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CAMBODIA, Landmine Monitor Report 2005


Key developments since May 2004: From September 2003 until December 2004 Cambodia co-chaired the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies. Cambodia’s Deputy Prime Minister attended the First Review Conference, and ICBL Youth Ambassador Song Kosal addressed the opening ceremony. A major launch of the Landmine Monitor Report 2004 was held in Cambodia with the King’s participation. Cambodia newly discovered and destroyed over 15,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines in 2004, more than any year since the destruction program was completed.

In June 2005, Cambodia reported to States Parties that it would request an extension to the Article 5 deadline (March 2010) unless donors increased funding. International donations for mine action in Cambodia increased substantially in 2004, to over US$41 million. Cambodia reported that approximately $30 million was expended on mine action in 2004. An evaluation of mine action claimed that only one tenth of the area previously identified as mine-contaminated would require clearance. The evaluation recommended redefining the mine action authority’s role. During 2004, four demining operators cleared over 32 square kilometers of land, less than in 2003. On 10 August 2005, five national standards for demining were approved by Prime Minister Hun Sen. Mine risk education reached about 600,000 people in 2004, including repeat visits. There was a significant increase in the number of casualties reported, compared with 2003; more casualties were due to unexploded ordnance than previously. At the First Review Conference, Cambodia was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors, and with the greatest needs and responsibility to provide adequate survivor assistance. In June 2005, as part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Cambodia presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors.

Mine Ban Policy

The Kingdom of Cambodia signed the Mine Ban Treaty on 3 December 1997, ratified on 28 July 1999, and the treaty entered into force on 1 January 2000. Domestic implementation legislation—the Law to Prohibit the Use of Anti-Personnel Mines—took effect on 28 May 1999.[1]

The Cambodian government and NGOs continued to actively support the Mine Ban Treaty throughout 2004 and the first half of 2005. Deputy Prime Minister Sok An led the Cambodian delegation to the First Review Conference held in Nairobi in November-December 2004. He said the government’s goals included mainstreaming mine action into development planning and integrating mine survivors back into society, and noted that “mine clearance is not just an issue of security, but it involves major socioeconomic and development impacts as well, especially regarding the provision of land and safety for the poor farming families in remote, rural areas.”[2] Cambodia served as one of nine Vice-Presidents for the First Review Conference.

The Cambodian Campaign to Ban Landmines (CCBL) played an active part in the First Review Conference and its side events. ICBL Youth Ambassador Song Kosal, a twenty-year-old Cambodian mine survivor, delivered a powerful statement at the opening ceremony, describing the progress achieved in the five years since the Mine Ban Treaty became law as “good news,” but “not enough.” She called on the governments to do more, stating, “Many communities living in newly cleared mine fields still do not have houses, water, food, safe land for farming, schools or medical care. This is not fair. In some countries landmine victims still make new legs from old bombs. This is not just.”[3]ICBL Ambassador Tun Channareth, a Cambodian mine survivor, spoke at an interfaith service and participated in a public marathon and other key events. Chin Sophally participated in the International Youth Symposium.

From September 2003 until December 2004, Cambodia co-chaired the Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, with Japan. The Secretary-General of the Cambodian Mine Action and Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA), Sam Sotha, took on this role, urging all mine-affected States Parties to identify and present their problems, plans, progress and priorities for mine action assistance in time for the First Review Conference.

On 17 November 2004, the CCBL organized the first global launch of the landmine casualty and survivor assistance findings of Landmine Monitor Report 2004, one of three major thematic launches of the report. King Norodom Sihamoni attended the event in one of his first public appearances as head of Cambodia’s royal family, and greeted dozens of people with disabilities from among the crowd of over 4,200 participants.

Also in November 2004, a meeting on landmines and unexploded ordnance risk education in the Mekong Sub-Region was held in Siem Reap. Prime Minister Hun Sen opened the third mine action achievements conference in Phnom Penh on 28 April 2005.[4] Throughout 2004 and 2005, the Mine Action Forum of NGOs engaged in mine action met every three months to discuss topics of common concern, including data collection, mine risk education, planning priorities, village demining and the problem of civilians tampering with live mines and other ordnance.

Cambodia submitted its sixth annual Article 7 report, including voluntary Form J, on 22 April 2005, for calendar year 2004.[5] Cambodia participated in the June 2005 intersessional Standing Committee meetings, making statements on mine clearance and victim assistance.

Cambodia has not engaged in the extensive discussions that States Parties have had on matters of interpretation and implementation related to Articles 1, 2 and 3. Thus, Cambodia has not made known its views on issues related to joint military operations with non-States Parties, antivehicle mines with sensitive fuzes or antihandling devices, and the permissible number of mines retained for training. In June 2005, the CMAA Secretary General told Landmine Monitor that Cambodia will not participate in any joint military operations unless requested by the United Nations.[6]

Cambodia is a State Party to Amended Protocol II of the Convention on Conventional Weapons, but did not attend the Sixth Annual Meeting of States Parties in Geneva in November 2004, and did not submit its annual report required under Article 13.

Production, Transfer and Use

Landmines were laid in Cambodia from the mid-1960s until the late 1990s, with reports and allegations of mine use by the Royal Cambodian Armed Forces (RCAF) and the Khmer Rouge until 1998. There have been no specific allegations of use, production or transfer of antipersonnel mines by government forces or any opposition forces since 1999. Cambodia has reported that it does not have any antipersonnel mine production facilities.[7] The Cambodian government is not known to have exported antipersonnel mines in the past.[8] Allegations of private sales of mines have been constant from 1980 until 2005.

Stockpiling and Destruction

The Royal Cambodian Armed Forces destroyed 71,991 stockpiled antipersonnel mines between 1994 and 1998, and in February 1999 the RCAF Deputy Commander in Chief formally stated that the RCAF no longer had stockpiles of antipersonnel landmines.[9] In 2000, Cambodia reported a stockpile of 2,034 antipersonnel mines held by the National Police.[10] Cambodia subsequently declared that there have been no antipersonnel mine stockpiles in the country since 2001.[11]

However, police and military units continue to find antipersonnel mines and other weapons in various locations and from various sources around the country. Many are caches left over from the decades of war. Village demining and the scrap metal trade also account for some of the newly discovered stocks of mines. The mines are supposed to be reported to CMAA and handed to the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) for destruction; some of the mines may also be used for training purposes.[12] The discovery and disposition of these additional mines were not consistently or completely reported in Cambodia’s previous Article 7 submissions.[13]

In its April 2005 Article 7 report, Cambodia declares that, from 2000 to 2004, a total of 54,258 antipersonnel mines were found and destroyed. This includes 15,446 destroyed by three agencies in 2004; 10,033 by CMAC, 3,632 by HALO Trust and 1,781 by Mines Advisory Group. That is a larger number than any previous year.[14]

In August 2005, HALO reported that in the previous few weeks RCAF had handed over more than 12,000 stockpiled antipersonnel mines. HALO had been assisting RCAF with disposal of degraded and unwanted munitions in its main warehouse facility in Kompong Speu. HALO noted that the “vast majority of the mines were boxed and in perfect condition,” and cited this as “an independently verifiable example of the RCAF attempting to comply” with Mine Ban Treaty obligations.[15]

In what is apparently a sub-set of the above figures, Cambodia also reported that 16,959 antipersonnel mines were transferred to CMAC for destruction between 1997 and 2002: 3 mines in 1997; 1,389 in 1998; 5,243 in 1999; 6,626 in 2000; 533 in 2001; 3,165 in 2002. Cambodia reported that figures were not available for 2003 or 2004.[16]

Mines Retained for Research and Training

In all six of its Article 7 reports, Cambodia has indicated that it has no antipersonnel mines retained for training or development purposes, as permitted under Article 3. However, it has also reported transfer of mines for training and development purposes to the CMAC Training Center each year. It appears each year some mines are sent to the CMAC Training Center—mines removed from the ground by deminers or mines from newly discovered caches—and, presumably, consumed shortly thereafter.

However, Cambodia has not stated clearly if all (or any) of the transferred mines are consumed each year, or kept from one year to the next for training purposes. Moreover, Cambodia has not yet reported in any detail on the intended purposes and actual uses of mines kept for training—a step agreed to by States Parties in the Nairobi Action Plan that emerged from the First Review Conference.

Cambodia reported that in 2004 various demining units transferred 596 antipersonnel mines to the CMAC Training Center to support its demining training activities.[17] Between 1993 and 2004, a total of 3,079 antipersonnel mines were reported transferred to CMAC for use in demining training, including 366 from various CMAC demining units in 2003, and 240 from the Ministry of Interior in 2002.[18]

From the varying figures given in the Article 7 reports over the years, it appears very difficult for mine-affected countries like Cambodia to answer questions on stockpiles and destruction accurately. Many of these countries have suffered years of war, random mine-laying and clearance and destruction of mines, and unreported village clearance. There is confusion about mines transferred from minefields for destruction becoming temporary stockpiles, village caches and landmines held in warehouses.

Landmine and ERW Problem

Cambodia is one of the countries most affected by mine and explosive remnants of war (ERW), due to almost three decades of conflict. Contamination by mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO) is both severe and highly complex in Cambodia. There are also quantities of abandoned ammunition.

