60] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 3.

[61] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 7.

[62] BHMAC, “Humanitarian Demining Operational Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina for 2005,” p. 15.

[63] Interview with Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, and Tarik Serak, Head of Operations, BHMAC, Sarajevo, 9 May 2005.

[64] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 7.

[65] BHMAC, “Humanitarian Operational Demining Plan in Bosnia and Herzegovina for 2005,” pp. 7-11.

[66] GICHD, “A Study of Local Organizations in Mine Action,” Geneva, 2005.

[67] GICHD, “A Study of Local Organizations in Mine Action,” Geneva, 2005, pp. 172-175. A severe funding crisis in 2001-2002 was attributed to lack of donor confidence, at a time when members of the Demining Commission were dismissed and the Commission was dissolved. See Landmine Monitor Report 2002, p. 119.

[68] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 13; BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” p. 7.

[69] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” p. 7.

[70] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004.

[71] Interview with Tarik Serak, Head of Operations, BHMAC, 19 May 2005; Executive Summary, “Landmine Impact Survey: BiH,” in email from Mike Kendellen, Director for Survey, Survey Action Center, 14 July 2004. For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 200.

[72] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” p. 12.

[73] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 13.

[74] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 17.

[75] Article 7 Report, Form F, 6 May 2005.

[76] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 9, 11. BHMAC noted that the technical survey achievement in 2004 was nine times greater than in 2003, and considerably cheaper than humanitarian demining operations.

[77] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 7-11. During the technical survey, 29 antipersonnel mines, one antivehicle mine, 85 UXO and eight houses were cleared. These numbers are included in the overall totals.

[78] See also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 202.

[79] Information from Darvin Lisica, Deputy Director, BHMAC, 9 May 2005.

[80] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 13.

[81] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 8-10. An attachment to Form F of the Article 7 report for 2004 shows these totals of demining plus technical survey as “demining” for each Entity and Brcko.

[82] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 202.

[83] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 5.

[84] Interview with Maj. Jonathon Scott, EUFOR, and Zeljko Kalinic, Manager, MICC, EUFOR, Sarajevo, 17 May 2005. This includes salaries, bonuses, fuel, materials for marking, headquarter costs, and various other items. Average exchange rate for 2004: €1 = US$1.2438, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[85] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 13.

[86] ICRC/BiHRCS, “Mine and UXO Victim Statistics,” provided by Natasa Halapic, Cooperation Assistant, ICRC, Sarajevo, 13 May 2005; see later section on casualties.

[87] “Demining Expert Killed in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Agence France-Presse, 5 May 2005.

[88] Email and telephone interview with Chris Hughes, Donor Relations Officer, UEM, Sarajevo, 1 August 2005; interview with Maj. Matt Richards, SO Countermines, HQ SFOR DCC, Sarajevo, 16 February 2004.

[89] ITF, “Annual Report 2004,” pp. 28, 30, 46. BHMAC reports that ITF-funded projects cleared 2,321,383 square meters and technical surveyed 290,775 square meters in 2004. BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 12.

[90] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire, email from Per Breivik, Program Manager, NPA, Sarajevo, 14 June 2005.

[91] Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire, email from Per Breivik, NPA, Sarajevo, 14 June 2005.

[92] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 9, 11.

[93] UNDP, “UNDP Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2004,” Newsletter Special, January 2005, pp. 8-9.

[94] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 9, 11.

[95] Email from Karin Settele, HELP, 27 April 2005.

[96] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 9, 11. However, UG ZOM claimed that in 2004 they cleared and technically surveyed 210,939 square meters. Fax from Fadil Hasanagic, Program Manager, UG ZOM, 28 April 2005.

[97] Email from Chris Hughes, Donor Liaison Manager, UEM, 27 April 2005.

[98] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 9, 11.

[99] Fax from Grzegorz Michalowicz, Director, Pro Vita, Mostar, 10 June 2005.

[100] Interview with Maj. J Scott, SO Countermines, EUFOR, Sarajevo, and Zeljko Kalinac, Office Manager, EUFOR DCC, 17 May 2005.

[101] Email from Zeljko Kalinac, EUFOR DCC, 17 April 2005.

[102] Email from Zeljko Kalinac, EUFOR DCC, 17 April 2005.

[103] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 8-13.

[104] Fax from Rajko Cicovic, Director, Famos-Koran, Pale, 28 April 2005.

[105] Telephone interview with Zemka Kalnic, Director, TRZ Hadzici, 22 April 2005.

[106] BHMAC, “Operational Plan on MRE in BiH for 2005,” p. 12.

[107] Information provided by Tarik Serak, Head of Operations, BHMAC, 19 May 2005.

[108] BHMAC, “Operational Plan on MRE in BiH for 2005,” p. 8.

[109] BHMAC, “Operational Plan on MRE in BiH for 2005,” p. 8.

[110] UNICEF, “Mine Action Program in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2004 Report,” Sarajevo, March 2005, p. 9.