The K5 mine belt, 700 kilometers long and 400-500 meters wide on the northwestern border of the country, is vast and densely contaminated. The K5 belt is well delineated, in contrast to other parts of the former war zone, where sporadic, overlapping and unmapped minefields resulted from the practice of laying mines year after year to protect defensive perimeters as combatants retreated to safe ground after the annual dry season. The most commonly found antipersonnel mines in Cambodia are PMN, PMN2, PMD-6, MN79, Type 69, DH10, MON 66/50, POMZ-2M, and Types 72A and 72B.[19]

UXO contamination results in large part from US forces, which dropped over 500,000 tons of bombs on Cambodia, mostly in the lightly inhabited northeastern provinces. Based on a conservative 10 percent failure rate, some 50,000 tons of unexploded bombs remained in these areas of Cambodia, in addition to unexploded artillery shells, grenades and mortar rounds expended by other combatants.[20]

Mine incidents occur mostly in the K5 border areas (provinces of Battambang, Preah Vihear, Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin and Pursat). In Battambang, there are also many UXO incidents. UXO casualties are also recorded each year in Kampong Cham, Siem Reap, Kampong Thom, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Svay Rieng, Kratie, Kandal and, to a lesser degree, in nine other provinces. Most mine incidents are associated with livelihood activities being undertaken in forests and fields.[21] In 2004, almost 99 percent of some 900 mine/UXO casualties were civilian, a level that has persisted for several years. Over half of UXO casualties resulted from deliberate tampering.[22]

Another component of the mine/ERW problem in Cambodia derives from unofficial stockpiles and caches of weapons and ammunition. In August 2005, for example, HALO assisted RCAF in clearing its main ammunition warehouse facility in Kampong Speu. This involved disposal of degraded, loose (unboxed) and unwanted ammunition in RCAF stores, including more than 10 tons of conventional ammunition, over a million rounds of small arms ammunition (25 tons) and more than 12,000 antipersonnel landmines.[23]

On 31 March 2005 an RCAF ammunitions depot in Battambang exploded, revealing many kinds of weapons and fragments of vehicles, but no antipersonnel mines.[24] The massive blast and subsequent detonations killed at least six people, injured more than 20 others, destroyed 14 homes and scattered more than 1,300 artillery shells over a 10 kilometer-wide area.[25]

Mine/UXO contamination is also an obstacle to development and infrastructure projects, which are taking place in northwest Cambodia.[26]

Mine Action Program

The Cambodian Mine Action Victim Assistance Authority (CMAA) took over the coordination and regulation of mine action from the Cambodian Mine Action Center (CMAC) in September 2000. Its responsibilities include integration of mine action into government development plans, the National Poverty Reduction Strategy and Millennium Development Goals.[27] CMAC continued to operate, as an implementation agency for mine/UXO clearance.

An evaluation carried out in 2004 for the Cambodia Donor Working Group on Mine Action found that donors as well as operators lacked confidence in CMAA, due to its weakness and ineffectiveness, and that its work was largely ignored. The evaluation recommends that CMAA concentrate on a few activities, such as policy-making, resource mobilization, preparation of annual reports and establishing standards. Other CMAA responsibilities should be tasked to other more appropriate agencies, including mapping, land policy, allocation and titling, mine risk education and victim assistance.[28]

Priority-setting and tasking for mine action is regulated by the sub-decree on Socio-Economic Management of Mine Clearance Operations adopted on 17 September 2004.[29] This transforms the earlier structure of provincial Land Use Planning Units by prioritizing mine action, mainly at local level, and integrating it with development priorities.[30] To achieve this, CMAA created Mine Action Planning Units (MAPUs), operating under the auspices of Provincial Mine Action Committees (PMACs).[31] The PMAC is a non-permanent body chaired by a provincial vice-governor, and has the task of approving annual provincial mine clearance workplans by selecting mined land to clear, according to national priorities, provincial development, and prioritization for poor people. MAPUs are the focal points for coordination between contaminated communities and demining/development agencies.[32] The first PMAC and MAPU were created in Oddar Meanchey province on 21 December 2004. As of April 2005, there were five MAPUs, operating in the same provinces as the former Land Use Planning Units.[33]

MAPUs conduct field investigations and collect requests from villages; they are assisted by mine action district working groups in the selection of minefields for the benefit of communities.[34] MAPUs are supported by a wide range of organizations, and funded by the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and UN Office for Project Services (UNOPS). MAPU budgets are managed by SEILA.[35]

Capacity-building for mine action planning is provided by Australian Volunteers International (AVI). GeoSpatial International (GSI) is engaged in the identification of processes to improve data collection by MAPU staff. AVI and GSI have also been developing PMAC capacity in information management and data collection.[36]

The Five Year Mine Action Plan 2005-2009 was updated with achievements made in 2004. Its goals include clearance of high impact areas by 2009, integration of clearance with development and poverty reduction, improved cost efficiency, post-clearance monitoring from 2005, and “balancing preventive and curative activities.”[37]

The National Work Plan for 2005, which compiles workplans from the four main operators, set a target of 35,460,000 square meters to be cleared. CMAC, HALO and Mines Advisory Group (MAG) aim to clear 18,510,000 square meters for resettlement and agriculture, benefiting an estimated 66,000 families. Mine clearance operations were to be conducted on more than 500 minefields.[38]

During 2004, CMAA finalized 17 Cambodian mine action standards. On 10 August 2005, five standards were approved by Prime Minister Hun Sen.[39] Based on these standards, all demining operators must apply for accreditation and sign an agreement with the CMAA Secretary General. Existing operators have six months from the government decision (10 August 2005) to “file the official regulatory agreements with the Secretary General of the CMAA.”[40]

The National Mine Action Database (NMAD) contains data from the 2002 Landmine Impact Survey (LIS). Throughout 2004, Canada continued to fund NMAD in order to maintain this data, to collect and analyze new clearance and technical survey data provided by operators, and to continue efforts to implement the Information Management System for Mine Action (IMSMA).[41] Canadian support ended on 31 December 2004, and in 2005 France funded the project.[42]

Evaluation of Mine Action

The Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia was carried out in 2004 for the Cambodia Donor Working Group on Mine Action. It aimed to provide an independent assessment of the achievements and challenges of the mine action sector in Cambodia, to present strategic recommendations for future donor support and to provide a common basis for a renewed donor-government partnership.[43] Major findings were that existing approaches seemed to be maximizing the time needed to eliminate the mine/UXO problem, rather than dealing with it in a results-oriented and cost-efficient manner.[44]

The evaluation team observed that Cambodia's mine contamination has been “regarded as a legal problem from the standpoint of the Ottawa Convention or a geographically impressionistic one from the point of view of the Level One Survey.”[45] The consultants tested a triage approach. Starting from the LIS total suspected hazardous area of 4,466 square kilometers, the following areas were subtracted: land of little or no productive value, land already cleared, and land in use. The remaining area was 460 square kilometers, which they thought may be reduced even further if land mapping data were updated. With current clearance rates, this area could probably be completed in 10 to 15 years, which the evaluation team thought would be a time span more attractive to current and potential donors.

The evaluation team's recommendation that “areas that are already in use and that are presenting no problem to existing communities” be eliminated from clearance consideration echoes an evaluation in 2003 for the UK Department for International Development. This recommended that different levels of treatment, and therefore acceptance of different levels of residual risk, should be given to different sorts of land use.[46] HALO's 2004 annual report considers similar factors but reaches different conclusions about which areas are most in need of clearance. HALO believes that efforts should be focused on areas which are causing repeated casualties and for which there is no local solution.[47]

The Joint Evaluation for the Donor Group referred to funding mechanisms as generally failing to promote efficiency or accountability. The team recommended that a demining trust fund be created. Demining contracts should be on a competitive bidding basis, and include strong technical supervision and financial monitoring. To support decentralization of mine clearance priority setting, trust fund resources should be dedicated to meeting provincial priorities as determined by the PMACs. The study welcomed the establishment of MAPUs, as this supports the government’s decentralization policy and the provincial authorities’ capacities to plan and prioritize mine clearance in a transparent manner.[48]

A cost-benefit analysis of Cambodian mine clearance programs, conducted in 2004-2005 for CMAA and UNDP, indicated that mine clearance is contributing substantial value to the Cambodian economy. Analysis of the 2004 clearance program revealed benefits of about $37 million in total, distributed 80 percent on clearance for development and 20 percent on reduced human losses. On the basis of an average clearance cost of $0.90 per square meter, this implies that net benefits are, in general, 38 percent higher than the costs. Mine clearance was considered therefore to be fully justified on economic grounds. The cost-benefit ratio could further improve with an expected increase in clearance productivity over the next few years. At the current rate of land clearance, demining activities bring over 20 square kilometers of land into productive use in Cambodia every year.[49]

Survey and Assessment

Quantifying the scale of the mine/UXO problem in Cambodia remains difficult. Before the Landmine Impact Survey (LIS) started in early 2000, there had been no systematic survey, although numerous smaller technical surveys had been conducted following requests from the local population living in suspected areas, and considerable amounts of data had been stored in the CMAC database.

The LIS, issued in May 2002, identified 3,037 areas suspected to be affected by mines, submunitions and other UXO, totaling 4,466 square kilometers of land. It estimated that 5.18 million people in 6,422 villages were at risk, and about 1,640 villages—approximately 12 percent of all villages in Cambodia—had a high contamination of landmines and UXO.[50]

There has been widespread concern that the LIS had missed many mined areas. Accordingly, as CMAA states in its 1992-2004 achievement report, LIS data must be regularly updated and checked by national authorities and demining operators.[51]

Risk Reduction

HALO believes that LIS identification of over 4,500 square kilometers of mine-suspected area has not encouraged the best use of mine clearance resources in Cambodia. HALO notes that the situation is polarized between high threat areas, which the local population cannot deal with, and low threat areas, which the population can and is dealing with.[52] IMAS-compliant mine clearance will never keep pace with land released by farmers occupying low threat areas. Vast areas of low-density low-threat (roughly one mine per hectare) land are released by the efforts of the local population. HALO recorded 3,453 hectares cleared by farmers with only one mine-incident occurring. HALO believes that professional clearance operators should concentrate on the high threat areas, which are causing repeated accidents and which the population cannot deal with.[53]

In 2004, HALO reported that there was insufficient clarity over the limits of mined areas to make perimeter marking of suspect areas effective. Although HALO will mark the interface of roads and suspect ground as hazardous, no effort is made to cover the entire suspect perimeter. HALO marks all current minefield tasks at the point that clearance commences; it marked 240 minefields in 2004.[54]

CMAC Community Mine Marking Teams (CMMTs) marked 172 minefields with long-term markings and 100 minefields with temporary markings, equaling 15,032,930 square meters in 2004.[55] CMMTs consist of five members equipped with two mine detectors and a pick-up truck. They focus on marking minefields and small-scale clearance. In 2004 CMAC deployed 14 CMMT teams to carry out small high priority clearance tasks requested by local communities and development NGOs.[56]

Mine and ERW Clearance

Under Article 5 of the Mine Ban Treaty, Cambodia must clear all antipersonnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control as soon as possible, but not later than 1 March 2010. In June 2005, Cambodia informed Mine Ban States Parties that it would request an extension of the 2010 deadline unless further mine action funds were made available.[57] This was repeated in August 2005 by the Secretary General of CMAA.[58]

During 2004, four mine action operators cleared a total of 32,006,885 square meters of land, destroying 71,475 antipersonnel mines, 1,742 antivehicle mines and 154,163 UXO.[59] This is a reduction from the 41,746,541 square meters cleared in 2003.[60] However Cambodia includes in its Article 7 reporting for 2004 a larger number of antipersonnel mines destroyed.[61] From comparison of Forms F and G and Annexes of the Article 7 report, it appears that Cambodia included in the table below over 15,000 additional antipersonnel mines “stockpiled” (that is, not used or emplaced) which were also destroyed in 2004.[62]

Mine/UXO Clearance and Mines/UXO Destroyed in 2004[63]

Area (square meters)
Antipersonnel mines
Antivehicle mines

Nearly 284 million square meters of land have been cleared since operations began in 1992.

Cambodian Mine Action Center:[64]CMAC cleared and released to communities 11,157,336 square meters of land, which was used for resettlement, agriculture, roads, pagodas, health centers, wells, ponds, commune offices, irrigation canals, roads and schools. A total of 2,171 families benefited directly from CMAC clearance activities in 2004 and an additional 58,256 families and 15,708 students were indirect beneficiaries.

In 2004, CMAC established and deployed two community-based demining teams in Kamrieng district of Battambang under the supervision of Demining Unit 2 (DU2). The team members, half of them female, were recruited from poor and vulnerable families in the local villages of O Anlok and O Chamlong. Four technical survey teams reduced 17,882,800 square meters from suspect area identified by LIS, and cleared and surveyed a total of 218,031 square meters. CMAC teams also carried out 479,004 meters of marking, which contained 247,409 square meters of land to be cleared.

CMAC employs approximately 2,400 staff. By end of 2004, it had 44 platoons, six mine risk reduction teams, 21 explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) teams, 19 technical survey/mine marking teams, four other technical survey teams, 14 community mine marking teams, six mine risk education teams, 13 community-based risk reduction district focal points, eight mine detection dog teams, 12 brush cutter teams, two community-based demining teams, and two officers of community-based UXO risk reduction projects. A total of 1,298 CMAC staff undertook 56 training courses on mine action activities at the CMAC Training Center during 2004.

Norwegian People’s Aid: NPA continued to provide support to CMAC during the reporting period. It provided a technical advisor for the community-based mine risk reduction project, which includes villagers in mine action prioritization and planning, and encourages them to undertake MRE using their own resources. NPA, MAG and Handicap International commissioned a study of deliberate handling of UXO and its relation to the scrap metal trade. NPA reported that the study provided a better understanding of vulnerable groups and the reasons for persistent intentional risk-taking behavior. The study recommended better coordination between development NGOs, national police and community councils.[65]

NPA funded and monitored CMAC DU 1 in the northwest and continued to assist in the MAPU process of land prioritization. Since March 2003, NPA has been contracted by CMAC to support the development of a mine detection dog (MDD) capacity; in 2004, NPA contracted two technical advisors and a national consultant to ensure the effective integration of the MDD program within CMAC’s work.[66]

HALO Trust:[67] HALO cleared 5,681,054 square meters in five provinces in 2004, with 1,074 Khmer staff (927 operational, 147 support). It fielded 101 manual demining sections, 14 mechanical clearance units, two EOD teams and one mine risk education team. Land cleared was used for resettlement (19 percent), roads and access (14 percent), agriculture (44 percent), accident prevention (11 percent), water (seven percent) and infrastructure (five percent). The average daily clearance for manual deminers for the year was 29 square meters per man per day.

Roughly one third of all HALO deminers was deployed on K5 minefield tasks throughout 2004. Because of border sensitivities, clearance was previously restricted although this extremely dense concentration of mines (averaging around 3,000 mines per kilometer of frontage) has consistently inflicted injuries. In 2004 the government relaxed restrictions, which enabled HALO to clear more than double the number of mines it cleared in 2003.

In the densest areas, HALO teams clear up to 30 mines a day. This led to an excessive amount of time spent on demolition, and a consequent drop in productivity. At the end of 2004, HALO fitted a Pearson mine roller to its D6 Bulldozer with a view to deploying it ahead of manual deminers in the dense border minefields, to clear the majority of mines ahead of the manual deminers and thereby improve overall efficiency. HALO has been conducting trials into the cost effectiveness and operational effectiveness of a Tempest Ground Engaging Flail.[68]

In response to a rise in the proportion of UXO casualties during 2004, HALO established a second roving EOD team. This was reported to have great success in tracking down ordnance before it caused injury. At the end of 2004, HALO returned to the scrap yards of Poipet where the problem of explosives filtering into the scrap metal trade continues unabated. In 2005, HALO deployed EOD teams to Poipet on a permanent basis from its locations in Thma Puok, Samrong, Anlong Veng and Siem Reap. In 2004, HALO deployed two mobile EOD teams across the northwest of Cambodia. In total, EOD teams completed 650 clearance tasks and cleared 16,608 UXO and 4,054 mines (3,632 antipersonnel mines, 422 antitank).

HALO worked with RCAF to clear a military store in Siem Reap province, which contained thousands of explosive items in a decaying and hazardous state. In March 2004, HALO was contracted by the US Department of State to destroy Cambodia's stockpile of 234 SAM7 Man Portable Air Defense Systems.

HALO reports that it welcomes the introduction of PMACs and sees this external audit as adding value to the task selection process. HALO believes that it is vital that the new planning bodies recognize the significance of ad hoc forest land use, so that clearance resources are directed where benefit is most easily achieved. HALO participated in clearance as part of the government’s North-West Rural Development Project (NRDP) and the Provincial Infrastructure Project, on condition that the government funds future clearance. In January 2005, HALO reported that it was negotiating a contract with NRDP to assist with its mine clearance needs in 2005.

HALO reported two minor accidents in minefields and one major accident outside minefields during 2004. On 9 May, a demining supervisor was killed while attempting to open a TM-46 antivehicle mine with a set of industrial bolt cutters. On 13 July, a section commander unwittingly threw a rifle grenade fuse into a metal pit causing it to detonate and inflicting minor wounds on his right leg. In a further accident on 16 September, a deminer was uninjured.

Mines Advisory Group:[69] In 2004 MAG reported clearing 2,039,495 square meters and destroying 6,687 antipersonnel mines and 58 antivehicle mines. MAG employed 500 national staff and three expatriate staff in its Cambodia program in 2004. It deployed 23 multi-skilled mine action teams, three EOD teams, seven community liaison teams and five Tempest mini-flail machines. The mine action teams are permanently deployed in five provinces: Battambang, Pursat, Pailin, Kompong Thom and Preah Vihear, while the EOD teams are additionally deployed in Kampong Cham. MAG developed its EOD capacity in response to the increase in UXO incidents during 2004. MAG continues to use community liaison teams in affected communities.

In December 2004, a MAG EOD team member was killed and two were injured in a UXO explosion. Investigation revealed that the deminers were knowingly contravening standing operating procedures and dismantling UXO for scrap to sell.

Royal Cambodian Armed Forces: RCAF cleared 13,129,136 square meters, including: a military garrison at the Cambodia-Laos border (1,483,989 square meters), land for construction of bridges and roads (8,883,396 square meters), a hydrology system (1,701,751 square meters), and a hydropower plant (1,060,000 square meters). RCAF has 960 demining personnel, including 821 in a mine clearance and UXO unit, 121 instructors and management officers, and 18 EOD personnel.[70]

The Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining (GICHD) published a study of the role of the military in mine action, which included a case study of Cambodia. The study stated that RCAF “reports clearance rates far in excess of anything achieved by other mine action agencies in Cambodia. It also claims to have had zero casualties in mine and UXO clearance... These reports cannot be verified and in the civilian mine action community are considered unreliable.”[71]

A 2004 evaluation of the mine action sector in Cambodia questioned RCAF capacity to conduct mine clearance in accordance with international standards. It recommended that army personnel be made available for contracting by qualified commercial demining operators (through seconding or demobilization), as a form of on-the-job training. Alternatively, international technical assistance could be requested to develop these capacities within the army. The police was suggested as a more suitable body for the development of a long-term national EOD capacity.[72]

Village demining

Clearance by village or informal deminers continues to occur on a wide scale in Cambodia. Some individuals clear land for farming and to ensure the physical and economic security of their families. Others hire a village deminer to clear the land for them. Landmine Monitor researchers have met former members of clearance agencies who are now engaged in this role. The debate on how to address mine clearance activities by villagers has gone on since the early 1990s and it remains unresolved.[73]

A pilot project by MAG and local authorities in Kamreang and Phnom Preuk districts (Battambang province) is aimed at training, to the same standard as MAG trains any deminer, people living in mine-affected communities. Forty people were trained from January to August 2004. This “locality demining” approach has many advantages including lower cost, better management and injecting income to some of the poorest households in mine-affected communities.[74]

From September 2004 to January 2005, a Handicap International-commissioned study was undertaken to determine how mine action organizations could best respond to village demining. The study was conducted by a team of four, led by an anthropologist. The report, published in May 2005, questions the mine action sector’s priorities and working methods, and recommends that village demining be formally recognized as a legitimate and constructive component of the mine action sector.[75]

The study generated considerable controversy and criticism in Cambodia, especially from CMAC.[76] It also suggested that a comprehensive effort be made to locate the land that has already been demined by informal village deminers and to map it using GPS technology. As one means of establishing the efficacy of informal deminers’ work, appropriate survey techniques should be employed to ascertain the number of incidents occurring on land previously demined by informal village deminers. The study also recommended that land demined in this way be included in the national database or in an adjunct to it, that individuals be left free to demine their own land without restrictions, in the absence of concrete commitments by the government and mine action sector to do this, and that appropriate training and equipment be provided.