[111] UNICEF, “Mine Action Program in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2004 Report,” Sarajevo, March 2005, pp. 7, 13.

[112] Interview with Claudio Baranzini, Co-operation Coordinator, and Natasa Halapic, ICRC, Sarajevo, 10 May 2005.

[113] Interview with Claudio Baranzini, and Natasa Halapic, ICRC, Sarajevo, 10 May 2005.

[114] Email from Nathalie Prevost, MRE Technical Advisor, UNICEF, 22 June 2005.

[115] UNICEF, “Mine Action Program in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2004 Report,” Sarajevo, March 2005, p. 10.

[116] ICRC, “RCSBiH Mine Risk Education Report,” Sarajevo 2005.

[117] ICRC, “RCSBiH Mine Risk Education Report,” Sarajevo 2005.

[118] Interviews with Senadin Kumro, ICRC, 13 and 20 May 2005.

[119] Genesis, “Report,” October 2004; “Short Report on Genesis MRE activities in 2004,” by email from Dijana Pejic, Project Manager, Genesis, Banja Luka, 3 May 2005.

[120] Genesis, “Short Report on Genesis MRE activities in 2004,” by email from Dijana Pejic, Genesis, Banja Luka, 3 May 2005.

[121] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, p. 13.

[122] Interview with Per Breivik, Program Manager, NPA, Sarajevo, 20 February, and email 25 February 2005.

[123] Email from Scott Lee, Director, Spirit of Soccer, 3 and 6 May 2005, and www.spiritofsoccer.org, accessed 1 June 2005.

[124] “MRE in the educational system of BiH,” HI and UNICEF, August 2004.

[125] Interview with Sandrine Leymarie, Michael Parker, Danijel Hapic, Mesud Mujeznovic and Alma Halep, HI, Sarajevo, 11 May 2005.

[126] Interview with HI staff, Sarajevo, 11 May 2005. Other local NGOs are noted in Landmine Monitor Report 1999, pp. 561-562.

[127] Email from Pia Cantini, Intersos, 16 July 2005; email from Reuben Nogueira-McCarthy, Landmines and Small Arms Team, Office of Emergency Programmes, UNICEF, 13 September 2005.

[128] Average exchange rate for 2004: KM1 = $0.6323. Central Bank of Bosnia-Herzegovina at 10 August, 2005. For 2003 comparisons, exchange rates used in Landmine Monitor Report 2004 are retained.

[129] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” 9 May 2004, p. 9; presentation by BiH, Reay Group Workshop, Bucharest, 2-3 February 2004.

[130] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action for 2004,” 9 May 2005, p. 18. Landmine Monitor obtained the total of KM19,000,543 from subtotals reported by BHMAC.

[131] ITF, “Annual Report 2004,” pp. 23-24.

[132] Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 208.

[133] Austria, Article 7 Report, Form F, 27 April 2005, and email from Norbert Hack, Department of Disarmament, Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 August 2005. ITF reported $436,405 provided by Austria for BiH. Average exchange rate for 2004: €1 = $1.2438, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[134] Belgium, Article 7 Report, Form J, 2 May 2005.

[135] Emails from Elvan Isikozlu, Mine Action Team, Foreign Affairs Canada, June-August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = C$1.3017. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[136] Email from Teemu Sepponen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 July 2005.

[137] Emails from Amb. Gerard Chesnel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France, 30 June 2005, and from Anne Villeneuve, HI, July-August 2005.

[138] Germany, Article 7 Report, Form J, 15 April 2005, and email from Dirk Roland Haupt, Division 241, Federal Foreign Office, 25 July 2005. ITF reported $1,610,231 provided by Germany for BiH.

[139] Emails from Manfred Capozza, Humanitarian Demining Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, June-July 2005.

[140] Email from Francois Berg, Disarmament Desk, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 August 2005.

[141] Email from Freek Keppels, Arms Control and Arms Export Policy Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 August 2005; email from Willem van Rossem, Deputy Head of Mission, Royal Netherlands Embassy, Sarajevo, 24 May 2005.

[142] Email from Christine Roca, Advisor, Sector for the Western Balkans, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 8 April 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NOK6.7399. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[143] Document sent to Landmine Monitor by Alf Eliasson, SIDA, 23 March 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = SEK7.4380. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[144] Email from Janine Voigt, Diplomatic Collaborator, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1 July 2005. Rate of exchange for 2004 according to fixed rate specified by donor: $1 = CH1.35.

[145] USG Historical Chart containing data for Financial Year 2004; email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, US Department of State, 20 July 2005; LSN funding taken from BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” p. 9.

[146] EC, “Contribution to the Landmine Monitor 2005,” by email from Nicola Marcel, RELEX Unit 3a Security Policy, EC, 19 July 2005.

[147] Interview with Col. Tim Knox, CO Countermines, HQ SFOR DCC, Sarajevo, 6 May 2004. In addition, SFOR supplied various in-kind assistance during 2004, which has not been costed for inclusion here.