Mine Risk Education

Seven organizations were involved in mine risk education (MRE) in 2004. CMAC, Cambodian Red Cross, HALO, MAG and World Vision continued to operate programs similar to previous years, UNICEF continued to provide support, and Save Cambodia’s Wildlife initiated a new project, Mine Risk Reduction and Environmental Conservation.[77] These organizations reported providing MRE to some 600,000 people, including repeat visits to those living in communities targeted for MRE in past years.[78]

CMAA is responsible for coordinating MRE in Cambodia. In January 2004, UNICEF funded a full-time MRE focal point within CMAA, and continued to provide other support, including assistance to finalize the 2005-2009 MRE strategy. The strategy aimed: to strengthen the capacity of affected communities to interact with demining, victim assistance and community development programs; to strengthen national coordination of MRE; to promote best practice through increased integration of MRE within mine action; to integrate MRE into the primary school curriculum.[79]

The International Mine Action Standards (IMAS) for mine risk education (MRE) have been used in Cambodia as a guide to operations by individual MRE operators; in June 2005, they were being translated. The development of Cambodian mine action standards for MRE has not been seen as necessary and there are no plans to develop these.[80]

In March 2005, CMAA noted that the changing pattern of mine and UXO casualties has major implications for MRE in Cambodia. Mine casualties occur mainly on the Thai-Cambodian border in the K5 belt region, while UXO casualties occur elsewhere. Battambang remains the most highly affected province, but Kampong Cham, Siem Reap, Kampong Thom, Kampong Speu, Svay Rieng, Kandal and Kratie also have a significant number of casualties.[81 ]Boys aged 10 to 15 years and men aged 25 to 35 years are the most at-risk groups; 78 percent of UXO incidents were from tampering or intentional handling.[82]

During 2004 and 2005, CMAC supported MRE through a mass media campaign, mobile mine awareness, Community-Based Mine Risk Reduction and an NGO campaign.[83] The mass media campaign, included the production of one TV spot, broadcast 320 times, and one radio spot, aired 840 times, along with the installation of 26 new billboards in eight provinces. CMAC estimates that 97 percent of Cambodian people have access to television, and 76 percent have access to radios. CMAC believes providing MRE through the media is effective for reinforcing messages, particularly in provinces where a mine or UXO problem exists, but in which mine action does not.[84]

CMAC operates six mobile mine awareness teams (each consisting of a team leader, driver and two MRE instructors) that are deployed in response to situational factors, such as sudden population movements to high-risk areas, or increases in mine or UXO incidents.[85] In 2004 they visited 704 villages providing 814 presentations to 142,897 beneficiaries. Since 2001 CMAC has reduced the number of “standard” risk education teams, and promoted the concept of community-based mine risk reduction (CBMRR).[86]

CBMRR developed in recognition that many people living in mine contaminated areas of Cambodia are often aware that they are undertaking dangerous practices, but lack of land and other resource pressures force them to take risks.[87] MRE needed to develop a longer term community-oriented approach. It aims to reduce the number of UXO and mine casualties by addressing the livelihood pressures that contribute to risk-taking. [88]

The CBMRR team cooperates closely with CMAC MRE and technical risk reduction teams and consists of 13 district focal points, one in each one of the CBMRR target districts in Battambang, Banteay Meanchey and Pailin. The focal points work in 99 mine/UXO-affected villages, supporting volunteers to form mine/UXO committees. Through April 2005 there were 304 volunteer representatives, who with committees at the commune and district levels, form the volunteer mine risk reduction network. Participatory techniques are used to identify how mines and UXO impact each targeted village; this information is used to prioritize clearance plans and requests for development resources. Once areas for support are identified, appropriate MRE services are requested. The CBMRR network also provides mine/UXO related information to data collection services such as the Cambodian Mine Victim Information System and the Mine Action Planning Units.[89] Using this approach 945,234 square meters of land were cleared; demining agencies responding to requests from the CBMRR network destroyed almost 6,000 mines and UXO in 2004.[90] The estimated annual cost of the program is $342,000.[91]

In May 2004, CMAC established a new project, Community-Based UXO Risk Reduction (CBURR), which operates in the same way as CBMRR but in areas predominantly at risk from UXO. After a pilot project from May to October 2004, CBURR is now fully functional in Ang Snuol (Kandal) and Chbar Mon (Kampong Speu). Field visits were conducted to 5,353 households.[92] The anticipated annual budget for the project is $63,000.[93]

In 2004 through March 2005, 116 NGO staff working in mine/UXO-affected areas received mine awareness training provided by CMAC.[94]

During 2004, the Cambodian Red Cross continued its MRE program established in 2000, providing MRE to 117,033 people in six provinces (Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear and Pursat). This project focused on promoting behavioral change amongst children and adolescents herding livestock, and adults foraging for forest fruits and resources, while strengthening the capacity of community leaders to promote MRE messages. The annual program cost is approximately US$100,000.[95]

HALO’s three-person team delivered MRE presentations in support of minefield clearance throughout 2004. Presentations were given during the day to schools and mother-and-child groups, and in the evening to adult males. The team used a video-based presentation, which includes not only MRE, but also public health issues and agricultural information. The MRE team also undertook community liaison, highlighting how the community can facilitate clearance; for example, by not removing markings or cultivating too close to the clearance teams. During 2004, the team provided MRE messages to 26,424 residents of mine-affected communities at an estimated annual cost of $15,000.[96] HALO intends to maintain this output for the coming years.[97]

In 2004, MAG operated 11 community liaison teams, each made up of two people. Six teams operate in Battambang region, covering Pailin and Pursat, and five teams in Preah Vihear region. These teams made presentations to approximately 14,000 people. Mine action teams also gave MRE presentations to 7,613 beneficiaries.[98]

World Vision conducted MRE aimed at integrating mine action and community development structures. The organization undertakes infrastructure and agricultural activities, and provides MRE to the villagers involved. In 2004, the teams provided MRE to 5,112 villagers at an annual cost of around $65,000.[99]

In 2005, with funding from CARE International, Save Cambodia’s Wildlife established an MRE and environmental conservation project in the north. This sought to provide village-based MRE as part of a wider environmental educational program and support to the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport at the district and provincial levels. The anticipated budget for 2005 was $38,000.[100]

In 2004, under the supervision of the ministry, 4,791 teachers from government primary schools provided presentations in the 38 most UXO and mine-affected districts to 219,878 primary school pupils. In addition, 5,010 trained students provided MRE to 11,763 out-of-school children and their parents.[101]

Funding and Assistance

Thirteen countries and the European Commission (EC) reported contributing approximately $41,652,918 for mine action in Cambodia in 2004. This is more than double the funding Landmine Monitor reported for 2003 (some $17 million),[102]and more than CMAA reports as mine action expenditure in 2004.[103]

The largest single increase in donor funding came from Japan, with a six-fold increase. International donors included:

  • Australia: A$4,167,013 ($3,069,005) during its fiscal year, consisting of A$2 million ($1,473,000) to CMAC, A$1,979,247 ($1,457,715.42) for integrated mine action, and A$187,766 ($138,289.66) to MAG for a demining machine;[104]
  • Belgium: €506,120 ($629,512), consisting of €401,120 ($498,913) to CMAC for UXO clearance capacity building and €105,000 ($130,599) estimated as an in-kind contribution of five technical advisors to CMAC;[105]
  • Canada: C$3,608,929 ($2,772,472), consisting of C$249,372 ($191,574) to Oxfam Quebec for landmine survivor vocational training, C$359,134 ($275,896) to World Vision Canada for integrated mine action, C$374,437 ($287,652) to GeoSpatial International for task assessment and planning, C$2,500,000 ($1,920,565) to UNDP for agricultural development in mine-affected areas, C$110,900 ($85,196) to MAG for two EOD teams, and C$15,086 ($11,589) for survivor handicraft enterprises;[106]
  • EC: €5,170,000 ($6,430,446) for mine clearance and MRE;[107]
  • Finland: €1,020,000 ($1,268,676), consisting of €100,000 ($124,380) to HI for a mine incident database, €670,000 ($833,346) to HALO for mine clearance, and €250,000 ($310,950) to Finnish Church Aid for mine clearance;[108]
  • France: €255,000 ($317,169), consisting of €55,000 ($68,409) for training and €200,000 ($248,760) to CMAA for demining;[109]
  • Germany: €670,000 ($833,346) to CMAA/CMAC for mine clearance in Seam Reap and Oddar Meanchey;[110]
  • Japan: ¥2,021,100,000 ($18,687,933), consisting of ¥1,761,000,000 ($16,282,940) for mine clearance, ¥63,400,000 ($586,223) and ¥45,800,000 ($423,486) for general funding, ¥75,400,000 ($697,180) to HALO for mine clearance, and ¥75,500,000 ($698,104) to Japan Mine Action Service from mine clearance;[111]
  • Luxembourg: €40,000 ($49,752) for victim assistance;[112]
  • Netherlands: €1,254,870.00 ($1,560,807), consisting of €689,435 ($857,519) to NPA for mine clearance and € 565,435 ($703,288) to HALO for mine clearance;[113]
  • New Zealand: NZ$352,408.00 ($234,104), consisting of NZ$89,681 ($59,575) to CMAC through UNDP Trust Fund for demining, NZ$61,727 ($41,005) for victim assistance to Cambodia School of Prosthetics and Orthotics, and NZ$201,000 ($133,524) to Cambodia Trust Fund, for rehabilitation services;[114]
  • Norway: NOK2,700,000 ($400,599), consisting of NOK1,500,000 ($222,555) to CMAC through UNDP, and NOK1,200,000 ($178,044) to Save the Children for mine clearance around schools;[115]
  • Sweden: SEK12 million ($1,633,097) to CMAC;[116]
  • US: $3,766,000, consisting of $3,466,000 from the Department of State and $300,000 from the Department of Defense.[117]

CMAA estimated that in 2004 approximately $30 million was spent on mine action in Cambodia. It reported the main recipients of funding as the mine clearance organizations CMAC, HALO and MAG. RCAF carries out demining activities using government funds supplied through budget support by international development banks, the Chinese government and others, but the amounts are not known.[118]

CMAC expenditure in 2004 was $9,238,577. It reports receiving donations totaling $8,783,904 ($4,265,577 from UNDP Trust Fund; $4,380,185 from bilateral donors; $138,142 from the government). Since 2001, UNDP contributions to CMAC have declined (64 percent of CMAC funding in 2001; 48 percent in 2004), while bilateral contributions have risen (35 percent in 2001; 49 percent in 2004).[119]

CMAC resources are also augmented by in-kind contributions. Japan provided an in-kind contribution worth approximately $16 million to CMAC, which included brush cutting, transport and protective equipment. The equipment was handed over in June 2005.[120] Belgium, New Zealand and Japan have provided technical advisors.[121]

Landmine and UXO Casualties

In 2004, 898 new landmine and UXO casualties were reported in Cambodia: 171 people were killed and 727 injured; 547 were men, 74 were women and 277 were children; 888 were civilians. This represents a significant increase (16 percent) over the 772 new landmine and UXO casualties (115 killed and 657 injured) reported in 2003.[122] Of the total survivors in 2004, 195 people (27 percent) required an amputation. Landmines caused 340 casualties (38 percent), while 558 casualties (62 percent) were caused by UXO; however, 87 percent of the children were killed or injured by UXO.

Casualties continue to be reported in 2005: 594 new mine/UXO casualties were recorded to the end of June; 124 people were killed and 470 injured. In March 2005, an explosion at an RCAF ammunitions depot in Battambang killed at least six people, and injured more than 20 others.[123]

The mine/UXO casualty rate declined from 12 new casualties a day in 1996, to an average of two casualties a day in 2004; a rate that has remained constant since 2000. However, in the first six months of 2005 the rate increased again to an average of over three casualties a day.[124]

Information on mine/UXO casualties is collected from all provinces by a network of Cambodian Red Cross (CRC) field staff; the data is then entered into the Cambodia Mine UXO Victim Information System (CMVIS), implemented by CRC and Handicap International.

The vast majority of mine casualties in 2004 were engaged in daily livelihood activities such as farming, herding, clearing new land, fishing, and collecting food and wood (54 percent) or traveling (26 percent) at the time of the incident; whereas 58 percent of the UXO casualties were caused by tampering.

Casualties from mines occur mainly in the border area of Thailand and Cambodia, near the K5 belt in the provinces of Battambang, Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey, Pailin, Preah Vihear and Pursat. Casualties from UXO are scattered throughout the country with Battambang, Kampong Cham (on the Vietnamese border), Oddar Meanchey, Preah Vihear and Pailin reporting the most casualties.[125] Mine/UXO casualties were reported in 22 of 24 provinces in 2004; 79 percent of the total casualties were reported in seven provinces; most were in the province of Battambang with 253 casualties (28 percent), followed by Banteay Meanchey with 134 (15 percent), Krong Pailin 98 (11 percent), Kampong Cham 76 (eight percent), Oddar Meanchey 75 (eight percent), Pursat 39 (four percent) and Preah Vihear 34 (four percent).[126]

In 2004, CMVIS recorded 18 people killed or injured during mine clearance activities. CMAC reported 12 deminers injured and HALO reported one injured during clearance operations. One HALO demining supervisor was killed while trying to open a TM-46 antivehicle mine away from a minefield; it is not known why he was doing this.[127]

As of June 2005, the CMVIS database contained records on 66,611 mine/UXO casualties since 1979: 20,254 people were killed and 46,357 injured (including 9,850 amputations); 52,027 were civilians.

Survivor Assistance

At the First Review Conference, Cambodia was identified as one of 24 States Parties with significant numbers of mine survivors and with “the greatest responsibility to act, but also the greatest needs and expectations for assistance” in providing adequate services for the care, rehabilitation and reintegration of survivors.[128]

Cambodia submitted the voluntary Form J with its annual Article 7 report, providing information on mine/UXO casualties and rehabilitation services.[129]

In June 2005, as part of its commitment to the Nairobi Action Plan, Cambodia presented some of its objectives for the period 2005-2009 to address the needs of mine survivors. The plan of action will be developed, in coordination with key actors, by the Disability Action Council within the framework of the Strategic Direction on Disability and Rehabilitation (SDDR).[130] Objectives for mine victim assistance include: maintaining and coordinating a sustainable information-gathering and referral network on mine/UXO casualties; assessing and analyzing the situation of medical rehabilitation in order to develop guidelines and strategies for the development of national planning; promoting the access of more people with disabilities to physical rehabilitation centers; improving standards and quality of rehabilitation centers; starting discussions to development objectives and a plan to address the needs for psychological support and social reintegration; improving access and follow-up to vocational training, credit schemes and employment opportunities; promoting the participation of people with disabilities in mainstream development programs; developing and enacting effective legislation to protect the rights of mine survivors and other persons with disabilities.[131]

CMAA is responsible for the coordination and monitoring of mine victim assistance; however, it has delegated responsibility to the Ministry of Social Affairs, Veterans and Youth Rehabilitation (MoSVY)[132]and the Disability Action Council.[133] CMAA’s Victim Assistance Department developed a strategic plan for 2004 to 2009 for the coordination of mine victim assistance provided by national institutions, local and international NGOs; however, it has no budget to implement the strategy.[134]

According to CMAA, there are more than 30 organizations (international and national) active in Cambodia working to rehabilitate mine survivors and other persons with disabilities. It is estimated that 11 percent of persons with disabilities in Cambodia are mine survivors. NGOs are the main implementers, providing physical rehabilitation and other support such as vocational training, employment and small enterprise development.[135]

Many mine survivors in Cambodia are among the very poorest in a very poor country. Some do not have access to basic human needs like shelter, food, health and education.[136] An advisor, funded by Christian Blind Mission (CBM), liaises between the Ministry of Health (MoH) and the MoSVY on disability issues. The objectives of the MoH Health Sector Strategic Plan 2003-2007 include: improving coverage and access to health services, especially to the poor and other vulnerable groups; strengthening the delivery of high quality basic health services; introducing a culture of quality in the public health services; ensuring a regular and adequate flow of funds to the health sector, especially for service delivery.[137]

First aid is available in government health centers at commune, district and sometimes village levels, but many injuries require specialized treatment including surgery. Incidents frequently occur in villages or forests remote from health centers, and emergency first aid is provided by any available villager. In December 2004, for example, the first medical care received by 79 new mine/UXO casualties was 31 percent at the commune health center, 11 percent by a mine action agency, 11 percent treated themselves, nine percent at a private clinic, seven percent at a provincial hospital, six percent at a district or other hospital, and six percent was recorded as “other”; 19 percent reported no assistance.[138]

Organizations identified as providing training in emergency first aid and life support techniques include Norwegian NGO Trauma Care Foundation (TCF), Catholic Relief Service and CARE.[139]

Some organizations, including Emergency, CMAC, HALO, MAG, Jesuit Service Cambodia (JS) and Cambodia Family Development Services, provide ambulances or transport to hospital. The Cambodian Red Cross informs agencies about the special needs of mine casualties in hospitals. In Banteay Meanchey, CRC refers mine survivors requiring food assistance in hospital to JS, and the Cambodian Association for Assistance to Family and Widows provides money for surgery. In 2004, JS assisted 61 mine/UXO casualties while in hospital.

Surgery for new mine casualties and for landmine survivors requiring additional surgery is provided free of charge at the Emergency Surgical Center in Battambang, and by the Sihanuok Hospital Center of Hope in Phnom Penh. The Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, the government provincial and city hospitals, and the Preah Ket Malea hospital also provide surgery.[140]

The Mongkol Borei provincial hospital in Banteay Meanchey is the largest best equipped government-run hospital in the region, and also serves people from the provinces of Battambang, Oddar Meanchey and Siem Reap; the hospital admits around eight mine/UXO casualties each month. It has facilities for emergency surgery and limited physiotherapy treatment. However, the hospital is reportedly overcrowded and there is a need for repairs to the infrastructure. Patients must pay a fee of 2,600 BAHT (about $66) before being admitted. If the family can prove hardship, an equity fund is sometimes available to pay the fee.[141]

The Italian NGO Emergency’s Ilaria Alpi Surgical Center in Battambang provides surgical assistance free of charge to the victims of war including mine casualties, and other reconstructive and general surgery. Emergency also supports five first aid posts in the Samlot area and operates an ambulance service from Samlot. On average it takes around one-and-a-half hours to transport a mine casualty from Samlot in the ambulance to Battambang. In 2004, Emergency treated 105 new mine casualties and 60 new UXO casualties. Emergency also provided corrective surgery for 85 mine survivors and 15 UXO survivors. Trauma casualties are admitted from several provinces, including Battambang, Pailin, Pursat, Banteay Meanchey, Takeo, Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, Kampong Thom and Phnom Penh.[142]

Physical rehabilitation services for landmine survivors are generally well organized and of a good quality in Cambodia, particularly for amputees, even though the needs remain immense. At the end of 2004 there were 11 physical rehabilitation centers and orthopedic workshops covering 24 provinces in Cambodia; a decrease from 14 in early 2003. According to service providers, the principal reason for the decrease is reduced funding, but each closure was analyzed to minimize the impact on survivors needing assistance.[143] Landmine Monitor researchers visited all provinces to assess how mine survivors accessed rehabilitation services. Survivors reported difficulties in accessing prosthetics in Stoeung Treng, Preah Vihear, Koh Kong and Kampong Thom. Provincial officials from MoSVY also complained about the closure of some services in Preah Vihear, Kampong Thom and Banteay Meanchey. At a meeting on 29 April 2005, Ith Sam Heng, Minister of Social Affairs, lamented not only the closure of centers but also the reduction in the budgets of four NGOs who produce prosthetics, and urged donors to consider funding the government to carry on programs after international NGOs left.[144] An evaluation of the long-term sustainability of prosthetic and orthotic services in Cambodia is planned for 2005.[145] For several years, NGOs in the rehabilitation sector have reportedly been urging the government to assume some financial responsibility for the operations of the centers.