[148] Information from Adopt-A-Minefield website, www.landmines.org, accessed 8 April 2005. This is assumed not to be included in $117,296 donated by AAM via ITF for demining of AAF sites in BiH.

[149] ITF, “Annual Report 2004,” pp. 23-24. Most donations to the ITF receive US matching funds.

[150] ITF, “Annual Report 2004,” pp. 17-19, 46-50.

[151] BHMAC, “Report on Mine Action in BiH,” 2004, pp. 5, 6.

[152] BHMAC, “Mine Action Plan for the Year of 2004,” p. 9.

[153] Presentation by BiH, Reay Group Workshop, Bucharest, 2–3 February 2004.

[154] Unless otherwise stated, information is from ICRC/BiHRCS, “Mine and UXO Victim Statistics,” provided by Natasa Halapic, Cooperation Assistant, ICRC, Sarajevo, 13 May 2005; Article 7 Report, Form J, 6 May 2005.

[155] For more details see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 209-211.

[156] Email from Natasha Halapic, Mine Victim Statistics, ICRC, 6 July 2005.

[157] “Demining Expert Killed in Bosnia and Herzegovina,” Agence France-Presse, 5 May 2005.

[158] Email from Natasha Halapic, ICRC, 6 July 2005.

[159] Interview with Claudio Baranzini and Natasa Halapic, ICRC, Sarajevo, 10 May 2005.

[160] Executive Summary, “Landmine Impact Survey: BiH,” p. 7.

[161] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 211.

[162] United Nations, Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, Nairobi, 29 November–3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.

[163] Presentation by BiH, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005.

[164] Article 7 Report, Form J, 6 May 2005.

[165] Information supplied by Tarik Serak, Head of Operations, BHMAC, 19 May 2005.

[166] For more information on survivor assistance, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 211-217.

[167] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” April 2005, p. 16; Article 7 Report, Form J, 6 May 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 217.

[168] Interview with Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 11 May 2005.

[169] Charlotte Axelsson, Pascal Granier and Lisa Adams, “Beyond De-Institutionalisation: The Unsteady Transition towards an Enabling System in South East Europe,” Handicap International, 2004, p. 60.

[170] Center for International Rehabilitation, “Annual Report 2004,” pp. 14-15; see also www.mine.ba, accessed 23 May 2005.

[171] BiH, “Landmine Victims Assistance Strategy 2005-2009,” December 2004, p. 14.

[172] ITF, “Annual Report 2004,” p. 31.

[173] Telephone interview with Dr. Goran Cerkez, FBiH Ministry of Health, 30 May 2004.

[174] Email from Michele Blatti, ICRC, 26 April 2004.

[175] Interview with Sanja Miletic, Administration Manager, and Damir Kocis, Program Manager, JRS, Sarajevo, 11 May 2005; responses to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire, 27 April 2005; emails from Sanja Miletic, Administration Manager, JRS, 27 April, 21 May and 1 June 2005; Article 7 Report, Form J, 6 May 2005.

[176] Email to Landmine Monitor from Nerina Cevra, Desk Officer, BiH LSN, 13 September 2005; response to Landmine Monitor Survivor Assistance Questionnaire, Plamenko Priganica, Director, LSN BiH, 24 April 2005; LSN BiH, “Annual Report 2004,” 24 April 2005, p. 2; email from Amira Kavgic, Executive Assistant, LSN BiH, 2 June 2005.

[177] Interview with Aleksandar Kecman, Communications Manager, UDAS, Mira Amidzic, Secretary, UDAS, and Neven Jankovic, Volunteer, Banja Luka, 18 May 2005.

[178] Information provided by Alma Halep, HI, Sarajevo, 11 May 2005.

[179] HOPE 87, “Technical Report-Rehabilitation and Social Integration for the Youth of Sarajevo,” 25 April 2004, pp. 16-40; interview with Fikret Karkin, Director, HOPE 87, Sarajevo, 16 May 2005; email from Fikret Karkin, 7 June 2005; see also Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 16.

[180] Email from Aleksander Kecman, UDAS, Banja Luka, 30 August 2005.

[181] “May Life be Sweet, Annual Report 2004,” www.stopmines.org; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 216.

[182] For more details, see Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” p. 19.

[183] Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 215.

[184] Interview with Aleksandar Kecman,, UDAS, Banja Luka, 18 May 2005.

[185] Telephone interview by Aleksandar Kecman with Novak Grbic, Department of Sport for the Disabled, RS Ministry of Sport and Youth, Banja Luka, 18 May 2005.

[186] Telephone interview with Rusmir Hanic, Eco-Sports, Sarajevo, 29 June 2005.

[187] Email from Andrea Biagini, First Secretary, Italian Embassy, Sarajevo, 25 May 2004.

[188] For more details of disability and practice in BiH, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 218-220; see also Standing Tall Australia and Handicap International, “Landmine Victim Assistance in 2004: Overview of the Situation in 24 States Parties,” June 2005, pp. 27-28.

[189] BHMAC, “Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Strategy,” p. 16; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 219-220.