Five international organizations, including the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), American Red Cross (ARC), Cambodia Trust (CT), Handicap International (HI), and Veterans International (VI) supported the centers in 2004, in cooperation with MoSVY. MoSVY has a limited operational budget for physical rehabilitation and is therefore dependent on international agencies. As of June 2005, rehabilitation/orthopedic centers assisting mine survivors and other persons with disabilities are located in the provinces of Battambang (ICRC), Kampong Speu (ICRC), Siem Reap (HI), Kampong Cham (HI), Kratie (VI), Sihanoukville (CT), Prey Veng (VI), Takeo (HI), Kampong Chhnang (CT), and two in Phnom Penh (CT and VI). In 2004, rehabilitation centers closed in Kampong Thom (HI; closed June 2004) and Preah Vihear (VI; closed October 2004).[146]

ICRC has introduced a new database which is now used by some of the Physical Rehabilitation Centers to collect statistics related to services. The statistics reveal that during 2004 26,513 people received services: 17 percent were new patients; 28 percent were female; 39 percent were below 18 years; 9,654 physiotherapy assessments were made; nearly 98,000 treatments given.[147] According to CMAA, 62 percent of people receiving physical rehabilitation services are mine survivors.[148]

The ICRC physical rehabilitation program, run in agreement with MoSVY, has two components: the Regional Physical Rehabilitation Center in Battambang and the Orthopedic Component Factory in Phnom Penh. In 2004, MoSVY agreed to cover 20 percent of the utility costs and the cost of materials at the two facilities. The rehabilitation center serves the provinces of Battambang, Pailin, Banteay Meanchey, Oddar Meanchey and Pursat (north/northwest Cambodia). ICRC provides physiotherapy, prosthetic/orthotic devices, walking aids, wheelchairs, accommodation and meals free of charge, and reimburses between 80 and 100 percent of travel costs to the center. On-the-job training is provided to physiotherapists and orthopedic technicians. The center also operates a mobile clinic, which travels from Battambang to the northwestern provinces to carry out on-the-spot repairs and follow-up of amputees. In 2004, 25 outreach visits were conducted; 2,750 people were assessed, 1,619 prostheses were repaired, and 1,047 amputees were referred to the center to have their prostheses replaced. In 2004, the Regional Rehabilitation Center produced 1,494 prostheses (1,363 for mine survivors) and 732 orthoses (14 for mine survivors), and distributed 2,797 crutches and 289 wheelchairs. ICRC also conducted refresher courses for prosthetic/orthotic technicians from Cambodia Trust and Veterans International.[149]

The ICRC Orthopedic Component Factory in Phnom Penh continues to provide components and walking aids free of charge to all orthopedic centers nationwide. Components and walking aids produced include feet, hands, knees, alignment systems, orthotic joints, elbow joints, hooks and crutches. In 2004, the factory produced 12,330 components for orthopedic devices and over 8,000 walking aids.[150]

The American Red Cross provided physiotherapy, prosthetic and orthotic devices, crutches and wheelchairs for mine survivors and other persons with disabilities at the Kampong Speu Rehabilitation Center until December 2004. ARC also provided on-the-job training to Cambodian staff and an outreach service to people living in remote areas. In 2004, ARC fitted 541 prostheses and distributed 81 wheelchairs. About 40 percent of people receiving rehabilitation services at the center are mine/UXO survivors.[151] In January 2005, ICRC assumed responsibility for the Kampong Speu Rehabilitation Center, after renovating it in late 2004.[152]

Cambodia Trust supports physical rehabilitation services at centers in Phnom Penh, Sihanoukville and Kampong Chhnang providing physiotherapy services, producing and fitting prostheses and orthoses, and distributing wheelchairs. In 2004, the centers assisted 6,031 people, about 60 percent were mine survivors, produced 774 prostheses, and distributed 154 wheelchairs and one tricycle. CT operates an outreach program to reach persons with disabilities in remote areas, providing referrals for medical and surgical services, community-based rehabilitation, and raising awareness on disability issues. CT also runs an outreach training project to facilitate access to training, education, employment opportunities, and provides small grants and access to micro-credit loan programs to establish small businesses.[153]

The CT rehabilitation center in Phnom Penh is also a teaching clinic for the Cambodian School of Prosthetics and Orthotics (CSPO) to provide technical training in prosthetics/orthotics for Cambodia and the region. Each year 12 new students start a three-year training program, including students from Afghanistan, East Timor, Laos, Myanmar, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Georgia and Sri Lanka. CSPO is one of only four Category II training centers in the world.[154]

Handicap International runs programs in physical rehabilitation, socioeconomic reintegration, data collection, capacity-building and awareness raising on the rights and needs of persons with disabilities. In 2004, HI supported rehabilitation centers in Kampong Cham, Siem Reap, Takeo and Kampong Thom (until June 2004), providing physiotherapy services, prosthetics and other assistive devices, an outreach program, and on-the job-training for technicians and physiotherapists. In 2004, HI assisted more than 6,492 people with disabilities, and HI-supported centers produced 1,050 prostheses, and distributed 1,260 crutches, 224 wheelchairs and 126 tricycles. HI’s community-based rehabilitation programs focus on medical follow-up, psychosocial support, alleviating poverty, and the socioeconomic reintegration of persons with disabilities through self-help groups, referrals to vocational training programs, and a small grants program. HI also supports two sports clubs for persons with disabilities in Battambang and Siem Reap, and supports the government-run Para-Tetra Rehabilitation Center, a spinal cord injury rehabilitation unit, in Battambang.[155]

Veterans International operates three rehabilitation centers, including the Kien Khleang National Rehabilitation Center in Phnom Penh, and centers in the provinces of Kratie and Prey Veng; a small center in Preah Vihear closed in October 2004. The centers provide physiotherapy services, production and fitting of prosthetic and orthotic devices, and wheelchairs and other assistive devices. The program includes community-based rehabilitation, outreach teams and referrals to other services. In 2004, VI assisted 2,001 people, including 993 mine survivors, produced 747 prostheses and 332 wheelchairs, and distributed 47 tricycles.[156] In March 2004, VI moved its wheelchair production unit to a business park, with the aim of transitioning production into the private sector within the next two years. VI supported a silk weaving workshop in Preah Vihear, employing about 50 disabled people. In 2005, the silk weaving income generation project was turned over to a silk weaver and textile designer, who is now running the former VI project as a successful business while keeping people with disability employed. VI supported the Sports for Life volleyball project through 2003, which is now operating as a local NGO with its own funding.[157]

Association for Aid and Relief, Japan (AAR Japan) operates the Wheelchair Production Service and the Kien Khleang Vocational Training Center in Phnom Penh. The Vocational Training Center provides one-year training programs for people with disabilities from Phnom Penh and nine surrounding provinces. Training is provided in basic literacy, TV/radio repair, motorcycle repair and sewing. In 2004, AAR Japan produced and distributed 330 wheelchairs (eight for mine survivors), and 50 people received training, including 18 mine survivors.[158]

Jesuit Service Cambodia produces wheelchairs that are specially designed for local conditions. In 2004, 1,030 wheelchairs and 51 tricycles were produced. JS wheelchairs and tricycles are distributed by ARC, ICRC, HI and CT; JS distributed 240 wheelchairs and 42 tricycles in 2004. JS also provides vocational training at Banteay Prieb (Center of the Dove) residential school. In 2004, 125 students with disabilities, including 45 mine survivors, undertook one-year courses in agriculture, sculpture, carpentry, electronic repair, machine repair, weaving, tailoring and literacy. JS also works with 236 people with a disability in Siem Reap province, in 178 villages in Rottanak Mondol, Battambang, O Chrov and Thmar Puok in Banteay Meanchey, 13 villages in Oddar Meanchey and in the old Khmer Rouge areas of Kandal. Metta Karuna teams, which include several mine survivors, provide psychosocial support to villagers and assists them in planning programs for their health and well-being. The program includes housing, water access, emergency food, schooling assistance for children, and access to health services and markets through bridges and roads.[159]

Disability Development Services Pursat (DDSP) provides physical rehabilitation services, including physiotherapy, wheelchairs and other assistive devices, and referral to other services, in six villages in remote areas in the province of Pursat. DDSP also provides psychosocial support, facilitates access to education for children and vocational training, and raises awareness on disability issues. In 2004, it directly assisted 113 people; 43 were mine survivors. DDSP receives funding from the AusAID Community Development Fund, Christian Blind Mission, HI and private donors.[160]

The Khmer Buddhist Association supports vulnerable groups including persons with disabilities, widows and children in the provinces of Oddar Meanchey and Banteay Meanchey. It assists more than 1,000 people a year, including some mine survivors, with facilitating access to physical rehabilitation (including prosthetics), vocational training, share crops and emergency aid if needed. Small grants are also available to start a business.[161]

The Cambodian War Amputees Rehabilitation Society program offers landmine survivors and other persons with disabilities training in income generating trades and services, including bicycle repair, barbering, motorcycle and small engine repairs, small electrical equipment repairs, sewing and tailoring, ladies hairdressing, blacksmithing, home gardening and basic agriculture. Graduates of the program are assisted to establish their own micro-enterprises, enabling them to achieve self-confidence and independence. In 2004, 843 men and women with disabilities benefited from the program; 638 were mine survivors.[162]

According to CMAA, MoSVY and NGO partners support nine vocational training centers that assist persons with disabilities. In 2004, a total of 916 persons with disabilities graduated from these centers.[163] Other organizations/agencies identified as promoting the socioeconomic reintegration of mine survivors through skills and business training, micro credit and job placement, include the Angkor Association for the Disabled, Artisans Association of Cambodia, Business Advisory Council, Cambodian Demining Workshop, Cambodian Handicraft Association for Landmine and Polio Disabled, Clear Path International, Cambodian Volunteers for Community Development, Children Affected by Mines, Marynoll, National Center of Disabled Persons, RehabCraft Cambodia, Virakpheap Komar Pailin, World Rehabilitation Fund and World Vision. Several organizations report a lack of funding for programs.[164]

The Disability Action Council lists many other organizations assisting mine survivors and other persons with disabilities through self-help groups, community-based assistance, referral systems, education, counseling, vocational training and outreach, including Action for Disability and Development, American Friends Service Committee, Arrupe Center Battambang, Cambodian Disabled Peoples Association, Caritas Cambodia, Operation Enfants de Battambang; Servants, Krousar Thmey, Marist Mission Australia, Help Age International and Social Services of Cambodia.[165]

Several NGOs are taking a “development approach” to survivor assistance, whereby mine survivors are assisted along with other members of the community. The aim is, after mine clearance activities, to provide land for the planting of crops, roads, bridges, wells for water, a school, a healthcare facility and some income generating assistance. Agencies working in this integrated development approach include CARE, AUSTCARE, World Vision, Lutheran World Federation and JS.

Two landmine survivors from Cambodia participated in the Survivors Summit and First Review Conference in Nairobi in November-December 2004.

Disability Policy and Practice

Cambodia does not have legislation protecting the rights of persons with disabilities even though a law was drafted in 2000.[166] In 2004, MoSVY established a working group to redraft the Law on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. In January 2005 the Disability Action Council sent a new revised “Draft Legislation on Rights of People with Disabilities” to MoSVY for further consideration and action. The draft law consists of 13 chapters and 68 articles. The draft has been officially submitted to the Council of Ministers for consideration.[167]

The Disability Action Council is a semi-autonomous national coordinating body on disability and rehabilitation. Its main role is to coordinate and initiate services and assistance for and with people with disabilities in Cambodia.[168]

[1] The law bans the production, use, possession, transfer, trade, sale, import and export of antipersonnel mines. It provides for criminal penalties, including fines and imprisonment for offences committed by civilians or members of the police and the armed forces. It also provides for the destruction of mine stockpiles.

[2]Statement by Deputy Prime Minister Sok An, Nairobi Summit on a Mine-Free World (First Review Conference), Nairobi, 2 December 2004.

[3]Presentation by Song Kosal, ICBL Youth Ambassador, First Review Conference, Nairobi, 29 November 2004.

[4]Both the Prime Minister and Deputy Prime Minister Sok An made statements to the National Conference on Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004 of Cambodia, 28 April 2005.

[5]The previous Article 7 reports were submitted on: 30 April 2004; 15 April 2003; 19 April 2002; 30 June 2001; 26 June 2000 (this report covers the period from 1993 to 26 June 2000).

[6]Interview with Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, Geneva, 16 June 2005.

[7]Article 7 Report, Form E, 22 April 2005. In the 1970s, Cambodia manufactured one type of antipersonnel landmine, the KN-10 Claymore-type mine, and various forces manufactured home-made mines in the past.

[8]See Landmine Monitor Report 2000, pp. 382-383.

[9]See Landmine Monitor Report 1999, p. 391, for annual destruction totals.

[10]Article 7 Report, Form B, 26 June 2000.

[11]Article 7 Report, Form F, 30 April 2004.

[12]Article 7 Report, Forms D and F, 22 April 2005.

[13]For details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 248.

[14] Article 7 Report, Form G, 22 April 2005. In previous years, all the mines were destroyed by CMAC, including: 8,739 in 2000; 7,357 in 2001; 13,509 in 2002; 9,207 in 2003. These numbers match revised totals provided to Landmine Monitor last year by CMAA after inquiries about inconsistencies in Article 7 reporting. See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 248.

[15] Email from Richard Boulter, Programme Manager, HALO Cambodia, to Denise Coghlan, CCBL, 19 August 2005. He indicated funding for the project came from the US Department of State.

[16]Article 7 Report, Form D, 22 April 2005.

[17]Article 7 Report, Form D, 22 April 2005.

[18]Article 7 Report, Form D, 22 April 2005. In addition, 348 mines were transferred to CMAC from MCTU/UNTAC in 1993, 236 from CMAC PMU Siem Reap in 1998, 272 from CMAC EOD Preah Vihear in 1999, 546 from CMAC DU2 in 1999, 52 from CMAC HQ Phnom Penh in 2000, and 423 from CMAC DU6 Siem Reap in 2001.

[19]Article 7 Report Form F, 22 April 2005. Other types of mine found in Cambodia include KN-10, M-62, M14, M16A1, M18A1, MBV-78-A1, MBV-78-A2, MD-82-B, MDH-10, MDH-2, MDH-3, MDH-5, MDH-7, MIN, MN, MODEL, MON, NOMZ2B, OMZ-3, OMZ-4, OMZ-72, P-40 BALL, PMA-2, PMA-3, POMZ-2, PPMI-SR, PPM-2, PSM-1 and Type 66. US Department of Defense, Mine Facts CD-ROM, Version 1.2.

[20] Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004, p. 3.

[21]Cambodia Mine/UXO Victim Information System (CMVIS), “Monthly Mine/UXO Report,” January 2005.

[22]Email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Chhiv Lim, Project Manager, CMVIS, 1 August 2005. See section on Landmine and UXO Casualties.

[23] Email from Richard Boulter, HALO Cambodia, 19 August 2005.

[24]“RCAF Explosion May Be Sabotage,” Cambodia Daily, 28 April 2005, p. 12.

[25]“Cambodia's RCAF identifies causes of ammunition explosion,” People’s Daily Online, 4 April 2005.

[26] HALO Trust, “Annual Report 2004, for submission to the CMAA,” 21 January 2005, p. 7.

[27]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 251.

[28] Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004, p. 4.

[29]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 6.

[30]The Cambodian government has embarked on a series of major infrastructure projects in the northwest of the country, which require mine clearance operations. For details of Land Use Planning Units, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 252.

[31]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 29.

[32]Australia Volunteers International (AVI) Information Sheet, April 2005.

[33]Interview with Clare Brazenor, Project Advisor for MAPU, AVI, 29 April 2005.

[34]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 29.

[35]SEILA is an acronym for socioeconomic improvement of local area, a government program designed to support the country’s decentralization and “deconcentration” reforms. “The Seila Program is an aid mobilization and coordination framework for support to Cambodia's decentralization and de-concentration reforms,” www.seila.gov.kh.

[36]Interview with Clare Brazenor, AVI, 29 April 2005.

[37] CMAA, “Cambodian Strategy and 2005-2009 Plan, presented to Nairobi Summit,” 26 January 2005, p. 3, www.cmac.org.kh/FiveYearStrategic.htm.

[38]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 47.

[39]Royal Government of Cambodia, Decision No. 29 S.S.R. on The Implementation of Cambodian Mine Action Standards (CMAS) First Five Chapters, 10 August 2005, p. 2; email from Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, 10 August 2005.

[40]Royal Government of Cambodia, Decision No. 29 S.S.R. on The Implementation of Cambodian Mine Action Standards (CMAS) First Five Chapters, 10 August 2005, Article 3.

[41]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 26.

[42] UNDP, “Terms of Reference, Webmaster - CMAA, Project 00011828 - Support to Mine Action Programs,” www.un.org.kh/undp accessed 22 August 2005.

[43]Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004. Co-funded by Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, UNICEF and UNDP.

[44] Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004, p. 3.

[45]Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004, p. 3.

[46]Serco Assurance, “A Risk Strategy for Mine Action,” September 2003, www.itep.ws/pdf/

[47] HALO, “Annual Report 2004 for submission to the CMAA,” 21 January 2005, p. 6; email from Tom Dibb, Desk Officer, HALO, 18 September 2005.

[48]Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004, pp. 4-5.

[49] Bjorn Gildestad, “Cost-benefit Analysis of Mine Clearance Operations in Cambodia,” Nordic Consulting Group, February 2005, conducted for CMAA and UNDP, quoted in “Clearing for Results,” article released by UNDP in Phnom Penh on 28 July 2005.

[50]Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2003), Form C, 30 April 2004.

[51] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 13.

[52]Email from Richard Boulter, HALO Cambodia, 2 September 2005.

[53] Email from Tom Dibb, HALO, 18 September 2005.

[54]Article 7 Report, Form I, 22 April 2005.

[55]Article 7 Report (for calendar year 2004), Form I, 22 April 2005.

[56]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, p. 17.

[57]Interview with Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, at Standing Committee meetings, Geneva, 15 June 2005; interview with Sam Sotha, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 23 August 2005.

[58]Interview with Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, 23 August 2005.

[59]Article 7 Report, Form F and Annex 4, 22 April 2005.

[60]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 252-253.

[61]Article 7 Report, Form F and Annex 4, 22 April 2005.

[62]Form G reports that CMAC destroyed 33,602 antipersonnel mines in mined areas; HALO:16,447; MAG: 4,906. Only the RCAF total is the same in Forms F and G: 1,133. This indicates that there was additional stockpile destruction of over 15,000 antipersonnel mines. Figures for destruction of antivehicle mines are similarly skewed.

[63] Article 7 Report, Form F and Annex 4, 22 April 2005.

[64]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, pp. iii-vii, 13, 32.

[65] Email from Krishna Uk, Program Officer, NPA Cambodia, 7 June 2005; Richard Moyes, “Tampering: deliberate handling and use of live ordnance in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh, 2004.

[66] Email from Krishna Uk, NPA Cambodia, 7 June 2005.

[67]HALO, “Annual Report 2004, for submission to the CMAA,” 21 January 2005, pp. 1-8.

[68] Email from Tom Dibb, HALO, 18 September 2005.

[69]Information provided by Rupert Leighton, Country Manager, MAG Cambodia, 25 August 2005.

[70]RCAF, “Report to Mine Action Achievements Conference,” 28 April 2005.

[71]GICHD, “The Role of the Military in Mine Action,” Geneva, 2003, p. 68, www.gichd.ch.

[72] Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, 4 December 2004, p. 4.

[73]For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2001, p. 446, and Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 257.

[74] Email from Tim Carstairs, MAG, 5 October 2004; information provided by Rupert Leighton, Country Manager, MAG Cambodia, 25 August 2005.

[75]Michael L. Fleisher, “Informal Village Demining in Cambodia an Operational Study,” HI, Phnom Penh, May 2005.

[76]See, for instance, email to wider mine action community from Heng Rattana, Deputy Director, CMAC, 11 May 2005.

[77]Email from Chan Rotha, MRE Focal Point CMAA, 24 June 2005.

[78] Email from Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, 15 January 2005.

[79] CMAA “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, pp. 3-5.

[80] Email from Chan Rotha, CMAA, 24 June 2005.

[81 ]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 14.

[82]Richard Moyes, “Tampering: deliberate handling and use of live ordnance in Cambodia,” Phnom Penh 2004, p. 14. Another source reported that, in 2004, 58 percent of casualties were due to tampering with UXO. Chiv Lim, Project Manager, CMVIS, 1 August 2005.

[83]CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 10.

[84] Email from Sam Sotha, Secretary General, CMAA, 15 January 2005.

[85]Email from Chan Rotha, CMAA, 24 June 2005.

[86] CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, p. 7.

[87]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, p. 7.

[88]CMAC website, www.cmac.org.kh/Activities_Awareness.htm, accessed 22 June 2005. The CBMRR project began in October 2001, implemented by CMAC, with technical assistance from HI and UNICEF. Email from Chan Rotha, CMAA, 24 June 2005.

[89]Email from Chan Rotha, , CMAA, 24 June 2005.

[90]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, p. 8.

[91] CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 7.

[92]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, p. 10.

[93] CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 9.

[94] Email from Chan Rotha, CMAA, 1 September 2005.

[95] CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 8.

[96]HALO, “Annual Report 2004 for submission to the CMAA,” 21 January 2005, p. 4.

[97] CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 10.

[98] Information provided by Rupert Leighton, Country Manager, MAG Cambodia, 25 August 2005.

[99] CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 9.

[100] CMAA, “Cambodia Mine Risk Education Strategy (2005-2009),” 10 November 2004, p. 10.

[101]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 49.

[102]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 260.

[103] CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 6.

[104]Email from Doug Melvin, AusAID, 17 June 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = A$0.7365 used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005. Differences exist between Australian funding reported for the fiscal year July 2004 to June 2005, and Australia’s 2004 Article 7 Report, 3 May 2005, which reports for the 2004 calendar year.

[105] Article 7 Report, Form J, 2 May 2005.

[106] Mine Action Investments database; emails from Elvan Isikozlu, Mine Action Team, Foreign Affairs Canada, June-August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: US$1 = C$1.3017, used throughout this report. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[107] EC, “Contribution to the Landmine Monitor 2005,” by email from Nicola Marcel, RELEX Unit 3a Security Policy, EC, 19 July 2005.

[108] Mine Action Investments database. Email from Teemu Sepponen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 July 2005.

[109] Emails from Amb. Gerard Chesnel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 30 June 2005, and from Anne Villeneuve, HI, July-August 2005.

[110] Article 7 Report, Form J, 15 April 2005; email from Dirk Roland Haupt, Federal Foreign Office, Division 241, 25 July 2005.

[111] Email from Kitagawa Yasu, Japanese International Campaign to Ban Landmines (JCBL), 10 August 2005, with translation of Ministry of Foreign Affairs information sent to JCBL 11 May 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: ¥108.15 =US$1. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[112] Email from François Berg, Disarmament Desk, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2 August 2005.

[113] Email from Freek Keppels, Arms Control and Arms Export Policy Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 4 August 2005.

[114] Letter from Charlotte Darlow, Disarmament Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 20 April 2005, and email from Jane Coster, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, New Zealand, 11 August 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NZ$0.6643. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[115]Article 7 Report, Form J, 28 April 2005; emails from May-Elin Stener, Department for Global Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, April-May 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = NOK6.7399. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[116] Letter from Alf Eliasson, SIDA, 23 March 2005. Average exchange rate for 2004: $1 = SEK7.4380. US Federal Reserve, “List of Exchange Rates (Annual),” 3 January 2005.

[117] USG Historical Chart containing data for FY 2004, by email from Angela L. Jeffries, Financial Management Specialist, Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, US Department of State, 20 July 2005.

[118]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 6. In June 2005, Cambodia also stated its future annual mine action funding requirement as being US$30 million, including $29 million for operators and $1 million for CMAA. Presentation by Cambodia, Standing Committee on Mine Clearance, Mine Risk Education and Mine Action Technologies, Geneva, 14 June 2005.

[119]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005, p. 6.

[120]“Japan Gives Cambodia Equipment for Mine Clearance,” Vietnam News Agency, 06/28/2005; “Remarks at the Donation Ceremony of Mine Clearing Equipments from the Government of Japan to CMAC,” Cambodia New Vision, http://www.cnv.org.kh/, accessed 10 September 2005; Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, p. 14.

[121]Robert Griffin and Robert Keeley, “Joint Evaluation of Mine Action in Cambodia for the Donor Working Group on Mine Action,” Volume I, Phnom Penh, p. 14.

[122]Unless otherwise stated, information in this section was provided in email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Chiv Lim, Project Manager, CMVIS, 1 August 2005.

[123] “RCAF Explosion May Be Sabotage,” Cambodia Daily, 28 April 2005, p. 12; “Cambodia's RCAF identifies causes of ammunition explosion,” People's Daily Online, 4 April 2005.

[124] For more details, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 262.

[125]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 13.

[126] CMVIS, “Monthly Mine/UXO Victim Information Report: June 2005,” p. 6.

[127]CMAC, “Annual Report 2004,” 28 April 2005; HALO Trust, “Annual Report 2004 for submission to the CMAA,” 21 January 2005.

[128] United Nations, Final Report, First Review Conference of the States Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction, Nairobi, 29 November-3 December 2004, APLC/CONF/2004/5, 9 February 2005, p. 33.

[129] Article 7 Report, Form J, 22 April 2005.

[130]For more information on SDDR, see www.dac.org.kh/strategic-dir/index.htm.

[131]Presentation by Cambodia, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005; response by Cambodia to the co-chairs of the Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration Questionnaire, June 2005.

[132]Formerly the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Vocational Training and Youth Rehabilitation.

[133]CMAA, “Mine Action Achievements 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 50.

[134]Interview with Kuon Pheng, Director, Victim Assistance Department, Victim Assistance Department, CMAA, Phnom Penh, 22 March 2005; see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 271.

[135]The estimate is based on a 1999 survey reported in CMAA, “Mine Action Achievement 1992-2004,” 31 March 2005, p. 49; see also statement by Sam Sotha, Secretary-General, CMAA, to meeting on victim assistance, Phnom Penh, 10 March 2004.

[136]Presentation by Cambodia, Standing Committee on Victim Assistance and Socio-Economic Reintegration, Geneva, 16 June 2005.

[137] Ministry of Health, “Health Sector Strategic Plan: 2003-2007,” August 2002, p. 9.

[138]CMVIS, “Monthly Mine/UXO Victim Information Report: December 2004.”

[139]For more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 265.

[140]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 265.

[141]Interview with Or Kanal, Chief Administrator, provincial hospital, Mongkol Borei, 17 March 2005.

[142]Interview with Ognjen Predja, Program Coordinator, Emergency, Battambang, 30 March 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 266.

[143]For more information see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 266.

[144]Ith Sam Heng, Minister of Social Affairs, speech at National Mine Action Achievements Conference, Phnom Penh, 28 April 2005.

[145]Interview with Edith van Wijngaarden, Coordinator, Rehabilitation Department, HI Cambodia, Phnom Penh, 21 March 2005.

[146]Email from Larrie Warren, VVAF, 16 September 2004; email from Edith van Wijngaarden, Coordinator, Rehabilitation Department, HI Cambodia, 17 September 2004.

[147]“Physical Rehabilitation Center Statistics Report 2004,” May 2005, compiled by Edith van Wijngaarden, Coordinator, Rehabilitation Department, HI Cambodia.

[148] CMAA, “Annual Report on Victim Assistance 2004,” prepared by Kuon Pheng, Director of Victim Assistance Department, 15 March 2005.

[149]ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2004,” Geneva, July 2005, p. 25; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2004,” Geneva, June 2005, p. 44.

[150]ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2004,” Geneva, July 2005, p. 25; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2004,” Geneva, June 2005, p. 25.

[151]“Physical Rehabilitation Center Statistics Report 2004,” May 2005, compiled by Edith van Wijngaarden, HI Cambodia; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 267.

[152] ICRC Special Report, “Mine Action 2004,” Geneva, June 2005, p. 25; ICRC Physical Rehabilitation Program, “Annual Report 2004,” Geneva, July 2005, p. 25.

[153]“Physical Rehabilitation Center Statistics Report 2004,” May 2005, compiled by Edith van Wijngaarden, HI Cambodia; response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Pith Sokra, Administration Manager, CT, 27 March 2005; see also Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 267; Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 25.

[154]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 268; see also “The Cambodia Trust: Prosthetics & Orthotics Training,” www.cambodiatrust.com/training.htm, accessed 31 July 2005.

[155]Email from Edith van Wijngaarden, Rehabilitation Department Coordinator, HI Cambodia, 19 September 2005; response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Bruno Leclercq, Country Director, HI Cambodia, 1 May 2005; HI, “Quarterly Financial and Narrative Report: 1 October-31 December 2004,” Ref.30/12/04 Issue 4; see also Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, pp. 31-33; See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 268.

[156]“Physical Rehabilitation Center Statistics Report 2004,” May 2005, compiled by Edith van Wijngaarden, HI Cambodia; response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Hing Chanrith, Country Representative, VI, 19 March 2005.

[157]Email from Larrie Warren, Director of Post Conflict Rehabilitation, VVAF, 21 September 2005; see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 268; see also “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 36.

[158] Interview with Daisuke Sagiya, Country Representative, AAR Japan, Phnom Penh, 23 March 2005; response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Daisuke Sagiya, Country Representative, AAR Japan, 8 March 2005.

[159]“Jesuit Service Report,” December 2004; email to Landmine Monitor (HI) from Denise Coghlan and Ny Nhar, Jesuit Service Cambodia, 11 August 2005; Landmine Monitor (HI) interview with Denise Coghlan and Ny Nhar, Phnom Penh, 22 March 2005.

[160]Response to Landmine Monitor Questionnaire by Steve Harknett, Advisor, DDSP, 28 June 2005; see also “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, p. 30.

[161] Landmine Monitor (HI) interview with Tuy Sakoeun, Program Coordinator, KBA, Thmar Puok, 17 March 2005.

[162]Landmine Monitor (HI) interview with Dr. David G. Aston and Sam Oeurn Pok, Managing Directors, CWARS, Phnom Penh, 23 March 2005; see also “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, pp. 27-28.

[163]CMAA, “Annual Report on Victim Assistance 2004,” prepared by Kuon Pheng, Director of Victim Assistance Department, CMAA, 15 March 2005.

[164]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 269-270; see also Standing Tall Australia and Mines Action Canada, “101 Great Ideas for the Socio-Economic Reintegration of Mine Survivors,” June 2005, pp. 24, 26, 29, 35, 37-42.

[165] See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, pp. 269-270.

[166]See Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 272.

[167]CMAA, “Annual Report on Victim Assistance 2004,” prepared by Kuon Pheng, Director of Victim Assistance Department, CMAA, 15 March 2005; email from Ngy San, Program Manager, DAC, 23 August 2005.

[168] Response by Ngy San, Program Manager, DAC, 18 April 2005; for more information, see Landmine Monitor Report 2004, p. 272.